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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 280-291, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008095

ABSTRACT

In this study, the chloroplast genome of Camellia insularis Orel & Curry was sequenced using high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that the chloroplast genome of C. insularis was 156 882 bp in length with a typical tetrad structure, encoding 132 genes, including 88 protein-coding genes, 36 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. Codon preference analysis revealed that the highest number of codons coded for leucine, with a high A/U preference in the third codon position. Additionally, 67 simple sequence repeats (SSR) loci were identified, with a preference for A and T bases. The inverted repeat (IR) boundary regions of the chloroplast genome of C. insularis were relatively conserved, except for a few variable regions. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that C. insularis was most closely related to C. fascicularis. Yellow camellia is a valuable material for genetic engineering breeding. This study provides fundamental genetic information on chloroplast engineering and offers valuable resources for conducting in-depth research on the evolution, species identification, and genomic breeding of yellow Camellia.


Subject(s)
Genome, Chloroplast/genetics , Phylogeny , Plant Breeding , Camellia/genetics , Chloroplasts/genetics
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 81-93, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008081

ABSTRACT

The chloroplast genome encodes many key proteins involved in photosynthesis and other metabolic processes, and metabolites synthesized in chloroplasts are essential for normal plant growth and development. Root-UVB (ultraviolet radiation B)-sensitive (RUS) family proteins composed of highly conserved DUF647 domain belong to chloroplast proteins. They play an important role in the regulation of various life activities such as plant morphogenesis, material transport and energy metabolism. This article summarizes the recent advances of the RUS family proteins in the growth and development of plants such as embryonic development, photomorphological construction, VB6 homeostasis, auxin transport and anther development, with the aim to facilitate further study of its molecular regulation mechanism in plant growth and development.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Ultraviolet Rays , Biological Transport , Chloroplasts/genetics , Embryonic Development , Plant Development/genetics
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2914-2925, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981240

ABSTRACT

Pellionia scabra belongs to the genus Pellionia in the family of Urticaceae, and is a high-quality wild vegetables with high nutritional value. In this study, high-throughput techniques were used to sequence, assemble and annotate the chloroplast genome. We also analyzed its structure, and construct the phylogenetic trees from the P. scabra to further study the chloroplast genome characteristics. The results showed that the chloroplast genome size was 153 220 bp, and the GC content was 36.4%, which belonged to the typical tetrad structure in P. scabra. The chloroplast genome encodes 130 genes, including 85 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes in P. scabra. Among them, 15 genes contained 1 intron, 2 genes contained 2 introns, and rps12 had trans-splicing, respectively. In P. scabra, chloroplast genomes could be divided into four categories, including 43 photosynthesis, 64 self-replication, other 7 coding proteins, and 4 unknown functions. A total of 51 073 codons were detected in the chloroplast genome, among which the codon encoding leucine (Leu) accounted for the largest proportion, and the codon preferred to use A and U bases. There were 72 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in the chloroplast genome of P. scabra, containing 58 single nucleotides, 12 dinucleotides, 1 trinucleotide, and 1 tetranucleotide. The ycf1 gene expansion was present at the IRb/SSC boundary. The phylogenetic trees showed that P. scabra (OL800583) was most closely related to Elatostema stewardii (MZ292972), Elatostema dissectum (MK227819) and Elatostema laevissimum var. laevissimum (MN189961). Taken together, our results provide worthwhile information for understanding the identification, genetic evolution, and genomics research of P. scabra species.


Subject(s)
Phylogeny , Genome, Chloroplast/genetics , Genomics , Chloroplasts/genetics , Codon , Urticaceae/genetics
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1229-1237, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970594

ABSTRACT

Eleutherococcus senticosus is one of the Dao-di herbs in northeast China. In this study, the chloroplast genomes of three E. senticosus samples from different genuine producing areas were sequenced and then used for the screening of specific DNA barcodes. The germplasm resources and genetic diversity of E. senticosus were analyzed basing on the specific DNA barcodes. The chloroplast genomes of E. senticosus from different genuine producing areas showed the total length of 156 779-156 781 bp and a typical tetrad structure. Each of the chloroplast genomes carried 132 genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNAs, and 8 rRNAs. The chloroplast genomes were relatively conserved. Sequence analysis of the three chloroplast genomes indicated that atpI, ndhA, ycf1, atpB-rbcL, ndhF-rpl32, petA-psbJ, psbM-psbD, and rps16-psbK can be used as specific DNA barcodes of E. senticosus. In this study, we selected atpI and atpB-rbcL which were 700-800 bp and easy to be amplified for the identification of 184 E. senticosus samples from 13 genuine producing areas. The results demonstrated that 9 and 10 genotypes were identified based on atpI and atpB-rbcL sequences, respectively. Furthermore, the two barcodes identified 23 genotypes which were named H1-H23. The haplotype with the highest proportion and widest distribution was H10, followed by H2. The haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were 0.94 and 1.82×10~(-3), respectively, suggesting the high genetic diversity of E. senticosus. The results of the median-joining network analysis showed that the 23 genotypes could be classified into 4 categories. H2 was the oldest haplotype, and it served as the center of the network characterized by starlike radiation, which suggested that population expansion of E. senticosus occurred in the genuine producing areas. This study lays a foundation for the research on the genetic quality and chloroplast genetic engineering of E. senticosus and further research on the genetic mechanism of its population, providing new ideas for studying the genetic evolution of E. senticosus.


Subject(s)
DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Eleutherococcus/genetics , Base Sequence , Chloroplasts/genetics , Genetic Variation , Phylogeny
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 670-684, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970399

ABSTRACT

The structure and size of the chloroplast genome of Castanopsis hystrix was determined by Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencing platform to understand the difference between C. hystrix and the chloroplast genome of the same genus, and the evolutionary position of C. hystrix in the genus, so as to facilitate species identification, genetic diversity analysis and resource conservation of the genus. Bioinformatics analysis was used to perform sequence assembly, annotation and characteristic analysis. R, Python, MISA, CodonW and MEGA 6 bioinformatics software were used to analyze the genome structure and number, codon bias, sequence repeats, simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci and phylogeny. The genome size of C. hystrix chloroplast was 153 754 bp, showing tetrad structure. A total of 130 genes were identified, including 85 coding genes, 37 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA genes. According to codon bias analysis, the average number of effective codons was 55.5, indicating that the codons were highly random and low in bias. Forty-five repeats and 111 SSR loci were detected by SSR and long repeat fragment analysis. Compared with the related species, chloroplast genome sequences were highly conserved, especially the protein coding sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that C. hystrix is closely related to the Hainanese cone. In summary, we obtained the basic information and phylogenetic position of the chloroplast genome of red cone, which will provide a preliminary basis for species identification, genetic diversity of natural populations and functional genomics research of C. hystrix.


Subject(s)
Phylogeny , Genome, Chloroplast , Codon/genetics , Genomics , Chloroplasts/genetics
6.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 45: 1-9, May 15, 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Maize is one of the most important crops worldwide and has been a target of nuclear-based transformation biotechnology to improve it and satisfy the food demand of the ever-growing global population. However, the maize plastid transformation has not been accomplished due to the recalcitrant condition of the crop. RESULTS: In this study, we constructed two different vectors with homologous recombination sequences from maize (Zea mays var. LPC13) and grass (Bouteloua gracilis var. ex Steud) (pZmcpGFP and pBgcpGFP, respectively). Both vectors were designed to integrate into rrn23S/rrn16S from an inverted repeat region in the chloroplast genome. Moreover, the vector had the mgfp5 gene driven by Prrn, a leader sequence of the atpB gene and a terminator sequence from the rbcL gene. Also, constructs have an hph gene as a selection marker gene driven by Prrn, a leader sequence from rbcL gene and a terminator sequence from the rbcL gene. Explants of maize, tobacco and Escherichia coli cells were transformed with both vectors to evaluate the transitory expression­an exhibition of green and red fluorescent light under epifluorescence microscopy. These results showed that both vectors were expressed; the reporter gene in all three organisms confirmed the capacity of the vectors to express genes in the cell compartments. CONCLUSIONS: This paper is the first report of transient expression of GFP in maize embryos and offers new information for genetically improving recalcitrant crops; it also opens new possibilities for the improvement in maize chloroplast transformation with these vectors.


Subject(s)
Nicotiana/metabolism , Chloroplasts/genetics , Chloroplasts/metabolism , Zea mays/genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , Transformation, Genetic , Biotechnology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Plants, Genetically Modified , Plastids/genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Escherichia coli , Genome, Chloroplast
7.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 18(3): 161-168, May 2015. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-750642

ABSTRACT

Background The high capacity of chloroplast genome response to integrate and express transgenes at high levels makes this technology a good option to produce proteins of interest. This report presents the stable expression of Pectin lyase (PelA gene) and the first stable expression of manganese peroxidase (MnP-2 gene) from the chloroplast genome. Results pES4 and pES5 vectors were derived from pPV111A plasmid and contain the PelA and MnP-2 synthetic genes, respectively. Both genes are flanked by a synthetic rrn16S promoter and the 3'UTR from rbcL gene. Efficient gene integration into both inverted repeats of the intergenic region between rrn16S and 3'rps'12 was confirmed by Southern blot. Stable processing and expression of the RNA were confirmed by Northern blot analysis. Enzymatic activity was evaluated to detect expression and functionality of both enzymes. In general, mature plants showed more activity than young transplastomic plants. Compared to wild type plants, transplastomic events expressing pectin lyase exhibited enzymatic activity above 58.5% of total soluble protein at neutral pH and 60°C. In contrast, MnP-2 showed high activity at pH 6 with optimum temperature at 65°C. Neither transplastomic plant exhibited an abnormal phenotype. Conclusion This study demonstrated that hydrolytic genes PelA and MnP-2 could be integrated and expressed correctly from the chloroplast genome of tobacco plants. A whole plant, having ~ 470 g of biomass could feasibly yield 66,676.25 units of pectin or 21,715.46 units of manganese peroxidase. Also, this study provides new information about methods and strategies for the expression of enzymes with industrial value.


Subject(s)
Polygalacturonase/genetics , Polygalacturonase/metabolism , Nicotiana , Chloroplasts/genetics , Peroxidase/genetics , Peroxidase/metabolism , Temperature , Bacteria/enzymology , Transformation, Genetic , Cell Wall , Blotting, Southern , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Fungi/enzymology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolases
8.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-11, 2015. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950778

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Insects have developed resistance against Bt-transgenic plants. A multi-barrier defense system to weaken their resistance development is now necessary. One such approach is to use fusion protein genes to increase resistance in plants by introducing more Bt genes in combination. The locating the target protein at the point of insect attack will be more effective. It will not mean that the non-green parts of the plants are free of toxic proteins, but it will inflict more damage on the insects because they are at maximum activity in the green parts of plants. RESULTS: Successful cloning was achieved by the amplification of Cry2A, Cry1Ac, and a transit peptide. The appropriate polymerase chain reaction amplification and digested products confirmed that Cry1Ac and Cry2A were successfully cloned in the correct orientation. The appearance of a blue color in sections of infiltrated leaves after 72 hours confirmed the successful expression of the construct in the plant expression system. The overall transformation efficiency was calculated to be 0.7%. The amplification of Cry1Ac-Cry2A and Tp2 showed the successful integration of target genes into the genome of cotton plants. A maximum of 0.673 µg/g tissue of Cry1Ac and 0.568 µg/g tissue of Cry2A was observed in transgenic plants. We obtained 100% mortality in the target insect after 72 hours of feeding the 2nd instar larvae with transgenic plants. The appearance of a yellow color in transgenic cross sections, while absent in the control, through phase contrast microscopy indicated chloroplast localization of the target protein. CONCLUSION: Locating the target protein at the point of insect attack increases insect mortality when compared with that of other transgenic plants. The results of this study will also be of great value from a biosafety point of view.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Chloroplasts/genetics , Insect Control/methods , Gossypium/genetics , Endotoxins/genetics , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Lepidoptera , Bacillus thuringiensis , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Immunohistochemistry , Gene Expression/genetics , Chloroplasts/metabolism , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Microscopy, Phase-Contrast , Plants, Genetically Modified , Cloning, Molecular , DNA Primers , Plant Leaves/genetics , Transgenes/physiology , Endotoxins/analysis , Gene Fusion , Hemolysin Proteins/analysis , Insecticides , Larva
9.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 16(6): 13-13, Nov. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-696554

ABSTRACT

Background: Transgenic plants inhabiting single Bt gene are prone to develop insect resistance and this resistance has been reported in case of some important yield-devastating insect larvae of commercial crops, such as cotton and rice. Therefore, it has become essential to adapt new strategies to overcome the problem of insect resistance and these new strategies should be sophisticated enough to target such resistant larvae in broad spectrum. Among these, plants may be transformed with Bt gene tagged with some fusion-protein gene that possesses lectin-binding capability to boost the binding sites for crystal protein gene within insect mid-gut in order to overcome any chances of insect tolerance against Bt toxin. Enhanced chloroplast-targeted Bt gene expression can also help in the reduction of insect resistance. Results: In the present investigation, a combined effect of both these strategies was successfully used in cotton (G. hirsutum). For this purpose, plant expression vector pKian-1 was created, after a series of cloning steps, carrying Cry1Ac gene ligated with chloroplast transit peptide towards N-terminal and Ricin B-Chain towards C-terminal, generating TP-Cry1Ac-RB construct. Conclusions: Efficacy of pKian-1 plasmid vector was confirmed by in-planta Agrobacterium-mediated leaf GUS assay in tobacco. Cotton (G. hirsutum) local variety MNH-786 was transformed with pKian-1 and the stable integration of TP-Cry1Ac-RB construct in putative transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR; while fusion-protein expression in cytosol as well as chloroplast was substantiated by Western blot analysis. Whereas, confocal microscopy of leaf-sections of transgenic plants exposed that hybrid-Bt protein was expressing inside chloroplasts.


Subject(s)
Chloroplasts/genetics , Chloroplasts/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified , Chloroplast Proteins/isolation & purification , Ricin/analysis , Protein Sorting Signals , Blotting, Western , Cloning, Molecular , Microscopy, Confocal , Agrobacterium , Chloroplast Proteins/genetics , Insecta
10.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 13(4): 467-474, 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-611451

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se, com a realização da pesquisa, avaliar modificações fisiológicas e anatômicas em plantas de melissa, cultivadas sob malhas termorrefletoras (Aluminet®), em diferentes níveis de sombreamento, visando conhecer a plasticidade fenotípica em resposta de adaptação a diferentes quantidades de luz. Os tratamentos foram caracterizados por plantas submetidas a pleno sol e a 20 e 60 por cento de intensidade luminosa, e arranjados conforme o delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC). As quantificações de clorofila foram feitas em quatro repetições, as medições das epidermes e parênquimas foram repetidas 15 vezes e utilizou-se 10 repetições para as avaliações das características de cloroplastos e grãos de amido destes. Plantas submetidas a 20 por cento de intensidade luminosa apresentaram maior quantidade de clorofila a e, portanto, maior razão clorofila a/b. Comparativamente, as folhas de melissa a pleno sol e a 60 por cento de luz apresentaram células da epiderme adaxial mais espessas, mas as células da epiderme abaxial mostraram características encontradas em folhas de sombra, ou seja, mais finas. Quanto maior a intensidade luminosa, maior o número de cloroplastos, porém, a pleno sol mostraram-se mais finos e com menor área. Os grãos de amido de plantas cultivadas sob ambientes sombreados tiveram maior área e ocuparam maior parte nos cloroplastos de plantas a 60 por cento de intensidade luminosa. Assim, plantas de melissa, quando submetidas ao sombreamento, tiveram plasticidade fenotípica.


The aim of this study was to evaluate physiological and anatomical modifications in lemon balm plants, cultivated under thermo-reflector nets (Aluminet®) at different levels of shading, in order to understand the phenotypic plasticity in adaptation response to different light quantities. The treatments were characterized by plants subjected to full sun and 20 and 60 percent of luminous intensity, and arranged in completely randomized design (CRD). The quantifications of chlorophylls were done in four replicates, the measurements of epidermis and parenchymas were repeated 15 times and 10 replicates were used to evaluate characteristics of chloroplasts and their starch grains. Plants subjected to 20 percent of luminous intensity showed higher quantity of chlorophyll a and, therefore, higher chlorophyll a/b ratio. Lemon balm leaves under full sun and 60 percent of light showed thicker adaxial epidermis cells, but the abaxial epidermis cells showed characteristics found in shaded leaves, i.e., they were slender. The higher the light intensity, the larger the number of chloroplasts; however, under full sun, they were slender and had smaller area. The starch grains of leaves grown under shaded environments showed larger area and, at 60 percent of luminous intensity, occupied the largest part of chloroplasts. Thus, lemon balm plants, subjected to shading conditions, showed phenotypic plasticity.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Biological/physiology , Adaptation, Biological/genetics , Dark Adaptation/physiology , Dark Adaptation/genetics , Melissa/analysis , Plants, Medicinal/growth & development , Plants, Medicinal/genetics , Brazil , Chloroplasts/physiology , Chloroplasts/genetics , Chloroplasts/chemistry , Plant Epidermis/anatomy & histology , Plant Epidermis/physiology , Plant Epidermis/genetics
11.
IJB-Iranian Journal of Biotechnology. 2010; 8 (1): 7-15
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-111893

ABSTRACT

This study represents phylogenetic analyses of two woody polygonaceous genera Calligonum and Pteropyrum using both chloroplast fragment [trnL-F] and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer [nrDNA ITS] sequence data. All inferred phylogenies using parsimony and Bayesian methods showed that Calligonum and Pteropyrum are both monophyletic and closely related taxa. They have no affinity with Atraphaxis, instead allied with a clade in which the genus is nested. Infrageneric relationships in Calligonum, due to the paucity of informative nucleotide sites in both DNA regions are not resolved


Subject(s)
Phylogeny , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Chloroplasts/genetics
12.
J Biosci ; 2005 Dec; 30(5): 699-709
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111184

ABSTRACT

We analyse forty-seven chloroplast genes of the large subunit of RuBisCO, from the algal order Ectocarpales, sourced from GenBank. Codon-usage weighted by the nucleotide base-bias defines our score called the codon-impact-parameter. This score is used to obtain phylogenetic relations amongst the 47 Ectocarpales. We compare our classification with the ones done earlier.


Subject(s)
Phaeophyceae/classification , Base Composition/genetics , Chloroplasts/genetics , Codon/genetics , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Genetic Variation/genetics , Phylogeny , Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Species Specificity
13.
J Genet ; 2005 Apr; 84(1): 55-62
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-114425

ABSTRACT

A detailed comparison was made of codon usage of chloroplast genes with their host (nuclear) genes in the four angiosperm species Oryza sativa, Zea mays, Triticum aestivum and Arabidopsis thaliana. The average GC content of the entire genes, and at the three codon positions individually, was higher in nuclear than in chloroplast genes, suggesting different genomic organization and mutation pressures in nuclear and chloroplast genes. The results of Nc-plots and neutrality plots suggested that nucleotide compositional constraint had a large contribution to codon usage bias of nuclear genes in O. sativa, Z. mays, and T. aestivum, whereas natural selection was likely to be playing a large role in codon usage bias in chloroplast genomes. Correspondence analysis and chi-test showed that regardless of the genomic environment (species) of the host, the codon usage pattern of chloroplast genes differed from nuclear genes of their host species by their AU-richness. All the chloroplast genomes have predominantly A- and/or U-ending codons, whereas nuclear genomes have G-, C- or U-ending codons as their optimal codons. These findings suggest that the chloroplast genome might display particular characteristics of codon usage that are different from its host nuclear genome. However, one feature common to both chloroplast and nuclear genomes in this study was that pyrimidines were found more frequently than purines at the synonymous codon position of optimal codons.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis/genetics , Base Composition , Chloroplasts/genetics , Codon , Genome, Plant , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Oryza/genetics , Plant Proteins/genetics , Selection, Genetic , Triticum/genetics , Zea mays/genetics
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111152

ABSTRACT

Parent-specific, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were obtained from total genomic DNA of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Such parent-specific RAPD bands (genomic fingerprints) segregated uniparentally (through mt+) in a cross between a pair of polymorphic interfertile strains of Chlamydomonas (C. reinhardtii and C. minnesotti), suggesting that they originated from the chloroplast genome. Southern analysis mapped the RAPD-markers to the chloroplast genome. One of the RAPD-markers, "P2" (1.6 kb) was cloned, sequenced and was fine mapped to the 3 kb region encompassing 3' end of 23S, full 5S and intergenic region between 5S and psbA. This region seems divergent enough between the two parents, such that a specific PCR designed for a parental specific chloroplast sequence within this region, amplified a marker in that parent only and not in the other, indicating the utility of RAPD-scan for locating the genomic regions of sequence divergence. Remarkably, the RAPD-product, "P2" seems to have originated from a PCR-amplification of a much smaller (about 600 bp), but highly repeat-rich (direct and inverted) domain of the 3 kb region in a manner that yielded no linear sequence alignment with its own template sequence. The amplification yielded the same uniquely "sequence-scrambled" product, whether the template used for PCR was total cellular DNA, chloroplast DNA or a plasmid clone DNA corresponding to that region. The PCR product, a "unique" new sequence, had lost the repetitive organization of the template genome where it had originated from and perhaps represented a "complex path" of copy-choice replication.


Subject(s)
Animals , Base Sequence , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/genetics , Chloroplasts/genetics , DNA/genetics , DNA Primers , Genome, Plant , Molecular Sequence Data , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid
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