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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775894

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of cluster needling at the scalp points on the expression of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) and choline cholinesterase (AchE).@*METHODS@#A total of 60 Wistar rats were randomized into a sham-operation group, a model group, a medication group and a cluster needling group, 15 rats in each one. In the model group, the medication group and the cluster needling group, the models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) were established by the orienteering injection with Aβ1-42 in the bilateral hippocampal CA1 in the rats. In the sham-operation group, the distilled water was injected in bilateral hippocampus of rats. In the medication group, the lavage with aricept was adopted for the basic treatment, once a day, for 4 weeks consecutively. In the cluster needling group, on the base of the treatment as the medication group, the cluster needling at the scalp points was adopted, once a day, 6 times a week, for 4 weeks totally. In the sham-operation group and the model group, the normal feeding was provided. After intervention, the learning and memory ability was measured with Morris water maze in the rats of each group. The changes in the hippocampal gross structure were observed with HE staining. The changes in the positive expressions of hippocampal ChAT and AchE were determined with the immunohistochemical method.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham-operation group, the escape latency was prolonged and the percentage of the second quadrant and the frequency of platform leaping were reduced in the rats of the model group (all 0.05) and the expression of AchE was reduced (<0.05) in the medication group; the expression of ChAT was increased (<0.05) and that of AchE decreased (<0.01) in the cluster needling group. Compared with the medication group, the expression of ChAT was increased and that of AchE decreased in the cluster needling group (both <0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The effect mechanism of cluster needling at the scalp points on AD could be related to the up-regulation of ChAT expression and down-regulation of AchE expression in the hippocampus. The combined treatment with the cluster needling and aricept achieves the better therapeutic effect on AD.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Animals , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Hippocampus , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rats, Wistar , Scalp
2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 406-415, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714669

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Loss of cholinergic neurons in the hippocampus is a hallmark of many dementias. Administration of stem cells as a therapeutic intervention for patients is under active investigation, but the optimal stem cell type and transplantation modality has not yet been established. In this study, we studied the therapeutic effects of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs) in dementia rat model using either intracerebroventricular (ICV) or intravenous (IV) injections and analyzed their mechanisms of therapeutic action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dementia modeling was established by intraventricular injection of 192 IgG-saporin, which causes lesion of cholinergic neurons. Sixty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: control, lesion, lesion+ICV injection of pMSCs, lesion+IV injection of pMSCs, and lesion+donepezil. Rats were subjected to the Morris water maze and subsequent immunostaining analyses. RESULTS: Both ICV and IV pMSC administrations allowed significant cognitive recovery compared to the lesioned rats. Acetylcholinesterase activity was significantly rescued in the hippocampus of rats injected with pMSCs post-lesion. Choline acetyltransferase did not co-localize with pMSCs, showing that pMSCs did not directly differentiate into cholinergic cells. Number of microglial cells increased in lesioned rats and significantly decreased back to normal levels with pMSC injection. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that ICV and IV injections of pMSCs facilitate the recovery of cholinergic neuronal populations and cognitive behavior. This recovery likely occurs through paracrine effects that resemble microglia function rather than direct differentiation of injected pMSCs into cholinergic neurons.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase , Animals , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Cholinergic Neurons , Dementia , Hippocampus , Humans , Injections, Intraventricular , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Methods , Microglia , Models, Animal , Negotiating , Placenta , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Stem Cells , Therapeutic Uses , Water
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714209

ABSTRACT

Present study investigated the morphologic changes of autonomic nerves in the adipose tissue in diabetic animal model. Male obese type 2 diabetic db/db mice and age matched non-diabetic db/m control mice were used. Epididymal adipose tissue from diabetic db/db mice with that from control heterozygous db/m mice was compared using confocal microscopy-based method to visualize intact whole adipose tissue. Immunohistochemistry with tyrosine hydroxylase for sympathetic (SP), choline acetyltransferase for parasympathetic (PSP), and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) for whole autonomic nerves was performed. The quantity of immunostained portion of SP, PSP, and PGP 9.5 stained nerve fibers showed decreased trend in diabetic group; however, the ratio of SP/PSP of adipose tissue was higher in diabetic group compared with control group as follows (0.70±0.30 vs. 0.95±0.25, P < 0.05; normal vs. diabetic, respectively). Both SP and PSP nerve fibers were observed in white adipose tissue and PSP nerve fibers were suggested as more decreased in diabetes based on our observation.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Adipose Tissue , Adipose Tissue, White , Animals , Autonomic Pathways , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Methods , Mice , Models, Animal , Nerve Fibers , Peripheral Nerves , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715332

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The neurological molecular mechanisms underlying the voiding dysfunction associated with nonbacterial chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome remain poorly understood. In this study, we assessed whether prostate inflammation activated bladder afferent neurons, leading to bladder dysfunction, and sought to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: sham-saline, formalin-injected, and capsaicin-pretreated and formalin-injected. Chemical prostatitis was induced by 0.1 mL of 10% buffered formalin injected into the ventral prostate. Capsaicin was injected subcutaneously to desensitize capsaicin-sensitive nerves. In each group, conscious cystometry was performed, and c-fos expression within the spinal cord was determined immunocytochemically. Double immunofluorescent staining with c-fos and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) was performed. On the third day after pseudorabies virus (PRV) infection, c-fos and PRV double-staining was performed. RESULTS: Intraprostatic formalin significantly increased the maximal voiding pressure and decreased the intercontraction interval, compared with controls. Pretreatment with capsaicin significantly reversed these effects. More c-fos-positive cells were observed in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus (SPN) and dorsal gray commissure (DCM) in the prostatitis group than in the sham group. c-fos-positive cells decreased in the capsaicin-pretreated group. Preganglionic neurons labeled by c-fos and ChAT were observed in the SPN in rats with prostatitis. Interneurons labeled by c-fos and PRV were identified in the DCM after PRV infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that prostate inflammation activates afferent nerve fibers projecting to the lumbosacral spinal cord, producing reflex activation of spinal neurons innervating the bladder and bladder hyperreflexia. This is mediated by capsaicin-sensitive prostate afferent neurons.


Subject(s)
Animals , Capsaicin , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Formaldehyde , Herpesvirus 1, Suid , Humans , Inflammation , Interneurons , Male , Models, Animal , Nerve Fibers , Neurons , Neurons, Afferent , Pelvic Pain , Prostate , Prostatitis , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reflex , Reflex, Abnormal , Spinal Cord , Urinary Bladder
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691344

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To examine the effect of icariin (ICA) on the cognitive impairment induced by traumatic brain injury (TBI) in mice and the underlying mechanisms related to changes in hippocampal acetylation level.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The modifified free-fall method was used to establish the TBI mouse model. Mice with post-TBI cognitive impairment were randomly divided into 3 groups using the randomised block method (n=7): TBI (vehicle-treated), low-dose (75 mg/kg) and high-dose (150 mg/kg) of ICA groups. An additional sham-operated group (vehicle-treated) was employed. The vehicle or ICA was administrated by gavage for 28 consecutive days. The Morris water maze (MWM) test was conducted. Acetylcholine (ACh) content, mRNA and protein levels of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and protein levels of acetylated H3 (Ac-H3) and Ac-H4 were detected in the hippocampus.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the sham-operated group, the MWM performance, hippocampal ACh content, mRNA and protein levels of ChAT, and protein levels of Ac-H3 and Ac-H4 were signifificantly decreased in the TBI group (P<0.05). High-dose of ICA signifificantly ameliorated the TBI-induced weak MWM performance, increased hippocampal ACh content, and mRNA and protein levels of ChAT, as well as Ac-H3 protein level compared with the TBI group (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>ICA improved post-TBI cognitive impairment in mice by enhancing hippocampal acetylation, which improved hippocampal cholinergic function and ultimately improved cognition.</p>


Subject(s)
Acetylation , Acetylcholine , Metabolism , Animals , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Genetics , Metabolism , Cognitive Dysfunction , Drug Therapy , Flavonoids , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Hippocampus , Pathology , Histones , Metabolism , Homeostasis , Male , Maze Learning , Mice , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Metabolism
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-84966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Physical and/or emotional stresses are important factors in the exacerbation of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Several lines of evidence support that a major impact of stress on the gastrointestinal tract occurs via the enteric nervous system. We aimed to evaluate histological changes in the submucosal plexus (SMP) and myenteric plexus (MP) of the distal ileum in concert with the intestinal motor function in a rat model of IBS with diarrhea. METHODS: The rat model was induced by heterotypic chronic and acute stress (CAS). The intestinal transit was measured by administering powdered carbon by gastric gavage. Double immunohistochemical fluorescence staining with whole-mount preparations of SMP and MP of enteric nervous system was used to assess changes in expression of choline acetyltransferase, vasoactive intestinal peptide, or nitric oxide synthase in relation to the pan neuronal marker, anti-Hu. RESULTS: The intestinal transit ratio increased significantly from control values of 50.8% to 60.6% in the CAS group. The numbers of enteric ganglia and neurons in the SMP were increased in the CAS group. The proportions of choline acetyltransferase- and vasoactive intestinal peptide-immunoreactive neurons in the SMP were increased (82.1 ± 4.3% vs. 76.0 ± 5.0%, P = 0.021; 40.5 ± 5.9% vs 28.9 ± 3.7%, P = 0.001), while nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive neurons in the MP were decreased compared with controls (23.3 ± 4.5% vs 32.4 ± 4.5%, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: These morphological changes in enteric neurons to CAS might contribute to the dysfunction in motility and secretion in IBS with diarrhea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbon , Choline , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Diarrhea , Enteric Nervous System , Fluorescence , Ganglia , Gastrointestinal Motility , Gastrointestinal Tract , Ileum , Intestine, Small , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Models, Animal , Myenteric Plexus , Neurons , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Rats , Stress, Psychological , Submucous Plexus , Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-328252

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the preventive effect of different compatibilities of Ramulus Cinnamomi (RC) and Radix Paeomiae alba (RPA) in Guizhi Decoction (GZD) on neurotransmitters and their rate-limiting enzymes, and neurotrophic factors of cardiac sympathetic denervation model rats induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Totally 54 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, i.e., the blank control group, the model group, the methycobal group, the 2:1 (RC/RPA) Guishao group, the 1:2 Guishao group, and the 1:1 Guishao group, 9 in each group. Sympathetic denervation was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 6-OHDA for three successive days. Rats in the methycobal group and GZD groups were administered with corresponding decoction by gastrogavage 1 week before modeling (methycobal at the daily dose 0.15 mg/kg; GZD at the daily dose of 4.0, 5.5, 5.5 g crude drugs/kg for GZD 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 groups). All medication lasted for 10 successive days. Levels of norepinephrine (NE), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), choline acetyl-transferase (ChAT), nerve growth factor (NGF), growth associated protein43 (GAP-43) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in myocar- dial homogenates of right atrium and ventricular septum were detected by ELISA.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the blank control group, levels of NE, TH, TH/ChAT ratio, and GAP-43 in myocardial homogenates of right atrium and ventricular septum decreased in the model group, and level of NGF increased (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, levels of NE and GAP-43 increased in the right atrium and interventricular septum; NGF level of the ventricular septum decreased in the methycobal group and each GZD groups. TH and TH/ChAT ratio in the right atrium increased in the 2:1 Guishao group and the 1:2 Guishao group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05); NGF levels in the right atrium and interventricular septum decreased only in the 1:1 Guishao group (P < 0.01, P< 0.05). Compared with the methycobal group, levels of NE, TH, and GAP-43 in the right atrium and interventricular septum increased, and NGF levels in the right atrium and interventricular septum decreased in the 1:1 Guishao group (P < 0.05). Compared with the methycobal group, levels of NE and GAP-43 in interventricular septum increased in the 2:1 Guishao group (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>GZD (with the proportion between RC and RPA 2:1 and 1:1) could improve contents of neurotransmitters and their rate-limiting enzymes, as well as neurotrophic factors in cardiac sympathetic denervation model rats induced by 6-OHDA, alleviate cardiac sympathetic denervation induced by 6-OHDA, and maintain the balance of sympathetic-vagal nerve system.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Metabolism , Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , GAP-43 Protein , Metabolism , Heart , Male , Myocardium , Metabolism , Nerve Growth Factor , Metabolism , Norepinephrine , Metabolism , Oxidopamine , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Sympathectomy , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Metabolism
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237947

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the preventive effect different compatibilities of Ramulus Cinnamomi (RC) and peony in Guizhi Decoction (GD) on diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy (DCAN).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Totally 60 male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, i.e., the blank control DM group, the model group, the methycobal group, the 1:1 (RC/peony) Guishao group, the 2:1 Guishao group, and the 1:2 Guishao group, 10 in each group. Rats were pretreated with corresponding drugs for 1 week, and then induced diabetes by intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Drugs were administrated by gastrogavage for 4 more weeks after STZ-injection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to detect levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), choline acetyltransferase (CHAT), nerve growth factor. (NGF), and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in myocardial homogenates.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After 4-week modeling, body weight (BW) was obviously lower, but blood glucose (BG) was higher in STZ rats than in rats of the blank control DM group. There was no statistical difference in BW or BG among the 5 groups (P >0.05). Compared with the blank control group, TH, TH/CHAT, and NGF in left ventricle and ventricular septum increased, CHAT and CNTF increased in the model group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Compared with the model group, TH and TH/CHAT in left ventricle decreased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), CNTF in left ventricle increased (P < 0.05), CHAT in left ventricle and ventricular septum increased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) in the methycobal group. TH and TH/CHAT in left ventricle and ventricular septum decreased, CNTF in left ventricle and ventricular septum increased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), CHAT in left ventricle and ventricular septum increased (P < 0.01), NGF in ventricular septum decreased (P < 0.01) in the 1:1 Guishao group. TH/CHAT in left ventricle decreased (P < 0.01), CHAT and CNTF in left ventricle and ventricular septum increased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) in the 1:2 Guishao group. Compared with the methycobal group, CHAT in left ventricle decreased, TH and TH/CHAT in left ventricle increased in the 2:1 Guishao group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). TH and TH/CHAT in ventricular septum decreased (P < 0.05), CHAT and CNTF in left ventricle and ventricular septum increased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) in the 1:1 Guishao group. Compared with the 1:2 Guishao group and the 2:1 Guishao group, CHAT in left ventricle increased, TH/CHAT in left ventricle decreased, TH and TH/CHAT in ventricular septum decreased, CHAT in ventricular septum increased, CNTF in left ventricle and ventricular septum also increased in the 1:1 Guishao group (all P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>STZ model rats had autonomic neural injury, manifested as lowered vagal nerve activity and hyperactive sympathetic nerves. GD could effectively suppress hyperactive cardiac sympathetic nerves and protect the vagus. Besides, GD (1:1) showed the optimal effect in regulating the balance of cardiac autonomic nerves and could be used in early prevention of DCAN.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Glucose , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Diabetic Neuropathies , Drug Therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Heart , Heart Ventricles , Male , Myocardium , Nerve Growth Factor , Paeonia , Rats , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104379

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with progressive memory loss and neuronal cell death. Although numerous previous studies have been focused on disease progression or reverse pathological symptoms, therapeutic strategies for AD are limited. Alternatively, the identification of traditional herbal medicines or their active compounds has received much attention. The aims of the present study were to characterize the ameliorating effects of spinosin, a C-glucosylflavone isolated from Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa, on memory impairment or the pathological changes induced through amyloid-beta1-42 oligomer (AbetaO) in mice. Memory impairment was induced by intracerebroventricular injection of AbetaO (50 muM) and spinosin (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) was administered for 7 days. In the behavioral tasks, the subchronic administration of spinosin (20 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated AbetaO-induced cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance task or the Y-maze task. To identify the effects of spinosin on the pathological changes induced through AbetaO, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses were performed. Spinosin treatment also reduced the number of activated microglia and astrocytes observed after AbetaO injection. In addition, spinosin rescued the AbetaO-induced decrease in choline acetyltransferase expression levels. These results suggest that spinosin ameliorated memory impairment induced through AbetaO, and these effects were regulated, in part, through neuroprotective activity via the anti-inflammatory effects of spinosin. Therefore, spinosin might be a useful agent against the amyloid b protein-induced cognitive dysfunction observed in AD patients.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid , Animals , Astrocytes , Blotting, Western , Cell Death , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Disease Progression , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Memory Disorders , Memory , Mice , Microglia , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons , Ziziphus
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-162185

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We examined the difference in responses to donepezil between carriers and non-carriers of the A allele at the +4 position of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene in Koreans. METHODS: Patients who met the criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n=199) were recruited. Among these, 145 completed the 12-week follow-up evaluation and 135 completed the 26-week scheduled course. Differences and changes in the Korean version of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE-KC) score, Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-K[N]) wordlist subtest score (WSS), CERAD-K(N) total score (TS), and the Korean version of geriatric depression scale (GDS-K) score between baseline and 12 weeks or 26 weeks were assessed by the Student's t-test. RESULTS: At 12 weeks, the changes in the MMSE-KC score, CERAD-K(N) WSS, and CERAD-K(N) TS from baseline were not significant between ChAT A allele carriers and non-carriers; however, at 26 weeks, these changes were significantly larger in ChAT A allele carriers than in non-carriers (p=0.02 for MMSE-KC and p=0.03 for CERAD-K(N) WSS respectively). CONCLUSION: Our findings in this study suggested that presence of the A allele at the +4 position of ChAT might positively influence the treatment effect of donepezil in the early stages of AD in Koreans.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Alzheimer Disease , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Choline , Depression , Follow-Up Studies , Genotype , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-255008

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the mechanism of learning and memory dysfuction in the transgenic mouse expressing human tau 40 isoform with P301L mutation (F10).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The human tau protein expression and phosphor-tau protein levels were detected with Western blot method. The neurofibrillary tangles were observed with Bielshowsky silver stain. The behavior changes of learning and memory were observed by open field test and passive avoidance test. Acetyleholine level, activities of acetycholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase of whole brain was detected by colorimetry method. The nitric oxide level of whole brain was detected by nitrate enzyme reduction method.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Exogenous human tau gene was expressed and an elevation of phosphor-tau protein level in 7 and 3-month transgenic mice's hippocampus andcerebrocortex was observed. The neurofibrillary tangles were observed in cerebrocortex of 7-month transgenic mice; the 7-month transgenic mice also presented an evident reduction of learning and memory ability and nitric oxide level of the whole brain, but not changes in acetylcholine level, acetycholinesterase activity, choline acetyltransferase activity and expression in whole brain.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Tau transgenic mice (F10) can still inherit their parents' biologiccal characters, and develop learning and memory dysfunction awnodh san obvious decrease in nitric oxide level of whole brain in the 7-month old mice, suggesting a decrease of nitric oxide level of whole brain would be involved in the mechanism of learning and memory dysfunction in these transgenic mice.</p>


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Metabolism , Acetylcholinesterase , Metabolism , Animals , Brain , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Metabolism , Humans , Membrane Proteins , Genetics , Memory Disorders , Genetics , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Mutation , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-243426

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effects of Dipsacus total saponins on the ability of learning and memory and its mechanism of action.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty rats were randomly divided into blank control group, model group, Dipsacus group and positive control group (n = 10), general situation of rats were observed, the ability of learning and memory of rats was tested by Square water maze, the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) of hippocampus in rats were measured using double antibody sandwich method.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>During the period of treatment, general situation had no obvious change in model group, but general situation and the ability of activity were gradually improved in Dipsacus group and positive control group. Compared with blank control group, the swimming time was obviously prolonged and the number of mistakes was obviously increased at different time, the activity of AChE was significantly enhanced and the activity of ChAT was significantly decreased in model group. Compared with model group, the swimming time was obviously shortened and the number of mistakes was obviously reduced at different time, the activities of AChE were significantly decreased and the activities of ChAT were significantly enhanced in Dipsacus group and positive control group; Compared with positive control group, the swimming time and the number of mistakes at different time and the activities of AChE and ChAT had no significant difference in Dipsacus group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Dipsacus total saponins can improve the ability of learning and memory in Alzheimer' s disease(AD) rats, its mechanism of 'action may be related to regulating ACh metabolism of hippocampus.</p>


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Metabolism , Acetylcholinesterase , Metabolism , Alzheimer Disease , Drug Therapy , Animals , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Metabolism , Dipsacaceae , Chemistry , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus , Learning , Memory , Rats , Saponins , Pharmacology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-262636

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe abnormalities in heart rate variability (HRV) in diabetic rats and to explore the effects of treatment with Guizhi Decoction ([symbols; see text]) on cardiac autonomic nervous (CAN) imbalance.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A radio-telemetry system for monitoring physiological parameters was implanted into rats to record electrocardiac signals and all indictors of HRV [time domain measures: standard deviation of all RR intervals in 24 h (SDNN), root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), percentage of differences between adjacent RR intervals greater than 50 ms (PNN50), and standard deviation of the averages of RR intervals (SDANN); frequency domain measures: low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), total power (TP), and LF/HF ratio]. The normal group was randomly selected, and the remaining rats were used to establish streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic model. After 4 weeks, the model rats were divided into the model group, the methycobal group, and the Guizhi Decoction group, 9 rats in each group. Four weeks after intragastric administration of the corresponding drugs, the right atria of the rats were collected for immunohistochemical staining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and choline acetyltransferase (CHAT) to observe the distribution of the sympathetic and vagus nerves in the right atrium. The myocardial homogenate from the interventricular septum and the left ventricle was used for determination of TH, CHAT, growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43), nerve growth factor (NGF), and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) STZ rats had elevated blood glucose levels, reduced body weight, and decreased heart rate; there was no difference between the model group and the drug treated groups. (2) Compared with the model group, only RMSSD and TP increased in the methycobal group significantly (P<0.05); SDNN, RMSSD, PNN50, LF, HF, and TP increased, LF/HF decreased (P<0.05), and SDANN just showed a decreasing trend in the Guizhi Decoction group (P>0.05). TH increased, CHAT decreased, and TH/CHAT increased in the myocardial homogenate of the model group (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, left ventricular TH reduced in the methycobal group; and in the Guizhi Decoction group CHAT increased, while TH and TH/CHAT decreased (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, CNTF in the interventricular septum increased in the methycobal group (P<0.05); GAP-43 increased, NGF decreased, and CNTF increased (P<0.05) in the Guizhi Decoction group. There were significant differences in the reduction of NGF and elevation of CNTF between the Guizhi Decoction group and the methycobal group (P<0.05). (3) Immunohistochemical results showed that TH expression significantly increased and CHAT expression significantly decreased in the myocardia of the model group, whereas TH expression decreased and CHAT expression increased in the Guizhi Decoction group (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Guizhi Decoction was effective in improving the function of the vagus nerve, and it could alleviate autonomic nerve damage.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Autonomic Nervous System , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Diabetic Neuropathies , Drug Therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Heart , Heart Rate , Physiology , Male , Monitoring, Physiologic , Methods , Rats, Wistar , Telemetry , Methods , Treatment Outcome , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Metabolism , Vagus Nerve
14.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 26-32, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-333139

ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on learning-memory of rats with low estrogen-induced cognitive impairment and the possible mechanism. The rat model was established by ovariectomy, which resulted in low estrogen-induced cognitive impairment. EA was applied continuously for 3 months 2 weeks after ovariectomy. Morris water maze was used to test the ability of spatial learning and memory. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time quantitative RT-PCR were used to detect the concentration of serum estradiol (E2) and relative expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) mRNA in hippocampus, respectively. The result showed that, compared with the sham group, the ovariectomy model group exhibited longer escape latency, reduced number of platform-crossing, lower concentration of serum E2, and decreased expression of ChAT mRNA in hippocampus. EA shortened the escape latency and increased the number of platform-crossing in the ovariectomy model group. Moreover, the concentration of serum E2 and the hippocampal expression of ChAT mRNA in the ovariectomy model group were significantly elevated by EA treatment. These results suggest EA is capable of improving learning and memory in ovariectomized rats, and the mechanism involves the up-regulation of the expression of ChAT mRNA in hippocampus induced by the increase of the serum concentration of estrogen.


Subject(s)
Animals , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Metabolism , Cognition Disorders , Therapeutics , Electroacupuncture , Estradiol , Blood , Female , Hippocampus , Learning , Memory , Ovariectomy , RNA, Messenger , Rats
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-235371

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe a turning performance in the rats excited by using a proper electrical stimuli of the barrel cortex region (BC), and the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the BC regions after electoral stimulation.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>SD rats were divided into three groups. The stimulation electrodes were surgically implanted into the bilateral BC regions in the control group and the experimental group rats. The experiment group post surgery for seven days was given the electrical impulses via connection with the electrodes for three times each day through consecutive three days. Three groups of the rats were killed and the brains were quickly removed for frozen sections and then performed with conventional HE and immunohistochemistry staining. And protein samples were prepared from brain and the hippocampus tissues of the three groups to detect the level of the ChAT protein by Western blot.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The experimental rats turn left or right when continuously stimulation in the bilateral BC regions with electric pulse. HE staining showed no significant damage around electrodes in the cerebral cortex. Compared with the control and blank groups, the ChAT positive rate in the brain section in the experimental rats was significantly high by immunohistochemistry assay; the level of the ChAT protein in the rats given the electrical stimulation increased.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Turnings performance of the rat could be initiated hy electrical stimuli in the BC region. Expression of ChAT is significantly higher in the BC regions of rat under electrical stimulation, suggesting that acetylcholine might be associated with signal transmission between senses and movement behavior in the nervous central system.</p>


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Metabolism , Animals , Cerebral Cortex , Metabolism , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Metabolism , Electric Stimulation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
16.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 325-329, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-233460

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of beta-amyloid (Aβ) and apolipoprotein E4(apoE4) on choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) in hippocampus and to explore possible the synergistic effect of both Aβ and apoE4.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group, Aβ group, apoE4 group and Aβ + apoE4 group. Rats in different group received injection of normal saline, Aβ1-40, apoE4 and Aβ1-40 + apoE4, respectively, into bilateral hippocampus CA1 regions under the control of a brain stereotaxic apparatus. The learning-memory ability with the escape latency and the times of passing platform and the expression of ChAT in hippocampus CA1 regions were documented.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The escape latency at fifth day and the times of passing platform and ChAT mRNA PU values were obtained for the control group (10.75 s ± 2.44 s, 4.13 ± 0.64, and 28.90 ± 4.43), apoE4 group (23.88 s ± 4.32 s, 2.38 ± 0.52, and 20.85 ± 3.98), Aβ group (43.50 s ± 9.78 s, 1.38 ± 0.52, and 16.96 ± 2.53), and Aβ + apoE4 group (70.63 s ± 10.04 s, 0.75 ± 0.71, and 13.01 ± 2.21). Through 5 days of training all animals acquired learning-memory ability with the gradually shortened escape latency, although injection of Aβ1-40 and apoE4 all induced learning-memory damage, due to a significantly prolonged the escape latency at fifth day (P < 0.01) and markedly decreased the times of passing platform (P < 0.01) in both Aβ and apoE4 group than in control group. An interaction between Aβ and apoE4 also was observed, with further prolonged escape latency(P < 0.01). ChAT mRNA PU values were significantly lower in the Aβ group and apoE4 group than in the control group (P < 0.01). Aβ and apoE4 demonstrated interaction in lowering ChAT mRNA level(P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Both Aβ and apoE4 induce an injury to hippocampal cholinergic system and its learning-memory ability, in which Aβ and apoE4 have a synergistic effect in the initiation of such injury.</p>


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Toxicity , Animals , Apolipoprotein E4 , Toxicity , CA1 Region, Hippocampal , Physiology , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Genetics , Metabolism , Drug Synergism , Escape Reaction , Learning , Male , Memory , RNA, Messenger , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Wistar
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727563

ABSTRACT

The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortex (HPA) axis is the central mediator of the stress response. The supramammillary (SuM) region is relatively unique among the hypothalamic structures in that it sends a large, direct projection to the hippocampal formation. It has been shown that mild stress could activate the SuM cells that project to the hippocampus. However, the role of these cell populations in modulating the stress response is not known. The present study examined the effect of stress on different populations of SuM cells that project to the hippocampus by injecting the fluorescent retrograde tracer, fluorogold (FG), into the hippocampus and utilizing the immunohistochemistry of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF), serotonin (5-HT), glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and NADPH-d reactivity. Immobilization (IMO) stress (2 hr) produced an increase in the expression of ChAT-immunoreactivity, and tended to increase in CRF, 5-HT, GAD, TH-immunoreactivity and nitric oxide (NO)-reactivity in the SuM cells. Fifty-three percent of 5-HT, 31% of ChAT and 56% of CRF cells were double stained with retrograde cells from the hippocampus. By contrast, a few retrogradely labeled cells projecting to the hippocampus were immunoreactive for dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and NO. These results suggest that the SuM region contains distinct cell populations that differentially respond to stress. In addition, the findings suggest that serotonergic, cholinergic and corticotropin releasing cells projecting to the hippocampus within the SuM nucleus may play an important role in modulating stress-related behaviors.


Subject(s)
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Animals , Axis, Cervical Vertebra , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Dopamine , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Glutamate Decarboxylase , Hippocampus , Immobilization , Immunohistochemistry , Nitric Oxide , Rats , Serotonin , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-347124

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effects of repeated electroacupuncture (EA) of Zusanli (ST36)- Yanglingquan (GB34) on hypothalamic acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and vesicular acetylcholine (ACh) transporter (VAChT) activities and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) mRNA and muscarinic M1 receptor (M1R) mRNA expression in chronic constrictive injury (CCI) and/or ovariectomy (OVX) rats so as to reveal its underlying mechanism in cumulative analgesia.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 103 female Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control (n =15), CCI (n =15), CCI+EA2d (n =15), CCI+EA2W (n =15), OVX+CCI =13), OVX+CCI+EA2d (n =15), and OVX+CCI+EA2W groups (n =15). CCI model was established by ligature of the unilateral sciatic nerve with surgical suture. Memory impairment model was established by removal of the bilateral ovaries. Morris water test was conducted to evaluate the OVX rats' memory learning ability, and the thermal pain threshold (PT) of the bilateral paws was detected the next morning after EA. EA (2/15 Hz, 1 mA) was applied to bilateral ST36-GB34 for 30 min, once daily for 2 days or 2 weeks, respectively. Hypothalamic AChE activity was detected by histochemistry, VAChT immunoactivity was determined by immunohistochemistry, and ChAT mRNA and M1R mRNA expressions were assayed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In comparison with the normal control group, the AChE activity in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) regions of CCI group, AChE activity in paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ARC, and SON regions of OVX+CCI group, and hypothalamic muscarinic M1R mRNA expression levels in both CCI and OVX+CCI groups were down-regulated significantly (P <0.05). Compared with the CCI group, the AChE activities in hypothalamic ARC and SON regions of CCI+EA2d and CCI+EA2W groups and PVN region of CCI+EA2W group and hypothalamic ChAT mRNA and M1R mRNA expression levels in CCI+EA2W group were up-regulated considerably (P <0.05). In comparison with the OVX+CCI group, the AChE activities in PVN, ARC, and SON regions and the expressions of hypothalamic ChAT mRNA and VAChT in ARC region of OVX+CCI+EA2W group were up-regulated remarkably (P <0.05). The effects in rats of CCI+EA2W group were evidently superior to those of OVX+CCI+EA2d group in up-regulating AChE activities in PVN, ARC, and SON regions, VAChT immunoactivity in ARC region, and expression levels of hypothalamic ChAT mRNA and M1R mRNA (P <0.05). Similar situations were found in OVX+CCI rats after EA2W. It suggested a cumulative effect after repeated EA of ST36-GB34. Comparison between CCI+EA2W and OVX+CCI+EA2W groups showed that the effects in rats of the former group were evidently better than those of the latter group in up-regulating AChE activity in ARC and SON regions and the expressions of hypothalamic ChAT mRNA and M1 mRNA (P <0.05), suggesting a reduction of EA2W effects after OVX.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Repeated EA can significantly up-regulate AChE and VAChT activities and ChAT mRNA and M1R mRNA expressions in the hypothalamus of CCI and OVX+CCI rats, which may contribute to the cumulative analgesic effects of repeated EA and be closely related to the animals' neuromemory ability.</p>


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase , Genetics , Metabolism , Acupuncture Analgesia , Animals , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Genetics , Metabolism , Cholinergic Agents , Metabolism , Chronic Pain , Metabolism , Pathology , Constriction, Pathologic , Electroacupuncture , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Hypothalamus , Metabolism , Pathology , Neuralgia , Metabolism , Pathology , Ovariectomy , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Receptor, Muscarinic M1 , Genetics , Metabolism , Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-338058

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effect of Sailuotong capsule (Sailuotong) on learning and memory functions of multi-infarct dementia (MID) rats and its mechanism.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>All SD rats were divided into five groups, namely the sham operation group, the model group, the positive group, the low dosage Sailuotong-treated group and the high dosage Sailuotong-treated group. The multi-infarct dementia model was established by injecting the micro-sphere vascular occlusive agent. On the 10th day after the successful operation, the rats were administered intragastrically with distilled water, memantine hydrochloride (20 mg x kg(-1)) and Sailuotong (16.5 mg x kg(-1) and 33.0 mg x kg(-1)) once a day for 60 days respectively, in order to detect the effect of Sailuotong in different doses on the latent period and route length in Morris water maze and the activities of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) in brain tissues.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Compared with the sham operation rats, it had been observed that the latent period and route length of MID rats in Morris water maze were significantly increased (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), and the activity of ChAT in brain tissues was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). After the intervention with Sailuotong for sixty days, the latent period and route length of MID rats in Morris water maze significantly shrank (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Additionally, Sailuotong decreased AchE activity, while increasing ChAT activity in brain tissues of MID rats (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Sailuotong capsule can improve cognitive dysfunction of MID rats to some extent. Its mechanism may be related to its different regulation of activities of ChAT and AchE in brain tissues.</p>


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase , Metabolism , Animals , Brain , Metabolism , Pathology , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Metabolism , Cognition Disorders , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Dementia, Multi-Infarct , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Male , Maze Learning , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-98922

ABSTRACT

In the current investigation, the status of the septo-hippocampal cholinergic pathway and hippocampal mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling was examined in male Wistar rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, which showed cognitive deficits based on assessment on a version of the Morris water maze. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was induced by bilateral common artery occlusion and maintained for 12 weeks until behavioral testing. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was shown to induce memory impairments and microglial activation in regions of white matter, including the fimbria of hippocampus. Choline acetyltransferase expression of the basal forebrain and expression of hippocampal MAPKs was decreased in rats with BCCAo compared to control rats. The results of this study suggest that cognitive decline induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion could be related to dysfunction of the basal forebrain cholinergic system and reduction of hippocampal MAPK activities.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Arteries , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Dementia, Vascular , Hippocampus , Humans , Male , Maze Learning , Memory , Prosencephalon , Protein Kinases , Rats , Rats, Wistar
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