Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 74
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(6): 660-671, nov. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369981


Search for safe antioxidants and novel nutraceuticals urged to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-acetylcholine esterase and anti-lipoxygenase activity of various leaf extracts of Conocarpus lancifolius. Extraction was optimized from freeze dried plant extracts quenched with liquid nitrogen using water, ethanol, methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform. Maximum extract yield, total phenolic contents and total flavonoid contents were obtained in case of ethanolic extraction. The highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazylradical scavenging in terms of IC50 value of 55.26 µg/mL was observed for ethanolic leaf extract. The acetylcholine esterase and lipoxygenase inhibitory activities (IC50) were also observed for ethanolic extract. These findings for ethanolic extract were statistically significant when compared with other extracts (ρ<0.05). The haemolytic % values indicated that all extracts were associated with very low or negligible toxicity. The epicatechin, isorhamnetin, rutin, scopoleptin, skimmianine, quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-ß-glucoside, cornoside, creatinine, choline, pyruvic acid, α-hydroxybutyric acid, phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin were identified as major functional metabolites in ethanolic leaf extract of C. lancifoliusby 1H-NMR. The identified metabolites were probably responsible for the pharmacological properties of C.lancifolius. The findings may be utilized as pharmacological leads for drug development and food fortification.

Se insta a la búsqueda de antioxidantes seguros y nuevos nutracéuticos para evaluar la actividad antioxidante, anti-acetilcolina esterasa y anti-lipoxigenasa de varios extractos de hojas de Conocarpus lancifolius. La extracción se optimizó a partir de extractos de plantas liofilizados enfriados con nitrógeno líquido usando agua, etanol, metanol, hexano, acetato de etilo y cloroformo. En el caso de extracción etanólica se obtuvo el rendimiento máximo de extracto, el contenido de fenoles totales y el contenido de flavonoides totales. La mayor eliminación de radicales 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazilo en términos de valor de CI50 de 55,26 µg/mL se observó para el extracto de hoja etanólico. También se observaron las actividades inhibidoras de la acetilcolina esterasa y lipoxigenasa (CI50) para el extracto etanólico. Estos hallazgos para el extracto etanólico fueron estadísticamente significativos en comparación con otros extractos (ρ<0.05). Los valores del % hemolítico indicaron que todos los extractos estaban asociados con una toxicidad muy baja o insignificante. Se identificaron la epicatequina, isorhamnetina, rutina, escopoleptina, skimmianina, quercetina-3-O-α-ramnosido, quercetina-3-O-ß-glucósido, cornosido, creatinina, colina, ácido pirúvico, ácido α-hidroxibutírico, filantrina e hipofillantina. como metabolitos funcionales principales en el extracto etanólico de hojas de C. lancifoliuspor 1H-NMR. Los metabolitos identificados probablemente fueron responsables de las propiedades farmacológicas de C. lancifolius. Los hallazgos pueden utilizarse como pistas farmacológicas para el desarrollo de fármacos y la fortificación de alimentos.

Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Combretaceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers , Lipoxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lipoxygenase Inhibitors/chemistry , Ethanol , Antioxidants/chemistry
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e19154, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350235


Hippeastrum puniceum is a species that belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family. A particular characteristic of this family is the consistent and very specific presence of isoquinoline alkaloids, which have demonstrated a wide range of biological activities such as antioxidant, antiviral, antifungal, antiparasitic, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, among others. In the present work, fifteen alkaloids were identified from the bulbs of Hippeastrum puniceum (Lam.) Kuntz using a GC-MS approach. The alkaloids 9-O-demethyllycoramine, 9-demethyl-2α-hydroxyhomolycorine, lycorine and tazettine were isolated through chromatographic techniques. The typical Amaryllidaceae alkaloids lycorine and tazettine, along with the crude and ethyl acetate extract from bulbs of the species were evaluated for their inhibitory potential on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, tyrosinase and acetylcholinesterase activity. Although no significant inhibition activity was observed against α-amylase, α-glucosidase and tyrosinase from the tested samples, the crude and ethyl acetate extracts showed remarkable acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The biological activity results that correlated to the alkaloid chemical profile by GC-MS are discussed herein. Therefore, this study contributed to the knowledge of the chemical and biological properties of Hippeastrum puniceum (Lam.) and can subsidize future studies of this species

Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids/analysis , Amaryllidaceae/classification , Acetylcholinesterase/adverse effects , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Acetates/agonists , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e002221, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251367


Abstract This study reports the action of essential oils (EO) from five plants on the activity of native and recombinant acetylcholinesterases (AChE) from Rhipicephalus microplus. Enzyme activity of native susceptible AChE extract (S.AChE), native resistant AChE extract (R.AChE), and recombinant enzyme (rBmAChE1) was determined. An acetylcholinesterase inhibition test was used to verify the effect of the EO on enzyme activity. EO from Eucalyptus globulus, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus aurantium var.dulcis inhibited the activity of S.AChE and R.AChE. Oils from the two Citrus species inhibited S.AChE and R.AChE in a similar way while showing greater inhibition on R.AChE. The oil from E. globulus inhibited native AChE, but no difference was observed between the S.AChE and R.AChE; however, 71% inhibition for the rBmAChE1 was recorded. Mentha piperita oil also inhibited S.AChE and R.AChE, but there was significant inhibition at the highest concentration tested. Cymbopogon winterianus oil did not inhibit AChE. Further studies are warranted with the oils from the two Citrus species that inhibited R.AChE because of the problem with R. microplus resistant to organophosphates, which target AChE. C. winterianus oil can be used against R. microplus populations that are resistant to organophosphates because its acaricidal properties act by mechanism(s) other than AChE inhibition.

Resumo Este estudo relata a ação de óleos essenciais de cinco plantas na atividade de acetilcolinesterases (AChE) nativas e recombinantes de Rhipicephalus microplus. A atividade enzimática do extrato de acetilcolinesterase nativa suscetível (S.AChE) e resistente (R.AChE) e da enzima recombinante (rBmAChE1) foi determinada. Um teste de inibição da AChE foi utilizado, para verificar o efeito dos óleos essenciais sobre a atividade enzimática. Óleos essenciais de Eucalyptus globulus, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus aurantium var. dulcis inibiram a atividade de S.AChE e R.AChE. Os óleos das duas espécies de Citrus inibiram S.AChE e R.AChE de maneira semelhante, mas mostraram maior inibição sobre R.AChE. O óleo de E. globulus inibiu a AChE nativa, mas sem diferença entre a S.AChE e a R.AChE; no entanto, 71% de inibição para rBmAChE1 foi observada. O óleo de Mentha piperita também inibiu S.AChE e R.AChE, mas houve inibição significativa apenas nas concentrações mais altas testadas. O óleo de Cymbopogon winterianus não inibiu a AChE. Estudos adicionais são necessários com os óleos das duas espécies de Citrus que inibiram a R.AchE, devido ao problema de R. microplus resistente aos organofosforados ter como alvo AChE. O óleo de C. winterianus pode ser usado contra populações de R. microplus, que são resistentes a organofosforados, porque suas propriedades acaricidas agem por mecanismos diferentes.

Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cymbopogon , Rhipicephalus/enzymology , Acaricides/pharmacology , Acetylcholinesterase , Larva
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18092, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142491


We synthesized a series of compounds bearing pharmacologically important 1,3,4-oxadiazole and piperidine moieties. Spectral data analysis by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR and EI-MS was used to elucidate the structures of the synthesized molecules. Docking studies explained the different types of interaction of the compounds with amino acids, while bovine serum albumin (BSA) binding interactions showed their pharmacological effectiveness. Antibacterial screening of these compounds demonstrated moderate to strong activity against Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis but only weak to moderate activity against the other three bacterial strains tested. Seven compounds were the most active members as acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors. All the compounds presented displayed strong inhibitory activity against urease. Compounds 7l, 7m, 7n, 7o, 7p, 7r, 7u, 7v, 7x and 7v were highly active, with respective IC50 values of 2.14±0.003, 0.63±0.001, 2.17±0.006, 1.13±0.003, 1.21±0.005, 6.28±0.003, 2.39±0.005, 2.15±0.002, 2.26±0.003 and 2.14±0.002 µM, compared to thiourea, used as the reference standard (IC50 = 21.25±0.15 µM). These new urease inhibitors could replace existing drugs after their evaluation in comprehensive in vivo studies.

Computer Simulation/classification , Salmonella typhi/classification , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Thiourea , Bacillus subtilis/classification , Urease , Serum Albumin, Bovine , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Data Analysis , Amino Acids/antagonists & inhibitors
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(6): 544-554, nov. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102238


In this work, the inhibitory activity of a wide range of polysaccharide extracts from two Iranian and French strains of Agaricus subrufescens were evaluated toward acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Among them, two extracts S9 and S'7 obtained from Iranian and French strains under different extraction conditions showed selective AChE inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 154.63 and 145.43 µg/mL, respectively. It should be noted that all extracts from both strains demonstrated no BChE inhibitory activity. S9 and S'7 were also tested for their effect on amyloid beta (Aß) aggregation, antioxidant activity, and neuroprotectivity. Their activity against Aß aggregation was comparable to that of donepezil as the reference drug but they induced moderate antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging activity and negligible neuroprotectivity against Aß-induced damage.

En este trabajo, se evaluó la actividad inhibitoria de acetilcolinesterasa (AChE) y butirilcolinesterasa (BChE) para varios extractos de polisacáridos de dos cepas iraníes y francesas de Agaricus subrufescens. Los extractos más potentes mostraron valores de IC50 de 154,63 y 145 µg/ml para las cepas iraní (S9) y francesa (S'7), respectivamente, las cuales se obtuvieron de diferentes condiciones de extracción; sin embargo, todos los extractos no mostraron actividad inhibitoria de BChE. Además, S9 y S'7 se probaron para determinar su efecto sobre la agregación de beta-amiloide (Aß), así como su actividad antioxidante y neuroprotectora. Su actividad inhibitoria de la agregación de Aß fue comparable con donepezil, fármaco de referencia, pero indujeron una actividad antioxidante moderada, medida mediante la captación de radicales DPPH, y una neuroprotectora insignificante contra el daño inducido por Aß.

Agaricus/chemistry , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Amyloid/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Picrates , Biphenyl Compounds , Butyrylcholinesterase , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Neuroprotective Agents , Alzheimer Disease/enzymology , Fungal Polysaccharides/pharmacology
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(5): 527-532, sept. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008292


Chemical constituents and biological activities of the aerial parts of Piper erecticaule C.DC. have been studied for the first time. Fractionation and purification of the extracts afforded aristolactam AII (1), aristolactam BII (2), piperolactam A (3), piperolactam C (4), piperolactam D (5), together with terpenoids of ß-sitosterol, ß-sitostenone, taraxerol, and lupeol. The structures of these compounds were obtained by analysis of their spectroscopic data, as well as the comparison with that of reported data. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity revealed that compounds 1 and 3 showed strong AChE inhibitory effects with the percentage inhibition of 75.8% and 74.8%, respectively.

Se estudiaron por primera vez los constituyentes químicos y actividad biológica de las partes aéreas de Piper erecticaule C.DC. El fraccionamiento y la purificación de los extractos proporcionaron aristolactama AII (1), aristolactama BII (2), piperolactama A (3), piperolactama C (4), piperolactama D (5), junto con terpenoides de ß-sitosterol, ß-sitostenona, taraxerol, y el lupeol. Las estructuras de estos compuestos se obtuvieron mediante el análisis de sus datos espectroscópicos, así como mediante la comparación con datos ya informados. La actividad inhibidora de la acetilcolinesterasa reveló que los compuestos 1 y 3 mostraron un potente efecto inhibidor de la AChE con un porcentaje de inhibición del 75.8% y 74.8%, respectivamente.

Aporphines/pharmacology , Acetylcholinesterase/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Piper/chemistry , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Aporphines/chemistry , Terpenes/isolation & purification , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/chemistry , Indole Alkaloids/chemistry , Alkaloids/chemistry , Lactams/chemistry
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 1-9, July. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053195


BACKGROUND: Microalgae are aquatic chlorophyll-containing organisms comprising unicellular microscopic forms, and their biomasses are potential sources of bioactive compounds, biofuels and food-based products. However, the neuroprotective effects of microalgal biomass have not been fully explored. In this study, biomass from two Chlorella species was characterized, and their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and anti-amyloidogenic activities were investigated. RESULTS: GC­MS analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of some phenols, sterols, steroids, fatty acids and terpenes. Ethanol extract of Chlorella sorokiniana (14.21 mg GAE/g) and dichloromethane extract of Chlorella minutissima (20.65 mg QE/g) had the highest total phenol and flavonoid contents, respectively. All the extracts scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) and hydroxyl radicals. The highest metal chelating activity of the extracts was observed in the ethanol extracts of C. minutissima (102.60 µg/mL) and C. sorokiniana (107.84 µg/mL). Furthermore, the cholinesterase inhibitory activities of the extracts showed that ethanol extract of C. sorokiniana (13.34 µg/mL) exhibited the highest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, while dichloromethane extract of C. minutissima (11.78 µg/mL) showed the highest butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Incubation of the ß-amyloid protein increased the aggregation of amyloid fibrils after 96 h. However, ethanol extract of C. sorokiniana and C. minutissima inhibited further aggregation of Aß1­42 and caused disaggregation of matured protein fibrils compared to the control. This study reveals the modulatory effects of C. sorokiniana and C. minutissima extracts on some mediators of Alzheimer's disease and provides insights into their potential benefits as functional food, nutraceutics or therapeutic agent for the management of this neurodegenerative disease.

Chlorella/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/antagonists & inhibitors , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Steroids/analysis , Sterols/analysis , Terpenes/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Neuroprotective Agents , Biomass , Ethanol , Fatty Acids/analysis , Microalgae , Alzheimer Disease/prevention & control , Amyloid/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antioxidants/chemistry
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 169-176, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889211


ABSTRACT Major health challenges as the increasing number of cases of infections by antibiotic multiresistant microorganisms and cases of Alzheimer's disease have led to searching new control drugs. The present study aims to verify a new way of obtaining bioactive extracts from filamentous fungi with potential antimicrobial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities, using epigenetic modulation to promote the expression of genes commonly silenced. For such finality, five filamentous fungal species (Talaromyces funiculosus, Talaromyces islandicus, Talaromyces minioluteus, Talaromyces pinophilus, Penicillium janthinellum) were grown or not with DNA methyltransferases inhibitors (procainamide or hydralazine) and/or a histone deacetylase inhibitor (suberohydroxamic acid). Extracts from T. islandicus cultured or not with hydralazine inhibited Listeria monocytogenes growth in 57.66 ± 5.98% and 15.38 ± 1.99%, respectively. Increment in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity was observed for the extract from P. janthinellum grown with procainamide (100%), when compared to the control extract (39.62 ± 3.76%). Similarly, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity increased from 20.91 ± 3.90% (control) to 92.20 ± 3.72% when the tested extract was obtained from T. pinophilus under a combination of suberohydroxamic acid and procainamide. Concluding, increases in antimicrobial activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition were observed when fungal extracts in the presence of DNA methyltransferases and/or histone deacetylase modulators were tested.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Penicillium/chemistry , Talaromyces/chemistry , Acetylcholinesterase/chemistry , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/metabolism , Chromatin/metabolism , Listeria monocytogenes/drug effects , Listeria monocytogenes/enzymology , Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development , Penicillium/metabolism , Talaromyces/metabolism
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(5): 443-449, Sept-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897751


Abstract Objectives Reductions in diaphragm activity are associated with the postoperative development of atelectasis. Neostigmine reversal is also associated with increased atelectasis. We assessed the effects of neostigmine, sugammadex, and spontaneous reversal on regional lung ventilation and airway flow. Methods Six Sprague-Dawley rats were paralysed with rocuronium and mechanically ventilated until recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.5. We administered neostigmine (0.06, sugammadex (15, or saline (n = 2 per group). Computed tomography scans were obtained during the breathing cycle. Three-dimensional models of lung lobes were generated using functional respiratory imaging technology, and lobar volumes were calculated during the breathing cycle. The diaphragmatic surface was segmented for the end-expiratory and end-inspiratory scans. The total change in volume was reported by the lung volume change from the end-expiratory scan to the end-inspiratory scan. Chest wall movement was defined as the lung volume change minus the volume change that resulted from diaphragm excursion. Results The two rats that received neostigmine exhibited a smaller relative contribution of diaphragm movement to the total change in lung volume compared with the two rats that received sugammadex or saline (chest wall contribution (%): 26.69 and 25.55 for neostigmine; -2.77 and 15.98 for sugammadex; 18.82 and 10.30 for saline). Conclusion This pilot study in rats demonstrated an increased relative contribution of chest wall expansion after neostigmine compared with sugammadex or saline. This smaller relative contribution of diaphragm movement may be explained by a neostigmine-induced decrease in phrenic nerve activity or by remaining occupied acetylcholine receptors after neostigmine.

Resumo Objetivos As reduções da atividade do diafragma estão associadas ao desenvolvimento de atelectasia no período pós-operatório. A reversão com neostigmina também está associada ao aumento de atelectasia. Avaliamos os efeitos de neostigmina, sugamadex e da reversão espontânea sobre a ventilação pulmonar regional e o fluxo aéreo. Métodos Seis ratos Sprague-Dawley foram paralisados com rocurônio e mecanicamente ventilados até a recuperação da sequência de quatro estímulos atingir relação 0,5. Administramos neostigmina (0,06, sugamadex (15 ou solução salina (n = 2 por grupo). As tomografias foram feitas durante o ciclo respiratório. Modelos tridimensionais dos lobos pulmonares foram gerados com a tecnologia de imagem funcional respiratória e os volumes lobares foram calculados durante o ciclo respiratório. A superfície diafragmática foi segmentada para as varreduras expiratória final e inspiratória final. A alteração total no volume foi relatada pela alteração do volume pulmonar da varredura expiratória final para a varredura inspiratória final. O movimento da parede torácica foi definido como a variação do volume pulmonar menos a alteração no volume resultante da excursão do diafragma. Resultados Os dois ratos que receberam neostigmina apresentaram uma contribuição relativa menor do movimento do diafragma para a alteração total do volume pulmonar em comparação com os dois ratos que receberam sugamadex ou solução salina (contribuição da parede torácica (%): 26,69 e 25,55 para neostigmina; -2,77 e 15,98 para sugamadex; 18,82 e 10,30 para solução salina). Conclusão Este estudo piloto com ratos demonstrou uma contribuição relativa aumentada de expansão da parede torácica após neostigmina em comparação com sugamadex ou solução salina. Essa contribuição relativa menor de movimento do diafragma pode ser explicada por uma redução induzida por neostigmina na atividade do nervo frênico ou por receptores de acetilcolina permanecerem ocupados após a administração de neostigmina.

Animals , Male , Rats , Respiration/drug effects , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Neuromuscular Blockade , Sugammadex/pharmacology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Neostigmine/pharmacology , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Random Allocation , Pilot Projects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Lung/physiology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(6): 693-697, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829668


Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Dengue fever is a viral disease transmitted by the Aedes aegypti Linn. (1792) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito, which is endemic in several regions of Brazil. Alternative methods for the control of the vector include botanical insecticides, which offer advantages such as lower environmental contamination levels and less likelihood of resistant populations. Thus, in this study, the ability of botanical insecticide formulations to inhibit the activity of the liver enzymes serum cholinesterase and malate dehydrogenase was evaluated. METHODS: Inhibition profiles were assessed using in vitro assays for cholinesterase and malate dehydrogenase activity and quantitated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy at 410nm to 340nm. RESULTS Insecticide products formulated from cashew nutshell liquid [A] and ricinoleic acid [B] showed cholinesterase activity levels of 6.26IU/mL and 6.61IU/mL, respectively, while the control level for cholinesterase was 5-12IU/mL. The products did not affect the level of 0.44IU/mL established for malate dehydrogenase, as the levels produced by [A] and [B] were 0.43IU/mL and 0.45IU/mL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our findings show that in vitro testing of the formulated products at concentrations lethal to A. aegypti did not affect the activity of cholinesterase and malate dehydrogenase, indicating the safety of these products.

Humans , Animals , Ricinoleic Acids/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cholinesterases/drug effects , Anacardium/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Liver/enzymology , Malate Dehydrogenase/antagonists & inhibitors , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet , In Vitro Techniques , Ricinoleic Acids/isolation & purification , Aedes , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/isolation & purification
Acta cir. bras ; 30(11): 736-742, Nov. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767603


PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of PHA-543613 (α7-nAChR agonist) and galantamine (acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI)) on recognition memory and neurovascular coupling (NVC) response in beta-amyloid (Aβ) 25-35-treated mice. METHODS: PHA-543613 (1 mg/kg, i.p.), and galantamine (3 mg/kg, s.c.), effects were tested in Aβ25-35 mice model of AD. α7-nAChR antagonist, methyllycaconitine (MLA) (1 mg/kg, i.p.), was used for evaluation of receptor blockade effects. Recognition memory in animals was assessed by the novel object recognition (NOR) task. NVC response was analyzed by laser-doppler flow meter in barrel cortex by whisker stimulation method. RESULTS: Both, PHA-543613 and galantamine improve recognition memory in Aβ-treated animals. However, the advantageous effects of PHA-543613 were significantly higher than galantamine. Also, pretreatment with MLA reversed both galantamine and PHA-543613 effects on NOR. Impaired NVC response in AD animals was improved by PHA-543613 and galantamine. However, MLA pretreatment disrupts this function. CONCLUSION: Activation of α7-nAChR improved recognition memory possible through enhancement of neurovascular response in Alzheimer's disease in animals.

Animals , Male , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Bridged Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Galantamine/pharmacology , Memory Disorders/drug therapy , Neurovascular Coupling/drug effects , Peptide Fragments , Quinuclidines/pharmacology , /metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Laser-Doppler Flowmetry , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Memory Disorders/physiopathology , Neuropsychological Tests , Neurovascular Coupling/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Recognition, Psychology/drug effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Braz. j. biol ; 75(3): 759-765, Aug. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761594


AbstractThe organophosphate and carbamate pesticides methyl-parathion and carbaryl have a common action mechanism: they inhibit acetylcholinesterase enzyme by blocking the transmission of nerve impulses. However, they can alter the expression of exocytotic membrane proteins (SNARE), by modifying release of neurotransmitters and other substances. This study evaluated the adverse effects of the pesticides methyl-parathion and carbaryl on expression of SNARE proteins: Syntaxin-1, Syntaxin-4 and SNAP-23 in freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. Protein expression of these three proteins was analyzed before and after exposure to these two pesticides by Western Blot. The expression of Syntaxin-1, Syntaxin-4 and SNAP-23 proteins in B. calyciflorussignificantly decreases with increasing concentration of either pesticides. This suggests that organophosphates and carbamates have adverse effects on expression of membrane proteins of exocytosis by altering the recognition, docking and fusion of presynaptic and vesicular membranes involved in exocytosis of neurotransmitters. Our results demonstrate that the neurotoxic effect of anticholinesterase pesticides influences the interaction of syntaxins and SNAP-25 and the proper assembly of the SNARE complex.

ResumoOs pesticidas organofosforados e carbamatos metil- paration e carbaril tem um mecanismo de ação comum: eles inibem a enzima acetilcolinesterase, bloqueando a transmissão dos impulsos nervosos. No entanto, eles podem alterar a expressão de proteínas de membrana de exocitose (SNARE), através da modificação da libertação de neurotransmissores e outras substâncias. Este estudo avaliou os efeitos adversos dos pesticidas metil- paration e carbaril sobre a expressão de proteínas SNARE: Sintaxina -1, Sintaxina-4 e SNAP-23 em rotíferos de água doce Brachionus calyciflorus. A expressão destas três proteínas foi analisada antes e depois da exposição a estes dois pesticidas por Western Blot. A expressão das proteínas Sintaxina-1, Sintaxina-4 e SNAP-23 em B. calyciflorus diminui significativamente com o aumento da concentração de ambos os pesticidas. Isto sugere que os organofosfatos e carbamatos têm efeitos adversos sobre a expressão de proteínas de membrana de exocitose, alterando o reconhecimento, de encaixe e fusão de membranas pré-sinápticas e vesiculares envolvidas na exocitose de neurotransmissores. Nossos resultados demonstram que o efeito neurotóxico de pesticidas anticolinesterásicos influencia a interação de sintaxinas e SNAP-25 e a montagem correta do complexo SNARE.

Animals , Carbaryl/pharmacology , Insecticides/pharmacology , Methyl Parathion/pharmacology , Rotifera/drug effects , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Qa-SNARE Proteins/metabolism , Rotifera/enzymology , Syntaxin 1/metabolism
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(4): 308-315, 4/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744364


The aim of this research was to investigate the antiproliferative and anticholinesterase activities of 11 extracts from 5 Annonaceae species in vitro. Antiproliferative activity was assessed using 10 human cancer cell lines. Thin-layer chromatography and a microplate assay were used to screen the extracts for acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitors using Ellman's reagent. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven extracts obtained from five Annonaceae plant species were active and were particularly effective against the UA251, NCI-470 lung, HT-29, NCI/ADR, and K-562 cell lines with growth inhibition (GI50) values of 0.04-0.06, 0.02-0.50, 0.01-0.12, 0.10-0.27, and 0.02-0.04 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, the Annona crassiflora and A. coriacea seed extracts were the most active among the tested extracts and the most effective against the tumor cell lines, with GI50 values below 8.90 µg/mL. The A. cacans extract displayed the lowest activity. Based on the microplate assay, the percent AchE inhibition of the extracts ranged from 12 to 52%, and the A. coriacea seed extract resulted in the greatest inhibition (52%). Caffeic acid, sinapic acid, and rutin were present at higher concentrations in the A. crassiflora seed samples. The A. coriacea seeds contained ferulic and sinapic acid. Overall, the results indicated that A. crassiflora and A. coriacea extracts have antiproliferative and anticholinesterase properties, which opens up new possibilities for alternative pharmacotherapy drugs.

Humans , Acetylcholinesterase/drug effects , Annonaceae/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Growth Inhibitors/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Seeds/chemistry
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-11, 2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950785


BACKGROUND: Atriplex laciniata L. was investigated for phenolic, flavonoid contents, antioxidant, anticholinesterase activities, in an attempt to explore its effectiveness in Alzheimer's and other neurological disorders. Plant crude methanolic extract (Al.MeF), subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Al.HxF), chloroform (Al.CfF), ethyl acetate (Al.EaF), aqueous (Al.WtF), Saponins (Al.SPF) and Flavonoids (Al.FLVF) were investigated for DPPH, ABTS and H2O2 free radical scavenging activities. Further these extracts were subjected to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) & butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities using Ellman's assay. Phenolic and Flavonoid contents were determined and expressed in mg Gallic acid GAE/g and Rutin RTE/g of samples respectively. RESULTS: In DPPH free radicals scavenging assay, Al.FLVF, Al.SPF and Al.MeF showed highest activity causing 89.41 ± 0.55, 83.37 ± 0.34 and 83.37 ± 0.34% inhibition of free radicals respectively at 1 mg/mL concentration. IC50 for these fractions were 33, 83 and 82 µg/mL respectively. Similarly, plant extracts showed high ABTS scavenging potential, i.e. Al.FLVF (90.34 ± 0.55), Al.CfF (83.42 ± 0.57), Al.MeF (81.49 ± 0.60) with IC50 of 30, 190 and 70 µg/ml respectively. further, H2O2 percent scavenging was highly appraised in Al.FLVF (91.29 ±0.53, IC50 75), Al.SPF (85.35 ±0.61, IC50 70) and Al.EaF (83.48 ± 0.67, IC50 270 µg/mL). All fractions exhibited concentration dependent AChE inhibitory activity as; Al.FLVF, 88.31 ± 0.57 (IC50 70 µg/mL), Al.SPF, 84.36 ± 0.64 (IC50 90 µg/mL), Al.MeF, 78.65 ± 0.70 (IC50 280 µg/mL), Al.EaF, 77.45 ± 0.46 (IC50 270 µg/mL) and Al.WtF 72.44 ± 0.58 (IC50 263 µg/mL) at 1 mg/mL. Likewise the percent BChE inhibitory activity was most obvious in Al.FLVF 85.46 ± 0.62 (IC50 100 µg/mL), Al.CfF 83.49 ± 0.46 (IC50 160 µg/mL), Al.MeF 82.68 ± 0.60 (IC50 220 µg/mL) and Al.SPF 80.37 ± 0.54 (IC50 120 µg/mL). CONCLUSIONS: These results stipulate that A. laciniata is enriched with phenolic and flavonoid contents that possess significant antioxidant and anticholinestrase effects. This provide pharmacological basis for the presence of compounds that may be effective in Alzheimer's and other neurological disorders.

Saponins/metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Atriplex/chemistry , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Phenols/metabolism , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Saponins/isolation & purification , Spectrophotometry , Sulfonic Acids/metabolism , Flavonoids/analysis , Butyrylcholinesterase/metabolism , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Benzothiazoles/metabolism , Medicine, Traditional , Antioxidants/isolation & purification
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-8, 2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950784


BACKGROUND: Rumex species are traditionally used for the treatment of neurological disorders including headache, migraine, depression, paralysis etc. Several species have been scientifically validated for antioxidant and anticholinestrase potentials. This study aims to investigate Rumex hastatus D. Don crude methanolic extract, subsequent fractions, saponins and flavonoids for acetylcholinestrase, butyrylcholinestrase inhibition and diverse antioxidant activities to validate its folkloric uses in neurological disorders. Rumexhastatus crude methanolic extract (Rh. Cr), subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Rh. Hex), chloroform (Rh. Chf), ethyl acetate (Rh. EtAc), aqueous fraction (Rh. Aq), crude saponins (Rh. Sp) and flavonoids (Rh. Fl) were investigated against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at various concentrations (125, 250, 500,1000 µg/mL) using Ellman's spectrophotometric analysis. Antioxidant potentials of Rh. Sp and Rh. Fl were evaluated using DPPH, H2O2 and ABTS free radical scavenging assays at 62.5, 125, 250, 500, 1000 µg/mL. RESULTS: All the test samples showed concentration dependent cholinesterase inhibition and radicals scavenging activity. The AChE inhibition potential of Rh. Sp and Rh. Fl were most prominent i.e., 81.67 ± 0.88 and 91.62 ± 1.67 at highest concentration with IC50 135 and 20 µg/mL respectively. All the subsequent fractions exhibited moderate to high AChE inhibition i.e., Rh. Cr, Rh. Hex, Rh. Chf, Rh. EtAc and Rh. Aq showed IC50 218, 1420, 75, 115 and 1210 µg/mL respectively. Similarly, against BChE various plant extracts i.e., Rh. Sp, Rh. Fl, Rh. Cr, Rh. Hex, Rh. Chf, Rh. EtAc and Rh. Aq resulted IC50 165,175, 265, 890, 92, 115 and 220 µg/mL respectively. In DPPH free radical scavenging assay, Rh. Sp and Rh. Fl showed comparable results with the positive control i.e., 63.34 ± 0.98 and 76.93 ± 1.13% scavenging at 1 mg/mL concentration (IC50 312 and 104 µg/mL) respectively. The percent ABTS radical scavenging potential exhibited by Rh. Sp and Rh. Fl (1000 µg/mL) were 82.58 ± 0.52 and 88.25 ± 0.67 with IC50 18 and 9 µg/mL respectively. Similarly in H2O2 scavenging assay, the Rh. Sp and Rh. Fl exhibited IC50 175 and 275 µg/mL respectively. CONCLUSION: The strong anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities of Rh. Sp, Rh. Fl and various fractions of R. hastatus support the purported ethnomedicinal uses and recommend R. hastatus as a possible remedy for the treatment of AD and neurodegenerative disorders.

Butyrylcholinesterase , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Rumex/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Pakistan , Saponins/metabolism , Spectrophotometry , Flavonoids/metabolism , Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Medicine, Traditional
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-6, 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950821


BACKGROUND: Limonoids are highly oxygenated compounds with a prototypical structure. Their occurrence in the plant kingdom is mainly confined to plant families of Meliaceae and Rutaceae. Owing to their wide range of pharmacological and therapeutic properties, this study was aimed at investigating the potential nitric oxide (NO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity and the cytotoxicity of three limonoids: trichilia lactone D5 (1), rohituka 3 (2) and dregeanin DM4 (3), isolated from Trichilia welwitschii C.DC. RESULTS: Results indicated that the three limonoids had low cytotoxicity towards Vero cells with LC50 values ranging from 89.17 to 75.82 µg/mL. Compounds (2) and (3) had lower cytotoxicity compared to puromycin and doxorubicin used as reference cytotoxic compounds. Compound (1) (LC50 of 23.55 µg/mL) had good antiproliferative activity against RAW 264.7 cancer cells. At the lowest concentration tested (0.5 µg/mL), compound (2) and (3) released the lowest amount of nitric oxide (2.97 and 2.93 µM, respectively). The three limonoids had anti-AChE activity with IC50 values ranged of 19.13 µg/mL for (1), 34.15 µg/mL for (2) and 45.66 µg/mL for (3), compared to galantamine (IC50 of 8.22 µg/mL) used as positive control. CONCLUSION: The limonoid compounds studied in this work inhibited nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated macrophages and had anti-AChE activity. Trichilia lactone D5 had potential antiproliferative activity against RAW 264.7 cancer cells. The limonoids had low cytotoxicity towards Vero cells lines. This study provided further examples of the importance of limonoids compounds as potential AChE inhibitors and anti-inflammatory agents targeting the inhibition of NO production.

Animals , Mice , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Meliaceae/chemistry , Limonins/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors , Vero Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Lipopolysaccharides , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Limonins/isolation & purification , Limonins/analysis , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , RAW 264.7 Cells , Lactones/analysis , Lactones/pharmacology , Lethal Dose 50 , Macrophages/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/analysis
Acta cir. bras ; 29(12): 807-811, 12/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731022


PURPOSE: To compare the effects of sugammadex and neostigmine, used to antagonize the effects of rocuronium, on the QTc interval. METHODS: This study used 10 adult New Zealand white rabbits of 2.5-3.5 kg randomly divided into two groups: sugammadex group (Group S, n:5) and neostigmine group (Group N, n:5). For general anesthesia administering 2 mg/kg iv propofol and 1 mcg/kg iv fentanyl, 0.6 mg/kg iv rocuronium was given. Later to provide reliable airway for all experimental animals V-Gel Rabbit was inserted. The rabbits were manually ventilated by the same anesthetist. After the V-Gel Rabbit was inserted at 2, 5, 10, 20, 25, 27, 30 and 40 minutes measurements were repeated and recorded. At 25 minutes after induction Group N rabbits were given 0.05 mg/kg iv neostigmine + 0.01 mg/kg iv atropine. Group S were administered 2 mg/kg iv sugammadex. RESULTS: Comparing the QTc interval in the rabbits in Group S and Group N, in the 25th, 27th and 30th minute after muscle relaxant antagonist was administered the QTc interval in the neostigmine group rabbits was significantly increased (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: While sugammadex, administered to antagonize the effect of rocuronium, did not significantly affect the QTc interval, neostigmine+atropine proloned the QTc interval. .

Animals , Male , Rabbits , Anesthesia, General/methods , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Heart/drug effects , Neostigmine/pharmacology , gamma-Cyclodextrins/pharmacology , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Androstanols/antagonists & inhibitors , Arterial Pressure/drug effects , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Heart Rate/drug effects , Models, Animal , Random Allocation , Time Factors
Salud pública Méx ; 56(4): 379-385, jul.-ago. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-733303


This commentary addresses some of the diverse questions of current interest with regard to the health effects of air pollution, including exposure-response relationships, toxicity of inhaled particles and risks to health, multipollutant mixtures, traffic-related pollution, accountability research, and issues with susceptibility and vulnerability. It considers the challenges posed to researchers as they attempt to provide useful evidence for policy-makers relevant to these issues. This commentary accompanies papers giving the results from the ESCALA project, a multi-city study in Latin America that has an overall goal of providing policy-relevant results. While progress has been made in improving air quality, driven by epidemiological evidence that air pollution is adversely affecting public health, the research questions have become more subtle and challenging as levels of air pollution dropped. More research is still needed, but also novel methods and approaches to address these new questions.

Este comentario aborda algunos de los temas de interés actual en relación con los efectos de la contaminación del aire sobre la salud, tales como las relaciones exposición-respuesta, la toxicidad y riesgos para la salud de las partículas inhaladas, las mezclas de contaminantes múltiples, la contaminación relacionada con el tráfico, la investigación sobre responsabilidad, y los problemas de susceptibilidad y vulnerabilidad. Considera los retos que se presentan a los investigadores que intentan proporcionar evidencia para los responsables políticos en estas cuestiones. Este texto acompaña otros trabajos con resultados del proyecto ESCALA, un estudio en varias ciudades de América Latina que tiene como objetivo general proporcionar resultados relevantes para la política pública. Aunque ha habido avances para mejorar la calidad del aire, gracias a la evidencia epidemiológica de que la contaminación aérea está afectando negativamente a la salud pública, las preguntas de investigación se han vuelto más sutiles y difíciles a medida que los niveles de contaminación se reducen. Se necesita más investigación, pero también nuevos métodos y enfoques capaces de enfrentar estas preguntas.

Animals , Mice , Choline/analogs & derivatives , Neuromuscular Junction/metabolism , Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism , Prodrugs/metabolism , Choline/metabolism , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Electric Stimulation , Edrophonium/pharmacology , /pharmacology , Mice, Inbred Strains , Methylamines/pharmacology , Neostigmine/pharmacology , Neuromuscular Depolarizing Agents/pharmacology , Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors/pharmacology , Piperidines/pharmacology , Rana pipiens
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-163315


Aims: Enhancement of cholinergic activity and reduction of oxidative stress by scavenging free radicals such as nitric oxide are well recognized therapeutic approaches in several pathological conditions. We evaluated the anticholinesterase, antioxidant and nitric oxide scavenging activity of the aqueous extracts of Ocimum basilicum, Curcuma longa and Solanum nigrum. Study Design: Experimental. Place and Duration of Study: Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research, Delhi University, New Delhi, India between January 2008 and December 2008. Methodology: The aqueous extracts of the rhizome of Curcuma longa, berries of Solanum nigrum and seeds of Ocimum basilicum were authenticated by HPTLC fingerprinting. The anticholinesterase activity of these extracts was estimated spectrophotometrically as described by Ellman in 1961 and IC50 was calculated. Total antioxidant capacity of extracts was also estimated spectrophotometrically based on the reduction of molybdenum (Mo) (VI) to Mo(V) by the sample and the subsequent formation of a green phosphate/Mo(V) complex at acidic pH. Ascorbic acid was used as standard. Estimation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of extracts was based on the diazotization reaction. Results: The anticholinesterase activity (IC50) was observed at the concentrations of 2.73 ± 0.09, 3.38 ± 0.05 and 3.88 ± 0.11 gram/l for Solanum nigrum, Curcuma longa, and Ocimum basilicum respectively. At these concentrations, maximum antioxidant capacity equivalent to 4.36 ± 0.14 mM of ascorbic acid was shown by Curcuma longa, followed by Solanum nigrum, and Ocimum basilicum. Curcuma longa showed the maximum nitric oxide scavenging activity equivalent to 29.78 ± 1.28 mM of sodium nitrite followed by Solanum nigrum and Ocimum basilicum. Conclusion: Plant derived pharmacological agents may provide an attractive therapeutic option in future for several pathological conditions especially the neurodegenerative diseases due to their anticholinesterase, antioxidant and nitric oxide scavenging properties.

Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Curcuma/classification , Curcuma/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Ocimum basilicum/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Solanum nigrum/pharmacology
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Apr; 50(2): 120-125
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147295


Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with many cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms is biochemically characterized by a significant decrease in the brain neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). Plant-derived metabolites, including alkaloids have been reported to possess neuroprotective properties and are considered to be safe, thus have potential for developing effective therapeutic molecules for neurological disorders, such as AD. Therefore, in the present study, thirteen plant-derived alkaloids, namely pleiocarpine, kopsinine, pleiocarpamine (from Pleiocarpa mutica, family: Annonaceae), oliveroline, noroliveroline, liridonine, isooncodine, polyfothine, darienine (from Polyalthia longifolia, family: Apocynaceae) and eburnamine, eburnamonine, eburnamenine and geissoschizol (from Hunteria zeylanica, family: Apocynaceae) were analyzed for their anti-cholinergic action through docking with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as target. Among the alkaloids, pleiocarpine showed promising anti-cholinergic potential, while its amino derivative showed about six-fold higher anti-cholinergic potential than pleiocarpine. Pleiocarpine and its amino derivative were found to be better inhibitors of AChE, as compared to commonly used drugs tacrine (brand name: Cognex) and rivastigmine (brand name: Exelon), suggesting development of these molecules as potential therapeutics in future.

Alkaloids/chemistry , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Catalytic Domain , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Cholinergic Antagonists/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Crystallography, X-Ray/methods , Drug Design , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Ligands , Models, Chemical , Models, Molecular , Phytotherapy , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship