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Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 413-428, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981017


Pancreatic cancer has an insidious onset and lacks effective treatment methods, which is one of the tumors with the worst prognosis, so it is urgent to explore new treatment directions. Metabolic reprogramming is one of the important hallmarks of tumors. Pancreatic cancer cells in the harsh tumor microenvironment have comprehensively increased cholesterol metabolism in order to maintain strong metabolic needs, and cancer associated fibroblasts also provide cancer cells with a large amount of lipids. Cholesterol metabolism reprogramming involves the changes in the synthesis, uptake, esterification and metabolites of cholesterol, which are closely related to the proliferation, invasion, metastasis, drug resistance, and immunosuppression of pancreatic cancer. Inhibition of cholesterol metabolism has obvious anti-tumor effect. In this paper, the important effects and complexity of cholesterol metabolism in pancreatic cancer were comprehensively reviewed from perspectives of risk factors for pancreatic cancer, energy interaction between tumor-related cells, key targets of cholesterol metabolism and its targeted drugs. Cholesterol metabolism has a strict regulation and feedback mechanism, and the effect of single-target drugs in clinical application is not clear. Therefore, multi-target therapy of cholesterol metabolism is a new direction for pancreatic cancer treatment.

Humans , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , Cholesterol/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 317-327, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981008


The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC) on atherosclerosis progression in mice. A mouse model of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque was created in ApoE-/- mice by carotid artery tandem stenosis (TS) combined with a Western diet. Macrophotography, lipid profiles, and inflammatory markers were measured to evaluate the antiatherosclerotic effects of SPRC compared to atorvastatin as a control. Histopathological analysis was performed to assess the plaque stability. To explore the protective mechanism of SPRC, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in vitro and challenged with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). Cell viability was determined with a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation and mRNA expression were detected by Western blot and RT-qPCR respectively. The results showed that the lesion area quantified by en face photographs of the aortic arch and carotid artery was significantly less, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were reduced, plaque collagen content was increased and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was decreased in 80 mg/kg per day SPRC-treated mice compared with model mice. These findings support the role of SPRC in plaque stabilization. In vitro studies revealed that 100 μmol/L SPRC increased the cell viability and the phosphorylation level of eNOS after ox-LDL challenge. These results suggest that SPRC delays the progression of atherosclerosis and enhances plaque stability. The protective effect may be at least partially related to the increased phosphorylation of eNOS in endothelial cells.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Atherosclerosis , Cholesterol/metabolism , Cysteine/pharmacology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Lipoproteins, LDL/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/pathology
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 306-317, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982048


OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the effect and mechanism of lipid nanoparticle (LNP) delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Cyp2e1 gene on subacute alcoholic liver injury in mice.@*METHODS@#siRNA targeting Cyp2e1 gene was encapsulated in LNP (si-Cyp2e1 LNP) by microfluidic technique and the resulting LNPs were characterized. The optimal dose of si-Cyp2e1 LNP administration was screened. Forty female C57BL/6N mice were randomly divided into blank control group, model control group, si-Cyp2e1 LNP group, LNP control group and metadoxine group. The subacute alcoholic liver injury mouse model was induced by ethanol feeding for 10 d plus ethanol gavage for the last 3 d. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity as well as malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species, glutathione, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol contents in liver tissue were measured in each group, and liver index was calculated. The expression of genes related to oxidative stress, lipid synthesis and inflammation in each group of mice were measured by realtime RT-PCR.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the model control group, the levels of liver index, serum ALT, AST activities, malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol contents in liver tissue decreased, but the SOD activity as well as glutathione increased in the si-Cyp2e1 LNP group (all P<0.01). Hematoxylin-eosin staining result showed disorganized hepatocytes with sparse cytoplasm and a large number of fat vacuoles and necrosis in the model control group, while the si-Cyp2e1 LNP group had uniformly sized and arranged hepatocytes with normal liver tissue morphology and structure. Oil red O staining result showed si-Cyp2e1 LNP group had lower fat content of the liver compared to the model control group (P<0.01), and no fat droplets accumulated. Anti-F4/80 monoclonal antibody fluorescence immunohistochemistry showed that the si-Cyp2e1 LNP group had lower cumulative optical density values compared to the model control group (P<0.01) and no significant inflammatory reaction. Compared with the model control group, the expression of catalytic genes P47phox, P67phox and Gp91phox were reduced (all P<0.01), while the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes Sod1, Gsh-rd and Gsh-px were increased (all P<0.01). The mRNA expression of the lipid metabolism genes Pgc-1α and Cpt1 were increased (all P<0.01) and the lipid synthesis-related genes Srebp1c, Acc and Fasn were decreased (all P<0.01); the expression of liver inflammation-related genes Tgf-β, Tnf-α and Il-6 were decreased (all P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The si-Cyp2e1 LNP may attenuate subacute alcoholic liver injury in mice mainly by reducing reactive oxygen levels, increasing antioxidant activity, blocking oxidative stress pathways and reducing ethanol-induced steatosis and inflammation.

Animals , Female , Mice , Antioxidants/metabolism , Cholesterol/metabolism , Ethanol/pharmacology , Glutathione/pharmacology , Inflammation , Lipids/pharmacology , Liver , Malondialdehyde/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase , Triglycerides/metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1/metabolism
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 31(spe1): e2021380, 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384910


Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência de diagnóstico autorreferido de colesterol alto e analisar os fatores associados à prevalência na população adulta brasileira. Métodos: Estudo transversal utilizando a Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde 2019. O diagnóstico de colesterol alto foi autorreferido. Modelos de regressão de Poisson originaram as razões de prevalência (RP) e intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%). Resultados: Nos 88.531 adultos, a prevalência de colesterol alto foi de 14,6%. Associaram-se positivamente: sexo feminino (RP = 1,44; IC95% 1,40;1,52), idade ≥ 60 anos (RP = 3,80; IC95% 3,06;4,71), ter plano de saúde (RP = 1,33; IC95% 1,24;1,42), autoavaliação de saúde ruim ou muito ruim (RP = 1,75; IC95% 1,60;1,90), ter hipertensão (RP = 1,78; IC95% 1,68;1,89), ter diabetes (RP = 1,54; IC95% 1,45;1,65), ter insuficiência renal (RP = 1,33; IC95% 1,15;1,53), ter obesidade (RP = 1,27; IC95% 1,18;1,36), ser ex-fumante (RP = 1,13; IC95% 1,07;1,20), consumir álcool abusivamente (RP = 1,11; IC95% 1,01;1,21), ser ativo no lazer (RP = 1,22; IC95% 1,15;1,30). Conclusão: O colesterol alto associou-se a condições sociodemográficas, de saúde e estilo de vida.

Objetivo: Estimar la prevalencia de colesterol alto autodeclarado y analizar factores asociados la prevalencia en adultos brasileños. Métodos: Estudio transversal utilizando la Encuesta Nacional de Salud de 2019. El diagnóstico de colesterol alto fue autodeclarado. Los modelos de regresión de Poisson produjeron razón de prevalencia (RP) e intervalos de confianza del 95% (IC95%). Resultados: En 88.531 adultos, la prevalencia fue 14,6%. Asociaron positivamente: sexo feminino (RP = 1,44; IC95% 1,40;1,52), edad ≥ 60 años (RP = 3,80; IC95% 3,06;4,71), seguro salud (RP = 1,33; IC95% 1,24;1,42), autoevaluación de salud mala o muy mala (RP = 1,75; IC95% 1,60;1,90), hipertensión (RP = 1,78; IC95% 1,68;1,89), diabetes (RP = 1,54; IC95% 1,45;1,65), insuficiencia renal (RP = 1,33; IC95% 1,15;1,53), obesidad (RP = 1,27; IC95% 1,18;1,36), exfumador (RP = 1,13; IC95% 1,07;1,20), abuso de alcohol (RP = 1,11; IC95% 1,01;1,21), estar activo en el tiempo libre (RP = 1,22; IC95% 1,15;1,30). Conclusión: Colesterol alto se asoció con condiciones sociodemográficas, de salud y estilo de vida.

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of self-reported high cholesterol diagnosis and to analyze the factors associated with the prevalence in the Brazilian adult population. Methods: Cross-sectional study, using data from the 2019 National Health Survey. The diagnosis of high cholesterol was self-reported. Poisson regression models yielded prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results: In the 88,531 adults, the prevalence of high cholesterol was 14.6%. Positively associated: female sex (PR = 1.44; 95%CI 1.40;1.52), age ≥ 60 years (PR = 3.80; 95%CI 3.06;4.71), health insurance (PR = 1.33; 95%CI 1.24;1.42), poor or very poor self-rated health (PR = 1.75; 95%CI 1.60;1.90), hypertension (PR = 1.78; 95%CI 1.68;-1.89), diabetes (RP = 1.54; 95%CI 1.45;1.65), renal failure (PR = 1.33; 95%CI 1.15;1.53), obesity (PR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.18;1.36), former smoker (PR = 1.13; 95%CI 1.07;1.20), alcohol abuse (PR = 1.11; 95%CI 1.01;1.21), physically active during leisure time (PR = 1.22; 95%CI 1.15;1.30). Conclusion: High cholesterol was associated with sociodemographic characteristics, health condition and lifestyle.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Hypercholesterolemia/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Cholesterol/metabolism , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 95-106, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927639


OBJECTIVE@#This study aimed to investigate the effects of caprylic acid (C8:0) on lipid metabolism and inflammation, and examine the mechanisms underlying these effects in mice and cells.@*METHODS@#Fifty-six 6-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly allocated to four groups fed a high-fat diet (HFD) without or with 2% C8:0, palmitic acid (C16:0) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). RAW246.7 cells were randomly divided into five groups: normal, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS+C8:0, LPS+EPA and LPS+cAMP. The serum lipid profiles, inflammatory biomolecules, and ABCA1 and JAK2/STAT3 mRNA and protein expression were measured.@*RESULTS@#C8:0 decreased TC and LDL-C, and increased the HDL-C/LDL-C ratio after injection of LPS. Without LPS, it decreased TC in mice ( P < 0.05). Moreover, C8:0 decreased the inflammatory response after LPS treatment in both mice and cells ( P < 0.05). Mechanistic investigations in C57BL/6J mouse aortas after injection of LPS indicated that C8:0 resulted in higher ABCA1 and JAK2/STAT3 expression than that with HFD, C16:0 and EPA, and resulted in lower TNF-α, NF-κB mRNA expression than that with HFD ( P < 0.05). In RAW 264.7 cells, C8:0 resulted in lower expression of pNF-κBP65 than that in the LPS group, and higher protein expression of ABCA1, p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 than that in the LPS and LPS+cAMP groups ( P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Our studies demonstrated that C8:0 may play an important role in lipid metabolism and the inflammatory response, and the mechanism may be associated with ABCA1 and the p-JAK2/p-STAT3 signaling pathway.

Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1/immunology , Caprylates/chemistry , Cholesterol/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Inflammation/metabolism , Janus Kinase 2/immunology , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , STAT3 Transcription Factor/immunology , Signal Transduction
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 209-216, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927596


Mounting evidence has shown that exercise exerts extensive beneficial effects, including preventing and protecting against chronic diseases, through improving metabolism and other mechanisms. Recent studies have shown that exercise preconditioning affords significant cardioprotective effects. However, whether exercise preconditioning improves high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and lipid metabolic disorder remains unknown. The study was aimed to explore the effects of exercise preconditioning on HFD-induced obesity and lipid metabolic disorder in mice. 4-week-old C57BL/6 mice were subjected to swimming or sedentary control for 3 months, and then were fed with normal diet (ND) or HFD for 4 more months. The results showed that the blood glucose was decreased, and the glucose tolerance and grip strength were increased in exercised mice after training. Exercise preconditioning failed to improve HFD-induced body weight gain, but improved HFD-induced glucose intolerance. Exercise preconditioning showed no significant effects on both exercise capacity and physical activity in ND- and HFD-fed mice. HFD feeding increased total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in circulation, promoted subcutaneous fat and epididymal fat accumulation in mice. Exercise preconditioning increased circulating high density lipoprotein (HDL) and decreased circulating LDL, without affecting the subcutaneous fat and epididymal fat in HFD-fed mice. HFD feeding increased liver weight and hepatic total cholesterol contents, and dysregulated the expressions of several mitochondria function-related proteins in mice. These abnormalities were partially reversed by exercise preconditioning. Together, these results suggest that exercise preconditioning can partially reverse the HFD-induced lipid metabolic disorder and hepatic dysfunction, and these beneficial effects of exercise sustain for a period of time, even after exercise is discontinued.

Animals , Mice , Cholesterol/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Lipids , Liver , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Obesity
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(1): e839, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289452


Introducción: La litogénesis biliar, proceso de sobresaturación de colesterol en la bilis vesicular, es prevenible. Objetivo: Describir las nuevas evidencias biomoleculares de la litogénesis biliar de colesterol como base de la futura terapia preventiva de la litiasis vesicular. Método: Se realizó una revisión sistemática y crítica de las evidencias de impacto sobre la litogénesis biliar. Se consultaron artículos publicados entre 2015-2020 en las bases de datos PubMed, Medline, SciELO, LILACS y Elsevier. Resultados: Se recuperaron evidencias actuales de los mecanismos biomoleculares relacionados con las futuras terapias preventivas de la litiasis vesicular, propuestos como fundamentos teóricos. Conclusiones: La descripción actualizada de la litogénesis biliar de colesterol, con los nuevos conceptos biomoleculares incorporados, aporta a su comprensión el papel de los genes de receptores nucleares, la intervención de estos últimos y de los transportadores de la secreción biliar. Dirigida a médicos generales, cirujanos, gastroenterólogos y fisiólogos, la descripción actualizada de La litogénesis biliar impacta como nuevo paradigma con los conceptos biomoleculares que intervienen en pro de su prevención(AU)

Introduction: Biliary lithogenesis is a preventable process of cholesterol supersaturation in gallbladder bile. Objective: Describe the new biomolecular evidence of biliary cholesterol lithogenesis serving as a basis for future preventive therapy for gallbladder lithiasis. Methods: A systematic critical review was conducted of impact evidence about biliary lithogenesis. The papers consulted were published in the databases PubMed, Medline, SciELO, LILACS and Elsevier from 2015 to 2020. Results: Current evidence was retrieved of biomolecular mechanisms proposed as theoretical foundations for future preventive therapies for gallbladder lithiasis. Conclusions: Intended for general practitioners, surgeons, gastroenterologists and physiologists, the updated description of biliary lithogenesis including the role of nuclear receptors, biliary lipid transporters and the biological value of enterohepatic circulation in the integrity and functioning of the hepatobiliary system as regulators of the cholesterol mechanism, makes an impact as a new paradigm with the biomolecular concepts involved in biliary lithogenesis prevention(AU)

Humans , Biological Products , Cholesterol/metabolism , Enterohepatic Circulation , Gastroenterologists , Gallbladder , Urinary Bladder Calculi/prevention & control
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1795-1802, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879094


This article aims to investigate the ameliorative effect of Linderae Radix ethanol extract on hyperlipidemia rats induced by high-fat diet and to explore its possible mechanism from the perspective of reverse cholesterol transport(RCT). SD rats were divided into normal group, model group, atorvastatin group, Linderae Radix ethanol extract(LREE) of high, medium, low dose groups. Except for the normal group, the other groups were fed with a high-fat diet to establish hyperlipidemia rat models; the normal group and the model group were given pure water, while each administration group was given corresponding drugs by gavage once a day for five weeks. Serum total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol(HDL-c), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol(LDL-c), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) levels were measured by automatic blood biochemistry analyzer; the contents of TC, TG, total bile acid(TBA) in liver and TC and TBA in feces of rats were detected by enzyme colorimetry. HE staining was used to observe the liver tissue lesions; immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of ATP-binding cassette G8(ABCG8) in small intestine; Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma/aerfa(PPARγ/α), liver X receptor-α(LXRα), ATP-binding cassette A1(ABCA1) pathway protein and scavenger receptor class B type Ⅰ(SR-BⅠ) in liver. The results showed that LREE could effectively reduce serum and liver TC, TG levels, serum LDL-c levels and AST activity, and increase HDL-c levels, but did not significant improve ALT activity and liver index; HE staining results showed that LREE could reduce liver lipid deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. In addition, LREE also increased the contents of fecal TC and TBA, and up-regulated the protein expressions of ABCG8 in small intestine and PPARγ/α, SR-BⅠ, LXRα, and ABCA1 in liver. LREE served as a positive role on hyperlipidemia model rats induced by high-fat diet, which might be related to the regulation of RCT, the promotion of the conversion of cholesterol to the liver and bile acids, and the intestinal excretion of cholesterol and bile acids. RCT regulation might be a potential mechanism of LREE against hyperlipidemia.

Animals , Rats , Biological Transport , Cholesterol/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Hyperlipidemias/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Triglycerides/metabolism
Med. infant ; 26(3): 287-295, sept. 2019. Tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1025029


La Hipercolesterolemia Familiar (HF) es una enfermedad hereditaria frecuente que se caracteriza por niveles elevados de colesterol ligado a las lipoproteínas de baja densidad (C-LDL). El exceso de LDL se acumula en las arterias produciendo aterosclerosis prematura. El diagnóstico y tratamiento desde la infancia mejoran el pronóstico de la enfermedad. Existe subdiagnóstico de la HF lo que provoca muertes prematuras por enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV). Para mejorar el subdiagnóstico la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría propuso en el año 2015 realizar tamizaje universal al ingreso escolar. Es relevante entonces que el pediatra pueda diagnosticar la hipercolesterolemia y diferenciar las hipercolesterolemias monogénicas o familiares, de las secundarias (AU)

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common hereditary disease that is characterized by high cholesterol levels, linked to low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Excess LDL accumulates in the arteries leading to premature atherosclerosis. Early diagnosis and treatment since childhood improve the prognosis of the disease. FH is underdiagnosed resulting in premature death due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). To improve diagnosis, in 2015 the Argentine Society of Pediatrics proposed a universal screening program at school age. It is relevant, therefore, for the pediatrician to be able to diagnose hypercholesterolemia and differentiate monogenic or familial from secondary hypercholesterolemia (AU)

Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cholesterol/metabolism , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/diagnosis , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/physiopathology , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/genetics , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/therapy , Mass Screening , Diagnosis, Differential , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(3): 341-343, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011101


Abstract: CHILD syndrome (Congenital Hemidysplasia, Ichthyosiform erythroderma, Limb Defects) is a rare X-linked dominant disease. The authors report a 2-month-old patient presenting with typical features of CHILD syndrome that was treated with a topical solution containing cholesterol and lovastatin, with complete clearance of her CHILD nevus. The changes in skin lipid metabolism that explain the CHILD ichthyosiform nevus and their correction through topical application of cholesterol and lovastatin are discussed.

Humans , Female , Infant , Abnormalities, Multiple/drug therapy , Lovastatin/administration & dosage , Cholesterol/metabolism , Ichthyosiform Erythroderma, Congenital/drug therapy , Limb Deformities, Congenital/drug therapy , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/drug therapy , Anticholesteremic Agents/administration & dosage , Abnormalities, Multiple/genetics , Cholesterol/biosynthesis , Administration, Topical , Ichthyosiform Erythroderma, Congenital/genetics , Limb Deformities, Congenital/genetics , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/genetics , Metabolic Diseases/genetics
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 730-739, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889160


ABSTRACT Objective To screen for and characterize lactic acid bacteria strains with the ability to produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels. Methods The strains were isolated from traditional fermented milk in China. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cholesterol-reduction were used to identify and verify strains of interest. Characteristics were analyzed using spectrophotometry and plate counting assays. Results The isolate HLX37 consistently produced fermented milk with strong cholesterol-reducing properties was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (accession number: KR105940) and was thus selected for further study. The cholesterol reduction by strain HLX37 was 45.84%. The isolates were acid-tolerant at pH 2.5 and bile-tolerant at 0.5% (w/v) in simulated gastric juice (pH 2.5) for 2 h and in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 8.0) for 3 h. The auto-aggregation rate increased to 87.74% after 24 h, while the co-aggregation with Escherichia coli DH5 was 27.76%. Strain HLX37 was intrinsically resistant to antibiotics such as penicillin, tobramycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, vancomycin and amikacin. Compared with rats in the model hyperlipidemia group, the total cholesterol content in the serum and the liver as well as the atherogenic index of rats in the viable fermented milk group significantly decreased by 23.33%, 32.37% and 40.23%, respectively. Fewer fat vacuoles and other lesions in liver tissue were present in both the inactivated and viable fermented milk groups compared to the model group. Conclusion These studies indicate that strain HLX37 of L. plantarum demonstrates probiotic potential, potential for use as a candidate for commercial use for promoting health.

Animals , Male , Cattle , Rats , Cholesterol/metabolism , Milk/microbiology , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolism , Bile Acids and Salts/pharmacology , China , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Probiotics/isolation & purification , Probiotics/metabolism , Cultured Milk Products/microbiology , Lactobacillus plantarum/isolation & purification , Lactobacillus plantarum/drug effects , Lactobacillus plantarum/genetics , Fermentation , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(9): 1099-1105, set. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902593


Background: It is known that some nutrients play an important role in the development of cholelithiasis. Cholesterol is carried by micelles and vesicles in the bile. During the first stage of gallstone formation, cholesterol crystals derive from thermodynamically unstable vesicles. Aim: To determine the effect of a high fat diet on blood lipids and bile composition, and its implication in the formation of gallstones. Material and Methods: Two groups of 15 BALB/c mice each, coming from the same litter, were treated with a control or with a high-fat diet (64% fat and 0.14% cholesterol). After two months, the animals were sacrificed, blood and bile samples were obtained. Serum glucose and the corresponding lipid profiles were measured. In bile samples, cholesterol and phospholipid levels were analyzed, and cholesterol transporters (vesicles and micelles) were separated by gel filtration chromatography. Results: Treated animals showed an 87% increase in serum total cholesterol (p < 0.01), a 97% increase in HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.05) and a 140% increase in LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.05). No changes in serum triglycerides or glucose were observed. In bile, a 13% increase in biliary cholesterol (p < 0.05) was observed but no change in biliary phospholipids. Also, an increase in biliary vesicular transporters and an increase of cholesterol/phospholipid ratio in vesicular transporters were observed. Conclusions: A high fat diet may contribute to the formation of gallstones in our experimental model.

Animals , Male , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Gallstones/etiology , Gallstones/metabolism , Cholesterol/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Phospholipids/metabolism , Bile/chemistry , Biological Transport , Dietary Fats/analysis , Cholesterol/analysis , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Models, Animal , Gallbladder/metabolism , Mice, Inbred BALB C
Rev. Hosp. Clin. Univ. Chile ; 28(1): 28-35, 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-987232


Gallbladder cholesterolosis is a nosological clinical entity where the central element is the deposit of lipids in immune cells that reside under the gallbladder epithelium. The mechanisms involved in its development are not entirely clear, but they seem to have some resemblances that are observed in the wall of the arteries with atherosclerosis. The lipid-laden cells observed in the gallbladder wall appear to share many of the characteristics of atherosclerosis foam cells, which by means of scavenger receptors have endocited oxidized low-density lipoproteins and accumulate them in their cytoplasm. Foam cells, in themselves, are not dangerous, but in atherosclerosis at least they can become a problem when they are located in vessels and specific anatomic sites. The role they may have in the gallbladder is not known to date. We will review some considerations that seem relevant to us to elucidate if these entities share the same protagonist: macrophages transformed by modified lipids. (AU)

Humans , Gallbladder Diseases/physiopathology , Cholesterol/metabolism , Gallbladder Diseases/pathology
São Paulo; s.n; 2017. 79 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-875006


Introdução: Doenças cardiovasculares constituem importante causa de morte em todo mundo e a hipercolesterolemia está diretamente relacionada a elas. A dieta desempenha papel importante neste processo e alguns alimentos como o feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), especialmente sua proteína, tem sido apontado com potencial capacidade de redução do colesterol plasmático. Os efeitos hipocolesterolêmicos já observados indicaram o uso da proteína do feijão caupi, ou dos seus peptídeos, como ingrediente funcional de alimentos para a promoção da saúde e a redução do risco de doenças. Entretanto, as consequências da digestão gastrointestinal na absorção destes peptídeos são claramente complexas tornando essenciais estudos in vitro e in vivo para avaliar a sua bioacessibilidade e sua resistência à degradação gastrointestinal, além da disponibilidade e real eficácia destes peptídeos. Objetivo: Analisar a biodisponibilidade de peptídeos e avaliar parâmetros ligados ao metabolismo do colesterol em modelos animais após ingestão de isolado proteico de feijão caupi. Métodos: A farinha de feijão caupi foi desengordurada e sua proteína isolada. O isolado proteico foi submetido a métodos de hidrólise in vitro, para verificação das frações peptídicas formadas e inferência sobre a capacidade de ligação à albumina. Dois experimentos in vivo foram conduzidos. No primeiro, o isolado proteico do feijão caupi foi administrado a ratos e a concentração dos peptídeos monitorada no sangue, por 2 horas. O experimento in vivo 2 consistiu na alimentação de hamsters com dietas normo (N) - e hipercolesterolêmicas por 21 dias, contendo a proteína do feijão caupi como única proteína da ração (I), comparada ao controle de caseína (H). Neste experimento foram analisados no plasma: colesterol total (CT) e frações (LDLc, VLDLc e HDLc), triglicerídeos (TG) e peptídeos; nas fezes: colesterol total (CF) e ácidos biliares (AB); no fígado: colesterol (CH) e lipídeos totais (LH), HMGCR (atividade enzimática e expressão) e expressão de SREBP2, LDLR, ABCA1, ABCG1, ABCG5, ABCG8, LXRa e AMPK. Resultados: Os peptídeos identificados a partir da hidrólise proteica do feijão caupi, ou a partir do plasma dos animais estudados não evidenciaram similaridades entre os experimentos ou corresponderam a sequências previamente identificadas para o feijão caupi a partir de banco de dados. CT, VLDLc, HDLc, TG, CH dos hamsters foram maiores nos grupos H e I quando comparado ao N; LDLc foi maior para I comparado aos demais; LH foi maior em H comparado a N, sendo que I não diferiu dos demais; CF foi maior para I comparado a N, sendo que H não diferiu dos demais. A expressão de ABCA1 foi maior para I em relação aos demais; LXRa foi maior para I em relação a H, mas N não diferiu dos demais; SREBP2 foi menor em H em comparação aos demais; HMGCR foi mais expressa em N em comparação aos demais, ao passo que a atividade desta enzima foi maior em I quando comparado a N, sendo que H não diferiu dos demais. Não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto a AB ou expressão de ABCG8 ou AMPK. Não foram obtidos resultados de expressão para LDLR, ABCG1 e ABCG5. Conclusão: Apesar de pesquisas anteriores a este trabalho terem evidenciado a capacidade do isolado proteico do feijão caupi em inibir a atividade da HMGCR, inibir a solubilização micelar ou melhorar o perfil de lipídeos plasmáticos, no trabalho atual esta matéria prima não mostrou atuação positiva quanto ao metabolismo do colesterol de hamsters nas condições experimentais utilizadas. Os fragmentos indicados como peptídeos obtidos a partir da hidrólise proteica do feijão caupi, ou do plasma dos animais estudados não corresponderam a peptídeos com comprovada, ou até mesmo, com indicação de bioatividade

Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are important cause of death worldwide and hypercholesterolemia is directly related to them. Diet plays an important role in this process and some foods such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), especially its protein, have been shown to have a potential for reducing plasma cholesterol. The hypocholesterolemic effects already observed indicated the use of cowpea protein, or its peptides, as a functional food ingredient for health promotion and reduction of disease risk. However, the consequences of gastrointestinal digestion on the absorption of these peptides are clearly complex, making in vitro and in vivo studies essential to assess their bioaccessibility and resistance to gastrointestinal degradation, as well as the availability and actual efficacy of these peptides. Objectives: To analyze the bioavailability of peptides and evaluate parameters related to cholesterol metabolism in animal models after ingestion of protein isolate of cowpea. Methods: Cowpea flour was defatted and its protein isolated. The protein isolate was subjected to in vitro hydrolysis methods to verify the formed peptide fractions and inference about albumin binding ability. Two in vivo experiments were conducted. In the first, the cowpea protein isolate was administered to rats and the concentration of the peptides monitored in the blood for 2 hours. The in vivo experiment 2 consisted of feeding hamsters with normal (N) - and hypercholesterolemic diets for 21 days, containing the cowpea protein as the sole dietary protein (I), compared to casein control (H). In this experiment were analyzed in the plasma: total cholesterol (TC) and fractions (LDLc, VLDLc and HDLc), triglycerides (TG) and peptides; In feces: total cholesterol (CF) and bile acids (AB); In the liver: cholesterol (CH) and total lipids (LH), HMGCR (enzymatic activity and expression) and expression of SREBP2, LDLR, ABCA1, ABCG1, ABCG5, ABCG8, LXRa and AMPK. XX. Results: The peptides identified from the protein hydrolysis of cowpea or from the plasma of the animals studied did not show similarities among the experiments or correspond to sequences previously identified for the cowpea from the database. CT, VLDLc, HDLc, TG, CH of hamsters were higher in groups H and I when compared to N; LDLc was higher for I compared to the others; LH was higher in H compared to N, and I did not differ from the others; CF was higher for I compared to N, and H did not differ from the others. The expression of ABCA1 was higher for I than the others; LXRa was higher for I than H, but N did not differ from the others; SREBP2 was lower in H compared to the others; HMGCR was more expressed in N compared to the others, whereas the activity of this enzyme was higher in I when compared to N, and H did not differ from the others. There was no difference between groups regarding AB or expression of ABCG8 or AMPK. No expression results were obtained for LDLR, ABCG1 and ABCG5. Conclusion: Although previous research to this work evidenced the ability of the cowpea protein isolate to inhibit HMGCR activity, inhibit micellar solubilization or improve the plasma lipid profile, in the current work this raw material did not show a positive cholesterol metabolism of hamsters under the experimental conditions used. The fragments indicated as peptides obtained from the protein hydrolysis of cowpea beans, or from the plasma of the animals studied did not correspond to peptides with proven, or even, with indication of bioactivity

Animals , Biological Availability , Cholesterol/metabolism , Fabaceae , Peptides/blood , Vigna , Eating , Hypercholesterolemia , Models, Animal
São Paulo; s.n; 2017. 83 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-875688


Introdução: As proteínas alimentares são fontes de peptídeos atuantes em vários processos metabólicos. Existem evidências de que a proteína do feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) é capaz de reduzir o colesterol em hamsters e em humanos, porém, a permeabilidade após a digestão, o mecanismo de ação e a evidência direta da participação de peptídeos no metabolismo colesterol não são claros. Objetivo: Investigar a permeabilidade intestinal e avaliar o efeito nas vias luminal e endógena do metabolismo do colesterol de peptídeos provenientes de feijão caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp). Metodologia: A permeabilidade dos peptídeos provenientes do caupi produzidos por hidrólise enzimática foi testada em linhagens de células Caco-2 usando placas Transwell®. Para investigar o efeito na via luminal, três peptídeos identificados na fração 3 kDa do hidrolisado (LLNPDDEQL; FFFGQDGGSKGEE e LNL) foram testados na solubilização de colesterol e fosfatidilcolina, no tamanho das micelas de colesterol e interação com ácidos biliares in vitro. Para verificar o efeito no metabolismo endógeno, linhagens de células HepG2 foram incubadas com peptídeos sintéticos (MELNAVSVVHS e MELNAVSVVSH) identificados como resultado do ensaio de permeação nas células Caco-2. A expressão de RNAm dos transportadores de colesterol NPC1L1, ABCA1 e ABCG1 foi realizada nas células Caco-2 e a expressão de HMGCR, SREBP2, LDLR, LXR, AMPK1 foi avaliada nas células HepG2. Resultados: A exposição das células Caco-2 à fração 3 kDa do hidrolisado (2,5 e 5 mg/mL) aumentou a expressão de ABCG1 nos tempos 6 h e 12 h. O níveis de RNAm dos genes SREBP2, HMGCR e LDLR reduziram nas HepG2 após 24h do tratamento com o peptídeo MELNAVSVVHS (50 M e 100 M). A fração 3 kDa do hidrolisado e os peptídeos LLNPDDEQL; FFFGQDGGSKGEE e LNL foram capazes de reduzir a solubilidade do colesterol micelar in vitro em no máximo 42 por cento , bem como, provocaram mudanças estruturais ao interagirem com a fosfatidilcolina, com destaque ao peptídeo LNL (50 por cento de ligação). O peptídeo LNL foi o único capaz de promover a precipitação do colesterol em forma de cristais devido à interação com os ácidos biliares. Conclusões: A fração 3 kDa do hidrolisado e todos os peptídeos testados foram capazes de insolubilizar o colesterol in vitro. Constata-se que o mecanismo de competição pelo espaço intramicelar com o colesterol se dá pela interação com os componentes micelares e não diretamente com o colesterol. O peptídeo do feijão caupi MELNAVSVVHS foi permeável e foi capaz de reduzir a expressão do fator de transcrição SREBP2 (consequentemente reduzindo HMGCR e LDLR)

Introduction: Food proteins are sources of peptides acting in sevral metabolic processes. There is evidence that cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) protein is able to lower cholesterol levels in hamsters and humans, but its permeability after digestion, mechanism of action and direct evidences of peptide participation in cholesterol metabolism are not clear. Objective: To investigate the intestinal permeability and to evaluate the effect on the luminal and endogenous cholesterol metabolism pathways of peptides from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp). Methods: The permeability of the cowpea peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis was tested on Caco-2 cell lines using Transwell® plates. To investigate the effect on the luminal pathway, three peptides identified in the 3 kDa hydrolyzate fraction (LLNPDDEQL; FFFGQDGGSKGEE and LNL) were tested for in vitro cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine solubilization, cholesterol micelle size changing and interaction with bile acids. To verify the effect on endogenous metabolism, HepG2 cell lines were incubated with synthetic peptides (MELNAVSVVHS or MELNAVSVVSH) identified as a result of the permeation assay on Caco-2 cells. The mRNA expression of the cholesterol transporters NPC1L1, ABCA1 and ABCG1 was performed on Caco-2 cells and the expression of HMGCR, SREBP2, LDLR, LXR, AMPK1 was evaluated in HepG2 cells. Results: Exposure of Caco-2 cells to the 3 kDa hydrolyzate fraction (2.5 and 5 mg/mL) increased ABCG1 expression at 6 h and 12 h times. The mRNA levels of the SREBP2, HMGCR and LDLR genes were reduced in HepG2 after 24h of treatment with the MELNAVSVVHS peptide (50 M and 100 M). The 3 kDa of the hydrolyzate fraction and the peptides LLNPDDEQL; FFFGQDGGSKGEE and LNL were able to reduce the solubility of micellar cholesterol in vitro in a maximum of 42 per cent , as well as, caused structural changes when interacting with phosphatidylcholine, with emphasis on the LNL peptide (50 per cent of binding). The LNL peptide alone was able to promote cholesterol precipitation in the form of crystals due to interaction with bile acids. Conclusions: The 3 kDa hydrolysate fraction and all peptides tested were able to insolubilize cholesterol in vitro. It was observed that the mechanism of competition for the intramicellar space with cholesterol is given by the interaction with the micellar components and not directly with the cholesterol. The MELNAVSVVHS cowpea peptide was permeable and was able to reduce the expression of the SREBP2 transcription factor (thereby reducing HMGCR and LDLR)

Cholesterol/metabolism , Fabaceae , Intestines , Lipid Metabolism , Peptides , Hydrolysis , Permeability
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 66(4): 279-286, dic. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-838454


La dislipidemia es un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares, una de las principales causas de muertes a nivel mundial. En este trabajo se estudió el efecto del aguacate (Persea americana) sobre el metabolismo lipídico de ratones normo e hiperlipémicos inducidos con dieta hiperlipídica. Ratones machos, fueron distribuidos en 4 grupos DE (dieta estándar), DEa (dieta estándar y aguacate); DH (dieta hiperlipídica) y DHa (dieta hiperlipídica y aguacate) y observados por 28 días. Luego de este periodo se determinaron los niveles de Colesterol Total, Triglicéridos y col-HDL y se calcularon los valores de col-LDL, VLDL e índices de riesgo aterogénico y de riesgo coronario. El grupo DH mostró niveles de CT, TG, col-LDLy VLDL significativamente superiores (p<0,001) a los valores alcanzados en el grupo DE. En los grupos DHa y DEa se redujeron significativamente (p<0,001) las concentraciones de CT, TG, col-LDL y VLDL, en comparación al grupo DH. Los grupos DEa y DHa difieren significativamente (p<0,005) en el nivel de CT, éste último presenta valores más bajos, los otros parámetros cuantificados no mostraron diferencias significativas. No hubo diferencias significativas para los valores del col-HDL en ningún grupo de estudio. La inducción a la hiperlipemia con un modelo de dieta hiperlipídica, generó incrementos importantes en el CT, TG, col-LDL y VLDL, además de aumentar el riesgo aterogénico. El consumo de la pulpa de aguacate redujo los niveles de CT, TG, col-LDL, VLDL y el índice de riesgo aterogénico en el grupo de ratones hiperlipémicos(AU)

Influence of avocado (Persea americana) pulp consumption on lipid metabolism in normolipidemic and diet induced hyperlipidemic mice . Dyslipidemia is a risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease, a major cause of deaths worldwide. The aim of this work is to study the effect of avocado (Persea americana), on lipid metabolism on normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic mice induced with high fat diet. Four groups of animals receiving standard diet (DE), standard and avocado diet (DEa), high fat diet (DH) and high fat and avocado diet (DHA) were used. All animals were observed for a period of 28 days. Blood sample was obtained at the end of experimentation period by cardiac puncture on anesthetized animals, and the levels of Cholesterol, triglycerides and col-HDL were de- termined and c-LDL, VLDL and atherogenic and coronary risk factors were calculated. DH group showed levels of TC, TG, c-LDL and VLDL significantly higher (p<0,001) than the values achieved in DHa group. DHa and DEa plasmatic values of TC, TG, c-LDL and VLDL were significantly reduced (p <0.001) compared to DH group. DEa and DHA groups differed significantly (p <0.005) in the level of CT, the latter has lower values, the other quantified parameters showed no significant differences. There were no significant differences for c-HDL values in any group. Hyperlipidemia induction with a model of high fat diet produced significantly increasing values of TC, TG, c-LDL and VLDL, besides of increasing the atherogenic risk. The benefit of avocado pulp consists in reduction of TC, TG, c-LDL, VLDL and the index of atherogenic risk(AU)

Mice , Triglycerides/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cholesterol/metabolism , Persea , Lipid Metabolism , Eating , Dyslipidemias , Diet, High-Fat
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(3): e5003, Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-771936


Fractionation of the EtOH extract from aerial parts of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) led to isolation of caffeic and ferulic acids, which were identified from spectroscopic and spectrometric evidence. These compounds exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to be effective in the prevention/treatment of metabolic syndrome. This study investigated whether the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids exhibits a more significant beneficial effect in a mouse model with metabolic syndrome. The combination treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids was tested for 60 days in C57 mice kept on a high-fat (40%) diet. The data obtained indicated that treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids prevented gain in body weight induced by the high-fat diet and improved hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The expression of a number of metabolically relevant genes was affected in the liver of these animals, showing that caffeic and ferulic acid treatment results in increased cholesterol uptake and reduced hepatic triglyceride synthesis in the liver, which is a likely explanation for the prevention of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids displayed major positive effects towards prevention of multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome and liver steatosis in an obese mouse model.

Animals , Male , Baccharis/chemistry , Caffeic Acids/administration & dosage , Coumaric Acids/administration & dosage , Metabolic Syndrome/prevention & control , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Caffeic Acids/chemistry , Cholesterol/metabolism , Coumaric Acids/chemistry , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Fatty Liver/metabolism , Fatty Liver/pathology , Metabolic Syndrome/drug therapy , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Models, Animal , Protective Agents/chemistry , Triglycerides/metabolism
Braz. j. biol ; 76(1): 59-65, Feb. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-774508


Abstract Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B cell bone marrow neoplasia characterized by inflammation with an intense secretion of growth factors that promote tumor growth, cell survival, migration and invasion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pravastatin, a drug used to reduce cholesterol, in a MM cell line.Cell cycle and viability were determinate by Trypan Blue and Propidium Iodide. IL6, VEGF, bFGF and TGFβ were quantified by ELISA and qRT-PCR including here de HMG CoA reductase. It was observed reduction of cell viability, increase of cells in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and reducing the factors VEGF and bFGF without influence on 3-Methyl-Glutaryl Coenzyme A reductase expression.The results demonstrated that pravastatin induces cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 and decreased production of growth factors in Multiple Myeloma cell line.

Resumo O Mieloma Múltiplo é uma neoplasia de linfócitos B da medula óssea, caracterizada por inflamação com uma intensa secreção de fatores de crescimento que promovem o aumento do volume do tumor, sobrevivência celular, migração e invasão. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da pravastatina, uma droga usada para reduzir o colesterol, em um linhagem de MM. O ciclo celular e viabilidade foram determinadas por Trypan Blue e iodeto de propídio. IL6, VEGF, bFGF e TGF foram quantificadas por ELISA e qRT-PCR, incluindo aqui de HMG CoA redutase. Observou-se a redução da viabilidade das células, aumento de células na fase G0/G1 do ciclo celular e redução no VEGF e bFGF, sem influência na expressão da enzima 3-Metil-Glutaril Coenzima A redutase. Os resultados demonstraram que a pravastatina induz parada no ciclo celular em G0/G1 e diminuição da produção de fatores de crescimento em várias linhas de células de Mieloma.

Humans , Fibroblast Growth Factors/genetics , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Multiple Myeloma/metabolism , Pravastatin/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , Anticholesteremic Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line , Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Cholesterol/metabolism , Fibroblast Growth Factors/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(11): e5562, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951654


The main purpose of this study was to investigate bifidobacteria flora in fecal samples from children with rotavirus infection and determine the significance of their selected probiotic properties for improvement of health status. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to identify rotavirus antigen in fecal samples from 94 patients with gastroenteritis and from 30 without gastroenteritis. Bifidobacteria were identified by selective media, gram reaction, colony morphology, fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase enzyme activity and classical identification tests. Exopolysaccharide (EPS) production was identified by phenol-sulphuric acid method. The modified method was then used to identify the quantity of taurocholic and glycocholic acid deconjugation and cholesterol elimination of the strains. Thirty-five of the 94 fecal samples were found positive for rotavirus antigen (37.23%). Bifidobacteria were identified in 59 of the samples. The EPS production ranges were 29.56-102.21 mg/L. The cholesterol elimination rates ranged between 8.36-39.22%. Furthermore, a positive and strong correlation was determined between EPS production and the presence of cholesterol (r=0.984, P<0.001). The deconjugation rates for the sodium glycocholate group was higher than the sodium taurocholate group. Rotavirus (+) bifidobacteria strains had higher EPS production, deconjugation rate and cholesterol elimination compared to bifidobacteria strains isolated from children in the rotavirus (-) sample and without gastroenteritis. Significant differences were observed among groups in all parameters (P<0.05). Given the increased number of rotavirus cases in Turkey and worldwide, it is very important to add superior bifidobacteria in the diets of infected children to improve the intestinal and vital functions.

Humans , Child, Preschool , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/biosynthesis , Bifidobacterium/isolation & purification , Bile Acids and Salts/metabolism , Cholesterol/metabolism , Gastroenteritis/virology , Antigens, Viral/analysis , Rotavirus Infections/microbiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Feces/virology