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1.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(2): 318-323, 20220316. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362982

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Por ser un procedimiento de mínima invasión, la colangiopancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica (CPRE) es el procedimiento más utilizado para el manejo de la patología litiásica biliar. Sin embargo, puede presentar complicaciones que comprometen la vida del paciente. Caso clínico. Paciente masculino de 63 años es llevado a CPRE por una coledocolitiasis recidivante gigante. Durante el procedimiento presentó una disección aérea masiva con neumotórax bilateral a tensión, secundarios a una perforación duodenal, que derivó en una fístula bilio-retroperitoneal. Se trató de forma conservadora con una adecuada evolución. Discusión. Se han descrito pocos casos de neumotórax como complicación de la CPRE. Se considera que este es el primer caso publicado de neumotórax a tensión manejado exitosamente de forma conservadora. Conclusión. El diagnóstico temprano de las disecciones aéreas es el único predictor independiente que podría cambiar el curso clínico de esta patología y su manejo dependerá de la experticia del cirujano y del estado clínico del paciente.


Introduction. Because it is a minimally invasive procedure, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the most widely used procedure for the management of biliary lithiasic pathology. However, it can present complications that compromise the life of the patient. Clinical case. A 63-year-old male patient is taken to ERCP for a giant recurrent choledocholithiasis. During the procedure presented a massive air dissection with bilateral tension pneumothorax, secondary to a duodenal perforation, which led to a bilio-retroperitoneal fistula. It was treated conservatively with adequate evolution.Discussion. Few cases of pneumothorax have been described as a complication of ERCP. This is considered to be the first published case of tension pneumothorax successfully managed conservatively. Conclusion. Early diagnosis of air dissections is the only independent predictor that could change the clinical course of this pathology, and its management will depend on the expertise of the surgeon and the clinical status of the patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biliary Fistula , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Pneumothorax , Prostheses and Implants , General Surgery
3.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 270-275, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345283

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is a widely used therapeutic modality for the pancreaticobiliary tree. However, it is responsible for the highest rates of complications among the endoscopic procedures, especially post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis. The preventive methods include mechanical and pharmacological approaches, such as the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of two different strategies using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the prevention of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis, and to clarify the uncertainty about the route of administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the prevention of this complication. METHODS: This was a prospective trial. Two therapeutic groups were compared with a control group that was composed of patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, performed in the same service and by the same team in the period preceding the study (historical series), without the administration of any type of prophylaxis. The first group received 100 mg rectal diclofenac. The second group received 100 mg intravenous ketoprofen. Both groups were compared, separately and jointly, with the control group. RESULTS: Post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis occurred in 4.39% (12/273) of the participants. In the group without prophylaxis, the incidence was 6.89% (10/145). Among those who received intravenous ketoprofen, the incidence was 2.56% (2/78). No cases of acute post-procedural pancreatitis were observed in the group that received rectal diclofenac (0/52). Although there was no statistical difference between the therapeutic groups when they were separately analyzed, a statistical difference in the prevention of post-procedural pancreatitis was observed when they were analyzed together (P=0.037). CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence for the efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the prophylaxis of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A colangiopancreatografia retrógrada endoscópica (CPRE) é uma modalidade terapêutica amplamente utilizada para vias biliopancreáticas, responsável pelas taxas mais elevadas de complicações entre os procedimentos endoscópicos, especialmente a pancreatite pós-CPRE (PPC). Os métodos preventivos incluem abordagens mecânicas e farmacológicas, entre elas, a utilização de antinflamatórios não esteroidais (AINEs). OBJETIVO: Comparar a eficácia de duas estratégias diferentes utilizando AINEs para a prevenção de PPC. Elucidar o cenário incerto sobre a via de administração do AINEs na prevenção da PPC. MÉTODOS - Ensaio clínico prospectivo. Duas estratégias terapêuticas foram comparadas a um grupo controle, composto por pacientes submetidos a CPRE no mesmo serviço e com a mesma equipe no período anterior ao estudo (série histórica), que não recebeu qualquer tipo de profilaxia. O primeiro grupo experimental recebeu 100 mg de diclofenaco via retal, o segundo grupo recebeu 100 mg de cetoprofeno endovenoso. Ambos os grupos foram comparados separadamente e em associação com o grupo de controle. RESULTADOS: A PPC ocorreu em 4,39% (12/273) dos participantes. No grupo sem profilaxia, esta incidência foi de 6,89% (10/145); entre os que receberam cetoprofeno endovenoso foi de 2,56% (2/78). Não houve casos de pancreatite aguda após o procedimento no grupo que recebeu diclofenaco via retal (0/52). Apesar de não haver diferença estatística entre estes grupos analisados separadamente, quando os dois grupos terapêuticos são analisados em conjunto estes apresentam diferenças estatísticas na prevenção da PPC (P=0,037). CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo foi capaz de corroborar a eficácia da utilização de AINEs para a profilaxia de pancreatite pós-CPRE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pancreatitis/etiology , Pancreatitis/prevention & control , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Diclofenac , Prospective Studies
4.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 27(1): 101-106, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280500

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El Síndrome de Mirizzi es una complicación infrecuente de la enfermedad litiásica biliar, con una incidencia menor al 1% en países desarrollados, puede desarrollarse en cinco variantes, siendo menos frecuente la variante tipo V. La literatura actual discrepa sobre el manejo de esta condición, afirmando que la cirugía laparoscópica no es segura como procedimiento estándar. Caso Clínico: Se presenta el caso de Síndrome de Mirizzi en un hombre de 80 años, que es remitido al departamento de urgencias por sospecha de sepsis de origen abdominal, con estudio ecográfico de colelitiasis, neumobilia y dilatación de las vías biliares. Se realizó Colangiopancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica con imposibilidad técnica para la movilización y extracción de los cálculos por gran tamaño, recurriéndose a exploración a través de técnica laparoscópica, obteniéndose resultados satisfactorios. Conclusión: Para tratar el Síndrome de Mirizzi, es necesario considerar las características del paciente y la experiencia del cirujano ya que ambos factores influyen directamente en la modalidad del tratamiento, sus complicaciones y tasas de éxito. En el presente caso, la experiencia del autor principal en el manejo de procedimientos mínimamente invasivos y la consideración de reducir el riesgo de complicaciones como infecciones en un paciente frágil, fueron los factores que influyeron para la decisión de intervención laparoscópica.


Abstract Introduction: Mirizzi's syndrome is an infrequent complication of biliary lithiasic disease, with an incidence of less than 1% in developed countries, being even less frequent the type V variant. Current literature disagrees on the management of this condition, stating that laparoscopic surgery is not safe as a standard procedure. Clinical Case: We present the case of Mirizzi's Syndrome in an 80-year-old man, which is referred to the emergency department for suspicion of sepsis of abdominal origin, with ultrasound study of cholelithiasis, pneumoobilia and dilation of the bile ducts. Retrograde endoscopic cholangiopancreatography was performed with technical impossibility for the mobilization and extraction of large-size stones, resorting to exploration through laparoscopic technique, obtaining satisfactory results. Conclusion: It is necessary to emphasize that the type of Mirizzi syndrome, the patient's characteristics and the surgeon's experience directly influence the treatment modality, its complications and/or success rates. In the present case, the experience of the main author in the management of minimally invasive procedures and the consideration of reducing the risk of complications such as infections in a fragile patient, were the factors that influenced the decision for laparoscopic intervention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Cholelithiasis , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Laparoscopy , Mirizzi Syndrome , Therapeutics , Bile Ducts , Calculi , Sepsis , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Infections
6.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(3): 545-548, 20210000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254391

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La incidencia de lesiones traumáticas del páncreas es baja debido a su localización retroperitoneal, y las lesiones aisladas son excepcionales debido a la proximidad del páncreas a otros órganos y estructuras vasculares. Caso clínico. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 21 años con lesión aislada del páncreas tras traumatismo abdominal cerrado, que precisó manejo quirúrgico. Discusión. Las lesiones pancreáticas aisladas secundarias a traumatismo son raras, pero debemos tenerlas en cuenta en un paciente politraumatizado. Su diagnóstico precoz y manejo adecuado son cruciales para evitar el desarrollo de complicaciones


Introduction. The incidence of traumatic injuries to the pancreas is low due to its retroperitoneal location, and isolated injuries are rare due to the proximity of the pancreas to other vascular organs and structures. Clinical case. We present the case of a 21-year-old man with an isolated lesion of the pancreas after blunt abdominal trauma, which required surgical management.Discussion. Isolated pancreatic injuries secondary to trauma are rare but must be taken into account in a multiple trauma patient. Its early diagnosis and proper management are crucial to avoid the development of complications


Subject(s)
Humans , Pancreas , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Wounds and Injuries , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Classification , Diagnosis
7.
Rev. argent. cir ; 113(1): 62-72, abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288175

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Antecedentes: la prevalencia conjunta de litiasis vesicular y coledociana aumenta con la edad y llega al 15% en la octava década de la vida. Su manejo continúa siendo controvertido: algunos profesionales prefieren el abordaje en un tiempo por videolaparoscopia, y otros, el abordaje en dos tiempos con endoscopia (CPRE preoperatoria) seguida de colecistectomía laparoscópica. Objetivo: evaluar la eficacia y seguridad del manejo en un tiempo por videolaparoscopia en pacientes consecutivos con diagnóstico de litiasis vesicular y coledociana. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo con datos de una base de datos prospectiva, entre julio de 2008 y julio de 2018. Resultados: sobre un total de 2447 colecistectomías laparoscópicas realizadas en el citado período, 416 (17%) presentaron litiasis coledociana. El éxito global de la vía transcística en la extracción de litiasis coledociana fue del 81,2%: del 70,4% en los casos con diagnóstico prequirúrgico de colestasis extrahepática litiásica y del 92,9% en los otros diagnósticos. La morbilidad fue del 4%, sin mortalidad ni lesiones quirúrgicas de la vía biliar. Conclusión : el manejo en un tiempo por videolaparoscopia es eficaz y seguro debido al elevado éxito global de la instrumentación transcística (ITC). El diagnóstico preoperatorio de coledocolitiasis condi ciona una disminución de esa eficacia, por mayor indicación de coledocotomía, con un aumento de la morbilidad y del tiempo de internación.


ABSTRACT Background: The prevalence of common bile duct stones associated with cholelithiasis increases with age and is about 15 % in the 8th decade of life but its management is still controversial. Some surgeons prefer the single-stage approach with laparoscopy while others suggest the two-stage management with preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of feasibility of single-stage laparoscopic surgery in patients with cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis. Material and methods: We conducted a retrospective study with prospectively collected data between July 2008 and July 2018. Results: Of 2447 laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed during the study period, 416 presented common bile duct stones. The global success of the transcystic approach to clear common bile duct stones was 81.2%, 70.4% in the cases with preoperative diagnosis of choledocholithiasis and 92.9% for other diagnoses. The rate of complications was 4% without deaths or bile duct injuries. Conclusion: Single-stage laparoscopic surgery is an efficient and safe approach based on the high global success of transcystic exploration. The preoperative diagnosis of choledocholithiasis reduces the efficacy of the procedure due to greater indication of choledocotomy, with complications and longer length of hospital stay.


Subject(s)
Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic , Laparoscopy , Cholelithiasis , Efficacy , Retrospective Studies , Choledocholithiasis , Endoscopy
8.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(2): 3120-3132, mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251930

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: las enfermedades del eje pancreático/biliar son una consecuencia en la morbimortalidad del aparato digestivo, y es la causa en ocasiones de una obstrucción biliar. La colangiopancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica es un método preciso para el diagnóstico de la obstrucción biliar, y se asocia con una elevada tasa de sensibilidad y especificidad. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal, con el objetivo de valorar el comportamiento de la colangiopancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica como medio diagnóstico y terapéutico en una muestra de 90 pacientes con dictamen presuntivo de íctero obstructivo. Resultados: predominaron las féminas en el grupo de edad superior a los 50 años. La coluria, la acolia y el íctero como representativos de una enfermedad obstructiva de las vías biliares, fueron las manifestaciones más frecuentes, corroboradas por el estudio endoscópico, donde la litiasis coledociana fue la principal causa de íctero. Conclusión: la esfinterotomía endoscópica fue el proceder terapéutico de elección, y la pancreatitis aguda postintervención fue la complicación más frecuente (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: the diseases of the pancreatic-biliary axis are a consequence in the digestive tract morbidity-mortality, and sometimes they are the cause of a biliary obstruction. The endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is a precise method for diagnosing the biliary obstruction, and is associated to high rates of sensitivity and specificity. Materials and methods: a cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study was carried out with the aim of assessing the behavior of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography as a therapeutic and diagnostic mean in a sample of 90 patients with presumptive report of obstructive jaundice. Results: women aged more than 50 years predominated. Choluria, acholia and jaundice, as representative of the biliary ducts obstructive disease, were the most frequent manifestations, corroborated by the endoscopic study, where choledocal lithiasis was the main cause of jaundice. Conclusions: endoscopic sphincterotomy was the elective therapeutic procedure, and post-intervention acute pancreatitis was the most frequent complication (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cholestasis/diagnosis , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde/methods , Patients , Cholestasis/therapy , Disease , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/standards , Sphincterotomy/methods
9.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(supl.1): 59-62, abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251548

ABSTRACT

Resumen Presentamos el caso de un paciente de 68 años, sin antecedentes de importancia, que por su cuadro clínico y resultados paraclínicos fue clasificado con riesgo intermedio para coledocolitiasis. En efecto, por medio de colangiorresonancia se realizó el diagnóstico confirmatorio. Fue llevado a colangiopancreatografía retrograda endoscópica en dos ocasiones -la primera fallida por papila intradiverticular-; en el segundo intento (exitoso con extracción del lito), el paciente presentó evolución posprocedimiento tórpida, con marcado dolor abdominal y anemización. Fue llevado a tomografía de abdomen con contraste, la cual confirmó el diagnóstico de hematoma subcapsular. Se decidió implementar el manejo conservador y se logró un control adecuado del sangrado.


Abstract This is the case of a 68-year-old female patient, with no relevant history, who was classified as intermediate risk for choledocholithiasis due to her symptoms and lab test results. The diagnosis was confirmed by means of cholangioresonance. She was taken to ERCP on two occasions; the first failed due to intradiverticular papilla, and during the second attempt (successful with the removal of the stone), the patient had a torpid post-procedure evolution, with marked abdominal pain and anemization. An abdominal tomography with contrast was performed, which confirmed the diagnosis of subcapsular hematoma. A conservative management was implemented, achieving adequate bleeding control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Hematoma , Choledocholithiasis , Hemorrhage , Methods
10.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(1): 120-125, ene.-mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251532

ABSTRACT

Resumen La endosonografía endoscópica es una alternativa que sirve como guía para la realización de derivaciones biliodigestivas en los casos en los que la colangiopancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica (CPRE) ha fallado. Se han descrito técnicas como la coledocoduodenostomía o coledocoantrostomía guiadas por ultrasonografía endoscópica (USE). Se describe el caso de una paciente de 72 años con adenocarcinoma de páncreas, compromiso portal y de paredes duodenales, en quien se usó la CPRE para intentar una derivación paliativa y fue fallida, por lo cual se realizó la colocación de un stent metálico guiado por endosonografía endoscópica, con adecuada respuesta clínica al tratamiento. En conclusión, el procedimiento es seguro y la endosonografía es una vía alterna efectiva en los casos de CPRE fallidas para lograr derivaciones biliares en casos de obstrucción de la vía biliar de origen maligno.


Abstract Endoscopic endosonography is an alternative to guide biliodigestive shunting in cases where endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has failed. Techniques such as choledoduodenostomy or choledochoantrostomy guided by endoscopic ultrasonography have been described. This is the case of a 72-year-old patient with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, portal vein and duodenal wall involvement, in whom ERCP to try a palliative shunt failed. Therefore, a metal stent was placed using endoscopic endosonography, with adequate clinical response to the procedure and treatment. It is concluded that the procedure is safe and that endosonography is an effective alternative in cases of ERCP failure to achieve biliary bypass in cases of malignant biliary obstruction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Pancreas , Referral and Consultation , Bile Ducts , Adenocarcinoma , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde
11.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(2): 301-311, 20210000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223994

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La coledocolitiasis es la presencia de cálculos en las vías biliares. En la mayoría de los casos se trata mediante la colangio pancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica y menos comúnmente por intervención quirúrgica laparoscópica. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir una cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes sometidos a exploración laparoscópica de la vía biliar. Métodos. Se incluyeron pacientes intervenidos entre los años 2014 y 2018, en dos instituciones de nivel III en Cali, Colombia, referidos para valoración por cirugía hepatobiliar, por dificultad para la extracción de los cálculos por colangio pancreatografia retrograda endoscópica, debido al tamaño, la cantidad, o la dificultad para identificar o canular la papila duodenal. Resultados. De los 100 pacientes incluidos, se encontró que el 72 % fueron mujeres, con rango de edad entre 14 y 92 años. Al 39 % de los pacientes se les extrajo un solo cálculo y al 16 % 10 cálculos. Un 12 % presentaron cálculos gigantes (mayores de 2,5 cm de ancho) y un 44 % presentaron litiasis múltiple. Al 69 % de los pacientes se les realizó colecistectomía. El porcentaje de éxito de limpieza de la vía biliar por laparoscopia fue del 95 %.Discusión. La exploración laparoscópica de la vía biliar es una técnica posible, reproducible, segura y con excelentes resultados para el manejo de la coledocolitiasis


Introduction. Choledocholithiasis is the presence of stones in the bile ducts. In most cases it is treated by endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography and less commonly by laparoscopic surgery. The objective of this study was to describe a retrospective cohort of patients who underwent laparoscopic exploration of the bile duct.Methods. The study included patients operated between 2014 and 2018, in two level III institutions in Cali, Colombia, referred for evaluation for hepato-biliary surgery, due to difficulty in removing stones by endoscopic retrograde pancreatography cholangiography, due to the size, quantity, or difficulty of identifying or cannulating the duodenal papilla. Results. Out of the 100 patients included, it was found that 72% were women, with an age range between 14 and 92 years. A single stone was removed from 39% of patients and 10 stones from 16%; 12% had giant stones (greater than 2.5 cm wide), and 44% had multiple stones; 69% of the patients underwent cholecystectomy. Laparoscopic bile duct cleaning success rate was 95%. Discussion. Laparoscopic exploration of the bile duct is a possible, reproducible, and a safe technique with excellent results for the management of choledocholithiasis


Subject(s)
Humans , Common Bile Duct , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Laparoscopy , Choledocholithiasis
13.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(3): e1607, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355524

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Retrograde endoscopic cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) effectively treats biliary and pancreatic disorders. Its indications are limited and precise, since its misuse delays adequate treatment, increases costs and to patient´s adverse events. Aim: To compare clinical, radiological and exploratory characteristics in relation to therapeutic success in patients undergoing ERCP in relation to age. Method: 421 patients who underwent the method were retrospectively studied; those who were not able to access the duodenal papilla were excluded. The patients were divided into two age groups: <60 years (group 1) and >60 years (group 2), and the variables of gender, examination indications, radiological findings, therapeutic success, diagnosis and the occurrence of immediate adverse events were analyzed. Results: 177 patients were allocated to group 1 and 235 to group 2. The main indication found in both groups was choledocholithiasis. In group 2, the number of cases of acute cholangitis (p=0.001), biliary stenosis (p=0.002) and papilla cancer (p=0.046) was higher. In this group, urgent indication for ERCP was higher (p=0.042), as well as the diagnosis of biliary tract dilatation (p<0.001). The placement of prostheses was the most common procedure performed in both groups, but the greatest number of patients in absolute quantity occurred in group 2. In group 1, the success in catheterization and the chance of achieving clearing of the biliary tract was significantly higher in compared to group 2 (p=0.016, OR=2.1). Conclusion: The success of catheterization and complete clearance of the bile duct was significantly higher in the group of young patients.


RESUMO Racional: A colangiopancreatografia endoscópica retrógrada (CPRE) trata eficazmente afecções biliares e pancreáticas. Suas indicações são limitadas e precisas, uma vez que seu uso indevido atrasa o tratamento adequado, aumenta os custos e submete pacientes a eventos adversos. Objetivo: Comparar as características clínicas, radiológicas e exploratórias em relação ao sucesso terapêutico em pacientes submetidos à CPRE com relação à idade. Método: Foram estudados retrospectivamente 421 pacientes submetidos ao método sendo excluídos aqueles onde não foi possível ao acesso a papila duodenal. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos etários: <60 anos (grupo 1) e >60 anos (grupo 2) e analisadas as variáveis gênero, indicações do exame, achados radiológicos, sucesso terapêutico, diagnóstico e a ocorrência de eventos adversos imediatos. Resultados: 177 pacientes foram alocados no grupo 1 e 235 no grupo 2. A principal indicação encontrada em ambos os grupos foi coledocolitíase. No grupo 2, o número de casos de colangite aguda (p=0,001), estenose biliar (p=0,002) e neoplasia de papila (p=0,046) foi superior. Nesse grupo a indicação da CPRE em caráter de urgência foi superior (p=0,042), bem como o diagnóstico de dilatação da via biliar (p<0,001). A colocação de próteses foi o procedimento mais comumente realizado nos dois grupos, mas o maior número de doentes em quantidade absoluta ocorreu no grupo 2. No grupo 1, o sucesso na cateterização e a chance de conseguir o clareamento da via biliar foi significativamente superior em relação ao grupo 2 (p=0,016, OR=2,1). Conclusão: O sucesso da cateterização e o clareamento completo da via biliar foi significativamente superior no grupo de pacientes jovens.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biliary Tract , Cholestasis , Choledocholithiasis , Retrospective Studies , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Middle Aged
14.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(4): e735, oct.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156450

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La estenosis de la vía biliar es una afección poco frecuente, pero con serias repercusiones en la morbilidad de los pacientes. La gran mayoría ocurre después de la cirugía hepatobiliar: la colecistectomía es la más común de estas cirugías. El reconocimiento temprano y el enfoque multidisciplinario adecuado es la piedra angular para lograr obtener resultados finales óptimos. Objetivo: Describir el tratamiento endoscópico de los pacientes con estenosis poscolescistectomía atendidos en el Instituto de Gastroenterología (Cuba). Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo descriptivo de los pacientes con diagnóstico de estenosis biliar poscolescitectomía. Se determinaron variables sociodemográficas, clínicas y endoscópicas de interés. Resultados: Se estudiaron 16 pacientes. Predominaron las mujeres menores de 50 años. El 75 por ciento de los pacientes tenían antecedente de colecistectomía laparoscópica. Las estenosis biliares tipo I y III, según la clasificación de Bismuth, fueron las más usuales. El tratamiento endoscópico mediante colangiografía retrógrada endoscópica (CPRE) con colocación de múltiples prótesis plásticas fue la conducta terapéutica más empleada. Conclusiones: En las estenosis poscolescitectomía los procedimientos endoscópicos se han convertido en el tratamiento de elección, como un procedimiento menos invasivo, con baja morbilidad y mortalidad, con evidentes resultados comparables a los logrados con procedimientos quirúrgicos no endoscópicos(AU)


Introduction: Bile duct stenosis is an infrequent condition, but it seriously affects patient morbidity. The vast majority of cases occur after hepatobiliary surgery, cholecystectomy being the most common of such surgeries. Early recognition and an appropriate multidisciplinary approach are the cornerstones to achieve optimal final results. Objective: Describe the endoscopic treatment of patients with postcholecystectomy stenosis cared for at the Institute of Gastroenterology in Cuba. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted of the patients diagnosed with postcholecystectomy bile duct stenosis. Determination was made of sociodemographic, clinical and endoscopic variables of interest. Results: A total 16 patients were studied. There was a predominance of women aged under 50 years. 75 percent of the patients had a history of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The most common bile duct stenoses were types I and III by Bismuth's classification. The most frequent therapeutic management was endoscopic treatment by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) with placement of multiple plastic prostheses. Conclusions: Endoscopic procedures have become the treatment of choice in postcholecystectomy stenosis. They are less invasive, their morbidity and mortality are low, and their results are comparable to those of non-endoscopic surgical procedures(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde/methods , Prostheses and Implants , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Constriction, Pathologic
15.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(4): 430-435, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156325

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: la endoscopia es una de las herramientas necesarias para el manejo de las enfermedades biliares y pancreáticas. La colangiopancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica (CPRE) es uno de los procedimientos técnicamente más demandantes y de mayor riesgo de complicaciones realizados en el tratamiento de los desórdenes hepatopancreatobiliares. Objetivo: caracterizar los resultados clínicos de los pacientes llevados a CPRE en un centro de pacientes con cáncer exclusivamente. Métodos: estudio de serie de casos observacional, retrospectivo, descriptivo con base en datos clínicos de pacientes llevados a CPRE en una población diagnosticada con cáncer de distintos orígenes primarios y en diferentes estadios de enfermedad desde enero de 2010 hasta enero de 2017. Resultados: se analizaron 255 procedimientos en los que predominó el sexo femenino con 140 casos (54,9 %), el promedio de edad fue 62,9 años (desviación estándar [DE]: 12,9 años). Todos los procedimientos se hicieron con intención terapéutica. La indicación más frecuente fue cáncer de páncreas (n = 47; 18,43 %), compresión extrínseca de la vía biliar (n = 42; 16,47 %), disfunción de prótesis (n = 36; 14,12%), colecistocoledocolitiasis (n = 32; 12,55 %), otras causas (n = 32; 12,55 %), cáncer de vesícula (n = 24; 9,41 %), colangiocarcinoma extrahepático (n = 21; 8,24 %), coledocolitiasis recidivante (n = 9; 3,53%), coledocolitiasis residual (n = 6; 2,35 %) y tumor de Klatskin (n = 6; 2,35 %). La canalización exitosa se presentó en 222 casos (87,06 %). Durante el procedimiento, 10 pacientes presentaron complicaciones (4,3 %), de las cuales la pancreatitis y las perforaciones fueron las más frecuentes (n = 3; 1,18 %), seguidas por sangrado, colangitis (n = 2; 0,78 %) y dolor post-CPRE 1 (0,39 %). Conclusiones: en la población evaluada, la causa predominante para realizar el procedimiento está relacionada con cáncer y la frecuencia tanto de canalización exitosa como de complicaciones es similar a la de los reportes en las poblaciones generales.


Abstract Introduction: Endoscopy is one of the tools necessary to treat biliary and pancreatic diseases. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is one of the most technically demanding procedures with the highest risk of complications when treating hepato-pancreato-biliary disorders. Objective: To characterize the clinical outcomes of ERCP patients in a cancer patient center. Methodology: Observational, retrospective, descriptive case series study based on clinical data of patients brought to ERCP in a population diagnosed with cancer of different primary origins and in different stages of the disease from January 2010 to January 2017. Results: A total of 255 procedures were analyzed. The female sex was predominant with 140 cases (54.9%), and the average age was 62.9 years (SD 12.9 years). All procedures were done with therapeutic intent. The most frequent indication was pancreatic cancer (N=47; 18.43%), extrinsic compression of the common bile duct (N=42; 16.47%), biliary prosthesis dysfunction (N=36; 14.12%), cholecystocholedocholithiasis (N=32; 12. 55%), other causes (N=32; 12.55%), gallbladder cancer (N=24; 9.41%), extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (N=21; 8.24%), recurrent choledocholithiasis (N=9; 3.53%), residual choledocholithiasis (N=6; 2.35%), and Klatskin tumor (N=6; 2.35%). Successful cannulation was reported in 222 cases (87.06%). During the procedure, 10 patients presented complications (4.3%), with pancreatitis and perforations being the most frequent (N=3; 1.18%), followed by bleeding, cholangitis (N=2; 0.78%), and post-ERCP pain (N=1; 0.39%). Conclusions: In the population studied, the principal reasons for performing the procedure were related to cancer. The frequency of successful cannulation and complications reported here are similar to other results in the general population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Neoplasms , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Gallbladder Neoplasms
16.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(4): 537-541, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156337

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se presenta un caso de áscaris de la vía biliar (AB), cuya manifestación clínica fue ictericia obstructiva, acompañada de dolor abdominal causado por un cuadro de pancreatitis aguda. Inicialmente, se sospechó de etiología litiásica, por lo cual se realizaron estudios de imágenes diagnósticas y se evidenció la presencia de AB como hallazgo incidental, diagnosticado por ultrasonografía endoscópica biliopancreática (UEB), que fue confirmado y tratado mediante colangiopancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica (CPRE).


Abstract The following is a case of biliary ascariasis (BA), whose clinical presentation was obstructive jaundice, accompanied by abdominal pain due to acute pancreatitis. At first, clinical suspicion led to consider a stone etiology, for which diagnostic imaging studies were performed, evidencing BA as an incidental finding diagnosed by endoscopic biliopancreatic ultrasonography (EBU), which was confirmed and treated using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ascaris , Bile Ducts , Ultrasonography , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Pancreatitis , Abdominal Pain , Jaundice, Obstructive , Literature
17.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 347-353, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142344

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Biliary complications remain one of the most important causes of morbidity and graft loss after liver transplant (LT). Endoscopic therapy of biliary complications has proven to be effective over time, leaving surgical treatment restricted to only very few cases. However, we cannot yet predict which patients will have the greatest potential to benefit from endoscopic treatment. OBJECTIVE On this premise we decide to conduct this study to evaluate the role and safety of single operator cholangioscopy (SOC) in the endoscopic treatment of post-LT biliary anastomotic strictures (AS). METHODS: Between March/2016 and June/2017, 20 consecutive patients referred for endoscopic treatment for biliary anastomotic stricture were included in this prospective observational cohort study. Inclusion criteria were age over 18 years old, and a deceased LT performed within at least 30 days. Exclusion criteria were non-anastomotic biliary stricture, biliary leakage, cast syndrome, any previous endoscopic therapy, pregnancy and inability to provide informed consent. All patients underwent SOC before endoscopic therapy with fully covered self-expandable metal stent (FCSEMS) and after stent removal. RESULTS: At pre-treatment SOC, stricture orifice and fibrotic changes could be visualized in all patients, vascular changes and surgical sutures in 60% and acute inflammatory changes in 30%. SOC was essential for guidewire placement in five cases. FCSEMS was successfully deployed in all patients. Stricture resolution rate was 44.4% (median stent indwelling 372 days). Stricture recurrence was 12.5% (median follow-up of 543 days). Adverse events were distal (66.6%) and proximal (5.5%) stent migration, stent occlusion (16.6%), severe abdominal pain (10%) and mild acute pancreatitis (10%). SOC was repeated after FCSEMS removal. Post-treatment SOC showed fibrotic changes in all but one patient; vascular and acute inflammatory changes were less frequent in comparison to index procedure. The disappearance of suture material was remarkable. None of the cholangioscopic findings were statistically correlated to treatment outcome or stricture recurrence. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography with SOC is feasible in post-LT patients with AS. Cholangioscopic findings can be classified into fibrotic, vascular and acute inflammatory changes. Cholangioscopy may be helpful to assist guidewire passage, but Its overall role for changing management is post-LT patients was not demonstrated.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: As complicações biliares continuam sendo uma das principais causas de morbidade e perda do enxerto após o transplante hepático. O tratamento endoscópico das complicações biliares provou ser eficaz ao longo do tempo, deixando o tratamento cirúrgico restrito a casos de exceção. No entanto, ainda não podemos prever quais pacientes terão maior potencial de se beneficiar da terapia endoscópica. OBJETIVO: Nesta premissa, decidimos realizar este estudo para avaliar o papel e a segurança da colangioscopia peroral de operador único (CPO) no tratamento endoscópico das estenoses anastomóticas biliares (EA) pós-transplante hepático. MÉTODOS: Entre março de 2016 e junho de 2017, 20 pacientes consecutivos encaminhados para tratamento endoscópico da EA biliar foram incluídos neste estudo prospectivo de coorte observacional. Os critérios de inclusão foram idade superior a 18 anos e um transplante hepático de doador falecido realizado há pelo menos 30 dias. Pacientes com estenose biliar não anastomótica, fístula biliar, "cast" síndrome, qualquer terapia endoscópica prévia, gravidez e incapacidade de fornecer consentimento informado foram excluídos. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à CPO antes da terapia endoscópica com prótese metálica autoexpansível totalmente coberta (PMAEC) e após a sua remoção. RESULTADOS: Na CPO realizada antes do tratamento endoscópico, o orifício de estenose e alterações fibróticas foram visualizadas em todos os pacientes, alterações vasculares e a presença de suturas cirúrgicas em 60%, enquanto alterações inflamatórias agudas em 30%. A CPO foi determinante para a transposição do fio-guia através da estenose em cinco casos. Uma PMAEC foi implantada com sucesso em todos os pacientes. A taxa de resolução da estenose foi de 44,4% (tempo médio de permanência de 372 dias). A recorrência da EA foi de 12,5% (acompanhamento médio de 543 dias). Os eventos adversos foram migração distal (66,6%) e proximal (5,5%) da prótese metálica, oclusão da PMAEC (16,6%), dor abdominal intensa (10%) e pancreatite aguda leve (10%). A CPO foi repetida após a remoção da PMAEC. A colangioscopia realizada após o tratamento endoscópico mostrou alterações fibróticas em todos, exceto em um paciente; alterações vasculares e inflamatórias agudas foram menos frequentes em comparação à CPO inicial. O desaparecimento do material de sutura, observado em todos os casos, foi notável. Nenhum dos achados colangioscópicos foram estatisticamente correlacionados ao resultado do tratamento ou à recorrência de estenose. CONCLUSÃO: A colangioscopia peroral é viável nos pacientes pós-transplante hepático com estenose biliar anastomótica. Os achados colangioscópicos podem ser classificados em alterações inflamatórias agudas, fibróticas e vasculares. A colangioscopia pode ser útil para auxiliar na passagem do fio-guia, mas seu papel geral na mudança de tratamento nos pacientes pós-transplante hepático não foi demonstrado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Bile Ducts/surgery , Bile Ducts/pathology , Cholestasis/surgery , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde/methods , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Pancreatitis , Acute Disease , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Treatment Outcome , Constriction, Pathologic , Living Donors
18.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(3): 269-279, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138783

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: la coledocolitiasis (CLDL) puede ser difícil de diagnosticar. Su importancia radica en sus potenciales complicaciones y en que el tratamiento se realiza mediante colangiopancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica (CPRE), un procedimiento con riesgo de generar complicaciones. Se han propuesto guías para su diagnóstico y la más empleada es la de la ASGE (American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy), cuyo rendimiento no es ideal. Recientemente, se ha publicado la guía británica. Este estudio se realizó para establecer el rendimiento de ambas guías. Materiales y métodos: estudio prospectivo realizado entre agosto 1 de 2017 y julio 31 de 2018. Resultados: se incluyeron 300 pacientes para el análisis. Se realizó una CPRE en 145 pacientes y se confirmó la existencia de CLDL en 124 de ellos (85,5 %). La mediana de aspartato aminotransferasa (AST) y alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) fue mayor en los que tuvieron CLDC (207 mg/dL y 290 mg/dl, respectivamente). Entre tanto, la tasa de complicaciones posteriores a la CPRE fue del 5,5 %. El análisis multivariado no encontró una asociación significativa para alguna variable predictora de CLDL. En pacientes con alta probabilidad, las guías británicas tuvieron una sensibilidad del 65 % y una especificidad del 33 %, mientras que las guías ASGE mostraron una sensibilidad del 74 % y una especificidad del 28 %. En probabilidad intermedia fueron menos eficientes. Conclusiones: los criterios de la ASGE y la BSG (British Society of Gastroenterology) no tienen un buen desempeño en la población estudiada, a fin de discriminar la existencia o no de CLDL. La guía de la ASGE mostró un mejor rendimiento en general que las guías británicas.


Abstract Introduction: Choledocholithiasis (CDL) may be difficult to diagnose. The relevance of making a timely diagnosis lies in its potential negative effects and the fact that treatment requires performing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), which is a procedure with a high risk of complications. Several guidelines have been proposed for its diagnosis, including the ASGE Guidelines, which are the most widely used although they do not have an ideal performance, and the guidelines recently published by the BSG. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of both guidelines. Materials and methods: Prospective study carried out between August 1, 2017, and July 31, 2018. Results: 300 patients were included for analysis. 145 underwent ERCP and choledocholithiasis was confirmed in 124 of them (85.5%). Median AST and ALT levels were higher in patients with choledocholithiasis (207 mg/dL and 290 mg/dL). The rate of post-ERCP complications was 5.5%. Multivariate analysis found no significant association for any predictor of CDL. Regarding the "high probability" score, the BSG guidelines had sensitivity of 65% and specificity of 33%, while the ASGE guidelines had sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 28%. Both guidelines were less efficient for "intermediate probability". Conclusions: The ASGE and BSG criteria do not perform well in the population studied to determine whether they had CDL. The ASGE guidelines had a better overall performance than the BSG guidelines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Choledocholithiasis , Diagnosis , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde
19.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(3): 319-328, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138789

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: la coledocolitiasis (CDL) afecta al 10 % de los pacientes con cálculos en la vesícula biliar. La obstrucción del colédoco se asocia a pancreatitis, colangitis y ruptura del colédoco. Clásicamente, la obstrucción biliar es considerada cuando se aumentan la fosfatasa alcalina, la γ-glutamil-transpeptidasa (GGTP) y las bilirrubinas. En la última década, se ha encontrado que hasta un 10 % de los pacientes con CDL presentan elevaciones de las aminotransferasas. En Latinoamérica, no se ha estudiado esta alteración. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de la elevación de transaminasas y su evolución. Metodología: estudio de casos y controles. Se determinó la alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) al ingreso, a las 48 h y a las 72 h. Si la ecografía era normal, se realizó una colangiorresonancia o una ecoendoscopia, así como una colangiopancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica (CPRE) cuando fue necesario. Resultados: se incluyeron 72 pacientes con CDL (casos) y 128 con colecistitis, sin CDL (controles). En los casos, el 83 % tuvo un aumento de ALT, mientras que el 56,9 % presentó una elevación de 2-9 veces, el 16 %, de 10-20 veces, y el 8,3 % mostró una elevación >20 veces. En contraste, a las 48 h, las ALT descendieron al 30 % y a las 72 h al 56 %. Entre tanto, en los controles hubo un aumento de ALT en el 27,3 %, mientras que en el 15,6 % se observó una elevación de 2-9 veces, en el 7,8 %, de 10-20 veces, y >20 veces en el 2,9 %. La combinación de cólico biliar y la elevación de ALT tuvo un valor predictivo positivo (VPP) para CDL del 72 %, así como un valor predictivo negativo (VPN) del 87,7 %. Conclusión: cuando hay un cólico biliar y una elevación de ALT es imperativo descartar una CDL, y si la ecografía es normal, es necesario realizar una colangiorresonancia o una ecoendoscopia biliopancreática.


Abstract Introduction: Choledocolithiasis (CLD) affects 10% of patients with gallstones. Bile duct obstruction is associated with pancreatitis, cholangitis, and rupture of the common bile duct. This condition usually presents with increased alkaline phosphatase, GGTP and bilirubin levels. In the last decade, it has been found that up to 10% of patients with CLD have elevated aminotransferases levels. In Latin America, this alteration has not been studied. The aim of the present work was to determine the prevalence of transaminase elevation and its evolution. Methodology: Case-control study. ALT was measured on admission, at 48 h and at 72 h. If ultrasound was normal, MRCP and/or echo-endoscopy and ERCP were performed, as appropriate. Results: A total of 72 patients with choledocholithiasis (CLD) (cases) and 128 with cholecystitis without choledocholithiasis (controls) were included. Among the cases, 83% had increased ALT levels, which was 2-9 times higher in 56.9%, 10-20 times higher in 16%, and more than 20 times higher in 8.3%. At 48 hours, those levels decreased by 30% and at 72 hours by 56%. In turn, in 27.3% of the controls, ALT was 2-9 times higher in 15.6%, 10-20 times higher in 7.8% and more than 20 times higher in 2.9%. The combination of biliary colic and ALT elevation had a positive predictive value (PPV) for CLD of 72% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 87.7%. Conclusion: When biliary colic and ALT elevation are reported, it is imperative to rule out choledocholithiasis. If the ultrasound is normal, MRCP and/or biliopancreatic endoscopy should be performed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Case-Control Studies , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Lifting , Choledocholithiasis , Diagnosis , Alanine Transaminase , Transaminases , Colic , Endosonography
20.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(3): 382-389, jul.-set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138798

ABSTRACT

Resumen El tratamiento de la coledocolitiasis ha evolucionado de forma significativa desde que Robert Abbe realizó la primera coledocotomía y la exploración de las vías biliares en Nueva York, en 1889. La colangiopancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica (CPRE), que inicialmente fue un método diagnóstico, ahora solo tiene validez como método terapéutico. En la actualidad, los principales métodos diagnósticos son la colangioresonancia magnética (CRM) y la ultrasonografía endoscópica (USE). El tratamiento de la coledocolitiasis pasó de la técnica quirúrgica abierta -en la que, de forma rutinaria, se realizaba la coledocorrafia sobre un tubo de Kehr o tubo en T- a la endoscópica, mediante el uso de la CPRE, la esfinteroplastia y la instrumentación con balones y canastilla. Hoy en día se dispone de técnicas adicionales como la litotricia mecánica (LM) o extracorpórea, la dilatación con balón (DB) de gran tamaño y el Spyglass ® . La técnica laparoscópica se usa desde hace varios años, en diversas partes del mundo, para el tratamiento de la coledocolitiasis. Estudios recientes proponen incluso el cierre primario del colédoco o la coledocoduodenostomía, con lo cual no sería necesaria la utilización del tubo en T. Pero en muchos otros sitios, y por diversas razones, se continúa usando la exploración quirúrgica abierta y el tubo en T, que representa una importante opción en el tratamiento de algunos pacientes. Caso clínico: paciente masculino de 88 años, con coledocolitiasis recidivante, cálculo gigante de difícil manejo endoscópico y sepsis de origen biliar, que requirió drenaje quirúrgico abierto de urgencias. Se realizó una coledocotomía, y se dejó el tubo en T. Posteriormente, se efectuó un tratamiento exitoso conjunto, mediante instrumentación por el tubo en T, por parte de cirugía general, y CPRE, por gastroenterología.


Abstract The treatment of choledocholithiasis has evolved significantly since Robert Abbé performed the first bile duct exploration via choledochotomy in New York in 1889. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), which was initially used for diagnosis, is now only valid as a therapeutic tool. Currently, the main diagnostic methods are magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). The treatment of choledocholithiasis moved from the open surgery in which biliary stenting was routinely performed on a Kehr tube or T-tube, to the endoscopic technique using ERCP, sphincteroplasty and instrumentation with balloons and baskets. Additional techniques are now available such as mechanical or extra-corporeal lithotripsy, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation and SpyGlass cholangioscopy. The laparoscopic technique has been used for several years in different parts of the world for the treatment of choledocholithiasis. Recent studies even propose performing the primary closure of the bile duct or choledochoduodenostomy, so that the T-tube is not necessary. However, in many other places, and for a variety of reasons, open exploratory surgery and the T-tube continue to be used, being an important option in the treatment of some patients. Case presentation: 88-year-old male patient with recurrent choledocholithiasis and a giant gallstone that was difficult to treat endoscopically, with sepsis of biliary origin, which required open surgical drainage at the emergency room. Choledocotomy was performed, and a T-tube was inserted at the site. Subsequently, a successful joint treatment was performed by the General Surgery Service and the Gastroenterology Service, using T-tube instrumentation and ERCP, respectively.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Choledocholithiasis , General Surgery , Bile Ducts , Choledochostomy , Mechanics
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