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1.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 32(6): 608-616, Nov.-Dez. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1054620

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Analisar as alterações clínicas, metabólicas e sua relação com a resistência à insulina entre adolescentes. Métodos Estudo analítico, realizado com 357 adolescentes de escolas públicas estaduais de um município do Nordeste brasileiro. O formulário aplicado continha as variáveis Índice de Massa Corporal, Circunferência da Cintura, Circunferência do Pescoço, Índice de Conicidade, Pressão Arterial Média; Triglicerídeos, Glicemia, High — Density Lipoprotein Coiesteroi, Insulina e Índice Homeostasis Model Assessment, analisadas por medidas descritivas para variáveis quantitativas; e frequências para variáveis qualitativas. Foram realizados testes de associações através do Qui-quadrado e do teste Odds Ratio. Resultados A prevalência de resistência à insulina foi de 33,9%. As médias da circunferência da cintura, circunferência do pescoço, índice de conicidade, pressão arterial sistólica média e pressão arterial diastólica média estiveram elevadas respectivamente em 4,2%; 30%; 10,9%; 4,2% e 14% dos adolescentes. Os níveis de High - Density Lipoprotein colesterol estiveram diminuídos em 30,5% da amostra, ao passo que os triglicerídeos estavam elevados em 18,8%. Não foi identificada alteração na glicemia. Aqueles que apresentaram índice de massa corporal, circunferência da cintura, circunferência do pescoço, índice de conicidade e triglicerídeos com valores alterados possuíam maiores chances de apresentar resistência à insulina (OD: 3,62; 11,54; 3,50; 4,49; 3,05, respectivamente). De maneira oposta, os adolescentes com pressão arterial sistólica média, pressão arterial diastólica média e High — Density Lipoprotein colesterol alterados não apresentaram significância estatística (p<0,05). Conclusão A resistência à insulina está presente entre os adolescentes, com associações positivas e significativas com alterações clínicas e metabólicas.


Resumen Objetivo Analizar las alteraciones clínicas, metabólicas y la relación con la resistencia a la insulina en adolescentes. Métodos Estudio analítico, realizado con 357 adolescentes de escuelas públicas provinciales/departamentales de un municipio del Nordeste brasileñ?o. El formulario aplicado contenía las variables: índice de masa corporal, circunferencia de la cintura, circunferencia del cuello, índice de conicidad, presión arterial promedio, triglicéridos, glucemia, colesterol High-Density Lipoprotein, insulina e índice Homeostasis Model Assessment Las variables cuantitativas fueron analizadas mediante medidas descriptivas, y las variables cualitativas mediante frecuencias. Se realizaron pruebas de relaciones a través de la prueba ?2 de Pearson y Odds Ratio. Resultados La prevalencia de resistencia a la insulina fue de 33,9%. Los promedios de circunferencia de la cintura, circunferencia del cuello, índice de conicidad, presión arterial sistólica promedio y presión arterial diastólica promedio fueron altos respectivamente en el 4,2%; 30%; 10,9%; 4,2% y 14% de los adolescentes. Los niveles de colesterol High-Density Lipoprotein fueron bajos en el 30,5% de la muestra, mientras que los triglicéridos fueron altos en el 18,8%. No se identificó alteración en la glucemia. Los que presentaron índice de masa corporal, circunferencia de la cintura, circunferencia del cuello, índice de conicidad y triglicéridos con valores alterados tenían mayores chances de presentar resistencia a la insulina (OD: 3,62; 11,54; 3,50; 4,49; 3,05, respectivamente). De forma contraria, los adolescentes con presión arterial sistólica promedio, presión arterial diastólica promedio y colesterol High-Density Lipoprotein alterados no presentaron significación estadística. Conclusión La resistencia a la insulina está presente en los adolescentes, con una relación positiva y significativa respecto a alteraciones clínicas y metabólicas.


Abstract Objective Analyzing the clinical and metabolic alterations and their relation to insulin resistance among adolescents. Methods Analytic study, carried out with 357 adolescents of state public schools in a municipality in Northeastern Brazil. The applied form contained the variables Body Mass index, Waist Circumference, Neck Circumference, Taper index, Average Blood Pressure, Triglycerides, Blood Sugar Level, High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, insulin, and Homeostasis Model Assessment Index, analyzed through descriptive measures for quantitative variables; and through frequency for qualitative variables. Association tests were made through Chi-Square test and through Odds Ratio. Results Prevalence of insulin resistance was 33.9%. The average values of waist circumference, neck circumference, taper index, average systolic blood pressure and average diastolic blood pressure were high in, respectively, 4.2%, 30%, 10.9%, 4.2% and 14% of adolescents. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol levels were decreased in 30.5% of the sample, whereas triglycerides were high in 18.8%. No blood sugar alteration was identified. Those who presented altered values for body mass index, waist circumference, neck circumference, taper index, and triglycerides had higher chances to present insulin resistance (OD: 3.62, 11.54, 3.50, 4.49, 3.05, respectively). On the other hand, adolescents with altered average systolic blood pressure, average diastolic blood pressure and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol did not present statistical significance (p<0.05). Conclusion Insulin resistance is present among adolescents, with positive and significant association to clinical and metabolic alterations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Insulin Resistance , Anthropometry , Risk Factors , Obesity , Triglycerides/metabolism , Epidemiologic Studies , Laboratory and Fieldwork Analytical Methods , Chronic Disease , Lipid Metabolism , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Glucose/metabolism , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism
3.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 35(2): 133-143, 2016. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-796799

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: Las dislipidemias, ya sea un aumento en los niveles de colesterol LDL y/o una disminución en las cifras de colesterol HDL, son muy relevantes para el desarrollo de la enfermedad cardiovascular ateroesclerótica, siendo el colesterol HDL bajo la dislipidemia más frecuente en la población chilena. Con respecto al colesterol HDL bajo y los tri -glicéridos elevados, los fibratos, agonistas del receptor nuclear PPAR-a que modula la transcripción de genes involucrados en el metabolismo de lípidos, representan una importante alternativa de manejo farmacológico de las dislipidemias. Sin embargo, estudios clínicos recientes no han sido concluyentes con respecto a su beneficio real sobre el control de la ateroesclerosis cuando se usan combinados con estatinas. Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de la administración de fibratos sobre el metabolismo del colesterol HDL y la función antioxidante del plasma usando el ratón como modelo experimental. Metodología: Los ratones de la cepa C57BL/6 fueron tratados con ciprofibrato al 0,2% en dieta control durante 7 días. Luego del tratamiento, se analizaron los niveles de colesterol plasmático y triglicéridos, la expresión hepática de proteínas claves involucradas en el metabolismo de colesterol HDL, el contenido de colesterol hepático, la secreción de colesterol biliar y el daño oxidativo y la función antioxidante plasmática. Resultados: El tratamiento con ciprofibrato disminuyó significativamente los niveles de triglicéridos plasmáticos y la expresión hepática del receptor de HDL SR-BI, efecto que se correlacionó con un aumento en el tamaño de las partículas de HDL, pero no en los niveles de colesterol HDL. Además, el ciprofibrato disminuyó los niveles proteicos de los transportadores de colesterol ABCG1 y ABCG8, aunque no modificó ABCA1, en conjunto con una reducción del contenido hepático de colesterol y un aumento en la secreción de colesterol hacia la bilis. Finalmente, el uso de este hipolipemiante mejoró la función antioxidante del plasma, aunque se detectó un aumento en el daño nitrosativo de las proteínas plasmáticas. Conclusión: Este estudio ha permitido obtener nueva información sobre el efecto metabólico y funcional de la administración de fibratos en ratones, lo cual podría ayudar comprender los resultados de estudios clínicos recientes que han usado esta clase de hipolipemiantes en humanos.


Background: Increased serum levels of LDL cholesterol and/or decreased values of HDL cholesterol are very relevant for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Low HDL cholesterol is the most prevalent dyslipidemia in the Chilean population. Regarding reduced HDL cholesterol and high triglyceride levels, fibrates, nuclear receptor PPAR-a agonists that modulate transcription of genes involved in lipid metabolism, represent an important alternative for pharmacological management of dyslipidemia. However, recent clinical studies have been inconclusive with respect to their real benefit on atherosclerosis when used in combination with statins. Aim: To evaluate the impact of fibrate administration on HDL cholesterol metabolism and antioxidant plasma functionality using the mouse as experimental model. Methodology: Using wild-type C57BL/6 mice, ciprofibrate was administered at 0.2% in chow diet for 7 days. After treatment, plasma cholesterol and triglycerides levels, hepatic expression of key proteins involved in HDL cholesterol metabolism, liver cholesterol content, biliary cholesterol secretion, and plasma oxidative damage and antioxidant function were analyzed. Results: Ciprofibrate treatment significantly decreased plasma triglycerides levels and hepatic HDL receptor SR-BI expression. This latter finding was associated with increased HDL particle size, without changes in HDL cholesterol levels. Furthermore, ci-profibrate decreased hepatic expression of cholesterol transporters ABCG1 and ABCG8, but not ABCA1, which correlated with reduced liver cholesterol content and increased biliary cholesterol secretion. Fina-lly, fibrate therapy improved plasma antioxidant func-tion, even though increased nitrosative plasma protein damage was detected. Conclusion: This study has provided new information on metabolic and functional effects derived from fibrate use in mice and it may help to better understand recent clinical findings using this lipid-lowering drug class in humans.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Fibric Acids/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Cholesterol, HDL/drug effects , Triglycerides/blood , Cholesterol/analysis , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Models, Animal , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Liver/chemistry , Mice, Inbred C57BL
5.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 28(5): 400-408, set.-out. 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-786806

ABSTRACT

Fundamentos: O consumo de alimentos funcionais (AF), como aveia e linhaça, representa estratégia segura e eficaz para reduzir o risco de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNT). Objetivo: Analisar o efeito da suplementação alimentar com farinha de linhaça marrom ou com aveia em flocos no índice de massa corporal (IMC), na circunferência da cintura (CC) e no perfil lipídico de idosos. Métodos: Estudo longitudinal controlado, randomizado, com duração de oito semanas, realizado com 60 indivíduos idosos (idade ≥60 anos), avaliados em três momentos: basal (T0), em quatro semanas (T1) e em oito semanas (T2) após o início do estudo. Peso, altura e CC foram mensurados e amostras de sangue coletadas. Os voluntários foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em grupo-controle (GC), grupo-linhaça (GL) e grupo-aveia (GA).Resultados: IMC e CC não se alteraram significativamente ao longo do estudo nos grupos. O GA mostrou reduçãode 18,4% nos níveis de colesterol total (CT) no plasma em relação ao GL ao final do período de estudo (p<0,05).O GA demonstrou ainda, em T2, valores 30,4% mais baixos de LDL colesterol do que os grupos GL e GC (p<0,05). Por outro lado, o GL apresentou elevação de 12,0% nos níveis de triglicerídeos de T0 para T2 (p<0,05). Conclusão: A suplementação com alimentos funcionais foi benéfica para redução do CT e do LDL colesterol.


Background: The consumption of functional foods (FF), as oat and linseed, is a safe and efficient strategy for reducing the risk of non-transmissible chronic diseases (NTCD). Objective: Analyzing the effect of food supplementation with brown linseed flour or oat in flakes on the body mass index (BMI), on the waist circumference (WC) and on the lipid profile of elderly.Methods: Longitudinal controlled, randomized study, with duration of eight weeks, made with 60 senior individuals (age > 60 years), evaluated at three moments: baseline (T0), four weeks (T1) and eight weeks (T2) after the study started. Weight, height and WCwere measured and blood samples were collected. Volunteers were randomly divided into control group (CG), linseed group (LG) and oat group (OG).Results: BMI and WC have not changed significantly throughout the study in any group. OG showed reduction of 18.4% in the total cholesterol (TC) levels in the plasma compared to LG in the end of the study period (p<0.05). OG showed also, at T2, values 30.4% lower for LDL cholesterol than LG and CG (p<0.05). On the other hand, LG showed increase of 12.0% in the triglycerides levels from T0 to T2 (p<0.05). Conclusion: The supplementation with functional foods was beneficial for reducing the TC and LDL cholesterol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Abdominal Circumference , Aged , Body Mass Index , Functional Food , Nutritional Status , Aging , Avena , Cholesterol/metabolism , Cholesterol/blood , Flax , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/metabolism , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Obesity/complications , Risk Factors
6.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(9): 1097-1104, set. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-762679

ABSTRACT

Background: Plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) are involved in reverse cholesterol transport mediated by the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Nicotinic acid increases HDL cholesterol levels, even though its specific impact on SR-BI dependent-cellular cholesterol transport remains unknown. Aim: To determine the effect of nicotinic acid on HDL particle functionality in cholesterol efflux and uptake mediated by SR-BI in cultured cells in hypoalphalipoproteinemic patients. Material and Methods: In a pilot study, eight patients with low HDL (≤ 40 mg/dL) were treated with extended release nicotinic acid. HDL cholesterol and phospholipid levels, HDL2 and HDL3 fractions and HDL particle sizes were measured at baseline and post-therapy. Before and after nicotinic acid treatment, HDL particles were used for cholesterol transport studies in cells transfected with SR-BI. Results: Nicotinic acid treatment raised total HDL cholesterol and phospholipids, HDL2 levels as well as HDL particle size. Nicotinic acid significantly increased HDL cholesterol efflux and uptake capacity mediated by SR-BI in cultured cells. Conclusions: Nicotinic acid therapy increases SR-BI-dependent HDL cholesterol transport in cultured cells, establishing a new cellular mechanism by which this lipid-lowering drug appears to modulate HDL metabolism in patients with hypoalphalipoproteinemia.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism , Hypoalphalipoproteinemias/metabolism , Hypolipidemic Agents/pharmacology , Lipoproteins, HDL/metabolism , Niacin/pharmacology , Biological Transport , Cholesterol, HDL/drug effects , Pilot Projects , Phospholipids/blood , Scavenger Receptors, Class B/metabolism
7.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Nov; 51(11): 885-894
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-149394

ABSTRACT

The overloading of cholesterol in the arteries remains the principal cause of cardiovascular diseases. Since available anti-cholesterolemic drugs are not completely effective and have several severe adverse effects, the aim of this review is to analyze current research focused on the emerging, innovative therapeutic strategies based on both pharmacological and nutritional interventions to control cholesterol metabolism. Pharmacological interventions mainly involve the use of molecules capable of interfering with high-density lipoprotien (HDL) metabolism and the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) through genetic control of apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), agonism at liver X-receptor a (LXRa), or inhibition of cholesteryl ester transport protein (CETP), scavenger receptor BI(SR-BI), and ecto F0F1ATPase/synthase. Nutritional interventions are based on the use of fibres, phytosterols, and probiotics acting through interference with absorption and re-absorption of cholesterol by enterocyte and hepatocyte specific transporters, thus influencing RCT final step. The search for new drugs is still at the very beginning and new molecules are not yet ready to enter clinical use. However, several promising findings coming from innovative biotechnological research are expected shortly to produce probiotics, fibres, and phytosterols to be used as therapeutic tools. Among the most important advantages of natural products in respect to traditional drugs are the lack of severe adverse effects and their low cost.


Subject(s)
Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Transport , Cholesterol/biosynthesis , Cholesterol/metabolism , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism , Diet , Endocytosis , Humans , Hypercholesterolemia/diet therapy , Hypercholesterolemia/drug therapy
8.
IJPR-Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2013; 12 (2): 425-434
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142664

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disorder. Anti-diabetic agents from natural and synthetic sources are available for the treatment of this disease. Berberis integerrima is a medicinal shrub used in conventional therapy for a number of diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root [AEBI] on some physiological parameters in normal and streptozotocin-induced [STZ-induced] diabetic male Wistar rats. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant increases in the levels of blood glucose, triglycerides [TG], total cholesterol [TC], low density lipoprotein LDL-cholesterol [LDL-C], creatinine [Cr], urea, alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alkaline phosphatase [ALP], total bilirubin while body weight, high density lipoprotein HDL-cholesterol [HDL-C] and total protein levels were significantly decreased compared to normal rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with different doses of aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root [250 and 500 mg/Kg bw] resulted in a significant decrease in blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, ALT, AST, ALP, total bilirubin, creatinine and urea while HDL-cholesterol and total protein levels were markedly increased after six weeks compared to untreated diabetic rats. The effects of the AEBI at dose of 500 mg/Kg in all parameters except blood glucose [similar] is more than to the standard drug, glibenclamide [0.6 mg/Kg, p.o.]. The results of this study indicate that the tested aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima root possesses hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects in STZ-induced diabetic rats


Subject(s)
Male , Animals, Laboratory , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism , Cholesterol, LDL/metabolism , Hypoglycemic Agents , Hypolipidemic Agents
9.
São Paulo; s.n; 2012. 120 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-666595

ABSTRACT

Introdução Os feijões comuns, da espécie Phaseolus vulgaris, são amplamente produzidos e consumidos no Brasil. As variedades, carioca e preto ganham destaque na região Sudeste do país. Encontra-se descrita na literatura a ação hipocolesterolemizante de algumas leguminosas, tais como, soja, tremoço e feijão caupi, que podem estar associados à redução do risco de doenças cardiovasculares. Objetivo Avaliar o potencial efeito da adição de farinhas de feijões carioca e preto (Phaseolus vulgaris) no metabolismo lipídico de hamsters alimentados com dieta contendo gordura saturada e colesterol. Métodos A produção das farinhas dos feijões envolveu as etapas de autoclavagem, congelamento, liofilização e moagem. As propriedades hipocolesterolemizantes destas farinhas foram avaliadas por meio de dois ensaios biológicos. Foram utilizados hamsters Golden Syrian, machos com 21 dias, pesando 60 ± 4g, que receberam as dietas experimentais ad libitum. No Ensaio A, os animais foram separados em 3 grupos, diferenciados pela dieta. Todas as dietas eram hipercolesterolemizantes [13.5 por cento de gordura de coco e 0.1 por cento colesterol] e tinham as mesmas quantidades de proteínas, carboidratos, fibras, vitaminas e minerais. O Grupo Controle (C) tinha como fonte protéica a caseína; no Grupo Feijão Carioca (FC) a farinha de feijão carioca representou 15 por cento do peso total da dieta e no Grupo Feijão Preto a farinha de feijão preto representou 15 por cento do peso total da dieta. No Ensaio B, os animais foram separados em três grupos novamente. Desta vez, a única diferença entre os grupos foi quanto a fonte protéica, para o grupo controle (C) somente caseína, para o grupo feijão carioca (FC), 67 por cento de feijão e 7,5 por cento de caseína e para o grupo feijão preto (FP), 62 por cento de feijão e 7,5 por cento de caseína. Nos dois ensaios, após 21 dias de experimento, foi realizada coleta de materiais biológicos (plasma, fígado e fezes). Resultados O processo de produção d...


Subject(s)
Animals , Cholesterol, Dietary , Cholesterol/chemistry , Cricetinae/metabolism , Fabaceae/chemistry , Biological Assay , Flour/analysis , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism
11.
Gac. méd. Caracas ; 119(2): 139-146, abr.-jun. 2011. tab, mapas
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-695668

ABSTRACT

En el contexto del Segundo Estudio Nacional de Crecimiento y desarrollo Humano de la República Bolívariana de Venezuela (SENACREDH), se evaluó la presión arterial en 4017 individuos de 6,00 a 19,99 años en los estados Carabobo, Aragua, Miranda, Vargas y Distrito Capical. Se realizaron modelos de regresión múltiple con variables antropométricas y bioquímicas como predictoras de la presión arterial. La prevalencia de valores de presión arterial mayor igual P90 (Pre-hipertensión arterial e hipertensión arterial) sistólica fue 4,36% y la diastólica aislada fue 4,62%. Aquellos con exceso de índice de masa corporal presentaron prevalencias significativamente mayores de presión arterial sistólica, P90 a <95 (6,3%), P95 a igual P99 (0,9%) en comparación con aquellos con indice de masa corporal normal P90 a <95(1,2%), P95 a <99 (0,7%), > igual P99 (0,3%). Se encontraron resultados similares para la presión arterial diastólica. Aquellos con índice colesterol total/HDL > igual 4,0 presentaron prevalencias significativamente mayores de presión arterial sistólica, P90 a <95 (3,1%), P95 a < P99 (1,7%), > igual P99 (0,6%) en comparación con aquellos con < 4,0 P90 a < P95 (1,7%), P95 a > P99 (1,1%), > igual P99 (0,3%). Se encontraron resultados similares para la presión arterial diastólica. En la regresión múltiple, el índice de masa corporal y la circunferencia de cintura son predictores de la presión arterial sistólica (P<0,001). La circunferencia de cintura lo es también para la presión arterial diastólica (P<0,001). Estas variables se asocian significativamente como predictores de la presión arterial, por lo cual su medición en la evaluación integral cardiovascular debe realizarse no solo para efectos de clasificación sino de potencial estimación del riesgo de hipertensión arterial.


In the context of the Second National Study of Human Growth and Development of the Bolivarian Republic, of Venezuela (SENACREDH), blood pressure was evaluated in 4017 individuals 6.00 to 19.90 years-old from Carabobo, Aragua, Miranda, Vargas state and Capital District. Multiple regression models with anthropometrical and biochemical variables for the blood pressure were done. Prevalence of isolated blood pressure > igual P90 (Prehypertension and hypertension) systolic was 4.36% and diastolic 4.62%. Those with body mass index in excess presented significantly higher prevalences of systolic blood pressure. P90 to igual P99 (0.9%) compared to those with a normal body mass index P90 to igual P99 (0.3%). Similar findings were found for diastolic blood pressure. Those with a total cholesterol/HDL index > igual 4.0 presented significantly higher prevalences of systolic blood pressure, P90 to igual P99 (0.6%) compared to those with <4.0 P90 to igual P99 (0.3%). Similar findings were found for diastolic blood pressure. At multiple regression body mass index and waist circumference are predictor of systolic blood pressure (P<0.001). Waist circunference also for diastolic blood pressure (P<0.001). These variables are significantly associated as predictors of blood pressure, then its assessment in the untegral cardiovascular evaluation should be done not just for classification but also as potential risk estimation for hypertension.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Anthropometry/methods , Body Mass Index , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Hypertension , Public Health/education
12.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2011 Feb; 48(1): 54-58
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135301

ABSTRACT

Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for development of coronary artery disease. Cassia auriculata is traditionally used in India for medicinal purposes. In this study, effect of ethanolic extract of Cassia auriculata flowers (Et-CAF) was investigated in Triton WR1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Treatment with the Et-CAF (450 mg/kg b.wt) significantly reduced the total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL) levels and significantly increased the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level associated with reduction of atherogenic index in hyperlipidemic rats. However, there was no change in the serum lipid profile of normal rats treated with Et-CAF alone. The results suggest that Et-CAF has a beneficial effect in treating hyperlipidemia and may serve as a potential drug for prevention of hyperlipidemic atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Body Weight/drug effects , Cassia/chemistry , Cholesterol/blood , Cholesterol/metabolism , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/drug effects , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/drug effects , Cholesterol, LDL/metabolism , Ethanol/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Hyperlipidemias/blood , Hyperlipidemias/chemically induced , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Hypolipidemic Agents/isolation & purification , Hypolipidemic Agents/pharmacology , Hypolipidemic Agents/therapeutic use , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Triglycerides/blood , Triglycerides/metabolism
13.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2011. xiii,85 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-658789

ABSTRACT

O envelhecimento populacional tem elevado a carga das doenças cardiovasculares, principal causa de morte no mundo, e de seus fatores de risco e vem ocorrendo em uma velocidade sem precedentes na América Latina e no Caribe. O objetivo geral desta tese foi analisar os fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares em indivíduos da Coorte de Idosos de Bambuí (Brasil). O objetivo do primeiro estudo foi investigar a existência do efeito de geração (efeito coorte) na prevalência de fatores de risco cardiovascular entre idosos mais velhos. Os participantes foram indivíduos com idade de 71 a 81 anos, em dois momentos do tempo, com o intervalo de uma década: 457 em 1997 (coorte anterior) e 553 em 2008 (coorte recente). A prevalência de hipertensão (RP = 1,27; IC 95%: 1,19-1,36) e de diabetes mellitus. (RP = 1,39; IC 95%: 1,06-1,83) foi maior na coorte recente em relação à anterior, independentemente do sexo. A coorte recente teve menor prevalência de tabagismo (RP = 0,58; IC 95%: 0,42-0,80) e nível mais baixo da razão colesterol Total/colesterol HDL (RP = 0,85; IC 95%: 0,80-0,89).


Houve um aumento de 136% no tratamento farmacológico do diabetes e um aumento de 56% no tratamento farmacológico da hipertensão em 2008 em comparação com 1997. No geral, o número de fatores de risco cardiovascular na coorte recente permaneceu semelhante ao da coorte inicial. O segundo estudo teve como objetivo. examinar o valor prognóstico de parâmetros lipídicos na incidência de hipertensão arterial em idosos vivendo na comunidade. A pesquisa incluiu 306 (81% do total) pessoas com idade ≥ 60 anos que estavam livres de hipertensão e de doenças cardiovasculares na linha de base da Coorte de Idosos de Bambuí (Brasil). A incidência acumulada em três anos da hipertensão arterial foi de 37,3%. O risco relativo (RR) para a incidência da hipertensão diminuiu 0,92 para cada unidade de colesterol HDL (IC 95%: 0,86-0,99), independente de vários potenciais fatores de confusão. Indivíduos com colesterol HDL no tercil superior (≥ 55 mg/dL) apresentaram metade do risco de hipertensão que aqueles no tercil inferior (RR = 0,54; IC 95%: 0,33-0,90). Os outros parâmetros lipídicos não apresentaram efeitos estatisticamente significantes sobre o evento. Valores mais altos de colesterol HDL apresentaram efeito protetor para o desenvolvimento da hipertensão em idosos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism , Hypertension/metabolism , Aged/physiology
14.
Clinics ; 66(3): 407-410, 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-585948

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this prospective study was to compare changes in lipid metabolism and nutritional status after either 6 and 12 months of follow-up in subjects with lipodystrophy syndrome after traditional lifestyle therapy with or without fibric acid analogue intervention (bezafibrate and clofibrate). METHODS: Food intake, alterations in body composition and metabolic abnormalities were assessed in subjects with lipodystrophy syndrome at the beginning of the study. The nutritional status and metabolic alterations of the subjects were monitored, and the subjects received nutritional counseling each time they were seen. The subjects were monitored either two times over a period no longer than six months (Group A; n = 18) or three times over a period of at least 12 months (Group B; n = 35). All of the subjects underwent nutrition counseling that was based on behavior modification. The fibric acid analogue was only given to patients with serum triglyceride levels above 400 mg/dL. RESULTS: After six months of follow-up, Group A showed no alterations in the experimental parameters. After twelve months, there was a decrease in serum triglyceride levels (410.4 ± 235.5 vs. 307.7 ± 150.5 mg/dL, p< 0.05) and an increase in both HDLc levels (37.9±36.6 vs. 44.9 ±27.9 mg/dL, p,0.05) and lean mass (79.9 ± 7.8 vs. 80.3 ± 9.9 percent, p< 0.05) in Group B. CONCLUSION: After one year of follow-up (three sessions of nutritional and medical counseling), the metabolic parameters of the subjects with lipodystrophy improved after traditional lifestyle therapy with or without fibric acid analogue intervention.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Fibric Acids/metabolism , HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome/metabolism , Nutritional Status , Anthropometry , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism , Eating , Follow-Up Studies , HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome/therapy , Hyperlipidemias/therapy , Life Style , Prospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Triglycerides/metabolism
15.
São Paulo; s.n; 2011. [118] p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-609450

ABSTRACT

Treinamento físico é considerado um dos principais instrumentos para promover um estilo de vida saudável. No entanto, os efeitos do treinamento resistido sobre as vias metabólicas, especialmente o metabolismo lipídico intravascular é em grande parte inexplorada e merece uma investigação mais aprofundada. No presente estudo nós avaliamos os efeitos do treinamento resistido sobre o metabolismo de uma nanoemulsão artificial lipídica e na transferência de lípides para HDL, uma importante etapa do metabolismo da HDL. A cinética plasmática da nanoemulsão artificial lipídica foi estudada em 15 homens saudáveis com treinamento resistido regular de 1-4 anos (idade = 25 ± 5 anos, VO2máx = 50 ± 6 mL/kg/min) e em 15 homens saudáveis sedentários (28 ± 7 anos, VO2máx = 35 ± 9 mL/kg/min). A nanoemulsão artificial lipídica marcada com éster de colesterol-14C e colesterol livre-3H foi injetada por via intravenosa, as amostras de plasma foram coletadas por 24 h para determinar curvas de cinéticas e a taxa fracional de remoção (TFR). Transferência de lípides para HDL foi determinada in vitro pela incubação de amostras de plasma com nanoemulsões (doadores de lípides) marcada com o isótopo radioativo colesterol livre, éster de colesterol, triglicérides e fosfolípides. Tamanho da HDL, atividade da paraoxonase 1 e os níveis de LDL oxidada também foram determinadas. Os dois grupos apresentaram LDL-colesterol, HDL-colesterol e triglicérides semelhantes, mas a LDL oxidada foi menor no grupo treinamento resistido (30 ± 9 vs 61 ± 19 U/L, p = 0,0005). No treinamento resistido, a nanoemulsão éster de colesterol-14C foi removida duas vezes mais rápido do que em indivíduos sedentários (TFR: 0,068 ± 0,023 vs 0,037 ± 0,028, p = 0,002), bem como o colesterol livre-3H (0,041 ± 0,025 vs 0,022 ± 0,023, p = 0,04). Embora ambos os componentes da nanoemulsão tenham sido removidos na mesma proporção em indivíduos sedentários, no grupo treinamento resistido o colesterol livre-3H...


Exercise training is considered one of the main instruments to promote a healthy lifestyle. However, effects resistance training on the metabolic pathways, specially the intravascular lipid metabolism is largely unexplored and deserves further investigation. In this study we evaluated the effects of resistance training on the metabolism of an LDL-like nanoemulsion and on lipid transfer to HDL, an important step of HDL metabolism. LDL-like nanoemulsion plasma kinetics was studied in 15 healthy men under regular resistance training for 1-4 years (age = 25 ± 5 years, VO2peak = 50 ± 6 mL/kg/min) and in 15 healthy sedentary men (28 ± 7 years, VO2peak = 35 ± 9 mL/kg/min). LDL-like nanoemulsion labeled with 14C-cholesteryl ester and 3H-free cholesterol was injected intravenously, plasma samples were collected over 24 h to determine kinetics curves and fractional clearance rates (FCR). Lipid transfer to HDL was determined in vitro by incubating of plasma samples with nanoemulsions (lipid donors) labeled with radioactive free cholesterol, cholesteryl ester, triglycerides and phospholipids. HDL size, paraoxonase 1 activity and oxidized LDL levels were also determined. The two groups showed similar LDL and HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, but oxidized LDL was lower in resistance training group (30 ± 9 vs 61 ± 19 U/L, p = 0.0005). In resistance training, the nanoemulsion 14Ccholesteryl ester was removed twice as fast than in sedentary individuals (FCR: 0.068 ± 0.023 vs 0.037 ± 0.028, p = 0.002), as well as 3H-free cholesterol (0.041 ± 0.025 vs 0.022 ± 0.023, p = 0.04). While both nanoemulsion labels were removed at the same rate in sedentary individuals, in resistance training group 3H-free cholesterol was removed slower than 14C-cholesteryl ester (p = 0.005). HDL size, paraoxonase 1 and the transfer rates to HDL of the four lipids were the same in both groups. Therefore, we conclude that the resistance training accelerated the clearance of LDL-like nanoemulsion...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism , Cholesterol, LDL/metabolism , Exercise , Lipids , Lipoproteins , Nanoparticles
16.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2011. xiii,85 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-937953

ABSTRACT

O envelhecimento populacional tem elevado a carga das doenças cardiovasculares, principal causa de morte no mundo, e de seus fatores de risco e vem ocorrendo em uma velocidade sem precedentes na América Latina e no Caribe. O objetivo geral desta tese foi analisar os fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares em indivíduos da Coorte de Idosos de Bambuí (Brasil). O objetivo do primeiro estudo foi investigar a existência do efeito de geração (efeito coorte) na prevalência de fatores de risco cardiovascular entre idosos mais velhos. Os participantes foram indivíduos com idade de 71 a 81 anos, em dois momentos do tempo, com o intervalo de uma década: 457 em 1997 (coorte anterior) e 553 em 2008 (coorte recente). A prevalência de hipertensão (RP = 1,27; IC 95%: 1,19-1,36) e de diabetes mellitus. (RP = 1,39; IC 95%: 1,06-1,83) foi maior na coorte recente em relação à anterior, independentemente do sexo. A coorte recente teve menor prevalência de tabagismo (RP = 0,58; IC 95%: 0,42-0,80) e nível mais baixo da razão colesterol Total/colesterol HDL (RP = 0,85; IC 95%: 0,80-0,89).


Houve um aumento de 136% no tratamento farmacológico do diabetes e um aumento de 56% no tratamento farmacológico da hipertensão em 2008 em comparação com 1997. No geral, o número de fatores de risco cardiovascular na coorte recente permaneceu semelhante ao da coorte inicial. O segundo estudo teve como objetivo. examinar o valor prognóstico de parâmetros lipídicos na incidência de hipertensão arterial em idosos vivendo na comunidade. A pesquisa incluiu 306 (81% do total) pessoas com idade ≥ 60 anos que estavam livres de hipertensão e de doenças cardiovasculares na linha de base da Coorte de Idosos de Bambuí (Brasil). A incidência acumulada em três anos da hipertensão arterial foi de 37,3%. O risco relativo (RR) para a incidência da hipertensão diminuiu 0,92 para cada unidade de colesterol HDL (IC 95%: 0,86-0,99), independente de vários potenciais fatores de confusão. Indivíduos com colesterol HDL no tercil superior (≥ 55 mg/dL) apresentaram metade do risco de hipertensão que aqueles no tercil inferior (RR = 0,54; IC 95%: 0,33-0,90). Os outros parâmetros lipídicos não apresentaram efeitos estatisticamente significantes sobre o evento. Valores mais altos de colesterol HDL apresentaram efeito protetor para o desenvolvimento da hipertensão em idosos.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aged/physiology , Cohort Studies , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism , Hypertension/metabolism
17.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 54(9): 777-784, dez. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-578357

ABSTRACT

Estudos epidemiológicos mostram relação inversa entre níveis plasmáticos de HDL-colesterol (HDL-C) e incidência de doença cardiovascular (DCV). O papel antiaterogênico da HDL é atribuído às suas atividades anti-inflamatória, antitrombótica e antioxidante, além de sua participação no transporte reverso de colesterol (TRC), processo pelo qual a HDL remove colesterol dos tecidos periféricos, incluindo macrófagos da íntima arterial, e o transporta para o fígado para ser excretado pela bile. Com base nesses fatos, o HDL-C tornou-se alvo atrativo para a prevenção da DCV. No entanto, o fracasso do torcetrapib, droga que aumenta substancialmente os níveis de HDL-C, em prevenir DCV, além do conhecimento gerado por estudos de modelos animais e doenças monogênicas que afetam a concentração de HDL-C, tem suscitado questionamentos sobre o papel antiaterogênico da HDL. Esta revisão tem como objetivo abordar aspectos atuais do conhecimento da HDL, baseando-se nessas recentes controvérsias.


Epidemiological studies demonstrate an inverse correlation between plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The antiatherogenic role of HDL has been attributed to its anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic and antioxidant properties, besides its participation in the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), whereby cholesterol from peripheral tissues (including macrophages of the arterial intima) is delivered to the liver for excretion in bile. Due to these actions, HDL-C has evolved as an attractive target for prevention of CVD. However, the failure of torcetrapib, drug that substantially increases HDL-C levels, in preventing CVD and data from studies with animal models and with carriers of monogenic disorders affecting HDL-C levels in humans provide conflicting data about HDL being antiatherogenic. This review addresses the current state of knowledge regarding HDL based on these recent controversies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism , Quinolines/therapeutic use , Biological Transport , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/drug effects , Yin-Yang
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135906

ABSTRACT

Paraoxonases (PONs) i.e. PON1, PON2, PON3 are basically lactonases. Of these, PON1 in addition has an efficient esterase activity and can hydrolyze organophosphates. The PONs prevent low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) from peroxidation, thereby preventing atherosclerosis. The PON1 is exclusively associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and its antioxidant activity is largely attributed to PON1 located on it. At present, PON1 status i.e. its activity and concentration, is considered to be more important than polymorphism alone, in prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD). Its activity has been found to be affected by a number of pharmacological agents, diet and other factors, thereby becoming a promising target for pharmacological intervention. The PON2 prevents cell mediated lipid peroxidation. However, little is known about the role of PON3. This review describes the structure, gene polymorphism, and factors affecting the activity of PONs, and their role in prevention of CAD.


Subject(s)
Aryldialkylphosphatase/genetics , Aryldialkylphosphatase/metabolism , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism , Cholesterol, LDL/metabolism , Coronary Artery Disease/enzymology , Coronary Artery Disease/genetics , Humans , Isoenzymes/genetics , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Polymorphism, Genetic
19.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 54(4): 369-376, jul.-ago. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-489623

ABSTRACT

Após atingir as metas para os níveis de LDL-colesterol, é imperativo alcançar a meta do HDL-colesterol, por suas conhecidas propriedades antiaterogênicas confirmadas amplamente em muitos estudos epidemiológicos. Esta revisão analisa de maneira objetiva e concisa as diversas alternativas disponíveis na prática clínica diária para aumentar os níveis de HDL-colesterol em nosoos pacientes, com o objetivo de alcançar melhores prognósticos em termos de morbimortalidade cardiovascular.


After having reached the objective for the LDL cholesterol levels, it becomes imperative to reach the objective for HDL cholesterol, known for its anti-atherogenic properties, generally confirmed in many epidemiological studies. This review deals, in a clear and concise manner, with the different alternatives available in daily clinical practice to raise the HDL cholesterol levels of patients, to achieve better outcomes in terms of morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypolipidemic Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cholesterol, LDL/metabolism , Clofibric Acid/therapeutic use , Exercise , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Niacin/therapeutic use , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Thiazolidinediones/therapeutic use
20.
Prensa méd. argent ; 95(2): 96-106, abr. 2008.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-497661

ABSTRACT

La hiperlipidemia por lipoproteína a -LDL más apo a- es un factor de riesgo vascular aterotrombótico, familiar, independiente y poderoso, llamativamente desconsiderado. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo su mejor diagnóstico y tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apolipoproteins A/genetics , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism , Cholesterol, LDL/genetics , Cholesterol, LDL/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Lipoprotein(a) , Lysine/pharmacology , Niacin/therapeutic use , Proline/pharmacology
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