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2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922417

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the changes in biochemical metabolites in the thalamus and the cerebellum and their association with clinical features in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).@*METHODS@#In this prospective study, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) with point-resolved spatial selection was used to analyze the thalamus and the cerebellum at both sides in 50 children with ASD aged 2-6 years. Creatine (Cr) was as the internal standard to measure the relative values of N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/Cr, choline (Cho)/Cr, myoinositol (MI)/Cr, and glutamine and glutamate complex (Glx)/Cr, and the differences in metabolites and their association with clinical symptoms were compared.@*RESULTS@#In the children with ASD, NAA/Cr in the left thalamus was positively correlated with the scores of hearing-language and hand-eye coordination in the Griffiths Development Scales-Chinese (@*CONCLUSIONS@#There are metabolic disorders in the cerebellum and the thalamus in children with ASD, and there is a correlation between the changes of metabolites in the left cerebellum and the left thalamus. Some metabolic indexes are related to the clinical symptoms of ASD. MRS may reveal the pathological basis of ASD and provide a basis for diagnosis and prognosis assessment of ASD as a noninvasive and quantitative detection method.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder/diagnostic imaging , Cerebellum/diagnostic imaging , Child , Choline , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Prospective Studies , Thalamus/diagnostic imaging
3.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 34: e200187, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351570

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the intake of choline during pregnancy and associated factors. Methods Cohort study with 353 pregnant women recruited from the primary health care network in an inland city of the State of São Paulo. In-house interviews were conducted in each of the gestational trimesters. In each of these points in time, a 24-hour dietary recall was collected. Subsequently, a new dietary recall collection was performed by telephone in the same trimester on a non-consecutive day, differentiating weekday versus weekend/holiday. Dietary intake data were included in the Nutrition Data System for Research software, and the habitual food intake throughout pregnancy was determined, with intra-individual variation correction in the MSM software. The influence of socioeconomic, obstetric and lifestyle factors, and of the actual diet, on choline intake during pregnancy was assessed using linear regression models, that were developed with the Stata software version 14.2, at a significance level of 95%. Results Choline intake (281.1±68.6 milligrams) was below the recommended adequate intake, and only energy was positively associated with this micronutrient intake. Conclusion Choline intake in the population studied fell far short of current recommendations, and only higher energy intake was found as a factor associated with a higher intake.


RESUMO Objetivo Investigar a ingestão de colina durante a gestação e fatores associados. Métodos Estudo de coorte com 353 gestantes recrutadas na rede de assistência primária à saúde de cidade paulista. Foram realizadas entrevistas presenciais, no domicílio, em cada um dos trimestres gestacionais. Em cada momento foi coletado um recordatório alimentar de 24 horas, seguido por nova coleta via telefone no mesmo trimestre, em dia não consecutivo, diferenciando dia de semana versus final de semana/feriado. Os dados de consumo alimentar foram incluídos no software Nutrition Data System for Research, sendo obtida a ingestão habitual, durante toda a gestação, com correção da variação intraindividual, no software MSM. A influência de fatores socioeconômicos, obstétricos, de estilo de vida e da própria dieta sobre a ingestão de colina na gestação foi avaliada por modelos de regressão linear, realizados no software Stata versão 14.2, ao nível de significância de 95%. Resultados A ingestão diária de colina (281,1±68,6 miligramas) mostrou-se abaixo do recomendado, sendo que apenas a energia mostrou-se como positivamente associada à ingestão desse micronutriente. Conclusão A ingestão de colina na população estudada ficou muito aquém das recomendações atuais, sendo que apenas a maior ingestão energética foi encontrada como fator associado à maior ingestão de colina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Choline , Pregnant Women , Eating , Prenatal Nutrition , Diet, Food, and Nutrition
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 553-559, Mar./Apr. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128404

ABSTRACT

Durante o periparto, as vacas leiteiras são submetidas a uma grande demanda de energia, ao mesmo tempo em que reduzem sua ingestão de matéria seca. O balanço energético negativo, resultante dessa equação, acarreta severos transtornos metabólicos, à produção e, principalmente, à reprodução. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito da colina protegida sobre os parâmetros metabólicos, o intervalo entre parto e concepção e a produção de leite em vacas no período de transição. Cinquenta e quatro vacas leiteiras foram divididas em três grupos: controle, suplementação com colina por 10 dias pré-parto (T10) e suplementação com colina por 20 dias pré-parto (T20). Após o parto, foram mensurados os teores de frutosamina, colesterol, ácidos graxos não esterificados (AGNE), beta-hidroxibutirato (BHB), aspartato aminotransferase (AST), gamaglutamiltransferase (GGT) e total de oxidantes (TOS), nos dias 10, 20 e 30. Ainda foram avaliadas produção de leite e intervalo entre parto e concepção. Não houve efeito da suplementação com colina sobre os parâmetros sanguíneos e a produção. O intervalo entre parto e concepção foi menor no grupo T20. A colina suplementada por 20 dias durante o pré-parto melhorou a performance reprodutiva de vacas leiteiras(AU)


During the periparturient dairy cows undergo a large energy demand, at the same time reducing their intake of dry matter. The negative energy balance resulting from this equation leads to severe metabolic disorders in production, and mainly in reproduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of protected choline on metabolic parameters, reproductive performance, and milk production in cows during the transition period. Fifty-four dairy cows were divided into three groups: control, supplementation with choline for 10 days prepartum (T10) and supplementation with choline for 20 days prepartum (T20). After delivery we measured fructosamine levels, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), and total oxidant (TOS) on days 10, 20 and 30. We also evaluated milk production and interval between calving and conception. There was no effect of supplementation with choline on blood and production parameters. The interval between calving and conception was lower in the T20 group. Choline supplemented by 20 during the antepartum improved reproductive performance of dairy cows, although it did not change the metabolic profile.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Cattle , Sexual Behavior, Animal , Choline/administration & dosage , Peripartum Period/physiology , Metabolism , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Cholesterol , 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified , gamma-Glutamyltransferase
6.
Actual. osteol ; 15(1): 11-19, ene. abr. 2019. tab., ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048549

ABSTRACT

El hiperparatiroidismo persistente/recurrente representa un desafío en la localización del tejido paratiroideo hiperfuncionante. En esta subpoblación, los métodos convencionales ofrecen un menor rédito diagnóstico. La 18F-colina PET/TC podría ser una buena alternativa dada su mejor resolución espacial, capacidad de detectar glándulas ectópicas y la conjunción de la imagen molecular y anatómica. Sin embargo, la evidencia en este subgrupo de pacientes es escasa. Objetivo: evaluar la utilidad de la 18F-colina PET/TC como método de localización en el hiperparatiroidismo persistente o recurrente. Materiales y métodos: se analizaron los pacientes con 18F-colina PET/TC para hiperparatiroidismo entre diciembre de 2015 y enero de 2018 en un centro terciario de alto volumen. Se analizaron el número de lesiones, su localización, tamaño y el Standard Uptake Value máximo (SUV max) en las imágenes tempranas y tardías. Se compararon los resultados con los métodos convencionales. Resultados: 7 de 15 pacientes habían sido operados previamente (persistentes/recurrentes). La 18F-colina PET/TC detectó 6/7 casos (83,33%), la ecografía cervical 1/4 (25%) y el SPECT de paratiroides y la resonancia nuclear magnética 2/5 (40%). El SUV max obtenido fue variable, en la mitad de los casos a los 10 minutos y en los restantes a la hora; el tamaño promedio de las lesiones fue 8,61 mm (6-12 mm). Conclusiones: la 18F-colina PET/TC muestra una alta tasa de detección en los pacientes con hiperparatiroidismo persistente/recurrente. La combinación del comportamiento biológico del PET con los hallazgos morfológicos aportados por la TC con contraste endovenoso le ofrecería ventajas sobre otros estudios que podrían posicionarlo como método de primera línea en esta subpoblación. (AU)


Persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism represents a challenge regarding the localization of the hyper-functioning parathyroid tissue. In this subpopulation of hyperpharathyroid patients, conventional methods have a low diagnostic yield. The 18F-choline PET /CT could be a good alternative given its better spatial resolution, ability to detect ectopic glands, and the conjunction of the molecular and anatomical image. However, the evidence in this subgroup of patients is limited. Objective: to evaluate the utility of 18F-choline PET/ CT as a localization method in persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism. Materials and methods: patients with 18F-choline PET / CT for hyperparathyroidism between December 2015 and January 2018 in a high-volume tertiary center were included. The number of lesions, and their location, size, and maximum Standard Uptake Value (SUV) in the early and late images were analyzed. The results were compared to conventional methods. Results: 7 of 15 patients had been previously operated (persistent/recurrent). 18F-choline PET / CT detected 6/7 cases (83,33%), cervical ultrasound 1/4 (25%) and parathyroid SPECT and magnetic resonance 2/5 (40%). The maximum SUV was variable, one half at 10 minutes and the other half at 60 minutes; the average size of the lesions was 8.61 mm (6-12 mm). Conclusions: 18F-Choline PET / CT shows a high detection rate in patients with persistent / recurrent hyperparathyroidism. The combination of the biological behavior of PET with the morphological findings provided by CT with intravenous contrast would offer advantages over other studies that could position it as a first line method in this subpopulation. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/statistics & numerical data , Recurrence , Vitamin D/blood , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/statistics & numerical data , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/statistics & numerical data , Choline/analogs & derivatives , Ultrasonography/statistics & numerical data , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/surgery , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/complications , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/etiology , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Methionine/analogs & derivatives
7.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(1): 23-31, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989975

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: To ascertain the opinions of North American genitourinary (GU) experts regarding inclusion of technologies such as prostate - specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and C - 11 choline positron emission tomography (PET) into routine practice. Materials and Methods: A survey was distributed to North American GU experts. Questions pertained to the role of PSMA and C - 11 PET in PCa management. Participants were categorized as "supporters" or "opponents" of incorporation of novel imaging techniques. Opinions were correlated with practice patterns. Results: Response rate was 54% and we analyzed 42 radiation oncologist respondents. 17 participants (40%) have been in practice for > 20 years and 38 (90%) practice at an academic center. 24 (57%) were supporters of PSMA and 29 (69%) were supporters of C - 11. Supporters were more likely to treat pelvic nodes (88% vs. 56%, p < 01) and trended to be more likely to treat patients with moderate or extreme hypofractionation (58% vs. 28%, p = 065). Supporters trended to be more likely to offer brachytherapy boost (55% vs. 23%, p = 09), favor initial observation and early salvage over adjuvant radiation (77% vs. 55%, p = 09), and to consider themselves expert brachytherapists (69% vs. 39%, p = 09). Conclusions: There is a polarization among GU radiation oncology experts regarding novel imaging techniques. A correlation emerged between support of novel imaging and adoption of treatment approaches that are clinically superior or less expensive. Pre - existing biases among GU experts on national treatment - decision panels and leaders of cooperative group studies may affect the design of future studies and influence the adoption of these technologies in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Choline/metabolism , Expert Testimony , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Antigens, Surface/metabolism , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Interviews as Topic , Radiopharmaceuticals , Neoplasm Grading
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760061

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of idiopathic infantile nystagmus (IN) and bilateral ametropic amblyopia on metabolites in the occipital cortex by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. METHODS: The children included in this prospective study were divided into three groups. Group 1 consisted of 11 patients with idiopathic IN, group 2 consisted of 10 patients with bilateral ametropic amblyopia and group 3 consisted of nine normal children. A single-voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy examination was performed by placing a region of interest on the occipital cortex of each participant. N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho) concentrations were measured in the occipital cortex. This was followed by calculating and comparing the NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios between the three groups. The Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in NAA/Cr ratios between patients with idiopathic IN and normal children, but there was a statistically significant difference between these groups when Cho/Cr ratios were compared; the ratio was higher in the idiopathic IN group. There were no statistically significant differences in NAA/Cr or Cho/Cr ratios between patients with bilateral ametropic amblyopia and normal children. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the neurochemical profile of the occipital cortex is partially affected by idiopathic IN, but not by bilateral ametropic amblyopia.


Subject(s)
Amblyopia , Aspartic Acid , Child , Choline , Creatine , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Occipital Lobe , Prospective Studies
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's dementia is the most common dementia. However, recently, choline alfoscerate is prescribed for treating Alzheimer's dementia, although it is not a treatment for this disease. PURPOSE: To analyze the prescription patterns of choline alfoscerate as a dementia treatment for patients with Alzheimer's disease and to analyze, as well as the factors affecting choline alfoscerate prescription. METHOD: The 2016 HIRA-NPS data was used in this study. The code of Alzheimer's dementia is F00 in the ICD-10 disease classification code. We analyzed the demographic, clinical, and regional characteristics associated with donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, memantine, and choline alfoscerate prescriptions. All statistical and data analyse were conducted by SAS 9.4 and Excel. RESULTS: For patients with Alzheimer's disease, choline alfoscerate was the second most prescribed after donepezil. Analysis results showed that choline alfoscerate was more likely to be prescribed to men than to women, and more likely to be prescribed by local health centers than by medical institutions. Moreover, choline alfoscerate was highly likely to be prescribed at neurosurgical departments, among medical departments. CONCLUSION: This study confirmed that choline alfoscerate was prescribed considerably for patients with Alzheimer's dementia. Further studies valuating its clinical validity should be performed to clarify whether choline alfoscerate prescription is appropriate for treating Alzheimer's dementia.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Choline , Classification , Dementia , Female , Galantamine , Glycerylphosphorylcholine , Humans , International Classification of Diseases , Male , Memantine , Methods , Prescriptions , Rivastigmine
10.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 745-750, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760906

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). This study evaluated the antidepressant effect of rTMS and examined how it affected N-asetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), lactate (Lac), myoinositol (mIns), glutamate (Glu), glutathione (GSH), and glutamine (Gln) metabolite levels in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of MDD patients who were not receiving antidepressant medication. METHODS: In total, 18 patients (10 female, 8 male) were evaluated. Each patient underwent H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) before and within 3 days of completion of TMS therapy. All patients completed 20 sessions of rTMS directed at the left DLPFC over a 2-week period. The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) scores of patients were calculated, and their responses to treatment were assessed within 1–3 days of completion of TMS. RESULTS: We found statistically significant differences in HAMD scores before and after rTMS. Moreover, the peak metabolite ratios of NAA/Cr, GSH/Cr, and Gln/Cr were significantly higher after rTMS compared to those before rTMS. CONCLUSION: Increased understanding of the mechanism of action of TMS will improve its application and may stimulate development of new-generation therapeutic agents.


Subject(s)
Aspartic Acid , Choline , Creatine , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major , Female , Glutamic Acid , Glutamine , Glutathione , Humans , Inositol , Lactic Acid , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Prefrontal Cortex , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719461

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We undertook this study to investigate the discriminant metabolites in urine from patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and from healthy individuals. METHODS: Urine samples were collected from 148 RA patients, 41 SLE patients and 104 healthy participants. The urinary metabolomic profiles were assessed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The relationships between discriminant metabolites and clinical variables were assessed. Collagen-induced arthritis was induced in mice to determine if a choline-rich diet reduces arthritis progression. RESULTS: The urinary metabolic fingerprint of patients with established RA differs from that of healthy controls and SLE patients. Markers of altered gut microbiota (trimethylamine-N-oxide, TMAO), and oxidative stress (dimethylamine) were upregulated in patients with RA. In contrast, markers of mitochondrial dysfunction (citrate and succinate) and metabolic waste products (p-cresol sulfate, p-CS) were downregulated in patients with RA. TMAO and dimethylamine were negatively associated with serum inflammatory markers in RA patients. In particular, patients with lower p-CS levels exhibited a more rapid radiographic progression over two years than did those with higher p-CS levels. The in vivo functional study demonstrated that mice fed with 1% choline, a source of TMAO experienced a less severe form of collagen-induced arthritis than did those fed a control diet. CONCLUSION: Patients with RA showed a distinct urinary metabolomics pattern. Urinary metabolites can reflect a pattern indicative of inflammation and accelerated radiographic progression of RA. A choline-rich diet reduces experimentally-induced arthritis. This finding suggests that the interaction between diet and the intestinal microbiota contributes to the RA phenotype.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthritis , Arthritis, Experimental , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Choline , Dermatoglyphics , Diet , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Inflammation , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Metabolome , Metabolomics , Mice , Oxidative Stress , Phenotype , Spectrum Analysis , Waste Products
13.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(5): 900-905, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975628

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: To test the ability of dynamic 11C-PET / CT to discriminate cancerous tissue from background tissue in patients with localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four consecutive patients with prostate cancer were prospectively evaluated with dynamic 11C-choline PET / CT prior to radical prostatectomy. The PET / CT scan was divided into 18 sequences of 5 seconds each, followed by 9 sequences of 60 seconds each. Whole-mount sections of harvested prostates served as reference standards. Volumes of interest were positioned on the dynamic PET / CT images and the following quantitative variables were calculated: perfusion coefficient (K1), washout constant (K2), area under the curve (AUC) at 175 and 630 seconds, and average and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVavg, and SUVmax). Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was used to compare benign and cancerous areas of the prostate. Results: Areas of cancerous tissue were characterized by higher SUVavg and SUVmax than areas of benign tissue (3.67 ± 2.7 vs. 2.08 ± 1.3 and 5.91 ± 4.4 vs. 3.71 ± 3.7, respectively, P < 0.001), in addition to a higher K1 (0.95 ± 0.58 vs. 0.43 ± 0.24, P < 0.001) and greater cumulative tracer uptake, represented by the AUC at 175 and 630 seconds (P <0.001). No associations were found between dynamic parameters and preoperative prostate specific antigen level or Gleason score. Conclusions: In this pilot study, 11C-choline PET / CT demonstrated increased tracer uptake with higher values of static and dynamic parameters in areas of prostate cancer compared to areas of benign tissue. Larger studies are warranted to validate these results and examine the potential applicability of 11C-choline dynamic PET / CT for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carbon Radioisotopes/pharmacokinetics , Choline/pharmacokinetics , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Neoplasm Grading , Middle Aged
14.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(5): 501-505, Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983792

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a powerful tool for structural studies of chemical compounds and biomolecules and also documented promising findings as a potential imaging technology in thyroid oncology. This prospective study was to ascertain the clinical significance of 3 Tesla MRS in the evaluation of patients with thyroid nodules (TNs) as an ancillary diagnostic technique for thyroid carcinoma. Materials and methods: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3T at echo- times (TEs) 136 and 270 ms was carried out on 15 patients with total number of 32 TNs larger than 1 cm3, which all were surgically resected. Choline (Chol) to creatine (Cr) ratio was assessed at 136 and 270 TEs on each nodule and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine optimal cut-off point. The findings were compared with histopathology of thyroid specimens. Results: There were 23 benign and 9 malignant lesions (7 papillary and 2 follicular thyroid carcinomas). The mean values of Chol/Cr at 136 and 270 TEs was 2.28 ± 3.65 and 1.52 ± 1.67 respectively and the difference between benign and malignant nodules was only significant at 136 TEs. The study revealed that Chol/ Cr ratio cut-off point of 2.5 best correlates with histopathology results (sensitivity = 75%; specificity = 100%; PPV = 100%; NPV= 92%). Conclusion: This preliminary study showed that 3T magnetic resonance spectroscopy might be a specific modality for the evaluation of thyroid nodules in differentiation of benign from malignant thyroid tissue. However, a larger series would give much greater confidence that this state-of-the-art technology will worth pursuing in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Reference Values , Choline/analysis , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Statistics, Nonparametric , Creatine/analysis
15.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 645-657, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771285

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common metabolic diseases currently in the context of obesity worldwide, which contains a spectrum of chronic liver diseases, including hepatic steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatic carcinoma. In addition to the classical "Two-hit" theory, NAFLD has been recognized as a typical gut microbiota-related disease because of the intricate role of gut microbiota in maintaining human health and disease formation. Moreover, gut microbiota is even regarded as a "metabolic organ" that play complementary roles to that of liver in many aspects. The mechanisms underlying gut microbiota-mediated development of NAFLD include modulation of host energy metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and bile acid and choline metabolism. As a result, gut microbiota have been emerging as a novel therapeutic target for NAFLD by manipulating it in various ways, including probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, and herbal components. In this review, we summarized the most recent advances in gut microbiota-mediated mechanisms, as well as gut microbiota-targeted therapies on NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bile Acids and Salts , Metabolism , Choline , Metabolism , Dietary Supplements , Energy Metabolism , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Intestines , Microbiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Microbiology , Therapeutics
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715614

ABSTRACT

In this study, we examined the molecular and functional characterization of choline uptake in the human esophageal cancer cells. In addition, we examined the influence of various drugs on the transport of [3H]choline, and explored the possible correlation between the inhibition of choline uptake and apoptotic cell death. We found that both choline transporter-like protein 1 (CTL1) and CTL2 mRNAs and proteins were highly expressed in esophageal cancer cell lines (KYSE series). CTL1 and CTL2 were located in the plasma membrane and mitochondria, respectively. Choline uptake was saturable and mediated by a single transport system, which is both Na+-independent and pH-dependent. Choline uptake and cell viability were inhibited by various cationic drugs. Furthermore, a correlation analysis of the potencies of 47 drugs for the inhibition of choline uptake and cell viability showed a strong correlation. Choline uptake inhibitors and choline deficiency each inhibited cell viability and increased caspase-3/7 activity. We conclude that extracellular choline is mainly transported via a CTL1. The functional inhibition of CTL1 by cationic drugs could promote apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, CTL2 may be involved in choline uptake in mitochondria, which is the rate-limiting step in S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthesis and DNA methylation. Identification of this CTL1- and CTL2-mediated choline transport system provides a potential new target for esophageal cancer therapy.


Subject(s)
Cell Death , Cell Line , Cell Membrane , Cell Survival , Choline Deficiency , Choline , DNA Methylation , Esophageal Neoplasms , Humans , Mitochondria , RNA, Messenger , S-Adenosylmethionine
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disease characterized by intestinal dysmotility, the mechanism of which remains elusive. We aim to determine whether the high-affinity choline transporter 1 (CHT1), a determinant of cholinergic signaling capacity, modulates intestinal motility associated with stress-induced IBS. METHODS: A rat IBS model was established using chronic water avoidance stress (WAS). Colonic pathological alterations were evaluated histologically and intestinal motility was assessed by intestinal transit time and fecal water content (FWC). Visceral sensitivity was determined by visceromotor response to colorectal distension. RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunostaining were performed to identify colonic CHT1 expression. Contractility of colonic muscle strips was measured using isometric transducers. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure acetylcholine (ACh). We examined the effects of MKC-231, a choline uptake enhancer, on colonic motility. RESULTS: After 10 days of WAS, intestinal transit time was decreased and fecal water content increased. Visceromotor response magnitude in WAS rats in response to colorectal distension was significantly enhanced. Protein and mRNA CHT1 levels in the colon were markedly elevated after WAS. The density of CHT1-positive intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal and myenteric plexus neurons in WAS rats was higher than in controls. Ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate partly reversed CHT1 upregulation and alleviated colonic hypermotility in WAS rats. Pharmacological enhancement of CHT1 activity by MKC-231 enhanced colonic motility in control rats via upregulation of CHT1 and elevation of ACh production. CONCLUSION: Upregulation of CHT1 in intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal and myenteric plexus neurons is implicated in chronic stress-induced colonic hypermotility by modulation of ACh synthesis via nuclear factor-kappa B signaling.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Ammonium Compounds , Animals , Blotting, Western , Choline , Colon , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gastrointestinal Motility , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Models, Animal , Myenteric Plexus , Neurons , Rats , RNA, Messenger , Transducers , Up-Regulation , Water
18.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1156-1161, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689513

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the changes of cerebral metabolism in rabbit model of hemorrhagic shock by using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy(PMRS).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Ten New Zealand white rabbits were used for construction of the model of acute hemorrhagic anemia. 1H-MRS was performed before and at the time-peint of 30, 90, and 180 min after hemorrhagic shock. The concentrations of NAA, Cr, Cho, Lac, and NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios were estimated.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Hemorrhagic shock was associated with significant reductions in red blood cell count, hemoglobin level, hematocrit, pH, and PaCO, and elevations of blood lactate and PaO. The ratios of NAA/Cr at 30 min, 90 min and 180 min after shock were (1.50±0.09), (1.37±0.09) and (1.27±0.10), respectively, which were significantly lower than those before shock (2.11±0.16) (P <0.05) (1.16±0.05) and (0.97±0.04) at 30 min and 90 min after shock, respectively, which were significantly lower than those pre-shock (1.38±0.08) (P <0.05). The ratis of Cho/Cr at 30 min and 90 min were (1.16±0.05) and (0.97±0.04), respectively, which were significantly lower than those before shock (1.38±0.08) (P <0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>MRS can noninvasively and dynamically detect brean metabolic changes in early hemorrhagic shock, and has positive significance for early diagnosis and prognosis assessment of hemorrhagic shock.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Aspartic Acid , Brain , Choline , Disease Models, Animal , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Protons , Rabbits , Shock, Hemorrhagic
19.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(2): 109-111, Feb. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842538

ABSTRACT

Summary Early diagnosis and staging of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is essential for therapeutic strategy decision. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with fluordeoxyglucose (FDG), a glucose analogue, labeled with fluor-18 (18F-FDG) has been used to evaluate staging, therapy response and prognosis in NHL patients. However, in some cases, 18F-FDG has shown false-positive uptake due to inflammatory reaction after chemo and/or radiation therapy. In this case report, we present a NHL patient evaluated with 18F-FDG and 18F-choline PET/CT scan imaging pre- and post-therapy. 18F-FDG and 18F-choline PET/CT were performed for the purpose of tumor staging and have shown intense uptake in infiltrative tissue as well as in the lymph node, but with some mismatching in the tumor. Post-treatment 18F-FDG and 18F-choline PET/ CT scans revealed no signs of radiotracer uptake, suggesting complete remission of the tumor. 18F-choline may be a complimentary tool for staging and assessment of therapeutic response in non-Hodgkin lymphoma, while non-18F-FDG tracer can be used for targeted therapy and patient management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Skin Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/diagnostic imaging , Choline , Radiopharmaceuticals , Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Sternum , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725019

ABSTRACT

The proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS) is a tool used to detect concentrations of brain metabolites such as N-acetyl aspartate, choline, creatine, glutamate, and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). It has been widely used because it does not require additional devices other than the conventional magnetic resonance scanner and coils. Demyelination, or the neuronal damage due to loss of myelin sheath, is one of the common pathologic processes in many diseases including multiple sclerosis, leukodystrophy, encephalomyelitis, and other forms of autoimmune diseases. Rodent models mimicking human demyelinating diseases have been induced by using virus (e.g., Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus) or toxins (e.g., cuprizon or lysophosphatidyl choline). This review is an overview of the MRS findings on brain metabolites in demyelination with a specific focus on rodent models.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aspartic Acid , Autoimmune Diseases , Brain , Butyric Acid , Choline , Creatine , Demyelinating Diseases , Encephalomyelitis , Glutamic Acid , Humans , Models, Animal , Multiple Sclerosis , Myelin Sheath , Neurons , Pathologic Processes , Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Rodentia , Spectrum Analysis
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