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1.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 4(3): 113-109, jul. 29, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1282938

ABSTRACT

Los quistes de colédoco son poco comunes, en los países occidentales se ha reportado una incidencia de 1 por cada 100 mil nacidos vivos. En países asiáticos, esta incidencia es mayor, 1 por 100 nacidos vivos. Son usualmente diagnosticados durante la infancia y en el 25 % de los pacientes se presentan durante su vida adulta. Es inusual que se presenten durante el embarazo, sobre todo, que se manifieste durante el primer trimestre. Se realizó un informe de caso con presentación inusual del cuadro clínico no causal, de una embarazada en su primer trimestre con sintomatología obstructiva, evolucionando a colangitis. se realizan exámenes de gabinete como ultrasonografía abdominal y exámenes de laboratorio revelando obstrucción, además de realizarse colangioresonancia y ultrasonografía endoscópica dando como resultado quiste de colédoco tipo 1C, se realiza drenaje. Posteriormente al alta hospitalaria, la paciente presenta nuevamente cuadro de colangitis, se realiza drenaje endoscópico, sin embargo, presenta aborto


Choledochal cysts are rare, in western countries an incidence of 1 per 100,000 live births has been reported. In Asian countries, this incidence is higher 1 per 100 live births. They are usually diagnosed during childhood and in 25 % of patients they present during their adult life. It is unusual for them to occur during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester. A case report was made with an unusual presentation of the non-causal clinical picture, of a pregnant woman in her first trimester with obstructive symptoms, evolving to cholangitis. Cabinet examinations such as abdominal ultrasonography are performed, resulting in type 1C common bile duct cyst. Drainage is performed After discharge from the hospital, the patient presents again with cholangitis, endoscopic drainage is performed, however, she has abortion


Subject(s)
Humans , Choledochal Cyst , Cholangitis , Common Bile Duct , Pregnant Women
2.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 422-429, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878280

ABSTRACT

To further improve the standard of diagnosis and treatment of acute biliary tract infections in China, the Branch of Biliary Surgery, Society of Surgery, Chinese Medical Association has revised the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute biliary tract infections (2011).The guidelines describe the risk factors of acute biliary tract infections, propose diagnostic methods and severity classification criteria, and define the treatment of acute biliary tract infections and the standardized application of antibiotics. The treatment of acute biliary tract infection should be combined with surgical care, antimicrobial therapy and systemic management, and should be completed under the guidance of experienced surgical specialist. Reasonable selection of diagnosis and treatment measures, accurate understanding of surgical procedures and standardized use of antibiotics can achieve maximum treatment result for acute biliary tract infection.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biliary Tract , Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures , China , Cholangitis/surgery , Humans
3.
Rev. argent. cir ; 112(4): 398-406, dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1288148

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Anteriormente, cuando se diagnosticaba litiasis en la vía biliar, el procedimiento consistía en una co lecistectomía, coledocotomía, extracción de los cálculos y colocación de un drenaje de Kehr. En otros casos se podía hacer papiloesfinteroplastia o una derivación biliodigestiva. Actualmente tenemos mu chas herramientas diagnósticas y terapéuticas como la colangiorresonancia, la pancreatocolangio grafía retrógrada endoscópica, la cirugía laparoscópica de la vía biliar, la ecoendoscopia y la ecografía intraoperatoria. Los procesos de decisiones son más complejos y sin un sustento con evidencia con cluyente. Tenemos estudios que enfocan parceladamente el tema, por lo que, dependiendo de si el diagnóstico se hace antes o durante la colecistectomía laparoscópica, el cirujano empleará su sentido común individualizando cada caso. El manejo ideal de la litiasis de la vía biliar sigue siendo motivo de controversia. Decidir por un manejo endoscópico, laparoscópico o convencional requiere logística, entrenamiento y juicio clínico adecua dos. La cirugía convencional sigue siendo una opción vigente.


ABSTRACT Previously, when a surgeon diagnosed bile duct lithiasis, he/she performed cholecystectomy, chole docotomy, stone removal and placement of a Kehr's "T" tube. Some cases might require sphinctero plasty or bilio-digestive bypass. Nowadays, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, endosco pic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic ultrasound and intraoperative ultrasound have emerged as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Decision-making processes are complex and there is no conclusive evidence supporting them. Many studies have focused on the matter with a non-compre hensive approach so that each surgeon will use his/her common sense for each individual case. The optimal management of the common bile duct is still controversial. Deciding on endoscopic, lapa roscopic or conventional management requires adequate training and clinical judgment. Conventional surgery is still in valid option.


Subject(s)
Common Bile Duct/surgery , Lithiasis/surgery , Bile Ducts , Choledochostomy , Cholecystectomy , Cholangitis/surgery , Lithiasis/therapy
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(5): e476-e479, oct 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1122530

ABSTRACT

El 25 % de la población mundial se encuentra infectada por Ascaris lumbricoides. La ascaridiosis hepatobiliar ocurre en zonas con alta endemicidad y gran carga parasitaria, y genera desde intensa inflamación hasta fibrosis. Se presenta a un paciente de 2 años, que consultó por distensión abdominal y tos de 1 mes de evolución asociada a fiebre en las últimas 72 h. Se realizó una ecografía abdominal que evidenció áscaris en la vía biliar, en el estómago y en el intestino delgado, y una radiografía de tórax con infiltrado inflamatorio intersticial, asociado a hiperleucocitosis con hipereosinofilia y gamma-glutamiltranspeptidasa elevada. Se administró un tratamiento antibiótico, antihelmíntico, sin lograr la eliminación de los parásitos de la vía biliar, por lo que se requirió su extracción mediante colangiografía percutánea


Twenty five percent of the world population is affected by Ascaris lumbricoides. Hepatobiliary ascariasis occurs in areas with high endemicity and great amount of parasitic load, generating intense inflammation to fibrosis. We report a two-year-old patient that consults about abdominal distension and cough of one month of evolution associated with 72 hours of fever. Abdominal ultrasound is performed, which shows bile duct, stomach, small intestine with ascaris and chest x-ray with interstitial inflammatory infiltrate, associated with hyperleukocytosis with hypereosinophilia and elevated gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Antibiotic, anthelminthic treatment is administered, without achieving the elimination of the bile duct parasites, requiring their removal by percutaneous cholangiography.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Ascariasis/diagnostic imaging , Bile Ducts , Parasitic Diseases , Ascariasis/therapy , Cholangiography , Cholangitis
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787233

ABSTRACT

Endobiliary radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a procedure performed widely to induce locoregional tumor control by the transfer of thermal energy to the lesion and subsequent tumor necrosis. A 72-year-old male with a prior history of acute calculous cholangitis and perforated cholecystitis was admitted to the Kyungpook National University Hospital complaining of fever and nausea. He had an indwelling percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) catheter from the previous episode of perforated cholecystitis. An abdominal CT scan showed marked dilation of both the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts. Common bile duct cancer was confirmed histologically after an endobiliary biopsy. A surgical resection was considered to be the initial treatment option. During open surgery, multiple metastatic nodules were present in the small bowel mesentery and anterior abdominal wall. Resection of the tumor was not feasible, so endobiliary RFA was performed prior to biliary stenting. Cholecystectomy was required for the removal of the PTGBD catheter, but the surgical procedure could not be performed due to a cystic ductal invasion of the tumor. Instead, chemical ablation of the gallbladder (GB) with pure ethanol was performed to breakdown the GB mucosa. Palliative treatment for a biliary obstruction was achieved successfully using these procedures. In addition, a PTGBD catheter was removed successfully without significant side effects. As a result, an improvement in the patient's quality of life was accomplished.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Wall , Aged , Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic , Biopsy , Catheter Ablation , Catheters , Cholangiocarcinoma , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Cholangitis , Cholecystectomy , Cholecystitis , Common Bile Duct , Cystic Duct , Drainage , Ethanol , Fever , Gallbladder , Humans , Male , Mesentery , Mucous Membrane , Nausea , Necrosis , Palliative Care , Quality of Life , Stents , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
In. Machado Rodríguez, Fernando; Liñares, Norberto; Gorrasi, José; Terra Collares, Eduardo Daniel. Manejo del paciente en la emergencia: patología y cirugía de urgencia para emergencistas. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2020. p.75-88, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1342987
8.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(6): 491-497, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094526

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Obstructive jaundice may lead to ominous complications and requires complex diagnostic evaluations and therapies that are not widely available. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiological profile, referral routes and diagnostic accuracy at admittance of cases of acute cholangitis among patients with obstructive jaundice treated at a referral unit. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at a tertiary-level university hospital. METHODS: Patients with obstructive jaundice who were treated by means of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, resection and/or surgical biliary drainage were evaluated. The main variables analyzed were epidemiological data, referral route, bilirubin levels and time elapsed between symptom onset and admittance and diagnosing of acute cholangitis at the referral unit. The accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of acute cholangitis was compared with a retrospective analysis on the medical records in accordance with the Tokyo criteria. RESULTS: Female patients predominated (58%), with an average age of 56 years. Acute cholangitis was detected in 9.9% of the individuals; application of the Tokyo criteria showed that the real prevalence was approximately 43%. The main referral route was direct contact (31.8%) and emergency care (29.7%); routing via official referral through the public healthcare system accounted for 17.6%, and internal referral from other specialties, 20%. The direct route with unofficial referral was the most important route for cases of neoplastic etiology (P < 0.01) and was the fastest route (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: There is a deficiency in the official referral routes for patients with obstructive jaundice. The accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of acute cholangitis was poor. Wider dissemination of the Tokyo criteria is essential.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cholangitis/diagnosis , Jaundice, Obstructive/diagnosis , Tertiary Care Centers , Hospitals, University , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Bilirubin/analysis , Brazil/epidemiology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Drainage , Cholangitis/surgery , Cholangitis/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde/statistics & numerical data , Jaundice, Obstructive/surgery , Jaundice, Obstructive/epidemiology , Data Accuracy
9.
Infectio ; 23(3): 253-258, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1002159

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Biliary tract infections include cholangitis and cholecystitis. They are associated with high morbidity and mortality in elderly patients with co-morbid disease. The present study was undertaken to determine the microbial aetiology causing biliary tract infections and also to study their antimicrobial resistance profile. Materials & methods: A retrospective study was conducted from January 2011 to December 2016 at the Enteric Diseases Division, Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Manipal. Patients with biliary tract infections admitted in tertiary referral health care hospital, Manipal were included for the study. Aerobic and anaerobic bacteriological and fungal aetiology of biliary tract infections were recorded along with their antimicrobial resistance profile. Results: Out of 307 bile samples sent for aerobic culture and susceptibly testing 187 (60.91%) were positive for culture, of which Escherichia coli (44.4%) was the predominant aetiology followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (27.3%). Among the 14 samples sent for anaerobic culture, 5 (35.75%) specimens showed growth, of which Bacteroides fragilis group was found to be the predominant anaerobe. Among the 201 bacterial pathogens tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility, 108 (53.73%) isolates were resistant, out of which 9 were PDR Enterobacteriaceae with 12 ESBL strains. All the Candida species were susceptible to fluconazole with the exception of C. glabrata and C. krusei. All the anaerobic isolates were found to be susceptible to Metronidazole. Conclusions: The high rate of bacterial infection particularly gram-negative bacteria was recorded. It is necessary that antimicrobial therapy be initiated when culture or the clinical conditions reports caution. Routine aerobic and anaerobic culturing of bile samples with biliary tract infections are imperatively necessary. With the emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens and change in the microbiological spectrum of biliary tract infections, there is a need for the empirical antimicrobial therapy in every clinical setting.


Resumen Objectivo: Las infecciones del tracto biliar incluyen colangitis y colecistitis. Se asocian a gran mortalidad y morbildiad en pacientes ancianos y con comorbilidad. El presente studio se hizo para detemrianr la etiologia microbiana que produce infecciones biliares y para estudiar su perfil de resistencia antimicrobiana. Materiales & metodos: Se hizo un studio retrospectivo entre los meses de Enero 2011 a Diciembre de 2016 en la "Enteric Diseases Division, Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Manipal" en India. Los pacientes con infección de vías biliares admitidos al centro de atención de tercer nivel se incluyeron en el estudio. Se buscaron bacterias aerobicas y anaerobicas y etiologia fungica y se analizó su perfil de resistencia antibiotica. Resultados: De 307 muestras de bilis enviadas para cultivo aerobico y antibiograma, 187 (60.91%) crecieron en el medio de cultivo, predominando Escherichia coli (44.4%) seguida por Klebsiella pneumoniae (27.3%). Entre las 14 muestras analizadas en medio anaerobio, 5 (35.75%) mostraron crecimiento de Bacteroides fragilis. Entre 201 bacterias probadas por antibiograma, 108 (53.73%) tuvieron perfil de resistencia, de los cuales 9 fueron PDR Enterobacteriaceae con 12 cepas ESBL. Todas las especies de Candida fueron susceptibles al fluconazol con la excepción de C. glabrata y C. krusei. Todos los aislados anaerobios fueron susceptibles al Metronidazol. Conclusiones: Se encontró una alta tasa de infección bacteriana con predominio de gram-negativos. Se hace necesario iniciar terapia antimicrobiana cuando lo sugieren las condiciones clínicas o el resultado del cultivo. El cultivo rutinario de bilis es imperioso. Dado el aumento de patógenos multirresistentes se requiere inicio empírico inmediato


Subject(s)
Humans , Bile Ducts , Cholangitis/diagnosis , Cholecystitis , beta-Lactamases , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Microbial , India , Metronidazole
10.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(2): 146-150, Apr.-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019455

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a rare chronic inflammatory liver disease associated with a loss of immunological tolerance to self-antigens. Susceptibility to AIH is partially determined by the presence of genes related to human leukocyte antigen (HLA), mainly allelic variants of DRB1. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequencies of the polymorphisms in HLA-DRB1 gene in children and adolescents with type 1 AIH and type 1 AIH overlap syndrome with autoimmune cholangitis (overlap syndrome, OS) in comparison to healthy sex and age-matched individuals (control group). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 25 pediatric patients diagnosed with type 1 AIH and 18 with OS. Fifty-seven healthy individuals were included as controls. The polymorphisms of the HLA-DRB1 gene were evaluated by PCR and included HLA-DRB1*03, HLA-DRB1*04, HLA-DRB1*07, and HLA-DRB1*13. RESULTS: Our results showed that the presence of the allele HLA-DRB1*13 increased the chance of autoimmune cholangitis (OR=3.96, CI 1.07 to 14.61, P=0.04). The HLA-DRB1*04 and HLA- DRB1*07 have no association with the AIH and autoimmune cholangitis in a young sample. CONCLUSION: This work demonstrates an association of the main polymorphisms in the HLA-DRB1 gene to AIH with or without cholangitis in a Brazilian sample.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Hepatite autoimune (HAI) é uma doença hepática inflamatória crônica, rara, associada à perda da tolerância imunológica aos auto-antígenos. A susceptibilidade à HAI é parcialmente determinada pela presença de genes relacionados ao antígeno leucocitário humano (HLA), principalmente variantes alélicas do DRB1. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a frequência de polimorfismos no gene HLA-DRB1 em crianças e adolescentes com HAI tipo 1 e HAI tipo 1 associada à colangite autoimune, em comparação com indivíduos saudáveis pareados por sexo e idade (grupo controle). MÉTODOS: Este é um estudo transversal de 25 pacientes pediátricos com diagnóstico de HAI tipo 1 e 18 com HAI associada à colangite autoimune. Cinquenta e sete indivíduos saudáveis foram incluídos como controles. Os polimorfismos do gene HLA-DRB1 foram avaliados por PCR e incluíram HLA-DRB1*03, HLA-DRB1*04, HLA-DRB1*07 e HLA-DRB1*13. RESULTADOS: Nossos resultados mostraram que a presença do alelo HLA-DRB1*13 aumentou a chance de colangite autoimune (OR=3,96; IC 1,07 a 14,61; P=0,04). O HLA-DRB1*04 e o HLA-DRB1*07 não apresentam associação com a HAI e colangite autoimune no grupo de pacientes mais jovens. CONCLUSÃO: Este trabalho demonstra uma associação dos principais polimorfismos no gene HLA-DRB1 à HAI com ou sem colangite na população brasileira.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Cholangitis/genetics , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/genetics , HLA-DRB1 Chains/genetics , Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Diseases/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787187

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer is a major cause of cancer-related mortality and morbidity, and its incidence is increasing as the population is aging. On the other hand, significant improvement in the prognosis has not occurred. The absence of early diagnosis means that many patients are diagnosed only when they develop symptoms, such as jaundice, due to a biliary obstruction. The role of endoscopy in multidisciplinary care for patients with pancreatic cancer continues to evolve. Controversy remains regarding the best preoperative biliary drainage in patients with surgically resectable pancreatic head cancer. In general, patients undergoing a surgical resection usually do not require preoperative biliary drainage unless they have cholangitis or receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy. If biliary drainage is performed prior to surgery, the patient's condition and a multidisciplinary approach should be considered. With the increasing life expectancy of patients with pancreatic cancer, the need for more long-time biliary drainage or pre-operative biliary drainage is also increasing. Strong evidence of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) as a first-line and essential treatment for biliary decompression has been provided. On the other hand, the use of endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage as well as percutaneous biliary drainage has been also recommended. During ERCP, self-expandable metal stent could be recommended instead of a plastic stent for the purpose of long stent patency and minimizing stent-induced complications. In this review, several points of view regarding the relief of obstruction in patients with pancreatic cancer, and optimal techniques are being discussed.


Subject(s)
Aging , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Cholangitis , Decompression , Drainage , Drug Therapy , Early Diagnosis , Endoscopy , Hand , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Incidence , Jaundice , Life Expectancy , Mortality , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Plastics , Prognosis , Stents
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776010

ABSTRACT

To systematically evaluate the risks of cardiocerebral vascular events in patients with primary biliary cholangitis(PBC). Methods We carried out a Meta analysis by RevMan 5.3 software to investigate literatureon the risk of cardiocerebral vascular events in patients with PBC and controls. Results Compared with non-PBC controls,PBC patients had significantly higher risk of coronary events(=1.56,=0.0002);however,the risk of cerebrovascular events showed no significant difference between these two groups(=1.01,=0.94).Subgroup analysis demonstrated a significantly lower risk of transient ischemic attack or carotid stenosis in PBC patients(=0.63,=0.03);however,there was no significant difference in the risk of stroke(=1.11,=0.40). Conclusion Patients with PBC have an increased risk of coronary events but may have a lower risk of transient ischemic attack or carotid stenosis.


Subject(s)
Carotid Stenosis , Cholangitis , Coronary Disease , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary , Risk Factors , Stroke
13.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 117-120, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760574

ABSTRACT

Congenital pancreatic cysts are rare in newborn babies, and this makes prenatal diagnosis difficult. Diagnosis can be delayed for a few months after birth until the infant presents with an abdominal mass, abdominal distension, or vomiting due to gastric outlet obstruction. Excision of the cyst is the treatment of choice. A congenital pancreatic cyst should be considered if the fetus has an abdominal cyst without a definite origin. A prompt diagnosis is crucial to prevent fatal complications such as cholangitis, pancreatitis, cyst rupture, and peritonitis. We report a case of neonate with multiple congenital pancreatic cysts suspected prenatally to be stomach diverticulum or duplication cysts of the intestine.


Subject(s)
Cholangitis , Diagnosis , Diverticulum, Stomach , Fetus , Gastric Outlet Obstruction , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intestines , Pancreatic Cyst , Pancreatic Pseudocyst , Pancreatitis , Parturition , Peritonitis , Prenatal Diagnosis , Rupture , Vomiting
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760165

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (PTCS) is an effective treatment used for intrahepatic stone in patients who have undergone hepatectomy. There are few reports on natural course in these patients. Thus, we report the long-term results. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 19 patients who underwent PTCS after hepatectomy at Samsung Medical Center between January 1998 and December 2014. We investigated patient characteristics and recurrence of biliary complications during follow up period. Then, we analyzed the factors related to recurrence. RESULTS: Indications for PTCS were cholangitis, symptomatic stone, liver abscess and biliary dilatation. Complete stone removal was achieved in 12 patients (63.2%). After receiving PTCS, the recurrence of intrahepatic stone related complication occurred in 52.6% (10/19) of patients during a median follow-up of 4.9 years (range, 1.8–7.8). Complications were cholangitis (5/10, 50%), cholangitis with liver abscess (3/10, 30%), liver abscess (1/10, 10%) and symptomatic stone (1/10, 10%). On univariate analysis, factors including multiple stone involvement, complete stone removal and bile duct stricture were not significantly associated with recurrent biliary complications. CONCLUSIONS: PTCS is an effective treatment for complications of recurrent intrahepatic stones in patients who have undergone hepatectomy. However, long term follow-up is necessary because of the recurrence of biliary complications.


Subject(s)
Bile Ducts , Cholangitis , Constriction, Pathologic , Dilatation , Follow-Up Studies , Hepatectomy , Humans , Liver Abscess , Liver , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760163

ABSTRACT

A 59-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain. Abdominal computerized tomography was suggestive of biliary stones. During endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, adult worms resembling Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) were drained. Eggs were detected in stool using the formalin-ether concentration method and C. sinensis-specific antibody was detected in the serum. A diagnosis of C. sinensis infection was made. The symptoms of the patient gradually resolved after treatment with anti-parasite medication. The patient lived in a non-endemic region for C. sinensis infection and had no history of intake of raw or undercooked freshwater fishes. South Korea is one of the endemic countries for C. sinensis infection and people can be infected via indirect routes of transmission such as cooking utensils. Therefore, the possibility of C. sinensis infection should be considered in patients presenting with biliary diseases in South Korea. We describe the clinical findings of this case with a review of literature.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Adult , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Cholangitis , Cholecystitis , Cholecystitis, Acute , Clonorchis sinensis , Cooking and Eating Utensils , Diagnosis , Eggs , Female , Fishes , Fresh Water , Humans , Korea , Methods , Middle Aged , Ovum
16.
Gut and Liver ; : 300-307, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763849

ABSTRACT

Sclerosing cholangitis (SC) is defined as a condition with progressive stenosis and destruction of the bile ducts due to diffuse inflammation and fibrosis and currently includes three categories: primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), secondary cholangitis, and IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC). SC categories share similar clinical features, such as cholestasis. Patients with SC present with cholestatic symptoms, including jaundice and pruritus, and blood tests reveal elevation of cholestatic enzymes. Cholangiography, endoscopic or magnetic, is inevitably required for making a diagnosis. Although the presentation of IgG4-SC and PSC are similar, the comorbidities, treatment response, and outcomes differ significantly, and therefore, it is strongly advisable to be familiar with these two diseases to make a correct diagnosis. Differentiation of cholangiocarcinoma from IgG4-SC and PSC is also extremely important. In this review, the clinical characteristics, comorbidities, treatment and outcomes of IgG4-SC and PSC will be outlined based on experience mainly from Japan.


Subject(s)
Bile Ducts , Cholangiocarcinoma , Cholangiography , Cholangitis , Cholangitis, Sclerosing , Cholestasis , Comorbidity , Constriction, Pathologic , Diagnosis , Fibrosis , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Inflammation , Japan , Jaundice , Pruritus
17.
Gut and Liver ; : 373-379, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recurrent pyogenic cholangitis (RPC) is a chronic progressive disease frequently accompanied by cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). This study aimed to investigate the natural course of RPC and identify factors associated with CCA. METHODS: From January 2005 to December 2016, 310 patients diagnosed with RPC at Seoul National University Hospital were included. Complications and management during follow-up were recorded. CCA-free probability was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method, and risk factors associated with CCA were analyzed using log-rank test and Cox’s proportional hazard regression model. RESULTS: Mean age at diagnosis was 59.1±10.9 years and mean follow-up duration was 84.0±64.1 months. An intrahepatic duct stone was found in 253 patients (81.6%). Liver atrophy was identified in 185 patients (59.7%) and most commonly located at the left lobe (65.4%). Acute cholangitis, liver abscesses, cirrhotic complications, and CCA developed in 41.3%, 19.4%, 9.7%, and 7.4%, respectively. During follow-up, complete resolution rate after hepatectomy, biliary bypass surgery, and choledocholithotomy with T-tube insertion reached 82.3%, 55.2%, and 42.1%, respectively. None of the patients who maintained complete resolution by the last follow-up day developed CCA. In univariate analysis, female, both-sided intrahepatic duct stones, and liver atrophy at any location were associated with increased risk of CCA. Multivariate analysis revealed that both-sided atrophy significantly increased risk of CCA (hazard ratio, 4.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.48 to 14.09; p=0.008). In 21 patients who developed intrahepatic CCA, tumor was located mostly in the atrophied lobe (p=0.023). CONCLUSIONS: In RPC patients, acute cholangitis, liver abscess, cirrhotic complications, and CCA frequently developed. Both-sided liver atrophy was a significant risk factor for developing CCA.


Subject(s)
Atrophy , Cholangiocarcinoma , Cholangitis , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Female , Fibrosis , Follow-Up Studies , Hepatectomy , Humans , Liver , Liver Abscess , Methods , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Seoul
18.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 486-496, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To analyze the incidence of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) sepsis in the early (July to September) and later (October to June) academic months to assess the “July effect”. METHODS: The National Inpatient Sample (2010–2014) was used to identify ERCP-related adult hospitalizations at urban teaching hospitals by applying relevant procedure codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification. Post-ERCP outcomes were compared between the early and later academic months. A multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the odds of post-ERCP sepsis and its predictors. RESULTS: Of 481,193 ERCP procedures carried out at urban teaching hospitals, 124,934 were performed during the early academic months. The demographics were comparable for ERCP procedures performed during the early and later academic months. A higher incidence (9.4% vs. 8.8%, p<0.001) and odds (odds ratio [OR], 1.07) of post-ERCP sepsis were observed in ERCP performed during the early academic months. The in-hospital mortality rate (7% vs. 7.5%, p=0.072), length of stay, and total hospital charges in patients with post-ERCP sepsis were also equivalent between the 2 time points. Pre-ERCP cholangitis (OR, 3.20) and post-ERCP complications such as cholangitis (OR, 6.27), perforation (OR, 3.93), and hemorrhage (OR, 1.42) were significant predictors of higher post-ERCP sepsis in procedures performed during the early academic months. CONCLUSIONS: The July effect was present in the incidence of post-ERCP sepsis, and academic programs should take into consideration the predictors of post-ERCP sepsis to lower health-care burden.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Cholangitis , Demography , Hemorrhage , Hospital Charges , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Incidence , Inpatients , International Classification of Diseases , Length of Stay , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Pancreatitis , Sepsis , United States
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762681

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Improvements in surgical techniques and a better understanding of the unique anesthetic requirements in neonates undergoing laparoscopy have suggested that laparoscopic surgery may be effective in newborns. This study therefore evaluated the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic excision of the cyst (LEC) in neonates. METHODS: This retrospective study included 43 neonates who underwent excision of choledochal cysts between November, 2001, and January, 2018, including 21 who underwent open excision and 22 who underwent LEC. Their perioperative and surgical outcomes were reviewed. The patients were followed up for a median 37 months (range, 3–141 months). RESULTS: Baseline characteristics did not differ significantly in the open and LEC groups. Mean intraoperative peak partial pressure of arterial CO2 (PaCO2) (45.5 mmHg vs. 48.0 mmHg) and total operation time (208.3 ± 71.0 minutes vs. 235.0 ± 47.2 minutes) were similar in both groups. Parents of the patients in the LEC group provided a more positive evaluation of scar scale and greater satisfaction with wound. No patient in either group experienced any critical complications. Three patients in the open excision group required readmission for cholangitis and 2 patients had ileus. No patient in the laparoscopic excision group experienced any postoperative complications during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Despite difficulties performing laparoscopic surgery in neonates, LEC was safe and feasible when intraperitoneal peak pressure was maintained under 10 mmHg and PaCO₂ was closely monitored by a pediatric anesthesiologist. Compared with open excision, LEC provided improved cosmetic outcomes without severe complications. Prospective randomized studies with large numbers of patients are warranted.


Subject(s)
Cholangitis , Choledochal Cyst , Cicatrix , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Ileus , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Laparoscopy , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Parents , Partial Pressure , Postoperative Complications , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Wounds and Injuries
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