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1.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(2): 107-112, Mar,-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153113

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the effects of pharmacological accommodation and cycloplegia on ocular measurements. Methods: Thirty-three healthy subjects [mean (±SD) age, 32.97 (±5.21) years] volunteered to participate in the study. Measurement of the axial length, macular and choroidal thickness, refractive error, and corneal topography, as well as anterior segment imaging, were performed. After these procedures, pharmacological accommodation was induced by applying pilocarpine eye drops (pilocarpine hydrochloride 2%), and the measurements were repeated. The measurements were repeated again after full cycloplegia was induced using cyclopentolate eye drops (cyclopentolate hydrochloride 1%). The correlations between the measurements were evaluated. Results: A significant increase in subfoveal choroidal thickness after applying 2% pilocarpine was identified (without the drops, 319.36 ± 90.08 µm; with pilocarpine instillation, 341.60 ± 99.19 µm; with cyclopentolate instillation, 318.36 ± 103.0 µm; p<0.001). A significant increase in the axial length was also detected (without the drops, 23.26 ± 0.83 mm; with pilocarpine instillation, 23.29 ± 0.84 mm; with cyclopentolate instillation, 23.27 ± 0.84 mm; p=0.003). Comparing pharmacological accommodation and cycloplegia revealed a significant difference in central macular thickness (with pilocarpine instillation, 262.27 ± 19.34 µm; with cyclopentolate instillation, 265.93 ± 17.91 µm; p=0.016). Pilocarpine-related miosis (p<0.001) and myopic shift (p<0.001) were more severe in blue eyes vs. brown eyes. Conclusion: Pharmacological accommodation may change ocular measurements, such as choroidal thickness and axial length. This condition should be considered when performing ocular measurements, such as intraocular lens power calculations.(AU)


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar os efeitos da acomodação farmacológica e da cicloplegia nas medições oculares. Métodos: participaram do estudo 33 voluntários saudáveis (média de idade [± DP], 32,97 anos [± 5,21 anos]). Foram medidos o comprimento axial, a espessura macular e coroidal e o erro refrativo, bem como realizados exames de imagem da topografia corneana e do segmento anterior. Em seguida, foi induzida a acomodação farmacológica aplicando-se colírio de pilocarpina (cloridrato de pilocarpina a 2%) e as medições foram repetidas nos participantes. As mesmas medições foram repetidas depois de induzir a cicloplegia completa com colírio de ciclopentolato (cloridrato de ciclopentolato a 1%) e foram avaliadas as correlações entre as medidas. Resultados: Identificou-se aumento significativo da espessura coroidal subfoveal com o uso da pilocarpina a 2% (sem colírio, 319,36 ± 90,08 µm; com a instilação de pilocarpina, 341,60 ± 99,19 µm; com a instilação de ciclopentolato, 318,36 ± 103,0 µm; p<0,001). Detectou-se também aumento significativo do comprimento axial (sem colírio, 23,26 ± 0,83 mm; com a instilação de pilocarpina, 23,29 ± 0,84 mm; com a instilação de ciclopentolato, 23,27 ± 0,84 mm; p=0,003). Ao se comparar a acomodação farmacológica e a cicloplegia, houve diferença significativa na espessura macular central (com a instilação de pilocarpina, 262,27 ± 19,34 µm; com a instilação de ciclopentolato, 265,93 ± 17,91 µm; p=0,016). Observou-se que a miose associada à pilocarpina (p<0,001) e o desvio miópico (p<0,001) foram mais severos nos olhos azuis que nos castanhos. Conclusão: A acomodação farmacológica pode alterar medidas oculares como a espessura da coroide e o comprimento axial. Essa possibilidade deve ser levada em consideração ao se efetuarem medições oculares, tais como cálculos de potência de lentes intraoculares.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Choroid/anatomy & histology , Accommodation, Ocular , Pilocarpine/pharmacology , Corneal Topography/instrumentation , Axial Length, Eye/anatomy & histology , Mydriatics/pharmacology
2.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(5): 417-423, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131620

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purposes: To evaluate changes in ocular blood flow and subfoveal choroidal thickness in patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis after carotid artery stenting. Methods: We included 15 men (mean age, 63.6 ± 9.1 years) with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis and 18 healthy volunteers (all men; mean age, 63.7 ± 5.3 years). All participants underwent detailed ophthalmologic examinations including choroidal thickness measurement using enhanced depth-imaging optic coherence tomography. The patients also underwent posterior ciliary artery blood flow measurements using color Doppler ultrasonography before and after carotid artery stenting. Results: Patients lacked ocular ischemic symptoms. Their peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities increased to 10.1 ± 13.1 (p=0.005) and 3.9 ± 6.3 (p=0.064) cm/s, respectively, after the procedure. Subfoveal choroidal thicknesses were significantly thinner in patients with carotid artery stenosis than those in the healthy controls (p=0.01). But during the first week post-procedure, the subfoveal choroidal thicknesses increased significantly (p=0.04). The peak systolic velocities of the posterior ciliary arteries increased significantly after carotid artery stenting (p=0.005). We found a significant negative correlation between the mean increase in peak systolic velocity values after treatment and the mean preprocedural subfoveal choroidal thickness in the study group (p=0.025, r=-0.617). Conclusions: In patients with carotid artery stenosis, the subfoveal choroid is thinner than that in healthy controls. The subfoveal choroidal thickness increases after carotid artery stenting. Carotid artery stenting treatment increases the blood flow to the posterior ciliary artery, and the preprocedural subfoveal choroidal thickness may be a good predictor of the postprocedural peak systolic velocity of the posterior ciliary artery.


RESUMO Objetivos: Avaliar alterações no fluxo sanguíneo ocular e na espessura da coroide subfoveal em pacientes com estenose sintomática da artéria carótida, após implante de stent nessa artéria. Métodos: Foram incluídos 15 homens (idade média de 63,6 ± 9,1 anos) com estenose sintomática da artéria carótida e 18 voluntários saudáveis (todos homens; idade média de 63,7 ± 5,3 anos). Todos os participantes foram submetidos a exames oftalmológicos detalhados, incluindo d medição da espessura da coroide, usando tomografia de coerência óptica com imagem de profundidade aprimorada. Os pacientes também foram submetidos a medidas do fluxo sanguíneo das artérias ciliares posteriores, usando ultrassonografia com Doppler colorido, antes e após o implante do stent na artéria carótida. Resultados: Os pacientes não apresentaram sintomas isquêmicos oculares. O pico de velocidade sistólica e diastólica final aumentou para 10,1 ± 13,1 (p=0,005) e 3,9 ± 6,3 (p=0,064) cm/s, respectivamente, após o procedimento. As espessuras da coroide subfoveais foram significativamente mais finas nos pacientes com estenose da artéria carótida do que nos controles saudáveis (p=0,01). Porém, durante a primeira semana pós-procedimento, as espessuras das coroides subfoveais aumentaram significativamente (p=0,04). O pico de velocidade sistólica das artérias ciliares posteriores aumentou significativamente após o stent na artéria carótida (p=0,005). Encontramos uma correlação negativa significativa entre o aumento médio dos valores máximos de velocidade sistólica após o tratamento e a espessura da coroide subfoveal pré-procedimento média no grupo de estudo (p=0,025, r=-0,617). Conclusões: Em pacientes com estenose da artéria carótida, a coroide subfoveal é mais fina que a dos controles saudáveis. A espessura da coroide subfoveal aumenta após o stent na artéria carótida. O tratamento com stent na artéria carótida aumenta o fluxo sanguíneo para a artéria ciliar posterior, e a espessura coroidal subfoveal pré-procedimento pode ser um bom preditor da velocidade sistólica de pico pós-procedimento da artéria ciliar posterior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Ophthalmic Artery , Blood Flow Velocity , Carotid Arteries , Choroid , Regional Blood Flow , Stents , Choroid/anatomy & histology , Choroid/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence
3.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(1): 19-27, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088958

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess the reproducibility of retinal and choroidal measurements in the macular and peripapillary areas using swept-source optical coherence tomography in patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods: A total of 63 eyes of 63 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease were evaluated using a three-dimensional protocol of swept-source optical coherence tomography. The following layers were analyzed: full retinal thickness, retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer, and choroid. The coefficient of variation was calculated for every measurement. Results: In the macular area, the mean coefficients of variation of retinal thickness, ganglion cell layer + thickness, and choroidal thickness were 0.40%, 0.84%, and 2.09%, respectively. Regarding the peripapillary area, the mean coefficient of variation of the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was 2.78. The inferior quadrant showed the highest reproducibility (coefficient of variation= 1.62%), whereas the superonasal sector showed the lowest reproducibility (coefficient of variation= 8.76%). Conclusions: Swept-source optical coherence tomography provides highly reproducible measurements of retinal and choroidal thickness in both the macular and peripapillary areas. The reproducibility is higher in measurements of retinal thickness versus choroidal thickness.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a reprodutibilidade das medições da retina e da coroide nas áreas macular e peripapilar utilizando a tomografia de coerência ótica com fonte de varredura pacientes com doença de Parkinson. Métodos: Um total de 63 olhos de 63 pacientes com doença de Parkinson idiopática foram avaliados usando um protocolo 3D de tomografia de coerência ótica de fonte Triton Swept. Foram analisadas as seguintes camadas: espessura retiniana total, camada de fibras nervosas da retina, camada de células ganglionares e coróide. O coeficiente de variação foi calculado para cada medição. Resultados: Na área macular, os coeficientes médios de variação da espessura da retina, da camada de células ganglionares + espessura e da espessura da coróide foram de 0,40%, 0,84% e 2,09%, respectivamente. Em relação à área peripapilar, o coeficiente médio de variação da espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina foi de 2,78%. O quadrante inferior apresentou a maior reprodutibilidade (coeficiente de variação= 1,62%), enquanto o setor superonasal apresentou a menor reprodutibilidade (coeficiente de variação= 8,76%). Conclusões: A tomografia de coerência ótica de fonte Triton Swept fornece medições altamente reprodutíveis da espessura da retina e da coroide nas áreas macular e peripapilar. A reprodutibilidade é maior nas medidas da espessura da retina versus a espessura da coróide.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Parkinson Disease/complications , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Choroid Diseases/etiology , Choroid Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Choroid/diagnostic imaging , Retina/anatomy & histology , Retina/physiopathology , Reproducibility of Results , Choroid/anatomy & histology , Choroid/physiopathology , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
4.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(1): 3-6, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888182

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To (a) determine the normative values for optical coherence tomography (OCT) parameters such as central macular thickness, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, and choroidal thickness in healthy children; (b) investigate the relationships of these parameters with axial length, central corneal thickness, refractive errors, and intraocular pressure; and (c) determine interexaminer agreement for choroidal thickness measurements. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 120 healthy children aged 8-15 years underwent detailed ophthalmological examination and OCT measurements. Choroidal thickness was measured at three separate locations by two independent examiners. Results: The mean global retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was 98.75 ± 9.45 μm (79.0-121.0). The mean central macular thickness was 232.29 ± 29.37 μm (190.0-376.0). The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness obtained by examiner 1 was 344.38 ± 68.83 μm and that obtained by examiner 2 was 344.04 ± 68.92 μm. Interexaminer agreement was between 99.6%-99.8% for choroidal thickness at three separate locations. Central macular thickness increased with axial length (r=0.245, p=0.007). Choroidal thickness increased with age (r=0.291, p=0.001) and decreased with axial length (r=-0.191, p=0.037). Global retinal nerve fiber layer thickness decreased with axial length (r=-0.247, p=0.007) and increased with central corneal thickness (r=0.208, p=0.022). Global retinal nerve fiber layer thickness positively correlated with choroidal thickness (r=0.354, p<0.001). Global retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (r=0.223, p=0.014) and choroidal thickness (r=0.272, p=0.003) increased with the spherical equivalent (D). Conclusions: Optical coherence tomography parameters showed a wide range of variability in children. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, central macular thickness, and choroidal thickness were found to be either inter-related or correlated with age, central corneal thickness, axial length, and refractive errors. Furthermore, manual measurements of choroidal thickness showed high interexaminer agreement. Because normative values for optical coherence tomography parameters differed in children, the measurements should be interpreted according to an age-appropriate database.


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar valores normativos para parâmetros de tomografia de coerência óptica consistindo em espessura macular central, espessura da camada de fibra nervosa da retina e espessura coroidal em crianças saudáveis, para investigar suas relações com o comprimento axial, espessura corneana central, erros refractivos e pressão intraocular e determinar a concordância interexaminador para medidas de espessura coroidal. Métodos: um total de 120 crianças saudáveis com idade entre 8 e 15 anos foram submetidas a exame oftalmológico detalhado e a medições de tomografia de coerência óptica em uma configuração de estudo transversal. A espessura coroide foi medida por dois examinadores independentes em 3 pontos distintos. Resultados: A espessura global media da camada de fibra nervosa da retina foi de 98.75 ± 9.45 μm (79.0-121.0). A espessura macular central media foi de 232.29 ± 29.37 μm (190.0-376.0). A espessura coroidea subfoveal media foi de 344.38 ± 68.83 μm medida pelo examinador 1 e 344.04 ± 68.92 μm medida pelo examinador 2. A concordância foi entre 99.6-99.8% para a espessura coroidal em 3 pontos distintos. Verificou-se que a espessura macular central aumentava com o comprimento axial (r=0.245, p=0.007). A espessura da coroide aumentou com a idade (r=0.291, p=0.001) e diminuiu com o comprimento axial (r=-0.191, p=0.037). A espessura global da camada de fibras nervosas da retina diminuiu com o comprimento axial (r=-0.247, p=0.007) e aumenta com a espessura central da córnea (r=0.208, p=0.022). A espessura global da camada de fibras nervosas da retina foi correlacionada positivamente com a espessura coroidal (r=0.354, p<0.001). A espessura global da camada de fibras nervosas da retina (r=0.223, p=0.014) e a espessura coroide (r=0.272, p=0.003) aumentaram com o equivalente esférico (D). Conclusões: os parâmetros de tomografia de coerência óptica parecem mostrar uma ampla gama de variabilidade em crianças. A espessura da camada de fibra nervosa da retina, a espessura macular central, a espessura coroidea estão inter-relacionadas ou correlacionadas com a idade, espessura corneana central, comprimento axial e erros refractivos. Além disso, as medidas manuais da espessura coroidea apresentaram alta concordância entre examinadores. Deve-se ter em mente que os valores normativos dos parâmetros da tomografia de coerência óptica diferem em crianças, portanto, as medidas devem ser interpretadas de acordo com uma determinada base de dados apropriada para idade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Retina/anatomy & histology , Choroid/anatomy & histology , Tomography, Optical Coherence/standards , Organ Size , Reference Standards , Reference Values , Refractive Errors/pathology , Observer Variation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Corneal Pachymetry
5.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 80(5): 290-295, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888144

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the changes in several ocular parameters, including choroidal thickness, during and after hemodialysis. Methods: Twenty-seven eyes of 27 patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis were included. The patients underwent an ophthalmic examination, including intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, iridocorneal angle, subfoveal choroidal thickness, and blood pressure, just before a hemodialysis session, during the second hour of the session, and half an hour after the end of the session. Body weight was measured before and after the session, and ultrafiltration volume was noted after the session. Central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, and subfoveal choroidal thickness were measured by optical coherence tomography. Results: In comparison with baseline levels, mean intraocular pressure and central corneal thickness increased significantly during the second hour of hemodialysis (p=0.001 and p=0.011, respectively) and showed no significant changes after hemodialysis (p=0.844 and p=0.246, respectively). Mean iridocorneal angle did not significantly change during the second hour of hemodialysis (p=0.101) and after hemodialysis (p=0.589). Mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was significantly lower during the second hour of hemodialysis (p<0.001) and after hemodialysis (p<0.001). Conclusions: Mean intraocular pressure and central corneal thickness increased and subfoveal choroidal thickness decreased during the second half of the hemodialysis session. During the second half of the session, intraocular pressure and central corneal thickness had a trend toward reduction, while subfoveal choroidal thickness had a relatively steady course. Because of possible fluctuations in the values, it would be reasonable to evaluate the changes not only from before to after hemodialysis but also during hemodialysis when analyzing the ocular effects of dialysis.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar as alterações em vários parâmetros oculares, incluindo a espessura da coroide, durante e após a hemodiálise. Métodos: Foram incluídos 27 olhos de 27 pacientes portadores de insuficiência renal crônica e submetidos a hemodiálise. Todos foram submetidos ao exame oftalmológico, incluindo pressão intraocular, medida da espessura corneana central, ângulo iridocorneal e espessura da coroide subfoveal, além da medida da pressão arterial. A espessura corneana central, o ângulo iridocorneal e a espessura da coroide subfoveal foram medidos através da tomografia de coerência óptica. Os exames foram realizados logo antes, durante (na segunda hora) e meia hora após uma única sessão de hemodiálise. O peso corporal foi medido antes e depois da sessão, e os volumes de ultra filtração foram anotados após a sessão de hemodiálise. Resultados: Em comparação com os níveis basais, a pressão intraocular média e a espessura corneana central aumentaram significativamente na segunda hora de hemodiálise (p=0,001 e p=0,011, respectivamente), mas não houve diferença após a hemodiálise (p=0,844 para pressão intraocular e p=0,246 para espessura corneana central). O ângulo iridocorneal mostrou ligeira diminuição na segunda hora de hemodiálise (p=0,101) e após a sessão de hemodiálise (p=0,589), porém esta redução não foi estatisticamente significativa. Já a espessura da coroide subfoveal mostrou uma redução significativa tanto na segunda hora de hemodiálise (p<0,001) quanto após a sessão de hemodiálise (p<0,001). Conclusões: A pressão intraocular e a espessura corneana central aumentaram, enquanto a espessura da coroide subfoveal diminuiu na primeira metade da sessão de hemodiálise. Na segunda metade da sessão, a pressão intraocular e a espessura corneana central mostraram uma tendência de redução, enquanto a espessura da coroide subfoveal permaneceu estável. Ao analisar os efeitos oculares da hemodiálise, seria interessante avaliar as mudanças não só antes e depois da sessão, como também durante a hemodiálise, devido a possíveis flutuações dos valores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Choroid/anatomy & histology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Cornea/anatomy & histology , Intraocular Pressure/physiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Retina/anatomy & histology , Retina/physiopathology , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/physiology , Body Weight , Choroid/physiopathology , Choroid/diagnostic imaging , Statistics, Nonparametric , Cornea/physiopathology , Cornea/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Corneal Pachymetry/methods
6.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 79(4): 209-213, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794570

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the effects of the Valsalva maneuver (VM) on optic disc morphology, choroidal thickness, and anterior chamber parameters. Methods: This prospective observational study included 60 eyes of 60 healthy subjects. The anterior chamber parameters, including central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber angle (ACA), anterior chamber volume (ACV), pupil diameter (PD), axial length (AL), subfoveal and peripapillary choroidal thickness, optic disc parameters, and intraocular pressure (IOP), were measured at rest and during VM. Results: VM did not have any significant influence on AL, subfoveal and peripapillary choroidal thickness, optic disc area, rim area, cup area, cup-to-disc area ratio, vertical cup-to-disc ratio, rim volume, cup volume, and nerve head volume measurements (for all; p >0.05). IOP and PD significantly increased during VM (for both; p <0.001). VM significantly decreased CCT, ACD, ACA, and ACV values (for all; p <0.001). Moreover, the optic nerve cup volume decreased and the horizontal cup-to-disc ratio significantly increased during VM (for both; p <0.05). Conclusions: VM may cause transient changes in IOP, optic disc morphology, and anterior chamber parameters.


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar os efeitos da manobra de Valsalva (VM) sobre a morfologia do disco óptico, a espessura da coroide e parâmetros câmara anterior. Métodos: Estudo observacional, prospectivo incluiu 60 olhos de 60 indivíduos saudáveis. Os parâmetros da câmara anterior, incluindo da espessura central da córnea (CCT), profundidade da câmara anterior (ACD), ângulo da câmara anterior (ACA), volume de câmara anterior (ACV), diâmetro da pupila (PD), comprimento axial (AL), espessura da coroide subfoveal e peripapilar, parâmetros de disco óptico e pressão intraocular (IOP) foram medidos em repouso e durante VM. Resultados: A VM não apresentou influência significativa em AL, espessura da coroide subfoveal e peripapilar, área de disco óptico, área da rima neural, área da escavação, relação da área escavação-disco, a relação vertical escavação-disco, volume da rima neural, volume da escavação, medidas de volume cabeça do nervo (para todos; p >0,05). IOP e PD aumentaram significativamente durante VM (para ambos; p <0,001). A VM diminuiu os valores CCT, ACD, ACA e ACV significativamente (para todos; p <0,001). Além disso, o volume da escavação do nervo óptico diminuiu e a razão horizontal escavação-disco aumentou significativamente durante VM (para ambos; p <0,05). Conclusões: A VM pode causar alterações transitórias na pressão intraocular, na morfologia do disco óptico e em parâmetros câmara anterior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Optic Disk/anatomy & histology , Valsalva Maneuver/physiology , Choroid/anatomy & histology , Intraocular Pressure/physiology , Anterior Chamber/anatomy & histology , Optic Nerve/physiology , Posture/physiology , Reference Values , Prospective Studies , Regression Analysis
7.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 79(4): 229-232, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794575

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess the effect of hemodialysis on retinal and choroidal thicknesses using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: In this prospective interventional study, 25 hemodialysis patients (17 male, 8 female) were enrolled. All participants underwent high-speed, high-resolution SD-OCT (λ=840 mm; 26.000 A-scans/s; 5 µm resolution) before and after hemodialysis. Choroidal thickness was measured perpendicularly from the outer edge of the retinal pigment epithelium to the choroid-sclera boundary at the fovea and at five additional points: 500 µm and 1000 µm nasal to the fovea and 500 µm, 1000 µm, and 1500 µm temporal to the fovea. Two masked physicians performed the measurements. Choroidal and retinal thicknesses before and after hemodialysis were compared. Results: The median choroidal thicknesses before and after hemodialysis were 182 µm (range, 103-374 µm) and 161 µm (range, 90-353 µm), respectively (P<0.001). The median retinal thicknesses were 246 µm (range, 179-296 µm) before and 248 µm (range, 141-299 µm) after hemodialysis (P>0.05). Systolic arterial pressure, diastolic arterial pressure, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and ocular perfusion pressure significantly decreased after hemodialysis (P<0.001). Intraocular pressure did not vary significantly (P=0.540). Conclusion: Hemodialysis seems to cause a significant decrease in choroidal thickness, whereas it has no effect on retinal thickness. This significant decrease in choroidal thickness might be due to the extensive fluid absorption in hemodialysis, which could result in decreased ocular blood flow.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da hemodiálise (HD) na espessura da retina (RT) e na espessura da coroide (CT) usando tomografia de coerência óptica de domínio espectral (SD-OCT). Método: Neste estudo prospectivo intervencionista foram incluídos 25 pacientes em HD (17 homens e 8 mulheres). Todos os participantes foram submetidos a SD-OCT com dispositivo de alta resolução (λ=840 mm; 26.000 A-scans/seg e resolução de 5 µm), antes e após HD. A CT foi medida perpendicularmente a partir da borda externa do epitélio pigmentar da retina até o limite coroide-esclera na fóvea e em mais de 5 pontos localizados 500 µm nasal à fóvea, 1.000 µm nasal à fóvea; 500 µm temporal à fóvea, 1.000 µm temporal à fóvea, e 1.500 µm temporal à fóvea. Dois médicos realizaram as medidas sem o conhecimento do diagnóstico. Os dados da CT e RT, antes e após a HD foram comparados. Resultados: As CTs medianas antes e após a HD foram 182 µm (variação de 103-374 µm) e 161 µm (variação de 90-353 µm), respectivamente (p<0,001). A RT foi 246 µm (variação de 179-296 µm) antes e 248 µm (variação de 141-299 µm) após a HD (p>0,05). A pressão arterial sistólica, pressão arterial diastólica, as médias de pressão arterial média, frequência cardíaca e pressão de perfusão ocular diminuíram significativamente após HD (p<0,001). A pressão intraocular não alterou significativamente (p=0,540). Conclusão: A HD parece causar uma redução significativa da CT, e não ter efeito sobre a RT. Esta redução significativa da CT pode ser devida à grande absorção de fluido durante a HD, o que pode resultar numa diminuição do fluxo sanguíneo ocular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Retina/anatomy & histology , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Choroid/anatomy & histology , Choroid/diagnostic imaging , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Organ Size , Reference Values , Retina/physiopathology , Time Factors , Observer Variation , Prospective Studies , Choroid/physiopathology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Eye/blood supply , Hemodynamics , Intraocular Pressure , Kidney Failure, Chronic/physiopathology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197516

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the thickness and volume of the choroid in healthy Korean children using swept-source optical coherence tomography. METHODS: We examined 80 eyes of 40 healthy children and teenagers ( or =18 years) and compared adult measurements with the findings in children. RESULTS: The mean age of the children and teenagers was 9.47 +/- 3.80 (4 to 17) vs. 55.04 +/- 12.63 years (36 to 70 years) in the adult group (p < 0.001, Student's t-test). Regarding the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study subfields, the inner temporal subfield was the thickest (247.96 microm). The inner and outer nasal choroid were thinner (p = 0.004, p = 0.002, respectively) than the surrounding areas. The mean choroidal volumes of the inner and outer nasal areas were smaller (p = 0.004, p = 0.003, respectively) than those of all the other areas in each circle. Among the nine subfields, all areas in the children, except the outer nasal subfield, were thicker than those in adults (p < 0.05). Regression analysis showed that age, axial length, and refractive error correlated with subfoveal choroidal thickness (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Overall macular choroidal thickness and volume in children and teenagers were significantly greater than in adults. The nasal choroid was significantly thinner than the surrounding areas. The pediatric subfoveal choroid is prone to thinning with increasing age, axial length, and refractive error. These differences should be considered when choroidal thickness is evaluated in children with chorioretinal diseases.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aging/physiology , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Axial Length, Eye/anatomy & histology , Child , Child, Preschool , Choroid/anatomy & histology , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Macula Lutea/anatomy & histology , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea , Tomography, Optical Coherence
9.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 78(1): 23-26, Jan-Feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741157

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To investigate the association between central choroidal thickness (CT), axial length (AL), age, gender, and refractive error in a healthy pediatric population using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: This institutional study involved 137 healthy children (57 boys, 80 girls) aged between 4 and 18 years. Each child underwent a dilated eye examination, cycloplegic refraction, and AL measurement using a Nidek AL-Scan optical biometer. The central foveal thickness (CFT) and CT were measured using Cirrus high definition (HD)-OCT. The right eye of each subject was selected for analysis. Results: The mean age of the children was 10.0 ± 4.7 years (range, 4-18 years). The mean spherical equivalent (SE) was -0.24 ± 1.24 diopters (D) (range, -2.00 D to +2.25 D). The mean AL was 23.1 ± 1.2 mm (range, 20-27 mm). The mean central CT was 388.2 ± 50.0 μm and was not correlated with age, gender, AL, or refractive error. Conclusion: The data provide a pediatric normative database of CT using enhanced depth imaging OCT. This information may be useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of retino-choroidal diseases in children. .


Objetivo: Investigar a associação entre a espessura central da coroide e o comprimento axial (AL), idade, sexo e erros de refração em uma população pediátrica saudável por meio da tomografia de coerência óptica (OCT). Métodos: Estudo institucional envolvendo 137 crianças saudáveis (57 meninos, 80 meninas), com idades entre 4 e 18 anos. Cada criança foi submetida a um exame de fundo de olho, refração sob cicloplegia e medida do comprimento axial usando o biométrico óptico Nidek AL-Scan (Nidek CO, LTD.). A espessura foveal central (CFT) e espessura da coroide (CT) foram medidas utilizando o Cirrus HD-OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec). O olho direito de cada sujeito foi selecionado para análise. Resultados: A idade média das crianças foi de 10,0 ± 4,7 anos (variação, 4 a 18 anos). O equivalente esférico médio (SE) foi -0,24 ± 1,24 dioptrias (D) (variação de -2,00 D a +2,25 D). A média do comprimento axial foi de 23,1 ± 1,2 mm (variação, 20 a 27 mm). A espessura da coroide central média foi de 388,2 ± 50,0 mm e não se correlacionou com a idade, sexo, comprimento axial ou erro refrativo. Conclusão: Os resultados proporcionam uma base de dados pediátrica normativa da espessura da coroide usando tomografia de coerência óptica com profundidade de imagem aprimorada. Esta informação pode ser útil no diagnóstico e acompanhamento de doenças de retina e coroide em crianças. .


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Axial Length, Eye/physiology , Choroid/anatomy & histology , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Age Factors , Fundus Oculi , Reference Values , Refractive Errors , Sex Factors , Visual Acuity/physiology
11.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 77(3): 148-151, May-Jun/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723842

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To investigate choroidal thickness in healthy pregnant women during different trimesters using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Methods: This prospective study included 90 healthy pregnant women in their first, second, or third trimester (groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively) and 30 non-pregnant healthy women (group 4). The age range for all groups was 18-40 years. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans were obtained to estimate the average choroidal thickness. Using EDI-OCT, we measured choroidal thickness manually from the outer border of the retinal pigment epithelium to the inner scleral border at the subfovea, 3 mm temporal, and 3 mm nasal to the fovea. Differences among groups were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: We found a statistically significant difference between groups 2 and group 4 for subfoveal, temporal, and nasal mean choroidal thickness (p=0.007, p<0.001, p=0.026, respectively). The mean choroidal thickness for group 2 was 395 ± 80 µm, 338 ± 74 µm, and 233 ± 61 µm at the regions subfoveal, temporal, and nasal to the fovea, respectively. In comparison, the mean choroidal thickness for group 4 was 335 ± 86 µm, 274 ± 54 µm, and 200 ± 53 µm at the regions subfoveal, temporal, and nasal to the fovea, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found for choroidal thickness among groups 1-4 (p=0.214, p=0.177, p=0.094, respectively) and between groups 3-4 (p=0.105, p=0.261, p=0.695, respectively) for all measured points. Conclusion: Our results suggest that choroidal thickening can occur at the regions subfoveal, temporal, and nasal to the fovea in the second trimester. .


Objetivo: Investigar a espessura da coroide em gestantes saudáveis durante os diferentes trimestres utilizando tomografia de coerência óptica com profundidade de imagem aprimorada (EDI-OCT). Métodos: Este estudo prospectivo incluiu 90 gestantes saudáveis nos primeiro, segundo e terceiro trimestres da gravidez (grupos 1, 2 e 3, respectivamente) e 30 mulheres saudáveis não-gestantes (grupo 4) com faixa etária de 18-40 anos de idade. Foi realizada tomografia de coerência óptica espectral para estimar a espessura média da coroide. A espessura da coroide foi medida manualmente da borda externa do epitélio pigmentar da retina até o limite interno da esclera nas regiões subfoveal, 3 mm temporal e 3 mm nasal à fóvea utilizando EDI-OCT. As diferenças entre os grupos foram analisadas com o teste ANOVA unicaudal. Resultados: Houve diferença estatística significativa na espessura média da coroide entre os grupos 2 e 4 nas regiões subfoveal, temporal e nasal à fóvea (p=0,007; p<0,001; p=0,026, respectivamente). A espessura média da coroide no grupo 2 foi: 395 ± 80 µm, 338 ± 77 µm e 233 ± 61 µm nas regiões subfoveal, temporal e nasal à fóvea, respectivamente. Em comparação, a espessura média da coroide no grupo 4 foi de: 335 ± 86 µm, 275 ± 54 µm e 200 ± 53 µm, nas regiões subfoveal, temporal e nasal à fóvea, respectivamente. Não foi encontrada diferença estatística significativa entre os grupos 1-4 (p=0,214, p=0,177, p=0,094, respectivamente) e os grupos 3-4 (p=0,105, p=0,261, p=0,695 respectivamente), para todas as medidas. Conclusão: Nossos resultados sugerem que há espessamento da coroide nas regiões subfoveal, temporal e nasal à fóvea no segundo trimestre gestacional. .


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Choroid/anatomy & histology , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Analysis of Variance , Blood Pressure/physiology , Gestational Age , Organ Size , Pregnancy Trimesters , Prospective Studies , Reference Values , Time Factors
12.
Clinics ; 69(2): 145-149, 2/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-701377

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of blocking the angiotensin II AT-1 receptor by the systemic administration of candesartan on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in the sclera and choroid of hypercholesterolemic rabbits. METHODS: New Zealand rabbits were divided into 3 groups, as follows: GI, which was fed a rabbit standard diet; GII, which was fed a hypercholesterolemic diet; and GIII, which received hypercholesterolemic diet plus candesartan. Samples of the rabbits' sclera and choroid were then studied by hematoxylin-eosin staining and histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression. RESULTS: Histological analysis of hematoxylin- and eosin-stained sclera and choroid revealed that macrophages were rarely present in GI, and GII had significantly increased macrophage numbers compared to GIII. Moreover, in GII, the sclera and choroid morphometry showed a significant increase in thickness in comparison to GI and GIII. GIII presented a significant increase in thickness in relation to GI. Sclera and choroid immunohistochemical analysis for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression revealed a significant increase in immunoreactivity in GII in relation to GI and GIII. GIII showed a significant increase in immunoreactivity in relation to GI. CONCLUSION: Candesartan reduced the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and consequently macrophage accumulation in the sclera and choroid of hypercholesterolemic rabbits. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Benzimidazoles/pharmacology , Choroid/drug effects , Hypercholesterolemia/physiopathology , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/drug effects , Sclera/drug effects , Tetrazoles/pharmacology , Choroid/anatomy & histology , Disease Models, Animal , Immunohistochemistry , Macrophages/drug effects , Macular Degeneration/physiopathology , Reference Values , Sclera/anatomy & histology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-150558

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate a simplified method to measure peripapillary choroidal thickness using commercially available, three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (3D-OCT). METHODS: 3D-OCT images of normal eyes were consecutively obtained from the 3D-OCT database of Korea University Medical Center On the peripapillary images for retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) analysis, choroidal thickness was measured by adjusting the segmentation line for the retinal pigment epithelium to the chorioscleral junction using the modification tool built into the 3D-OCT image viewer program. Variations of choroidal thickness at 12 sectors of the peripapillary area were evaluated. RESULTS: We were able to measure the peripapillary choroidal thickness in 40 eyes of our 40 participants, who had a mean age of 41.2 years (range, 15 to 84 years). Choroidal thickness measurements had strong inter-observer correlation at each sector (r = 0.901 to 0.991, p < 0.001). The mean choroidal thickness was 191 +/- 62 microm. Choroidal thickness was greatest at the temporal quadrant (mean +/- SD, 210 +/- 78 microm), followed by the superior (202 +/- 66 microm), nasal (187 +/- 64 microm), and inferior quadrants (152 +/- 59 microm). CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of choroidal thickness on peripapillary circle scan images for RNFL analysis using the 3D-OCT viewing program was highly reliable and efficient.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Choroid/anatomy & histology , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Observer Variation , Retina/anatomy & histology , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Young Adult
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194325

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To study choroidal thickness and its topographic profile in normal eyes using 3D OCT-1000 spectral domain optical coherence tomography and the correlation with age and refractive error. METHODS: Fifty-seven eyes (45 individuals) with no visual complaints or ocular disease underwent horizontal and vertical line scanning using 3D OCT-1000. The definition of choroidal thickness was the vertical distance between the posterior edge of the hyper-reflective retinal pigment epithelium and the choroid/sclera junction. Choroidal thickness was measured in the subfoveal area at 500 microm intervals from the fovea to 2,500 microm in the nasal, temporal, superior, and inferior regions. The spherical equivalent refractive error was measured by autorefractometry. Statistical analysis was used to confirm the correlations of choroidal thickness with age and refraction error. RESULTS: The mean age of the 45 participants (57 eyes) was 45.28 years. Detailed visualization of the choroid for measuring its thickness was possible in 63.3% of eyes. The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was found to be 270.8 microm (standard deviation [SD], +/-51 microm), in horizontal scanning and 275.0 microm (SD, +/-49 microm) in vertical scanning. The temporal choroidal thickness was greater than any 500 microm interval in corresponding locations, and there was no significant difference between the superior and inferior choroid as far as 2,000 microm from the fovea. Age and refractive error were associated with subfoveal choroidal thickness in terms of regression (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Choroidal thickness in normal Korean eyes can be measured using 3D OCT-1000 with high resolution line scanning. The topographical profile of choroidal thickness varies depending on its location. Age and refractive error are essential factors for interpretation of choroidal thickness.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Choroid/anatomy & histology , Female , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Size , Reference Values , Refractive Errors , Republic of Korea , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
15.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 51(6): 373-8, dez. 1992. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-128693

ABSTRACT

Revisamos 70 angiogramas, 113 olhos, com diagnóstico de miopia degenerativa, constatando que a zona foveolar (500 micra centrais) mostrava-se envolvida em 21//dos exames e que as situaçöes anormais mais prevalentes foram: 1) focos de atrofia do epitélio pigmentar coriocapilar/retina sensorial (5,3//); 2) leak impreciso (4,4//); 3) laquer cracks (6,0//); 4) hemorragias isoladas (1,7//) e 5) membranas neovasculares (3,5//). As mulheres foram mais frequentemente atingidas (60//), idade média 49 anos, ametropia de -12.5 dioptrias e acuidade de 0,15 de Snellen


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Angiography , Choroid/anatomy & histology , Fovea Centralis/abnormalities , Myopia/physiopathology , Fovea Centralis
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