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Med. infant ; 30(2): 122-132, Junio 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1443513


Introducción: La dislipidemia es uno de los problemas más frecuentes en los niños y adolescentes y su estudio es importante debido a su fuerte correlación con la enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica en adultos. Muchos países desarrollaron valores de referencia nacionales investigando los lípidos séricos utilizando datos basados en la población nacional propia. Nuestro objetivo fue verificar el intervalo de referencia del perfil lipídico calculando las curvas de percentiles a través del método indirecto en nuestra población pediátrica. Materiales y métodos: Se analizaron los resultados de nuestra base de datos utilizando el método indirecto. Luego de aplicar filtros y criterios de exclusión se calcularon los percentiles 25, 50, 75, 95 y 99 para colesterol total (CT), colesterol HDL (C-HDL), colesterol no HDL (C-no-HDL), triglicéridos (TG) y colesterol LDL (C-LDL) y para el C-HDL además se calculó el percentil 10. El valor de referencia para el cambio (RCV) se utilizó para determinar si existía diferencia clínicamente significativa entre los valores de percentiles obtenidos y los utilizados en el consenso de la SAP. Resultados: No se evidenció diferencia clínicamente significativa contra los valores propuesto por la SAP, excepto para los TG para las edades 1,5,7 años en el percentil 95 y para la edad de 8 años en el percentil 75 y 95; para el C-HDL en el percentil 10 para las edades 1,16 y 17 años. Discusión: Se obtuvieron los percentiles de los lípidos y se compararon con los valores de referencia utilizados por el consenso en el que están basados las guías (AU)

Introduction: Dyslipidemia is one of the most common problems in children and adolescents and its study is important because of its strong correlation with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Many countries have developed national reference values investigating serum lipids using data based on their own national population. Our aim was to verify the lipid profile reference range by calculating percentile curves through the indirect method in our pediatric population. Materials and methods: The results of our database were analyzed using the indirect method. After applying filters and exclusion criteria, the 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th, and 99th percentiles were calculated for total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C); for HDL-C, the 10th percentile was also calculated. The reference change values (RCV) were used to determine whether there was a clinically significant difference between the percentile values obtained and those used in the consensus of the Argentine Association of Pediatrics (SAP). Results: There was no clinically significant difference with the values proposed by the SAP, except for TG for ages 1, 5, and 7 years at the 95th percentile and for age 8 years at the 75th and 95th percentile; and for HDL-C at the 10th percentile for ages 1, 16, and 17 years. Discussion: Lipid percentiles were obtained and compared with the reference values used by the consensus on which the guidelines are based (AU)

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Reference Values , Triglycerides/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/prevention & control , Dyslipidemias/diagnosis , Lipids/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Retrospective Studies
ABCD (São Paulo, Online) ; 36: e1753, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447012


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Vitamin, mineral, and metabolic deficiencies occur in the postoperative period of bariatric surgery, in the short and long term, and are worrisome intercurrences. AIMS: To evaluate the association of serum vitamin D levels with the lipid profile in obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. METHODS: Case series of patients assisted from 2010 to 2018, in a private hospital of medium and high complexity, who underwent bariatric surgery using sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass techniques, monitored by the same surgeon. Sociodemographic, clinical, laboratory, and anthropometric data were collected preoperatively and at 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. RESULTS: A total of 156 individuals, mostly female (75.6%) were monitored. The most frequent comorbidities were hepatic steatosis (76.3%) and hypertension (48.27). Regarding preoperative vitamin D levels, only 18.9% of the population had a satisfactory level (≥30 ng/mL). There was a reduction in weight and an improvement in the lipid profile after surgery. Significant correlations were observed between the lipid profile and vitamin D concentration only in the sample submitted to the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass technique: negative correlation between total cholesterol and vitamin D two years after surgery; positive correlation between triglycerides and vitamin D one year after surgery; and negative correlation between high-density lipoprotein and vitamin D two years post-surgery. CONCLUSIONS: It is essential to routinely monitor vitamin D levels and lipid profile pre- and postoperatively in order to avoid damage associated with this vitamin deficiency.

RESUMO RACIONAL: Deficiências vitamínicas, minerais e metabólicas ocorrem no pós-operatório de cirurgia bariátrica, a curto e longo prazo, sendo intercorrências preocupantes. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a associação dos níveis séricos de vitamina D com o perfil lipídico, em pacientes obesos submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica. MÉTODOS: Série de casos de pacientes atendidos de 2010 até 2018, em hospital privado de média e alta complexidade, submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica pelas técnicas da gastrectomia vertical e derivação gástrica em Y de Roux, acompanhados pelo mesmo cirurgião. Foram coletados dados sociodemográficos, clínicos, dados laboratoriais e antropométricos no pré-operatório, 6 meses, 12 meses e 24 meses após cirurgia. RESULTADOS: Foram acompanhados 156 indivíduos, maioria sexo feminino (75,6%), comorbidades mais frequentes foram esteatose hepática (76,3%) e hipertensão (48,27). Em relação aos níveis de vitamina D pré-operatórios, apenas 18,9% da população apresentaram níveis satisfatórios (=30 ng/mL). Observou-se redução do peso e melhora do perfil lipídico pós-cirúrgico. Sobre as correlações entre o perfil lipídico e concentração de vitamina D foram observadas correlações significativas apenas na amostra que passou pela técnica cirúrgica derivação gástrica em Y de Roux: correlação negativa entre o colesterol total e vitamina D após 2 anos de cirurgia; correlação positiva entre triglicerídeo e vitamina D 1 ano pós-operatório; e correlação negativa entre HDL e vitamina D 2 anos pós-operatório. CONCLUSÕES: é essencial acompanhar os níveis de vitamina D e perfil lipídico no pré e pós-operatório de forma rotineira a fim de evitar danos relacionados a deficiência dessa vitamina.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Vitamin D Deficiency/etiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Bariatric Surgery/adverse effects , Postoperative Period , Vitamin D , Body Mass Index , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Obesity/surgery
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 35: e210098, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387493


ABSTRACT Objective This research was conducted as a prospective, self-controlled, eight-week clinical trial to investigate the effect of kefir consumption on the lipid profile of individuals with normal and dyslipidemic properties. Methods Kefir microorganisms given to volunteer subjects were determined using classical microbial count methods and qReal-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction. The study was carried out with 23 volunteer hospital health personnel between the ages of 20 and 55 who met the research criteria and did not have any health problems. The volunteers regularly consumed kefir on an empty stomach for four weeks. In the last stage, the eight-week study was completed by making blood and anthropometric measurements of the subjects, who continued to be studied without kefir consumption for four more weeks. Results Considering the changes in the serum lipid profiles of 13 individuals with dyslipidemic symptoms during the 4-week period they consumed kefir, Total Cholesterol values decreased by 9.15% compared to initial values, LDL-Cholesterol values decreased by 10.64%, HDL-Cholesterol values decreased by 6.9%, and triglyceride values decreased by 2.46%. The changes in the serum lipid profiles of 13 individuals with dyslipidemic findings at the end of an eight-week study were a 5.71% decrease in total cholesterol values (p<0.018) considered statistically significant, as well as a 5.31% decrease in LDL-Cholesterol values (p<0.021); the HDL-Cholesterol results were found to be significant with an 8.58% decrease in the values (p<0.035) and insignificant with a 17.21% increase in the triglyceride values (p<0.926). We concluded that regular kefir consumption was effective in both women and men in lowering total cholesterol and LDL-Cholesterol from blood lipid profiles, especially in individuals with dyslipidemic symptoms, while this effect was not observed in normal individuals. Conclusion Kefir can positively affect the total cholesterol and LDL-Cholesterol blood parameters of dyslipidemic individuals with high serum lipid values.

RESUMO Objetivo Esta pesquisa foi conduzida como um ensaio clínico prospectivo e autocontrolado de oito semanas para investigar o efeito do consumo de kefir no perfil lipídico de indivíduos com propriedades normais e dislipidêmicas. Métodos Microrganismos kefir dados a voluntários foram determinados usando métodos clássicos de contagem microbiana e de reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real. O estudo foi conduzido em 23 profissionais de saúde de hospitais voluntários, com idades entre 20 e 55 anos, que atendiam aos critérios da pesquisa e não apresentavam problemas de saúde. Os voluntários consumiram kefir com o estômago vazio regularmente durante quatro semanas. No último estágio, o estudo de oito semanas foi concluído com medidas de sangue e antropométricas dos indivíduos, que continuaram a ser avaliados sem consumo de kefir por mais quatro semanas. Resultados Considerando as mudanças nos perfis lipídicos séricos de 13 indivíduos com sintomas dislipidêmicos durante o período de quatro semanas em que consumiram kefir, os valores de colesterol total diminuíram em 9,15% em comparação com os valores iniciais; os valores de LDL-Colesterol diminuíram em 10,64%, os valores de HDL-Colesterol diminuíram em 6,9% e os valores de triglicerídeos diminuíram em 2,46%. Ao final de um estudo de oito semanas, o resultado foi considerado estatisticamente significativo, com queda de 5,71% nos valores de colesterol total (p<0,018); de 5,31% nos valores de Colesterol-LDL (p<0,021) e de 8,58% nos valores de HDL-Colesterol (p <0,035), e insignificantes com aumento de 17,21% nos valores de triglicerídeos (p<0,926). Como resultado do estudo, concluiu-se que o consumo regular de kefir foi eficaz em mulheres e homens na redução do colesterol total e do LDL-Colesterol dos perfis de lipídios no sangue, especialmente em indivíduos com sintomas dislipidêmicos, enquanto esse efeito não foi observado em indivíduos normais. Conclusão O kefir pode afetar positivamente os parâmetros sanguíneos do colesterol total e do LDL-Colesterol de indivíduos dislipidêmicos com altos valores de lipídios séricos.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Dyslipidemias/blood , Kefir/microbiology , Triglycerides/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(1): 43-51, jan-abr. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151409


Introdução: Usuários do sistema de saúde com doenças crônicas não transmissíveis devem estar em acompanhamento constante para evitar complicações em seu estado de saúde. Objetivo: Analisar os indicadores laboratoriais de saúde em usuários de uma Unidade Básica de Saúde com e sem o diagnóstico para a diabetes e hipertensão. Métodos: A amostra foi de 231 usuários de uma unidade básica de saúde da cidade de Santarém-PA, maiores de idade, que foram agrupados em pacientes com DM/HAS (DM/HAS; n=144), e sem o diagnóstico para DM/HAS (AUS; n=87). As coletas envolveram informações socioeconômicas, clínicas e laboratoriais. Os dados foram tratados com estatística descritiva e inferencial, adotando-se p<0.05. Resultados: Tanto no DM/HAS como no AUS predominou o sexo feminino, estado civil casado, com vínculo empregatício, cor de pele parda, com 4-7 anos de estudo, renda de 1-2 salários, não tabagistas, não etilista e faixa etária de 38-77 anos. A HAS foi a doença mais presente de forma geral, bem como por sexo. Identificou-se no DM/HAS valores menores para a taxa de filtração glomerular (TFG) e maiores valores para a glicemia, triglicerídeos, colesterol total, LDL-c e não HDL-c. Conclusão: De acordo com a proposta desenvolvida, destaca-se que os usuários com DM/HAS apresentam associação positiva para valores alterados de glicemia, colesterol total, não HDL-c, triglicerídeos, TFG e para a presença da síndrome metabólica e risco cardiovascular moderado/alto.

Introduction: Users of the health system with chronic non-communicable diseases must be constantly monitored to avoid complications in their health status. Objective: Analyze laboratory health indicators in users of a Basic Health Unit with and without a diagnosis for diabetes and hypertension. Methods: The sample consisted of 231 users of a basic health unit in the city of Santarém-PA, all of them of age, grouped into patients with DM/SAH (DM/SAH; n=144), and without the diagnosis for DM/SAH (ABS; n=87). The collections involved socioeconomic, clinical, and laboratory information. The data were treated with descriptive and inferential statistics, adopting p <0.05. Results: In both DM/SAH and ABS groups, there was a predominance of female individuals, married status, employed, brown skin color, with 4-7 years of study, income of 1-2 salaries, non-smokers, non-alcoholic drinkers, and aged between 38-77 years. SAH was the most common disease in general, as well as when analyzing by gender. Lower values for the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were identified in the DM/SAH and higher values for the glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-c, and non-HDL-c. Conclusion: According to the proposal of this paper, it is noteworthy that users with DM/SAH have a positive association for altered values of blood glucose, total cholesterol, non-HDL-c, triglycerides, GFR, and for the presence of metabolic syndrome and moderate/high cardiovascular risk.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Health Evaluation/statistics & numerical data , Health Centers , Health Status Indicators , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cholesterol/blood , Chronic Disease/nursing , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hypertension/diagnosis , Cholesterol, HDL , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(2): 59-64, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283550


INTRODUCCIÓN: El hipotiroidismo subclínico (HSC) se define bioquímicamente por una elevación en la concentración sérica de la hormona estimulante de la tiroides (TSH), con niveles normales de tiroxina libre (T4L). La asociación entre el HSC y el daño cardiovascular ha sido un tema controversial. OBJETIVO: determinar la asociación entre el HSC y el desarrollo de la enfermedad cardiovascular mediante la cuantificación de la proteína C reactiva ultrasensible PCR-us y la determinación de lípidos circulantes asociados a la enfermedad cardiovascular y la ateroesclerosis. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo, correlacional de corte transversal realizado en el Hospital IESS de Riobamba, Ecuador en el periodo comprendido desde enero a diciembre de 2019. Se estudiaron 70 individuos (40 pacientes con HSC y 30 controles) con edades entre 18 y 75 años. Se realizaron las historias clínicas y el examen físico a cada paciente y la toma de las muestras sanguíneas para determinar la concentración sérica de los siguientes parámetros bioquímicos y hormonales: colesterol total, triglicéridos, HDL colesterol y LDL colesterol, TSH, T4L y PCR-us. RESULTADOS: Se encontró un incremento significativo en la concentración de colesterol total (p<0.0001), LDL colesterol (p<0.01) y PCR-us (p<0.0001) en los pacientes con HSC vs los controles. Se observó una correlación positiva (p<0.0001; r=0.9148) entre la TSH y la PCR-us en los pacientes con HSC. CONCLUSIÓN: los pacientes con HSC experimentan una elevación en los niveles séricos de PCR-us la cual está correlacionada con un incremento en la concentración sérica de TSH. Estos parámetros asociados a un aumento del colesterol total y de la LDL colesterol sugieren un estado inflamatorio de bajo grado que podría estar asociado con el desarrollo de aterosclerosis y daño cardiovascular.

INTRODUCTION: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined biochemically by an elevation in serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration, with normal levels of free thyroxine (T4L). The association between SH and cardiovascular damage has been a controversial issue. OBJECTIVE: to determine the association between SH and the development of cardiovascular disease through the quantification of the high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-PCR) and the determination of circulating lipids associated to cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. METHODS: Observational, correlational cross-sectional study with patients captured in the internal medicine office as well as those attending screening activities at the IESS Hospital in Riobamba- Ecuador, in the period from January to December 2019. Seventy individuals (40 patients with SH and 30 controls) between the ages of 18 and 75 years were studied. Each patient's medical history and physical examination were performed, and blood samples were taken to determine the serum concentration of the following biochemical and hormonal parameters: total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, TSH, T4L and hs-PCR. RESULTS: A significant increase in the concentration of total cholesterol (p<0.0001), LDL cholesterol (p<0.01) and hs-PCR (p<0.0001) was found in patients with SH vs. controls. A positive correlation (p<0.0001; r=0.9148) was observed between TSH and hs-PCR in patients with SH. CONCLUSION: patients with SH experience an elevation in serum hs-PCR levels which is correlated with an increase in serum TSH concentration. These parameters associated with an increase in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol suggest a low-grade inflammatory state that may be associated with the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular damage.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Hypothyroidism/blood , Thyrotropin/blood , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecuador , Atherosclerosis , Hypothyroidism/complications , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(2): 65-73, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283551


INTRODUCCIÓN: Las dislipidemias favorecen la formación precoz de placas ateroscleróticas, aumentando el riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECVs). La Actividad Física (AF) es un factor protector de ECVs, por lo que el objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la asociación entre AF medida objetivamente y dislipidemias en población pediátrica. METODOLOGÍA: La AF fue evaluada en 159 niños (9-13 años) de la Región de La Araucanía a través de acelerometría (ActiGraph GT3X+). Por este medio se estimó el porcentaje de AF moderada a vigorosa (AFMV) y el de conducta sedentaria (CS). Sujetos con ≥60 min de AFMV se consideraron físicamente activos según recomendación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Individuos con %CS>75° percentil fueron considerados sedentarios. El perfil lipídico fue determinado usando métodos convencionales. Fueron calculados índices de aterogenicidad TG/cHDL e índice de aterogenicidad del plasma (IAP). RESULTADOS: 37,1% presentó dislipidemia, 8% hipercolesterolemia, 19,5% hipertrigliceridemia, 6,3% cLDL elevado y 25,2% cHDL disminuido. Solo un 9,4% fueron considerados físicamente activos de acuerdo a la recomendación de la OMS. En los sujetos físicamente activos no hubo caso de dislipidemias (p= 0,032) y tampoco bajos niveles de cHDL (p= 0,013). El %AFMV estaba reducido en sujetos con cHDL bajo y se correlacionó positivamente con HDL-c (r= 0,157, p=0,048). Además, el %AFMV se correlacionó con menores valores de TG/cHDL (r= -0,193, p=0,015) e IAP (r= -0,214, p=0,006). Si bien el comportamiento sedentario no estuvo asociado con riesgo de dislipidemias, el %CS se correlacionó positivamente con niveles de glucosa (r= 0,159, p=0,044) y HOMA-IR (r= 0,178, p=0,037) y negativamente con Quicki (r= -0,160, p=0,044). CONCLUSIONES: Los hallazgos sugieren que la AF se correlaciona a menor frecuencia de dislipidemias y la práctica de AFMV aumentaría los valores de HDL-c y reduciría los índices aterogénicos, por lo que promoverla puede significar disminuir el riesgo de ECVs en nuestra población. Además, la CS se relaciona con un aumento en valores de glucosa e índices de resistencia insulínica en escolares de la Región de La Araucanía.

Dyslipidemias cause early formation of atherosclerotic plaque, increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Physical Activity (PA) is a protective factor against CVDs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between objectively measured PA with dyslipidemias in a pediatric population. METHOD: The PA was evaluated in 159 children (9-13 years old) from Región de La Araucanía using accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X +). The percentage of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) were estimated. Subjects with ≥60 min of MVPA were considered physically active according to the recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO). Individuals with %SB >75th percentile were sedentary. The lipid profile was determined using conventional methods. TG/HDL-C ratio and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) were calculated. RESULTS: 37.1% presented dyslipidemia, 8% hypercholesterolemia, 19.5% hypertriglyceridemia, 6.3% elevated LDL-C and 25.2% decreased HDL-C. Only 9.4% were physically active according to the WHO recommendation. In physically active subjects where no cases of dyslipidemias (p =0.032) and no low HDL-C (p = 0.013). The %MVPA was reduced in subjects with low HDL-C and positively correlated with HDL-c (r = 0.157, p = 0.048). In addition, %MVPA was correlated with lower TG / HDL-C values (r = -0.193, p = 0.015) and AIP (r = -0.214, p = 0.006). SB was not associated with risk of dyslipidemia, % SB was positively correlated with glucose levels (r = 0.159, p = 0.044) and HOMA-IR (r = 0.178, p = 0.037) and negatively with Quicki (r = -0.160, p = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that PA is it correlates to a lower frequency of dyslipidemia and the practice of MVPA would increase HDL-c values and reduce atherogenic index, promoting it may been reducing the risk of CVDs in our population. In addition, the SB is related to an increase in glucose values and insulin resistance index in schoolchildren in Región de La Araucanía.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Exercise , Dyslipidemias/blood , Students , Triglycerides/blood , Body Weight , Insulin Resistance , Chile , Anthropometry , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Education, Primary and Secondary , Atherosclerosis/blood , Sedentary Behavior , Accelerometry , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Homeostasis , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 39: e2019389, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136771


ABSTRACT Objective: To carry out a systematic review on the effects of phytosterol supplementation on the treatment of dyslipidemia in children and adolescents. Data sources: Review in the SciELO, Lilacs, Bireme, PubMed and Web of Science databases, with no time limit. Descriptors: phytosterols or plant sterols and dyslipidemias, hypercholesterolemia, cholesterol, children, adolescent, in English and Portuguese. The articles included were published in Portuguese, English or Spanish and evaluated the effect of phytosterol supplementation in pediatric patients with dyslipidemia. Documents that involved adults or animals, review papers, case studies and abstracts were excluded. Two authors performed independent extraction of articles. Of 113 abstracts, 19 were read in full and 12 were used in this manuscript. Data synthesis: Phytosterol supplementation to reduce cholesterol levels has been shown to be effective in reducing LDL-cholesterol levels by approximately 10%, with reductions above 10% in LDL-cholesterol levels observed after 8 to 12 weeks of intervention. Studies have not shown significant changes in HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Based on the absence of adverse effects, its use seems to be safe and of good tolerance in children and adolescents. Conclusions: Phytosterol supplementation seems to be of great therapeutic aid for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia in children and adolescents. Further studies assessing the long-term effect of phytosterol supplementation are necessary.

RESUMO Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão sistemática sobre os efeitos da suplementação de fitoesteróis no tratamento da dislipidemia em crianças e adolescentes. Fontes de dados: Revisão nos bancos SciELO, Lilacs, Bireme, Pubmed e Web of Science, sem limite de tempo. Descritores: phytosterols or plant sterols, dyslipidemias, hypercholesterolemia, cholesterol, children, adolescent, nas línguas inglesa e portuguesa. Os artigos incluídos foram publicados nos idiomas português, inglês ou espanhol e avaliaram o efeito da suplementação de fitoesteróis em pacientes pediátricos com dislipidemia. Estudos que envolviam adultos ou animais, trabalhos de revisão, estudos de caso e resumos foram excluídos. A extração independente de artigos foi realizada por dois autores. Do total de 113 resumos, 19 foram lidos na íntegra, e 12 utilizados neste manuscrito. Síntese de dados: A suplementação de fitoesteróis para a redução dos níveis de colesterol mostrou-se eficiente, de forma a promover a redução de aproximadamente 10% dos níveis de LDL-colesterol, sendo observadas reduções acima de 10% em 8 a 12 semanas de intervenção. Os estudos não mostraram alterações significantes nos níveis de HDL-colesterol e triglicérides. Com base na ausência de efeitos adversos, seu uso parece ser seguro e de boa tolerância em crianças e adolescentes. Conclusões: A suplementação com fitoesteróis parece ser de grande auxílio terapêutico para o tratamento da hipercolesterolemia em crianças e adolescentes. São necessários mais estudos que avaliem o efeito em longo prazo da suplementação de fitoesteróis.

Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Phytosterols/administration & dosage , Hypercholesterolemia/drug therapy , Anticholesteremic Agents/administration & dosage , Food, Fortified , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Cholesterol, LDL/adverse effects , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(3): 267-277, set. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130601


Diversos estudios evidencian la asociación entre los niveles elevados del colesterol de LDL (cLDL) y el riesgo de desarrollar enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica. Con el objetivo de comparar los valores de cLDL obtenidos mediante la medición directa y los valores estimados por las ecuaciones de Friedewald tradicional, modificada y de regresión, se valoró el cLDL de 4.621 pacientes mediante el ensayo directo en el autoanalizador ADVIA 1800. Dichos resultados se agruparon en los estados de normolipemia, hipercolesterolemia, hiperlipemia mixta e hipertrigliceridemia y se establecieron diferencias de estimación con las mencionadas fórmulas en el total de la muestra y en los niveles de decisión clínica para el cLDL. Las tres fórmulas presentaron correlación significativa con el método directo en la totalidad de la muestra; sin embargo, cuando los niveles de triglicéridos de las muestras superaron los 200 mg/dL, la diferencia entre la fórmula de Friedewald y el método directo resultó -11,94%, y llegó a -19,13% para el nivel de triglicéridos mayor de 400 mg/dL. Por otro lado, las ecuaciones de Friedewald modificada y de regresión se vieron afectadas en menor cuantía por el nivel de triglicéridos. Las fórmulas de regresión y de Friedewald modificada se constituyen como alternativas razonables para estimar el cLDL y presentan buena concordancia con el método directo, incluso en niveles altos de colesterol y triglicéridos.

Several studies show the association between high LDL cholesterol (LDLc) levels and the risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In order to compare the LDLc values obtained by direct measurement and the values estimated by the traditional, modified and regression Friedewald equations, the LDLc of 4,621 patients was assessed by means of the direct test in the ADVIA 1800 autoanalyzer.These results were grouped into the states of normolipemia, hypercholesterolemia, mixed hyperlipemia and hypertriglyceridemia, establishing differences in estimation with the aforementioned formulas in the total sample and in clinical decision levels for LDLc. The three formulas showed a significant correlation with the direct method in the entire sample; however, when the triglyceride levels of the samples exceeded 200 mg/dL, the difference between Friedewald's formula and the direct method was -11.94% reaching -19,13% for the triglyceride level greater than 400 mg/dL, while the modified Friedewald and regression equations were affected to a lesser extent by the triglyceride level. Regression and modified Friedewald formulas are constituted as reasonable alternatives to estimate LDLc and have good agreement with the direct method, even at high cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

Varios estudos evidenciam a associacao entre niveis elevados do colesterol LDL (cLDL) e o risco de desenvolver doenca cardiovascular aterosclerotica. Visando comparar os valores de cLDL obtidos atraves da medicao direta e os valores estimados pelas equacoes de Friedewald tradicional, modificada e de regressao, o cLDL de 4.621 pacientes foi avaliado por meio do teste direto no analisador automatico ADVIA 1800. Tais resultados foram agrupados nos estados de normolipemia, hipercolesterolemia, hiperlipemia mista e hipertrigliceridemia, estabelecendo-se diferencas na estimativa com as formulas mencionadas no total da amostra e nos niveis de decisao clinica para cLDL. As tres formulas apresentaram correlacao significativa com o metodo direto em toda a amostra, no entanto, quando os niveis de triglicerideos das amostras excederam 200 mg/dL, a diferenca entre a formula de Friedewald e o metodo direto foi de -11,94% atingindo -19,13% para o nivel de triglicerideos superior a 400 mg/dL. Por outra parte, as equacoes de Friedewald modificada e de regressao foram afetadas em menor grau pelo nivel de triglicerideos. As formulas de regressao e de Friedewald modificada se constituem como alternativas razoaveis para estimar o cLDL, e apresentam boa concordancia com o metodo direto, mesmo em niveis elevados de colesterol e triglicerideos.

Triglycerides , Hypertriglyceridemia , Cholesterol , Hypercholesterolemia , Hyperlipidemias , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type V , Cholesterol, LDL , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Patients , Association , Cardiovascular Diseases , Disease , Risk , Minors , Methods
Clinics ; 75: e1183, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089604


OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the acute effects of a session of water-based aerobic exercise on the blood lipid levels of women with dyslipidemia and to compare these results according to their training status. METHOD: Fourteen premenopausal women with dyslipidemia, aged 40-50 years, participated in two water-based aerobic exercise sessions, the first when they were generally sedentary and the second after they were trained with a water-based aerobic training program for 12 weeks. Both experimental sessions were performed using the same protocol, lasted 45 min, and incorporated an interval method, alternating 3 min at a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 13 and 2 min at an RPE of 9. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and lipoprotein lipase enzyme (LPL) were obtained through venous blood collection before and immediately after each session. A generalized estimating equation method and Bonferroni tests were conducted (with time and training status as factors) for statistical analyses. RESULTS: At enrollment, the mean age of the participants was 46.57 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 44.81−48.34). The statistical analyses showed a significant time effect for all variables (TC: p=0.008; TG: p=0.012; HDL: p<0.001; LPL: p<0.001) except for LDL (p=0.307). However, the training status effect was not significant for any variable (TC: p=0.527; TG: p=0.899; HDL: p=0.938; LDL: p=0.522; LPL: p=0.737). These results indicate that the TC and TG levels reduced and the HDL and LPL concentrations increased from pre- to post-session in similar magnitudes in both sedentary and trained women. CONCLUSIONS: A single water-based aerobic exercise session is sufficient and effective to beneficially modify the lipid profile of women with dyslipidemia, regardless of their training status.

Humans , Female , Adult , Aged , Water , Exercise/physiology , Dyslipidemias/therapy , Physical Exertion/physiology , Lipids/blood , Triglycerides/blood , Dyslipidemias/blood , Lipoprotein Lipase/metabolism , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
Adv Rheumatol ; 60: 18, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088642


Abstract Objective: Correlate serum magnesium (Mg) and Calcium (Ca) levels with body composition and metabolic parameters in women with fibromyalgia (FM). Patients and methods: Cross-sectional study compared with a control group paired by age and body mass index (BMI) of adult women diagnosed with fibromyalgia. All participants went through assessment of their body composition through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and had blood samples collected for dosing of Mg, Ca, C-reactive Protein (CRP), lipidogram and glycemia. Results: 53 women with FM (average age 48.1 ±8.2 years, average BMI 26.6 ±4.5 kg/m2) and 50 control women (average age 47.1 ±9.9 years, average BMI 25.6 ± 3.6 kg/m2) participated in the study. Serum levels turned out to have inverse correlation with CRP in the FM group (r = −0.29, p = 0.03) and with BMI and glycemia in the control group (r = 0.31; p = 0.02 and r = 0.48; p = 0.0004 respectively). Serum levels of calcium correlated with triglycerides (r = 0.29; p = 0.03) in the FM group and with glycemia in the control group (r = 0.64; p = 0.0001). Conclusions: In patients with FM, magnesemia turned out to have inverse correlation with CRP and calcemia had positive association with triglycerides.(AU)

Humans , Female , Fibromyalgia/physiopathology , Calcium/blood , Magnesium/blood , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose , Body Composition , C-Reactive Protein , Cross-Sectional Studies/instrumentation , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 38: e2019066, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092133


ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate whether tri-ponderal mass index and body mass index Z scores are equivalent for screening children and adolescents with insulin resistance. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 296 children and adolescents enrolled at public schools of Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil, aged eight to 14 years. The tri-ponderal mass index was calculated as the ratio between weight and height cubed. The body mass index was calculated as the ratio between weight and height squared. Insulin resistance was defined with the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR). Results: The HOMA-IR was higher in the 4th quartile of body mass index Z scores and tri-ponderal mass index compared to 1st and 2nd quartiles for both girls and boys. The areas under the age-adjusted receiver operating characteristic curves were similar between the indices for girls (body mass index Z scores=0.756; tri-ponderal mass index=0.763) and boys (body mass index Z scores=0.831; tri-ponderal mass index=0.843). In addition, according to the simple linear regression analyses estimations, both body mass index Z scores and tri-ponderal mass index explained a significant fraction of the homeostatic model assessment variability for girls (body mass index Z scores: R2=0.269; tri-ponderal mass index: R2=0.289; p<0.001) and boys (body mass index Z scores: R2=0.175; tri-ponderal mass index: R2=0.210; p<0.001). Conclusions: The tri-ponderal mass index and body mass index Z scores were similar to discriminate children and adolescents with insulin resistance. It is noteworthy that the use of tri-ponderal mass index is clearly advantageous, because it can be calculated with no concerns on adjustments for the age, a fact that makes it very applicable in the clinical practice.

RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar se o índice de massa tri-ponderal e os escores-z do índice de massa corporal são equivalentes na triagem de crianças e adolescentes com resistência à insulina. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 296 crianças e adolescentes matriculados em escolas públicas de Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brasil, com idades entre oito e 14 anos. O índice de massa tri-ponderal foi calculado como a razão entre o peso e a altura ao cubo. O índice de massa corporal foi calculado como a razão entre o peso e a altura ao quadrado. A resistência à insulina foi definida pelo modelo de avaliação da homeostase para resistência à insulina (HOMA-IR). Resultados: O HOMA-IR foi maior no 4º quartil dos escores-z do índice de massa corporal e do índice de massa tri-ponderal, em relação ao 1º e 2º quartis em ambos os sexos. As áreas sob as curvas receiver operating characteristic ajustadas por idade foram semelhantes em meninas (escores-z do índice de massa corporal=0,756; índice de massa tri-ponderal=0,763) e meninos (escores-z do índice de massa corporal=0,831; índice de massa tri-ponderal=0,843). Além disso, de acordo com as estimativas das análises de regressão linear simples, os escores-z do índice de massa corporal e o índice de massa tri-ponderal explicaram uma fração significativa da variabilidade do modelo de avaliação da homeostase para meninas (escores-z do índice de massa corporal: R2=0,269; índice de massa tri-ponderal: R2=0,289; p<0,001) e meninos (escores-z do índice de massa corporal: R2=0,175; índice de massa tri-ponderal: R2=0,210; p<0,001). Conclusões: O índice de massa tri-ponderal e os escores-z do índice de massa corporal foram semelhantes na triagem de crianças e adolescentes com resistência à insulina. É importante ressaltar que o uso do índice de massa tri-ponderal é claramente vantajoso, pois pode ser calculado sem ajustes por idade, fato que o torna muito aplicável à prática clínica.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Body Height , Body Weight , Insulin Resistance , Body Mass Index , Blood Glucose/analysis , Brazil , Anthropometry/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sex Distribution , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(1): e00028019, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055615


Anormalidades lipídicas e inflamação sistêmica subclínica estão associadas ao processo de aterosclerose, sendo utilizadas como marcadores de risco cardiovascular. Estudos sugerem um possível efeito benéfico dos produtos lácteos na saúde cardiovascular, mas os resultados em marcadores lipídicos e inflamatórios ainda são controversos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a associação entre o consumo de produtos lácteos e seus diferentes subgrupos e proteína C-reativa (PCR), LDL-colesterol (LDL-C) e razão triglicerídeo/HDL-colesterol (TG/HDL-C) nos participantes do Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil) (n = 9.372). O consumo de lácteos foi avaliado por meio de questionário de frequência alimentar validado e apresentado em porções/dia. O consumo total de lácteos foi descrito em quatro categorias (≤ 1 porção/dia a > 4 porções/dia). As associações foram estimadas por meio do odds ratios (OR), utilizando-se o grupo de menor consumo (≤ 1 porção/dia) como referência. Os menores valores de OR para TG/HDL-C no modelo multivariado (0,70; IC95%: 0,55-0,90 em homens; e 0,55; IC95%: 0,43-0,70 em mulheres) foram encontrados no grupo com consumo > 4 porções/dia de lácteos totais. Esses resultados foram apoiados pelas associações inversas encontradas entre diferentes subgrupos de lácteos e a razão TG/HDL-C. Não foi encontrada associação entre consumo de produtos lácteos e seus subgrupos e valores de LDL-C e de PCR. Os resultados sugerem um possível efeito benéfico dos lácteos no perfil lipídico, porém são necessárias evidências de estudos longitudinais e de intervenção que elucidem os mecanismos de efeito dos diferentes tipos de lácteos.

Lipid abnormalities and subclinical systemic inflammation are associated with atherosclerosis and are used as markers of cardiovascular risk. Studies have suggested a possible beneficial effect of dairy products on cardiovascular health, but the results in lipid and inflammatory markers are still controversial. This study aimed to assess the association between consumption of dairy products and their different subgroups and C-reactive protein (CRP), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C) in participants in the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) (n = 9,372). Consumption of dairy products was assessed via a validated food frequency questionnaire and expressed as servings/day. Total consumption of dairy products was described in four categories (≤ 1 serving/day to > 4 servings/day). The associations were estimated via odds ratios (OR), using the group with the lowest consumption (≤ 1 serving/day) as the reference. The lowest ORs for TG/HDL-C in the multivariate model (0.70; 95%CI: 0.55-0.90 in men; and 0.55; 95%CI: 0.43-0.70 in women) were found in the group that consumed > 4 servings day of dairy products. These results were supported by the inverse associations between different subgroups of dairy products and the TG/HDL-C ratio. No association was found between consumption of dairy products and their subgroups and LDL-C and CRP. The results suggest a possible beneficial effect of dairy products on lipid profile, but longitudinal and intervention studies are needed to elucidate the effect mechanisms of different types of dairy products.

Las anormalidades lipídicas e inflamación sistémica subclínica están asociadas con el proceso de arteriosclerosis, siendo utilizadas como marcadores de riesgo cardiovascular. Los estudios sugieren un posible efecto benéfico de los productos lácteos en la salud cardiovascular, pero los resultados en marcadores lipídicos e inflamatorios todavía son controvertidos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la asociación entre el consumo de productos lácteos y sus diferentes subgrupos y proteína C-reativa (PCR), LDL-colesterol (LDL-C) y razón triglicéridos/HDL-colesterol (TG/HDL-C) en los participantes del Estudio Longitudinal de Salud del Adulto (ELSA-Brasil) (n = 9.372). El consumo de lácteos fue evaluado mediante un cuestionario de frecuencia alimentaria validado, y presentado en porciones/día. El consumo total de lácteos se describió en cuatro categorías (≤ 1 porción/día a > 4 porciones/día). Las asociaciones fueron estimadas mediante odds ratios (OR), utilizando el grupo de menor consumo (≤ 1 porción/día) como referencia. Los menores valores de OR para TG/HDL-C en el modelo multivariado (0,70; IC95%: 0,55-0,90 en hombres; y 0,55; IC95%: 0,43-0,70 en mujeres) se encontraron en el grupo con consumo > 4 porciones/día de lácteos totales. Estos resultados se apoyaron en las asociaciones inversas encontradas entre diferentes subgrupos de lácteos y la razón TG/HDL-C. No se encontró asociación entre consumo de productos lácteos y sus subgrupos y valores de LDL-C y de PCR. Los resultados sugieren un posible efecto benéfico de los lácteos en el perfil lipídico, pese a que se necesitan evidencias de estudios longitudinales y de intervención que eluciden los mecanismos de efecto de los diferentes tipos de lácteos.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Diet Surveys , Dairy Products/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior , Lipids/blood , Socioeconomic Factors , Triglycerides/blood , Brazil , Biomarkers/blood , Risk Factors , Longitudinal Studies , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Middle Aged
Rev. invest. clín ; 71(6): 408-416, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289713


ABSTRACT Background The International Cholesterol Management Practice Study is a multinational collaborative effort to describe the effectiveness of the lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) as well as the main barriers to achieve the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals Objective The objective of the study was to investigate factors associated with the achievement of LDL-C goals in Mexico using real-life data Methods This was a cross-sectional observational study from 18 physicians across different health facilities in Mexico, who provided information about their practices between August 2015 and August 2016. We included patients treated for ≥3 months with any LLT in whom LDL-C measurement on stable LLT was available for the previous 12 months Results We included 623 patients with a mean age of 59.3 ± 12.7 years; 55.6% were women. The mean LDL-C value on LLT was 141.8 ± 56.1 mg/dL. At enrollment, 97.4% of patients were receiving statin therapy (11.3% on high-intensity treatment). Only 24.8% of the very-high cardiovascular (CV) risk patients versus 26.4% of the high risk and 52.4% of the moderate risk patients achieved their LDL-C goals. Independent factors associated with non-achievement of LDL-C goal were statin intolerance, overweight and obesity, abdominal obesity, female sex, high CV risk, use of public health-care service, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and hypertriglyceridemia. Higher-level of education was associated with a lower risk of not achieving LDL-C goals Conclusions Achievement of LDL-C goals is suboptimal in Mexico, especially in patients with the highest CV risk. The main barriers to achieve the goal are easily detectable. Implementation of LLT should be adapted to the patient’s needs and profile.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Hypercholesterolemia/drug therapy , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Educational Status , Hypercholesterolemia/blood , Mexico
Actual. osteol ; 15(3): 214-224, Sept-Dic. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116039


En la Argentina, las embarazadas presentan alta prevalencia (80%) de hipovitaminosis D y de sobrepeso u obesidad (27,4%). Ambas condiciones pueden aumentar la morbimortalidad materno-fetal. Bajos niveles de vitamina D se han relacionado con aumento del colesterol total, LDL, triglicéridos (Tg) y descenso de HDL. Objetivo: evaluar los niveles de 25-hidroxivitamina D (25OHD) y su relación con el perfil lipídico en pacientes embarazadas de alto riesgo. Materiales y métodos: estudio de corte transversal entre septiembre de 2016 y abril de 2017. Se excluyeron pacientes que recibieron suplementos de vitamina D, con disfunción tiroidea no compensada, malabsorción, insuficiencia cardíaca, renal o hepática y dislipidemia familiar. Niveles circulantes de 25OHD < 30 ng/ml se consideraron hipovitaminosis. Resultados: se evaluaron 86 embarazadas de 29,3 ± 7,1 años durante la semana 28 ± 6,5. El IMC pregestacional fue 28,3 ± 6,5 kg/m2 y la ganancia de peso 7 ± 4,3 kg. Perfil lipídico: colesterol total 240 ± 54 mg/dl; LDL 156 ± 54 mg/dl; HDL 66 ± 15 mg/dl; Tg 204 ± 80 mg/dl. La media de 25OHD fue de 23,8 ± 9 ng/ml, con una prevalencia de hipovitaminosis D de 77,9 %. Las pacientes con hipovitaminosis D presentaron mayores valores de colesterol total y LDL (p < 0,05), con tendencia no significativa a presentar mayores valores de Tg. Conclusión: en embarazadas de alto riesgo se observó una alta prevalencia de hipovitaminosis D, asociada con mayores concentraciones de colesterol total y LDL. (AU)

In Argentina, pregnant women have a high prevalence (80 %) of hypovitaminosis D and verweight/obesity (27.4%), conditions that can increase maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality. Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) have been linked to an increase in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and a decrease in HDL cholesterol. Objective: to evaluate the levels of vitamin D and its relationship with the lipid profile in high risk pregnant patients. Materials and methods: cross-sectional study between September 2016 and April 2017. Patients who received vitamin D supplements or had non-compensated thyroid dysfunction, malabsorption, heart failure, renal or hepatic failure, or familial dyslipidemia were excluded. Hypovitaminosis D was defined as a circulating level of 25OHD < 30 ng/ml. Results: We assessed 86 women of 29.3 ± 7.1 years during pregnancy week 28 ± 6.5. Pre-gestational BMI was 28.3 ± 6.5 kg/m2. Their weight gain was 7 ± 4.3 kg. Lipid profile: total cholesterol 240 ± 54 mg/dl; LDL cholesterol 156 ± 54 mg/dl; HDL cholesterol 66 ± 15 mg/dL; TG 204 ± 80 mg/dl. The mean 25OHD level was 23.8 ± 9 ng/ml, with a 77.9 % prevalence of hypovitaminosis D. Patients with hypovitaminosis D had higher values of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol (p<0.05), and a non-significant trend toward higher triglyceridemia. Conclusion: A high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, associated with high total and LDL cholesterol was found in high risk pregnant women. (AU)

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Avitaminosis/metabolism , Vitamin D/metabolism , Pregnancy, High-Risk/metabolism , Argentina/epidemiology , Avitaminosis/blood , Avitaminosis/epidemiology , Vitamin D/analysis , Vitamin D/blood , Epidemiologic Studies , Body Mass Index , Cholesterol/analysis , Cholesterol/blood , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes, Gestational/metabolism , Pregnancy, High-Risk/blood , Dyslipidemias/metabolism , Overweight/metabolism , Obstetric Labor, Premature/metabolism , Cholesterol, LDL/analysis , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Obesity/metabolism
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(5): 896-902, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055036


Abstract Background: In view of the increased global prevalence of cardiovascular and hepatic diseases, the diet lipid content and its relationship with the accumulation of fat in hepatocytes have been investigated as key factors in preventing these diseases. Objective: To evaluate the metabolic effects of a high-lard diet supplemented or not with cholesterol on a modified dyslipidemia model. Methods: We divided 24 adult male Wistar rats into three groups: standard diet (STD - 4% lipids), high-lard diet (HLD - 21% lard), and high-lard and high-cholesterol diet (HL/HCD - 20% lard, 1% cholesterol, 0.1% cholic acid). After six weeks of treatment, blood and liver were collected for biochemical (serum lipid profile and liver enzymes) and morphological analyses. Statistical analysis included one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey test for mean comparisons, and a 5% probability was considered statistically significant. Results: Animals fed HL/HCD showed increased total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, LDL-c, non-HDL-c, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) serum levels compared to those fed STD. In addition, the HL/HCD animals presented higher relative liver weight, with moderate macrovesicular hepatic steatosis and inflammatory infiltrate. Conclusion: A high-fat diet with lard (20%) and cholesterol (1%) triggered dyslipidemia with severe liver damage in rats in a shorter experimental time than the previously reported models. The high-lard diet without supplementation of cholesterol led to body weight gain, but not to dyslipidemia.

Resumo Fundamento: Tendo em vista o aumento da prevalência global de doenças cardiovasculares e hepáticas, o conteúdo lipídico da dieta e sua relação com o acúmulo de gordura nos hepatócitos têm sido investigados como fatores-chave na prevenção dessas doenças. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos metabólicos de uma dieta rica em banha suplementada com colesterol ou não, em um modelo modificado de dislipidemia. Métodos: Foram divididos 24 ratos Wistar machos adultos em três grupos: dieta padrão (DP - 4% de lipídios), dieta rica em banha (DRB - 21% de banha) e dieta rica em banha e colesterol (DRB/RC - 20% de banha, 1% de colesterol e 0,1% de ácido cólico). Após seis semanas de tratamento, o sangue e o fígado foram coletados para análises bioquímicas (perfil lipídico sérico e enzimas hepáticas) e morfológicas. A análise estatística incluiu análise de variância unidirecional (ANOVA), seguida do teste de Tukey para comparações de médias. Uma probabilidade de 5% foi considerada estatisticamente significativa. Resultados: Animais alimentados com DRB/RC apresentaram um aumento nos níveis séricos de colesterol total, triacilglicerol, LDL-c, não-HDL-c, alanina aminotransferase (ALT) e aspartato aminotransferase (AST) em comparação com aqueles alimentados com DP. Além disso, os animais tratados com DRB/RC apresentaram um peso relativo do fígado maior, com esteatose hepática macrovesicular moderada e infiltrado inflamatório. Conclusão: Uma dieta rica em gordura com banha (20%) e colesterol (1%) desencadeou dislipidemia com danos graves ao fígado em ratos em um tempo experimental menor do que os modelos previamente relatados. A dieta rica em banha sem suplementação de colesterol levou ao ganho de peso corporal, mas não à dislipidemia.

Animals , Male , Dyslipidemias/chemically induced , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Metabolic Diseases/etiology , Organ Size , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Triglycerides/blood , Body Weight , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Cholesterol/adverse effects , Cholesterol/blood , Rats, Wistar , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Dyslipidemias/metabolism , Dyslipidemias/blood , Fatty Liver/pathology , Inflammation , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Metabolic Diseases/metabolism , Metabolic Diseases/blood
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(3): 345-355, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040247


ABSTRACT Introduction: There is evidence that aldosterone plays a role in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, on the progression of coronary calcification (CC) in peritoneal dialysis patients and to identify the factors involved in this progression. Methods: Thirty-three patients with a coronary calcium score (CCS) ≥ 30, detected through multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and expressed in Agatston units, were randomly assigned to a group receiving 25mg spironolactone per day for 12 months (spironolactone group) and a control group not receiving this drug. The primary outcome was a percentage change in CCS from baseline to end of the study (relative progression), when a further MDCT was conducted. Patients who had progression of CC were compared with those who did not progress. Results: Sixteen patients, seven in the spironolactone group and nine in the control group, concluded the study. The relative progression of the CCS was similar in both groups, 17.2% and 27.5% in the spironolactone and control groups respectively. Fifty-seven percent of the treated patients and 67% of those in the control group presented progression in the CC scores (p = 0.697). Progressor patients differed from non-progressors because they presented higher levels of calcium and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower levels of albumin. Conclusion: In peritoneal dialysis patients, spironolactone did not attenuate the progression of CC. However, large-scale studies are needed to confirm this observation. Disorders of mineral metabolism and dyslipidemia are involved in the progression of CC.

RESUMO Introdução: Existem evidências de que a aldosterona exerça um papel na patogênese da calcificação vascular. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da espironolactona, um antagonista do receptor mineralocorticoide, na progressão da calcificação coronariana (CC) de pacientes em diálise peritoneal, e identificar os fatores envolvidos nessa progressão. Métodos: Trinta e três pacientes com escore de cálcio coronariano (ECC) ≥ 30, detectado por tomografia computadorizada com múltiplos detectores (TCMD) e expresso em unidades de Agatston, foram randomizados para um grupo que recebeu 25 mg de espironolactona por dia durante 12 meses (grupo espironolactona) e um grupo controle que não recebeu este medicamento. O desfecho primário foi a mudança percentual do ECC do início para o final do estudo (progressão relativa), quando uma nova TCMD foi realizada. Os pacientes que tiveram progressão de CC foram comparados com aqueles que não progrediram. Resultados: Dezesseis pacientes, sete no grupo espironolactona e nove no grupo controle, concluíram o estudo. A progressão relativa do ECC foi semelhante nos dois grupos, 17,2% e 27,5% nos grupos espironolactona e controle, respectivamente. Cinquenta e sete por cento dos pacientes tratados e 67% daqueles no grupo controle apresentaram progressão nos escores de CC (p = 0,697). Os pacientes progressores diferiram dos não progressores porque apresentaram níveis séricos mais elevados de cálcio e LDL-colesterol e menores níveis de albumina. Conclusão: Em pacientes em diálise peritoneal, a espironolactona não atenuou a progressão da CC. No entanto, estudos em grande escala são necessários para confirmar essa observação. Distúrbios do metabolismo mineral e dislipidemia estão envolvidos na progressão da CC.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Spironolactone/therapeutic use , Peritoneal Dialysis , Disease Progression , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Vascular Calcification/drug therapy , Vascular Calcification/blood , Spironolactone/administration & dosage , Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed , Pilot Projects , Calcium/blood , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Lost to Follow-Up , Vascular Calcification/pathology , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging , Serum Albumin, Human/analysis , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(3): 265-271, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011158


ABSTRACT Objective We investigated changes in body composition and nutritional and metabolic parameters in a group of postmenopausal women who were classified as sufficient, insufficient and deficient in vitamin D. Subjects and methods A total of 106 postmenopausal women were included in this cross-sectional study and classified according to their serum levels of 25-OH-vitamin D as sufficient (≥ 30 ng/mL; group S), insufficient (20.1 and 29.9 ng/mL; group I) or deficient (≤ 20 ng/mL; group D) in vitamin D. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); dietary recall questionnaires were completed; and blood samples were analysed to compare the metabolic and nutritional status of the study groups. Results Eleven (10.4%) of the women were classified in group S, 50 (47.2%) in group I and 45 (42.4%) in group D, with a mean serum level for 25-OH-D of 21.1 ± 7.0 ng/mL in all participants. Body composition did not differ among the groups. Serum levels of 25-OH-D were negatively correlated with serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Conclusions Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency were highly prevalent in our group of postmenopausal women, showing an association with an unfavourable lipid profile.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Postmenopause/blood , Triglycerides/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Composition , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Bone Density , Nutritional Status , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(4): 453-460, Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001278


Abstract Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the leading causes of mortality. High circulating levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the blood are associated with cardiovascular mortality, whether through an etiological role or through its association with the progression of CAD per se. Randomized clinical trials have shown that, when LDL levels are reduced, cardiovascular risk is also reduced, which reinforces this association. The first major trial involving a hypolipidemic agent of the statin family, the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S), was published in 1994 and found a significant reduction in mortality in patients at high cardiovascular risk. However, even in subsequent studies with different statins, a residual risk persisted, and this seems not to have changed over time; it is speculated that this risk may be due to statin intolerance. In this scenario, the potential exists for novel hypolipidemic agents to drive a true revolution in the therapy of dyslipidemia. The recent discovery of PCSK9 inhibitors (PCSK9i), a class of hypolipidemic monoclonal antibodies, is extremely promising. PCSK9 inhibition is capable of promoting a mean LDL reduction of up to 60%, with potential for very significant clinical repercussions, as every 38 mg/dL reduction in LDL appears to be associated with a 22% reduction in cardiovascular risk. This review addresses a brief history of PCSK9i, major trials of these drugs, cardiovascular outcomes, and aspects related to their efficacy and safety. Finally, the molecular mechanisms and possible pleiotropic effects of PCSK9i are also discussed.

Resumo A doença arterial coronariana (DAC) é uma das principais causas de mortalidade. Níveis circulantes elevados de lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL) no sangue estão associados com mortalidade cardiovascular, seja por um papel etiológico ou por sua associação com a progressão da DAC em si. Estudos clínicos randomizados mostram que, quando os níveis de LDL são reduzidos, o risco cardiovascular também é reduzido, o que reforça tal associação. O primeiro ensaio importante envolvendo um agente hipolipemiante da família da estatina, o estudo Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S), foi publicado em 1994 e encontrou uma redução significativa na mortalidade de pacientes com risco cardiovascular elevado. Contudo, mesmo em estudos subsequentes com diferentes estatinas, observou-se um risco residual persistente, o qual aparentemente não mudou ao longo dos anos. Especula-se que esse risco se deve à intolerância às estatinas. Nesse cenário, existe um potencial para novos agentes hipolipemiantes que levem a uma verdadeira revolução no tratamento das dislipidemias. A descoberta recente dos inibidores de PCSK9 (PCSK9i), uma classe de anticorpos monoclonais, é extremamente promissora. A inibição da PCSK9 é capaz de promover uma redução média nos níveis de LDL de até 60%, com potencial para repercussões clínicas muito significativas, já que para cada redução de 38 mg/dL, parece haver uma redução de 22% no risco cardiovascular. Esta revisão aborda uma breve história dos PCSK9i, os principais ensaios envolvendo esses medicamentos, desfechos cardiovasculares, e aspectos relacionados a sua eficácia e segurança. Finalmente, os mecanismos moleculares e possíveis efeitos pleiotrópicos dos PCSK9i são também discutidos.

Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Proprotein Convertase 9/antagonists & inhibitors , Hypercholesterolemia/drug therapy , Cholesterol, LDL/drug effects , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Hypercholesterolemia/complications , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Anticholesteremic Agents/pharmacology
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(2): 173-179, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002470


Abstract Objective: To determine decision limits for total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides in healthy children and adolescents from Cuiabá, Brazil. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 1866 healthy children and adolescents randomly selected from daycare centers and public schools in Cuiabá. The desirable levels of serum lipids were defined using the classic criteria, i.e., total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels below the P75 percentile, and HDL-c above the P10 percentile. Results: For CT, P75 was: 160 mg/dL for the age range of 1 to <3 years, 170 mg/dL for ≥3 to <9 years, and 176 mg/dL for ≥9 to <13 years. For non-HDL cholesterol, it was 122 mg/dL for the age range of 1 to <13 years. For LDL-c, it was 104 mg/dL at the age range of 1 to <9 years and 106 mg/dL from ≥9 to <13 years. For TG, it was 127 mg/dL from 1 to <2 years; 98 mg/dL from ≥2 to <6 years; and 92 mg/dL from ≥6 to <13 years. As for HDL-cholesterol, P10 was 24 mg/dL, 28 mg/dL, 32 mg/dL, and 36 mg/dL, for the age ranges of 1 to <2 years, ≥2 to <3 years, ≥3 to <4 years, and ≥4 to <13 years, respectively. Conclusion: The decision limits for the serum lipid levels defined in this study differed from those observed in the current Brazilian and North-American guidelines, especially because it differentiates between the age ranges. Using these decision limits in clinical practice will certainly contribute to improve the diagnostic accuracy for dyslipidemia in this population group.

Resumo Objetivo: Determinar limites de decisão (LD) para o colesterol total (CT), LDL-colesterol (LDL-c), colesterol não-HDL (c-NHDL), HDL-colesterol (HDL-c) e triglicérides (TG) em crianças e adolescentes saudáveis de Cuiabá. Método: Estudo transversal envolvendo 1.866 crianças e adolescentes saudáveis de creches e escolas municipais públicas de Cuiabá, aleatoriamente selecionadas. Os LD desejáveis dos lipídeos séricos foram definidos pelos critérios clássicos, isto é, níveis de CT, LDL-c, c-NHDL, TG abaixo do percentil 75, e de HDL-c acima do percentil 10. Resultados: Os P75 para CT foram: 160 mg/dL para a faixa etária de 1 a < 3 anos, 170 mg/dL para ≥ 3 a < 9 anos e 176 mg/dL para ≥ 9 a < 13 anos. Para o c-NHDL, de 122 mg/dL na faixa etária de 1 a < 13 anos. LDL-c: 104 mg/dL na faixa etária de 1 a < 9 anos e 106 mg/dL de ≥ 9 a < 13 anos. TG: 127 mg/dL entre 1 a < 2 anos; 98 mg/dL de ≥ 2 a < 6 anos; e 92 mg/dL de ≥ 6 a < 13 anos. Quanto ao HDL-c, o P10, foi de 24 mg/dL, 28 mg/dL, 32 mg/dL e 36 mg/dL, para as faixas etárias de 1 a < 2 anos, ≥ 2 a < 3 anos, ≥ 3 a < 4 anos e ≥ 4 a < 13 anos, respectivamente. Conclusão: Os LD dos níveis séricos de lipídeos definidos neste estudo diferem daqueles apresentados nas diretrizes brasileiras e americanas atuais, especialmente por fazer a diferenciação entre as idades. Utilizar tais LD em nossa prática clínica certamente contribuirá para melhorar a acurácia do diagnóstico de dislipidemia nesse grupo populacional.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Nutritional Status , Lipids/blood , Reference Values , Triglycerides/blood , Brazil , Cholesterol/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood