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1.
Hepatología ; 4(2): 152-164, 2023. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1429016

ABSTRACT

La colangitis biliar primaria es una enfermedad hepática autoinmune que conduce a la destrucción progresiva de los conductos biliares intrahepáticos, lo que aumenta el riesgo de desarrollar cirrosis e hipertensión portal. Actualmente, el ácido ursodesoxicólico es el medicamento de primera línea para el tratamiento de esta entidad. Este medicamento desplaza los ácidos biliares hidrofóbicos y aumenta las concentraciones de ácidos biliares hidrofílicos en la bilis, lo cual favorece la integridad de los conductos biliares, adicionalmente, tiene efectos antiinflamatorios y propiedades inmunomo-duladoras y antiapoptóticas. En los últimos 40 años, numerosos ensayos clínicos han respaldado la eficacia clínica del ácido ursodesoxicólico y su seguridad cuando se utiliza en pacientes con colan-gitis biliar primaria. Se realiza una revisión del ácido ursodesoxicólico en el contexto de colangitis biliar primaria, se describe su historia, mecanismos de acción, efectos secundarios y dosificación. Finalmente, se menciona su uso en situaciones especiales como son el embarazo y la lactancia


Primary biliary cholangitis is an autoimmune liver disease that leads to progressive destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts, increasing the risk of developing cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Currently, ursodeoxycholic acid is the first-line drug for the treatment of this condition. This drug displaces hy-drophobic bile acids and increases concentrations of hydrophilic bile acids in the bile, which favors the integrity of the bile ducts, additionally, it has anti-inflammatory effects and immunoprotective and antiapoptotic properties. Over the past 40 years numerous clinical trials have supported the clinical efficacy of ursodeoxycholic acid and its safety when used in patients with primary biliary cholangitis. A review of ursodeoxycholic acid in the context of primary biliary cholangitis is carried out, and its history, mechanisms of action, side effects and dosage are described. Finally, its use in special situations such as pregnancy and lactation are discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Therapeutics , Ursodeoxycholic Acid , Cholangitis , Safety , Bile , Bile Ducts , Bile Acids and Salts , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary
2.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 264-275, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928465

ABSTRACT

In 2015, the Chinese Society of Hepatology and Chinese Society of Gastroenterology issued a consensus on the diagnosis and management of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). In the past years, more clinical studies have been reported in the field of PBC. To provide guidance to the clinical diagnosis and management of patients with PBC, the Chinese Society of Hepatology invited a panel of experts to assess the new clinical evidence and formulated the current guidelines which comprises 26 clinical recommendations.


Subject(s)
Cholangitis/therapy , Consensus , Gastroenterology , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/therapy
3.
Hepatología ; 3(2): 203-217, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396104

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La colangitis biliar primaria (CBP) es una enfermedad hepática crónica de origen autoinmune, caracterizada por inflamación y destrucción progresiva de las células epiteliales de los conductos biliares intralobulillares, que causa de manera secundaria colestasis, fibrosis, cirrosis e insuficiencia hepática. La historia natural de la enfermedad ha cambiado en los últimos años debido a la mejoría en los métodos diagnósticos y terapéuticos. Metodología. Estudio observacional descriptivo de cohorte retrospectivo, en el cual se efectuó la revisión y análisis de las historias clínicas de los pacientes mayores de 16 años con diagnóstico de CBP, atendidos en la Unidad de Hepatología y Trasplante Hepático del Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe, entre los años 2013 a 2021, con el fin de obtener información sobre las características de esta patología a nivel local. Resultados. Se evaluó un total de 239 pacientes, con un promedio de edad de 61,6±12,31 años, el 97,07% fue del sexo femenino, con criterios serológicos como anticuerpos antimitocondriales (AMA) positivos en un 76,89%, el 66,95% de los pacientes presentaban alguna enfermedad autoinmune concomitante y el 31,60% tuvieron sobreposición con hepatitis autoinmune. La manifestación clínica más frecuente fue el prurito en un 61,92% de los pacientes, seguido por la astenia en un 51,88%. La presencia de hipertensión portal al diagnóstico fue del 29,29%. La colangitis no supurativa y la ductopenia en la biopsia de hígado se documentó en un 43,79% de los casos. El ácido ursodesoxicólico (UDCA) fue la terapia de primera línea en el 100% de los pacientes, se identificó refractariedad del 16,36% según criterios de París II y del 31,79% con los criterios de Toronto. La no respuesta al UDCA, se asoció de manera significativa con mayor mortalidad (p=0,039) y presencia de hepatocarcinoma (p=0,042). Conclusión. Se caracterizó la CBP en nuestra población. El diagnóstico serológico por AMA fue bajo, con altos requerimientos de biopsia hepática en el contexto de síndromes de sobreposición. Los signos de hipertensión portal al momento del diagnóstico fueron prevalentes. La refractariedad bioquímica a la terapiafue descrita en relación con mayor progresión de fibrosis, aumento de mortalidad y presencia de hepatocarcinoma.


ntroduction. Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic liver disease of autoimmune origin, characterized by inflammation and progressive destruction of the epithelial cells of the intralobular bile ducts, causing secondary cholestasis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver failure. The natural history of the disease has changed in recent years due to the improvement in diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Methodology. Cross-sectional descriptive observational study, where the medical records of patients older than 16 years with a diagnosis of PBC, treated at the Hepatology and Liver Transplant Unit of the Pablo Tobón Uribe Hospital, between the years 2013 to 2021, were reviewed and analyzed in order to obtain information on the characteristics of this pathology at a local level. Results. A total of 239 patients were evaluated, with a mean age of 61.6±12.31 years, 97.07% were females, with serological criteria such as positive antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) in 76.89%. Of all included patients, 66.95% had some concomitant autoimmune disease and 31.60% had an overlap with autoimmune hepatitis. The most frequent clinical manifestation was pruritus in 61.92% of the patients, followed by asthenia in 51.88%. The presence of portal hypertension at diagnosis was 29.29%. Non-suppurative cholangitis and ductopenia on liver biopsy were documented in 43.79% of the cases. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was the first line therapy in 100% of patients, 16.36% were refractory to treatment according to the Paris II criteria and 31.79% according to the Toronto criteria. Non-response to UDCA was significantly associated with higher mortality (p=0.039) and presence of hepatocarcinoma (p=0.042). Conclusion. PBC was characterized in our population. Serological diagnosis by AMA was low, with high requirements for liver biopsy in the context of overlap syndromes. Signs of portal hypertension at diagnosis were prevalent. Biochemical refractoriness to therapy was described in relation to greater progression of fibrosis, increased mortality, and the presence of hepatocarcinoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Liver Transplantation , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary , Autoimmune Diseases , Ursodeoxycholic Acid , Cholangitis , Cholestasis , Hepatitis, Autoimmune
4.
Rev. argent. cir ; 113(4): 460-466, dic. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356955

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La enfermedad de Caroli es una enfermedad infrecuente que requiere un alto índice de sospecha para su diagnóstico. Puede afectar un segmento hepático, un lóbulo o todo el hígado; suele generar episodios repetidos de colangitis. Existe una amplia gama de propuestas terapéuticas que oscilan desde el tratamiento médico hasta el trasplante de hígado. En este trabajo presentamos 3 casos, realizamos una revisión de la literatura y proponemos una ampliación de la clasificación de Alonso-Lej modificada por Todani que, a nuestra manera de ver, tiene implicaciones a la hora de seleccionar un tratamiento.


ABSTRACT Caroli's disease is a rare condition, and its diagnosis requires high level of suspicion. The disease may affect one segment, one lobe or the entire liver, and may result in repeated episodes of cholangitis. The disease can be managed using different therapeutic approaches ranging from medical treatment to liver transplantation. In this paper we report 3 cases with review of the literature and propose a modification of the classification by Alonso-Lej modified by Todani which we believe may be useful to guide treatment.


Subject(s)
Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic , Cholelithiasis , Caroli Disease , Therapeutics , Bile Ducts , Cholangitis , Liver Transplantation , Selectins , Dilatation
5.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 4(3): 113-109, jul. 29, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1282938

ABSTRACT

Los quistes de colédoco son poco comunes, en los países occidentales se ha reportado una incidencia de 1 por cada 100 mil nacidos vivos. En países asiáticos, esta incidencia es mayor, 1 por 100 nacidos vivos. Son usualmente diagnosticados durante la infancia y en el 25 % de los pacientes se presentan durante su vida adulta. Es inusual que se presenten durante el embarazo, sobre todo, que se manifieste durante el primer trimestre. Se realizó un informe de caso con presentación inusual del cuadro clínico no causal, de una embarazada en su primer trimestre con sintomatología obstructiva, evolucionando a colangitis. se realizan exámenes de gabinete como ultrasonografía abdominal y exámenes de laboratorio revelando obstrucción, además de realizarse colangioresonancia y ultrasonografía endoscópica dando como resultado quiste de colédoco tipo 1C, se realiza drenaje. Posteriormente al alta hospitalaria, la paciente presenta nuevamente cuadro de colangitis, se realiza drenaje endoscópico, sin embargo, presenta aborto


Choledochal cysts are rare, in western countries an incidence of 1 per 100,000 live births has been reported. In Asian countries, this incidence is higher 1 per 100 live births. They are usually diagnosed during childhood and in 25 % of patients they present during their adult life. It is unusual for them to occur during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester. A case report was made with an unusual presentation of the non-causal clinical picture, of a pregnant woman in her first trimester with obstructive symptoms, evolving to cholangitis. Cabinet examinations such as abdominal ultrasonography are performed, resulting in type 1C common bile duct cyst. Drainage is performed After discharge from the hospital, the patient presents again with cholangitis, endoscopic drainage is performed, however, she has abortion


Subject(s)
Humans , Choledochal Cyst , Cholangitis , Common Bile Duct , Pregnant Women
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 19(2): 139-144, abr.-jun. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379288

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar as ferramentas diagnósticas e de manejo da colangite aguda, da tríade de Charcot aos critérios de Tóquio. Foi realizada revisão da literatura no PubMed® utili- zando a combinação dos descritores "Tokyo Guideline", "Char- cot's triad" e "Acute cholangitis". A tríade de Charcot foi a pri- meira ferramenta diagnóstica da colangite aguda. Apesar de sua contribuição, foram os critérios de Tóquio a primeira diretriz com evidência clínica para diagnóstico, classificação de severidade e estratégia para o manejo da colangite aguda. A literatura atual busca identificar marcadores de mau prognóstico do paciente, como a procalcitonina, assim como o tempo ideal para a terapia antibiótica e a drenagem biliar. É bem estabelecido o quanto a tríade de Charcot, juntamente dos critérios de Tóquios, contri- buiu para o melhor diagnóstico e manejo da colangite aguda. Todavia, mais estudos são necessários para validação científica dessas diretrizes na prática clínica-cirúrgica.


The objective of this study was to review acute cholangitis diag- nostic and management tools, from Charcot's triad to Tokyo guidelines. The keywords "Tokyo guideline", "Charcot's triad", and "Acute cholangitis" were searched in PUBMED® and used to review the literature. Charcot's triad was the first diagnostic tool in acute cholangitis. Despite its contribution, Tokyo guidelines were the first evidence-based parameters for diagnosis, severity assessment, and strategy for acute cholangitis management. The current literature searches for biomarkers of patient's bad prognostic, such as procalcitonin, as well the optimal timing of antibiotic therapy and biliary drainage. The good contribution Charcot's triad and Tokyo guidelines has made to improved diagnosis and management of acute cholangitis is well-esta- blished. However, further studies are required for scientific vali- dation of these guidelines in clinical-surgical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cholangitis/diagnosis , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Severity of Illness Index , Drainage/methods , Cholangitis/therapy , Acute Disease , Sensitivity and Specificity , Early Diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(2): 200-205, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289299

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción y objetivos: El ultrasonido endoscópico con punción-aspiración con aguja fina (USE-PAAF) en lesiones neoplásicas biliopancreáticas suele tener un rendimiento alto, que depende de características de la lesión; aspectos técnicos de la USE-PAAF y la experiencia del endoscopista. De los factores menos estudiados es la presencia de patólogo en sala. Se plantea la realización de USE-PAAF con patólogo en sala para disminuir el número de pases, la tasa de muestras inadecuadas y la necesidad de repetir el procedimiento. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional, retrospectivo, con recolección prospectiva de enero de 2018 a junio de 2019, en pacientes adultos sometidos a USE-PAAF. Las muestras obtenidas fueron extendidas y evaluadas en salas de endoscopia por médico patólogo con coloración Diff-Quick y cuando se obtenía una muestra suficiente se enviaba en frasco con formol para bloque celular o biopsias. Resultados: Se realizaron 48 USE-PAAF biliopancreáticas en individuos con una edad mediana de 64 años. Las indicaciones más frecuentes fueron punciones por masa o pseudomasa pancreática (71 % de casos); Se diagnosticaron 35 malignidades (77 % correspondientes a adenocarcinoma, y 14 % a tumores neuroendocrinos). La mediana de tamaño de lesiones fue de 28 mm; el número de pases promedio fue de 3. Se obtuvieron resultados diagnósticos en 89 % frente a 11 % de falsos negativos. Se presentó 1 complicación menor (2,1 %), que fue dolor abdominal. Conclusiones: La USE-PAAF con patólogo en sala tiene alto rendimiento diagnóstico, con escasos resultados falsos negativos. Se requiere una mediana de pases menor, que podría minimizar los riesgos del procedimiento y la necesidad de repetir la prueba.


Abstract Introduction: Endoscopic ultrasound with fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of pancreatobiliary neoplastic lesions usually has a high performance that depends on the characteristics of the lesion, technical aspects, and expertise of the endoscopist. One of the least studied factors is rapid on-site evaluation with a pathologist in the room. Objective: To perform EUS-FNA with a pathologist in the endoscopy room to reduce the number of passes, the rate of inadequate samples and the need to repeat the procedure. Material and methods: Observational retrospective study with a prospective data collection approach from January 2018 to June 2019 of adult patients undergoing EUS-FNA. The samples obtained were spread and evaluated in endoscopy rooms by a pathologist with Diff-Quick stain, and when a sufficient sample was obtained, it was sent in a vial with formalin for cell block and/or biopsy. Results: 48 pancreatobiliary EUS-FNA were performed in individuals with a median age of 64 years. The most frequent indication was aspiration due to pancreatic mass (71%); 35 malignancies were diagnosed (77% were adenocarcinomas and 14% were neuroendocrine tumors). The median size of the lesions was 28mm, and the average number of passes was 3. Diagnostic results were obtained in 89% vs. 11% of false negatives. There was 1 minor complication (2.1%), which was abdominal pain. Conclusions: EUS-FNA with an in-room pathologist has a high diagnostic performance, with few false negative results. Also, a lower median number of passes is required, minimizing the risks of the procedure and the need for repeating it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bile Duct Diseases , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic , Caroli Disease , Ultrasonics , Abdominal Pain , Cholangitis , Diagnosis
8.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 422-429, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878280

ABSTRACT

To further improve the standard of diagnosis and treatment of acute biliary tract infections in China, the Branch of Biliary Surgery, Society of Surgery, Chinese Medical Association has revised the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute biliary tract infections (2011).The guidelines describe the risk factors of acute biliary tract infections, propose diagnostic methods and severity classification criteria, and define the treatment of acute biliary tract infections and the standardized application of antibiotics. The treatment of acute biliary tract infection should be combined with surgical care, antimicrobial therapy and systemic management, and should be completed under the guidance of experienced surgical specialist. Reasonable selection of diagnosis and treatment measures, accurate understanding of surgical procedures and standardized use of antibiotics can achieve maximum treatment result for acute biliary tract infection.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biliary Tract , Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures , China , Cholangitis/surgery , Humans
9.
Rev. argent. cir ; 112(4): 398-406, dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1288148

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Anteriormente, cuando se diagnosticaba litiasis en la vía biliar, el procedimiento consistía en una co lecistectomía, coledocotomía, extracción de los cálculos y colocación de un drenaje de Kehr. En otros casos se podía hacer papiloesfinteroplastia o una derivación biliodigestiva. Actualmente tenemos mu chas herramientas diagnósticas y terapéuticas como la colangiorresonancia, la pancreatocolangio grafía retrógrada endoscópica, la cirugía laparoscópica de la vía biliar, la ecoendoscopia y la ecografía intraoperatoria. Los procesos de decisiones son más complejos y sin un sustento con evidencia con cluyente. Tenemos estudios que enfocan parceladamente el tema, por lo que, dependiendo de si el diagnóstico se hace antes o durante la colecistectomía laparoscópica, el cirujano empleará su sentido común individualizando cada caso. El manejo ideal de la litiasis de la vía biliar sigue siendo motivo de controversia. Decidir por un manejo endoscópico, laparoscópico o convencional requiere logística, entrenamiento y juicio clínico adecua dos. La cirugía convencional sigue siendo una opción vigente.


ABSTRACT Previously, when a surgeon diagnosed bile duct lithiasis, he/she performed cholecystectomy, chole docotomy, stone removal and placement of a Kehr's "T" tube. Some cases might require sphinctero plasty or bilio-digestive bypass. Nowadays, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, endosco pic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic ultrasound and intraoperative ultrasound have emerged as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Decision-making processes are complex and there is no conclusive evidence supporting them. Many studies have focused on the matter with a non-compre hensive approach so that each surgeon will use his/her common sense for each individual case. The optimal management of the common bile duct is still controversial. Deciding on endoscopic, lapa roscopic or conventional management requires adequate training and clinical judgment. Conventional surgery is still in valid option.


Subject(s)
Common Bile Duct/surgery , Lithiasis/surgery , Bile Ducts , Choledochostomy , Cholecystectomy , Cholangitis/surgery , Lithiasis/therapy
10.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(5): e476-e479, oct 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1122530

ABSTRACT

El 25 % de la población mundial se encuentra infectada por Ascaris lumbricoides. La ascaridiosis hepatobiliar ocurre en zonas con alta endemicidad y gran carga parasitaria, y genera desde intensa inflamación hasta fibrosis. Se presenta a un paciente de 2 años, que consultó por distensión abdominal y tos de 1 mes de evolución asociada a fiebre en las últimas 72 h. Se realizó una ecografía abdominal que evidenció áscaris en la vía biliar, en el estómago y en el intestino delgado, y una radiografía de tórax con infiltrado inflamatorio intersticial, asociado a hiperleucocitosis con hipereosinofilia y gamma-glutamiltranspeptidasa elevada. Se administró un tratamiento antibiótico, antihelmíntico, sin lograr la eliminación de los parásitos de la vía biliar, por lo que se requirió su extracción mediante colangiografía percutánea


Twenty five percent of the world population is affected by Ascaris lumbricoides. Hepatobiliary ascariasis occurs in areas with high endemicity and great amount of parasitic load, generating intense inflammation to fibrosis. We report a two-year-old patient that consults about abdominal distension and cough of one month of evolution associated with 72 hours of fever. Abdominal ultrasound is performed, which shows bile duct, stomach, small intestine with ascaris and chest x-ray with interstitial inflammatory infiltrate, associated with hyperleukocytosis with hypereosinophilia and elevated gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Antibiotic, anthelminthic treatment is administered, without achieving the elimination of the bile duct parasites, requiring their removal by percutaneous cholangiography.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Ascariasis/diagnostic imaging , Bile Ducts , Parasitic Diseases , Ascariasis/therapy , Cholangiography , Cholangitis
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787233

ABSTRACT

Endobiliary radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a procedure performed widely to induce locoregional tumor control by the transfer of thermal energy to the lesion and subsequent tumor necrosis. A 72-year-old male with a prior history of acute calculous cholangitis and perforated cholecystitis was admitted to the Kyungpook National University Hospital complaining of fever and nausea. He had an indwelling percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) catheter from the previous episode of perforated cholecystitis. An abdominal CT scan showed marked dilation of both the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts. Common bile duct cancer was confirmed histologically after an endobiliary biopsy. A surgical resection was considered to be the initial treatment option. During open surgery, multiple metastatic nodules were present in the small bowel mesentery and anterior abdominal wall. Resection of the tumor was not feasible, so endobiliary RFA was performed prior to biliary stenting. Cholecystectomy was required for the removal of the PTGBD catheter, but the surgical procedure could not be performed due to a cystic ductal invasion of the tumor. Instead, chemical ablation of the gallbladder (GB) with pure ethanol was performed to breakdown the GB mucosa. Palliative treatment for a biliary obstruction was achieved successfully using these procedures. In addition, a PTGBD catheter was removed successfully without significant side effects. As a result, an improvement in the patient's quality of life was accomplished.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Wall , Aged , Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic , Biopsy , Catheter Ablation , Catheters , Cholangiocarcinoma , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Cholangitis , Cholecystectomy , Cholecystitis , Common Bile Duct , Cystic Duct , Drainage , Ethanol , Fever , Gallbladder , Humans , Male , Mesentery , Mucous Membrane , Nausea , Necrosis , Palliative Care , Quality of Life , Stents , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
In. Machado Rodríguez, Fernando; Liñares, Norberto; Gorrasi, José; Terra Collares, Eduardo Daniel. Manejo del paciente en la emergencia: patología y cirugía de urgencia para emergencistas. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2020. p.75-88, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1342987
14.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(6): 491-497, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094526

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Obstructive jaundice may lead to ominous complications and requires complex diagnostic evaluations and therapies that are not widely available. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiological profile, referral routes and diagnostic accuracy at admittance of cases of acute cholangitis among patients with obstructive jaundice treated at a referral unit. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at a tertiary-level university hospital. METHODS: Patients with obstructive jaundice who were treated by means of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, resection and/or surgical biliary drainage were evaluated. The main variables analyzed were epidemiological data, referral route, bilirubin levels and time elapsed between symptom onset and admittance and diagnosing of acute cholangitis at the referral unit. The accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of acute cholangitis was compared with a retrospective analysis on the medical records in accordance with the Tokyo criteria. RESULTS: Female patients predominated (58%), with an average age of 56 years. Acute cholangitis was detected in 9.9% of the individuals; application of the Tokyo criteria showed that the real prevalence was approximately 43%. The main referral route was direct contact (31.8%) and emergency care (29.7%); routing via official referral through the public healthcare system accounted for 17.6%, and internal referral from other specialties, 20%. The direct route with unofficial referral was the most important route for cases of neoplastic etiology (P < 0.01) and was the fastest route (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: There is a deficiency in the official referral routes for patients with obstructive jaundice. The accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of acute cholangitis was poor. Wider dissemination of the Tokyo criteria is essential.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cholangitis/diagnosis , Jaundice, Obstructive/diagnosis , Tertiary Care Centers , Hospitals, University , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Bilirubin/analysis , Brazil/epidemiology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Drainage , Cholangitis/surgery , Cholangitis/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde/statistics & numerical data , Jaundice, Obstructive/surgery , Jaundice, Obstructive/epidemiology , Data Accuracy
15.
Infectio ; 23(3): 253-258, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1002159

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Biliary tract infections include cholangitis and cholecystitis. They are associated with high morbidity and mortality in elderly patients with co-morbid disease. The present study was undertaken to determine the microbial aetiology causing biliary tract infections and also to study their antimicrobial resistance profile. Materials & methods: A retrospective study was conducted from January 2011 to December 2016 at the Enteric Diseases Division, Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Manipal. Patients with biliary tract infections admitted in tertiary referral health care hospital, Manipal were included for the study. Aerobic and anaerobic bacteriological and fungal aetiology of biliary tract infections were recorded along with their antimicrobial resistance profile. Results: Out of 307 bile samples sent for aerobic culture and susceptibly testing 187 (60.91%) were positive for culture, of which Escherichia coli (44.4%) was the predominant aetiology followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (27.3%). Among the 14 samples sent for anaerobic culture, 5 (35.75%) specimens showed growth, of which Bacteroides fragilis group was found to be the predominant anaerobe. Among the 201 bacterial pathogens tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility, 108 (53.73%) isolates were resistant, out of which 9 were PDR Enterobacteriaceae with 12 ESBL strains. All the Candida species were susceptible to fluconazole with the exception of C. glabrata and C. krusei. All the anaerobic isolates were found to be susceptible to Metronidazole. Conclusions: The high rate of bacterial infection particularly gram-negative bacteria was recorded. It is necessary that antimicrobial therapy be initiated when culture or the clinical conditions reports caution. Routine aerobic and anaerobic culturing of bile samples with biliary tract infections are imperatively necessary. With the emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens and change in the microbiological spectrum of biliary tract infections, there is a need for the empirical antimicrobial therapy in every clinical setting.


Resumen Objectivo: Las infecciones del tracto biliar incluyen colangitis y colecistitis. Se asocian a gran mortalidad y morbildiad en pacientes ancianos y con comorbilidad. El presente studio se hizo para detemrianr la etiologia microbiana que produce infecciones biliares y para estudiar su perfil de resistencia antimicrobiana. Materiales & metodos: Se hizo un studio retrospectivo entre los meses de Enero 2011 a Diciembre de 2016 en la "Enteric Diseases Division, Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Manipal" en India. Los pacientes con infección de vías biliares admitidos al centro de atención de tercer nivel se incluyeron en el estudio. Se buscaron bacterias aerobicas y anaerobicas y etiologia fungica y se analizó su perfil de resistencia antibiotica. Resultados: De 307 muestras de bilis enviadas para cultivo aerobico y antibiograma, 187 (60.91%) crecieron en el medio de cultivo, predominando Escherichia coli (44.4%) seguida por Klebsiella pneumoniae (27.3%). Entre las 14 muestras analizadas en medio anaerobio, 5 (35.75%) mostraron crecimiento de Bacteroides fragilis. Entre 201 bacterias probadas por antibiograma, 108 (53.73%) tuvieron perfil de resistencia, de los cuales 9 fueron PDR Enterobacteriaceae con 12 cepas ESBL. Todas las especies de Candida fueron susceptibles al fluconazol con la excepción de C. glabrata y C. krusei. Todos los aislados anaerobios fueron susceptibles al Metronidazol. Conclusiones: Se encontró una alta tasa de infección bacteriana con predominio de gram-negativos. Se hace necesario iniciar terapia antimicrobiana cuando lo sugieren las condiciones clínicas o el resultado del cultivo. El cultivo rutinario de bilis es imperioso. Dado el aumento de patógenos multirresistentes se requiere inicio empírico inmediato


Subject(s)
Humans , Bile Ducts , Cholangitis/diagnosis , Cholecystitis , beta-Lactamases , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Microbial , India , Metronidazole
16.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(2): 146-150, Apr.-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019455

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a rare chronic inflammatory liver disease associated with a loss of immunological tolerance to self-antigens. Susceptibility to AIH is partially determined by the presence of genes related to human leukocyte antigen (HLA), mainly allelic variants of DRB1. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequencies of the polymorphisms in HLA-DRB1 gene in children and adolescents with type 1 AIH and type 1 AIH overlap syndrome with autoimmune cholangitis (overlap syndrome, OS) in comparison to healthy sex and age-matched individuals (control group). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 25 pediatric patients diagnosed with type 1 AIH and 18 with OS. Fifty-seven healthy individuals were included as controls. The polymorphisms of the HLA-DRB1 gene were evaluated by PCR and included HLA-DRB1*03, HLA-DRB1*04, HLA-DRB1*07, and HLA-DRB1*13. RESULTS: Our results showed that the presence of the allele HLA-DRB1*13 increased the chance of autoimmune cholangitis (OR=3.96, CI 1.07 to 14.61, P=0.04). The HLA-DRB1*04 and HLA- DRB1*07 have no association with the AIH and autoimmune cholangitis in a young sample. CONCLUSION: This work demonstrates an association of the main polymorphisms in the HLA-DRB1 gene to AIH with or without cholangitis in a Brazilian sample.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Hepatite autoimune (HAI) é uma doença hepática inflamatória crônica, rara, associada à perda da tolerância imunológica aos auto-antígenos. A susceptibilidade à HAI é parcialmente determinada pela presença de genes relacionados ao antígeno leucocitário humano (HLA), principalmente variantes alélicas do DRB1. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a frequência de polimorfismos no gene HLA-DRB1 em crianças e adolescentes com HAI tipo 1 e HAI tipo 1 associada à colangite autoimune, em comparação com indivíduos saudáveis pareados por sexo e idade (grupo controle). MÉTODOS: Este é um estudo transversal de 25 pacientes pediátricos com diagnóstico de HAI tipo 1 e 18 com HAI associada à colangite autoimune. Cinquenta e sete indivíduos saudáveis foram incluídos como controles. Os polimorfismos do gene HLA-DRB1 foram avaliados por PCR e incluíram HLA-DRB1*03, HLA-DRB1*04, HLA-DRB1*07 e HLA-DRB1*13. RESULTADOS: Nossos resultados mostraram que a presença do alelo HLA-DRB1*13 aumentou a chance de colangite autoimune (OR=3,96; IC 1,07 a 14,61; P=0,04). O HLA-DRB1*04 e o HLA-DRB1*07 não apresentam associação com a HAI e colangite autoimune no grupo de pacientes mais jovens. CONCLUSÃO: Este trabalho demonstra uma associação dos principais polimorfismos no gene HLA-DRB1 à HAI com ou sem colangite na população brasileira.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Cholangitis/genetics , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/genetics , HLA-DRB1 Chains/genetics , Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Diseases/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease
17.
Gut and Liver ; : 300-307, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763849

ABSTRACT

Sclerosing cholangitis (SC) is defined as a condition with progressive stenosis and destruction of the bile ducts due to diffuse inflammation and fibrosis and currently includes three categories: primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), secondary cholangitis, and IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC). SC categories share similar clinical features, such as cholestasis. Patients with SC present with cholestatic symptoms, including jaundice and pruritus, and blood tests reveal elevation of cholestatic enzymes. Cholangiography, endoscopic or magnetic, is inevitably required for making a diagnosis. Although the presentation of IgG4-SC and PSC are similar, the comorbidities, treatment response, and outcomes differ significantly, and therefore, it is strongly advisable to be familiar with these two diseases to make a correct diagnosis. Differentiation of cholangiocarcinoma from IgG4-SC and PSC is also extremely important. In this review, the clinical characteristics, comorbidities, treatment and outcomes of IgG4-SC and PSC will be outlined based on experience mainly from Japan.


Subject(s)
Bile Ducts , Cholangiocarcinoma , Cholangiography , Cholangitis , Cholangitis, Sclerosing , Cholestasis , Comorbidity , Constriction, Pathologic , Diagnosis , Fibrosis , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Inflammation , Japan , Jaundice , Pruritus
18.
Gut and Liver ; : 373-379, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recurrent pyogenic cholangitis (RPC) is a chronic progressive disease frequently accompanied by cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). This study aimed to investigate the natural course of RPC and identify factors associated with CCA. METHODS: From January 2005 to December 2016, 310 patients diagnosed with RPC at Seoul National University Hospital were included. Complications and management during follow-up were recorded. CCA-free probability was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method, and risk factors associated with CCA were analyzed using log-rank test and Cox’s proportional hazard regression model. RESULTS: Mean age at diagnosis was 59.1±10.9 years and mean follow-up duration was 84.0±64.1 months. An intrahepatic duct stone was found in 253 patients (81.6%). Liver atrophy was identified in 185 patients (59.7%) and most commonly located at the left lobe (65.4%). Acute cholangitis, liver abscesses, cirrhotic complications, and CCA developed in 41.3%, 19.4%, 9.7%, and 7.4%, respectively. During follow-up, complete resolution rate after hepatectomy, biliary bypass surgery, and choledocholithotomy with T-tube insertion reached 82.3%, 55.2%, and 42.1%, respectively. None of the patients who maintained complete resolution by the last follow-up day developed CCA. In univariate analysis, female, both-sided intrahepatic duct stones, and liver atrophy at any location were associated with increased risk of CCA. Multivariate analysis revealed that both-sided atrophy significantly increased risk of CCA (hazard ratio, 4.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.48 to 14.09; p=0.008). In 21 patients who developed intrahepatic CCA, tumor was located mostly in the atrophied lobe (p=0.023). CONCLUSIONS: In RPC patients, acute cholangitis, liver abscess, cirrhotic complications, and CCA frequently developed. Both-sided liver atrophy was a significant risk factor for developing CCA.


Subject(s)
Atrophy , Cholangiocarcinoma , Cholangitis , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Female , Fibrosis , Follow-Up Studies , Hepatectomy , Humans , Liver , Liver Abscess , Methods , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Seoul
19.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 486-496, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To analyze the incidence of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) sepsis in the early (July to September) and later (October to June) academic months to assess the “July effect”. METHODS: The National Inpatient Sample (2010–2014) was used to identify ERCP-related adult hospitalizations at urban teaching hospitals by applying relevant procedure codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification. Post-ERCP outcomes were compared between the early and later academic months. A multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the odds of post-ERCP sepsis and its predictors. RESULTS: Of 481,193 ERCP procedures carried out at urban teaching hospitals, 124,934 were performed during the early academic months. The demographics were comparable for ERCP procedures performed during the early and later academic months. A higher incidence (9.4% vs. 8.8%, p<0.001) and odds (odds ratio [OR], 1.07) of post-ERCP sepsis were observed in ERCP performed during the early academic months. The in-hospital mortality rate (7% vs. 7.5%, p=0.072), length of stay, and total hospital charges in patients with post-ERCP sepsis were also equivalent between the 2 time points. Pre-ERCP cholangitis (OR, 3.20) and post-ERCP complications such as cholangitis (OR, 6.27), perforation (OR, 3.93), and hemorrhage (OR, 1.42) were significant predictors of higher post-ERCP sepsis in procedures performed during the early academic months. CONCLUSIONS: The July effect was present in the incidence of post-ERCP sepsis, and academic programs should take into consideration the predictors of post-ERCP sepsis to lower health-care burden.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Cholangitis , Demography , Hemorrhage , Hospital Charges , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Incidence , Inpatients , International Classification of Diseases , Length of Stay , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Pancreatitis , Sepsis , United States
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741334

ABSTRACT

In acute biliary pancreatitis, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and cholecystectomy should be considered to reduce the complications of gallstones including recurrent biliary pancreatitis. If biliary pancreatitis is accompanied by cholangitis or evidence of obvious biliary obstruction, removal of the common bile duct stone via early ERCP (within 24 to 72 hours) is necessary. Less or non-invasive imaging modalities such as endoscopic ultrasound, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography can be considered to avoid unnecessary ERCP if suspected biliary obstruction in the absence of cholangitis in patients with biliary pancreatitis. Cholecystectomy in patients with biliary pancreatitis requires a strategy that varies the timing of surgery depending on the severity of pancreatitis. In mild acute biliary pancreatitis, cholecystectomy can be performed safely at the time of initial admission. In moderate to severe biliary pancreatitis, cholecystectomy should be delayed until about 6 weeks when active inflammation subsides and fluid collections resolve or stabilize. Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) can be helpful in reducing recurrent pancreatitis in patients who unfit for cholecystectomy. However, even if EST is performed, additional cholecystectomy will further reduce the risk of recurrent pancreatitis, if possible, it is recommended to undergo a cholecystectomy.


Subject(s)
Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance , Cholangitis , Cholecystectomy , Common Bile Duct , Gallstones , Humans , Inflammation , Pancreatitis , Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic , Ultrasonography
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