ABSTRACT Reticular pigmentary retinal dystrophy, also known as Sjögren's reticular dystrophy, is a rare condition characterized by macular lesions with a reticular pattern, which are best seen on fluorescein angiogram. Choroidal neovascularization secondary to this type of dystrophy is even less common. This report describes a case of reticular pigmentary retinal dystrophy with vision loss due to neovascular membrane, which responded well to treatment with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor.
RESUMO A distrofia reticular pigmentar da retina, também conhecida como distrofia reticular de Sjögren, é uma doença rara, caracterizada por lesões maculares com um padrão reticular, que são mais bem visualizadas na angiografia com fluoresceína. A neovascularização de coroide secundária a este tipo de distrofia é ainda menos comum. Este relato descreve um caso de distrofia reticular pigmentar da retina, com perda de visão devido à membrana neovascular, que respondeu bem ao tratamento com fator de crescimento endotelial antivascular.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Aged , Retinitis Pigmentosa/complications , Choroidal Neovascularization/etiology , Choroidal Neovascularization/drug therapy , Retinal Dystrophies/complications , Ranibizumab/administration & dosage , Sjogren's Syndrome/complications , Follow-Up Studies , Choroidal Neovascularization/diagnosis , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Intravitreal Injections , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use
Objetivo: Determinar las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de la neovascularización coroidea en los pacientes con uveítis. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal en pacientes con diagnóstico de neovascularización coroidea asociada a uveítis, atendidos en el Servicio de Uveítis e Inflamaciones Oculares del Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer". Resultados: Esta entidad predominó en el sexo femenino, en edad pediátrica y en jóvenes. Se asoció con mayor frecuencia a enfermedades infecciosas, como la toxoplasmosis ocular, y un pequeño número de pacientes desarrolló membrana neovascular coroidea bilateral. Las membranas localizadas con mayor frecuencia fueron las subfoveales. Por angiografía fluoresceínica predominaron las clásicas, mientras el grosor de la membrana neovascular coroidea fue mayor que el grosor foveal central. La agudeza visual mejor corregida en la mayoría de nuestros pacientes fue menor de 85 VAR. Conclusión: La membrana neovascular coroidea asociada a las uveítis es reconocida como una complicación infrecuente, pero compromete de forma severa la visión en estos pacientes(AU)
Objective. To determine the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of choroidal neovascularization in patients with uveitis. Method. An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in patients with a diagnosis of choroidal neovascularization associated with uveitis, attended in the Uveitis and Ocular Inflammations Service of the Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology "Ramón Pando Ferrer". Results. This entity predominated in the female sex, in pediatric age and youth. It was more frequently associated with infectious diseases, such as ocular toxoplasmosis, and a small number of patients developed bilateral choroidal neovascular membrane. The most frequent location of the membranes were the subfoveal ones, by fluorescein angiography the predominantly classic ones and the thickness of the choroidal neovascular membrane was greater than the central foveal thickness. The best corrected visual acuity in most of our patients was less than 85 VAR. Conclusion. CNVM associated with uveitis is recognized as an uncommon complication but one that severely compromises vision in these patients(AU)
Subject(s)Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Uveitis/etiology , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Toxoplasmosis, Ocular/epidemiology , Choroidal Neovascularization/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
RESUMO Este trabalho visou evidenciar a importância da detecção precoce da coroidite interna punctata e destacar sua fisiopatologia inflamatória e possíveis diagnósticos diferenciais dentro das white dot syndromes. O destaque foi dado principalmente à coroidite multifocal e à panuveíte, ao se demonstrar sua epidemiologia peculiar em mulheres jovens, caracterizar sua apresentação clínica típica na fundoscopia e explorar as vantagens e as desvantagens de realizar os exames complementares que fazem parte da análise multimodal útil para o diagnóstico (especialmente a angiografia fluoresceínica, a tomografia de coerência óptica e a indocianina verde). Descreve-se o caso de uma mulher de 28 anos diagnosticada com coroidite interna punctata com membrana neovascular coroidal em olho direito. O tratamento foi realizado com injeção intravítrea de aflibercepte e corticoterapia sistêmica 1mg/kg ao dia. Este relato é importante por permitir debater o manejo da coroidite interna punctata durante a gestação e a decisão de realizar o tratamento mediante uma diversidade de opções terapêuticas.
ABSTRACT This work aimed to demonstrate the importance of early detection of punctate inner choroidopathy, highlighting the pathophysiology of inflammation and the differential diagnoses among white dot syndromes. Special attention was given to multifocal choroiditis and panuveitis, by demonstrating the peculiar epidemiology in young women, characterizing the typical clinical presentation in ophthalmoscopy, and exploring the advantages and disadvantages of performing the complementary examinations, which are part of the multimodal analysis useful for diagnosis (particularly fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, and indocyanine green). We report the case of a 28-year-old female, diagnosed as punctate inner choroidopathy with choroidal [N.T. no título aparece subretinal = subrretiniana] neovascular membrane in the right eye. She was treated with intravitreal injection of aflibercept and systemic corticosteroid 1 mg/kg/day. This case report is important for addressing the management of punctate inner choroidopathy during pregnancy, and the decision to carry out treatment considering diverse therapeutic options.
Subject(s)Humans , Female , Adult , Choroiditis/complications , Choroiditis/diagnosis , Choroiditis/physiopathology , Choroidal Neovascularization/etiology , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Intravitreal Injections/methods , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a pivotal role in pathologic ocular neovascularization and vascular leakage via activation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). This study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic mechanisms and effects of the tetrapeptide Arg-Leu-Tyr-Glu (RLYE), a VEGFR2 inhibitor, in the development of vascular permeability and choroidal neovascularization (CNV). In cultured human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs), treatment with RLYE blocked VEGF-A-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2, Akt, ERK, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), leading to suppression of VEGF-A-mediated hyper-production of NO. Treatment with RLYE also inhibited VEGF-A-stimulated angiogenic processes (migration, proliferation, and tube formation) and the hyperpermeability of HRMECs, in addition to attenuating VEGF-A-induced angiogenesis and vascular permeability in mice. The anti-vascular permeability activity of RLYE was correlated with enhanced stability and positioning of the junction proteins VE-cadherin, β-catenin, claudin-5, and ZO-1, critical components of the cortical actin ring structure and retinal endothelial barrier, at the boundary between HRMECs stimulated with VEGF-A. Furthermore, intravitreally injected RLYE bound to retinal microvascular endothelium and inhibited laser-induced CNV in mice. These findings suggest that RLYE has potential as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of CNV by preventing VEGFR2-mediated vascular leakage and angiogenesis.
Subject(s)Actins , Animals , Capillary Permeability , Choroid , Choroidal Neovascularization , Claudin-5 , Endothelial Cells , Endothelium , Humans , Macular Degeneration , Mice , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Permeability , Phosphorylation , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor , Retinaldehyde , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
PURPOSE: To report a rare case of Sjögren's reticular retinal dystrophy. CASE SUMMARY: A 54-year-old male presented with blurred vision and metamorphopsia in both eyes since a few years prior to his initial visit. There was a bilateral reticular network of yellow deposits throughout the posterior pole on fundus examination, which was hyperautofluorescent in fundus autofluorescence photographs. The pigment alterations were more visible with fluorescein angiography, which showed hypofluorescent lesions with hyperfluorescent borders. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed elevations of the outer retina associated with the presence of subretinal hyperreflective material. Based on the conclusive correlation with clinical features, we diagnosed Sjögren's reticular retinal dystrophy. CONCLUSIONS: Sjögren's reticular retinal dystrophy is characterized by its specific pigment changes at the level of clinical manifestations and the retinal pigment epithelium. In cases of Sjögren's reticular retinal dystrophy, close monitoring is required because it has a lifetime risk of choroidal neovascularization.
Subject(s)Choroidal Neovascularization , Fluorescein Angiography , Humans , Macular Degeneration , Male , Middle Aged , Retina , Retinal Dystrophies , Retinal Pigment Epithelium , Retinaldehyde , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Vision Disorders
PURPOSE: To report a case of choroidal neovascularization in a Best disease patient treated with intravitreal bevacizumab injection and followed up with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). CASE SUMMARY: A 20-year-old female visited our clinic with decreased visual acuity of the left eye for 6 months. On optical coherence tomography (OCT), subretinal fluid and hyperreflective subretinal clumps were observed in the macula of the right eye. Subretinal hemorrhage and subretinal fluid were observed in the left eye. Choroidal neovascularization in the left eye was observed using OCTA, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography. A full-field electroretinogram was normal in both eyes, but an electrooculogram revealed that the Arden ratio was 1.564 in the right eye and 1.081 in the left eye. Intravitreal bevacizumab injection was performed in the left eye. At 6 months after the intravitreal injection, the best-corrected visual acuity of the left eye had recovered to 20/20. OCT revealed that subretinal fluid reduced and choroidal neovascularization was stable. After 12 months, visual acuity of the left eye was maintained at 20/20, but OCTA revealed that choroidal neovascularization had increased. CONCLUSIONS: Choroidal neovascularization associated with Best disease can improve by intravitreal bevacizumab injection, and the changes in choroidal neovascularization can be followed using OCTA.
Subject(s)Angiography , Bevacizumab , Choroid , Choroidal Neovascularization , Electrooculography , Female , Fluorescein Angiography , Hemorrhage , Humans , Indocyanine Green , Intravitreal Injections , Subretinal Fluid , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity , Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy , Young Adult
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical presentations of focal choroidal excavation and to report long-term outcomes of cases without retinal disorders at the initial presentation. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records was performed for patients diagnosed with focal choroidal excavation. Concomitant retinal disorders at the initial presentation were identified. In cases without retinal disorders, the development of retinal disorders during follow-up was also evaluated. RESULTS: Forty-five eyes in 45 patients were examined in this study. Focal choroidal excavation was accompanied with retinal disorders in 16 eyes (35.6%). In the remaining 29 eyes, only focal choroidal excavation was noted without any accompanying retinal disorders. The accompanying retinal disorders included choroidal neovascularization (n = 8), central serous chorioretinopathy (n = 4), epiretinal membrane (n = 1), macular hole (n = 1), branch retinal vein occlusion (n = 1), and uveitis (n = 1). Of the 29 eyes without retinal disorders, 22 were followed up for a mean period of 33.5 ± 18.2 months. Consequently, choroidal neovascularization was found to have developed in one eye at 59 months, and subretinal fluid had developed in two eyes at 17 and 28 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Focal choroidal excavation was accompanied by retinal disorders in 35.6% of the included patients. In patients without retinal disorders, the development of a retinal disorder was noted in some eyes, suggesting the need for long-term regular follow-up in patients diagnosed with focal choroidal excavation.
Subject(s)Central Serous Chorioretinopathy , Choroid , Choroidal Neovascularization , Epiretinal Membrane , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Medical Records , Retinal Perforations , Retinal Vein Occlusion , Retinaldehyde , Retrospective Studies , Subretinal Fluid , Uveitis
PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term treatment outcomes of bevacizumab therapy in patients with myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV). METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of medical records regarding 43 eyes with myopic CNV that were treated with intravitreal bevacizumab injection. Visual acuity at diagnosis was compared with that measured at the final follow-up; the incidence and timing of re-activation were evaluated. In addition, factors associated with final follow-up were analyzed. RESULTS: Mean patient age was 39.3 ± 12.9 years and mean spherical equivalent (SE) was −11.9 ± 4.4 diopters. Patients were followed-up at a mean of 42.1 ± 17.0 months. Re-activation of the lesion was noted in 17 eyes (39.5%). The mean time to first re-activation was 19.5 ± 15.4 months from the time that resolution of subretinal fluid/retinal fluid was confirmed after initial treatment. The mean visual acuity (the logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution) was 0.40 ± 0.25 at diagnosis and 0.26 ± 0.31 at the final follow-up. Visual acuity at the final follow-up was significantly improved when compared with the baseline value (p = 0.005). Patient age (p < 0.001), SE (p = 0.003), and visual acuity at diagnosis (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with visual acuity at the final follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Bevacizumab therapy was a useful method for long-term treatment of myopic CNV. The observation of relatively late re-activation after the initial treatment suggests a need for continuous long-term follow-up.
Subject(s)Bevacizumab , Choroid , Choroidal Neovascularization , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Medical Records , Methods , Myopia , Retrospective Studies , Visual Acuity
PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of axial length on the recurrence of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. METHODS: A retrospective review of the medical records for 45 eyes of 45 patients, who were diagnosed with neovascular AMD and treated with three ranibizumab injections per month, was performed. Axial length was compared between eyes with (recurrence group) and without (no recurrence group) recurrence of fluid during a 12-month follow-up period. In eyes with recurrence, the association between axial length and the time between the third injection and the first recurrence was also evaluated. RESULTS: The axial length was measured at a mean of 20.6 ± 10.1 months after the diagnosis of neovascular AMD. The mean axial length at that time was 23.33 ± 0.90 mm. The mean axial length was 23.29 ± 0.96 mm in the recurrence group (n = 30) and 23.40 ± 0.79 mm in the no-recurrence group (n = 15). There was no difference in the axial length between the two groups (p = 0.709). In the recurrence group, the period between the third injection and the first recurrence was not associated with axial length (p =0.582). CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in axial length between eyes with and without recurrence after initial treatment for wet AMD. In addition, the time to first recurrence was not significantly associated with axial length. Because the present study was retrospective and the sample size was small, further prospective studies with a better design are needed to more accurately assess the influence of axial length.
Subject(s)Choroidal Neovascularization , Diagnosis , Endothelial Growth Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Macular Degeneration , Medical Records , Prospective Studies , Ranibizumab , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Sample Size
PURPOSE: To investigate the short-term efficacy and safety of ranibizumab in the routine clinical setting in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and to analyze the associated factors for visual outcome. METHODS: This was a post-hoc analysis of a ranibizumab regulatory post-marketing surveillance study in which 4,136 patients were enrolled and followed for 12 weeks. Change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), size of choroidal neovascularization, and the presence of hemorrhage and exudate were analyzed and the association between BCVA change and baseline characteristics were investigated. Data on ocular and systemic adverse events were collected. RESULTS: Mean BCVA improved significantly and mean BCVA change was the logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution 0.13 ± 0.01 (p < 0.001). A lower baseline BCVA and younger age were significant predictive factors for visual improvement or maintenance (≥0 lines). For greater visual acuity gain (≥3 lines), no treatment history, lower baseline BCVA, younger age, and classic-type choroidal neovascularization were significant predictive factors. No new safety signals were found. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, conducted in real-world clinical practice with a large number of neovascular age-related macular degeneration patients, visual and anatomical outcomes improved significantly after three monthly ranibizumab treatments. Treatment-naive patients had a higher chance of greater visual gain (≥3 lines) than non-naive patients.
Subject(s)Choroidal Neovascularization , Exudates and Transudates , Hemorrhage , Humans , Macular Degeneration , Ranibizumab , Visual Acuity
Resumo Objetivo: O objetivo desse trabalho é avaliar o perfil de aplicações intravítreas do Ranibizumab em uma população de adultos atendidos no Instituto Benjamin Constant, no ano de 2015, levando em consideração o efeito sobre a acuidade visual e a espessura macular após tratamento. O objetivo secundário é apresentar as principais indicações desse tipo tratamento no serviço de olhos acima citado. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo seccional, em indivíduos acima de 20 anos entre os meses de março a agosto de 2015, para analisar a acuidade visual e espessura foveal pré e pós tratamento. A dose do anti-VEGF utilizada foi de 0,05ml por aplicação com intervalo de quatro semanas entre elas. A aferição da acuidade visual assim como o OCT pós tratamento foram realizados em torno de trinta dias após a última aplicação. As análises estatísticas foram feitas com uso do software SPSS versão 21 e o nível de significância estatística foi de 95% com um valor de p <0,05. Resultado: O estudo mostrou que a principal afecção relacionada a esse tratamento foi a retinopatia diabética não proliferativa associada ao edema macular (32,8%). Após o tratamento indicado com Ranibizumab, houve uma melhora da acuidade visual média de 0,70 para 0,59 (logMAR) e uma regressão da espessura macular, visto no OCT, de 408,1µm para 337,2 µm (valor de p <0,05). Conclusão: Pode-se concluir portanto, que o tratamento com Ranibizumab na população estudada contribuiu para uma melhor qualidade de vida dos pacientes, pois a maioria dele apresentou uma melhora estatisticamente significativa na acuidade visual após as aplicações.
Abstract The objective of this work is to evaluate the profile of intravitreal applications of Ranibizumab in a population of adults attended at the Benjamin Constant Institute in the year of 2015, taking into account the effect on visual acuity and macular thickness after the treatment. The secondary objective is to present the main indications of this type of treatment in the eye care mentioned above. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed in individuals over 20 years of age between March and August of 2015 to analyze visual acuity and foveal thickness before and after treatment. The dose of anti-VEGF used was 0.05 ml per application with an interval of four weeks between them. Visual acuity assessment as well as OCT post treatment were performed around 30 days after the last application. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software version 21 and the level of statistical significance was of 95% with a value of p <0.05. The study showed that the main condition related to this treatment was non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy associated with macular edema (32.8%). After treatment indicated with Ranibizumab, there was an improvement in the average visual acuity from 0.70 to 0.59 (logMAR) and a regression of the macular thickness, seen in the OCT, from 408.1μm to 337.2μm (p < 0.05). It can be concluded, therefore, that treatment with Ranibizumab in the studied population contributed to a better quality of life of the patients, since most of them presented a statistically significant improvement in the visual acuity after the applications.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Macular Edema/drug therapy , Macular Edema/diagnostic imaging , Intravitreal Injections , Ranibizumab/administration & dosage , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Fluorescein Angiography , Visual Acuity , Retinal Neovascularization , Retrospective Studies , Choroidal Neovascularization , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Diabetic Retinopathy , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Ranibizumab/pharmacology , Fovea Centralis/diagnostic imaging , Macula Lutea/diagnostic imaging , Macular Degeneration
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate changes in visual acuity before and after the development of submacular hemorrhage secondary to neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and to compare the visual outcomes between patients with and without hemorrhage. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included 124 patients with neovascular AMD. Patients who developed a submacular hemorrhage involving the fovea were included in the hemorrhage group (n = 55). Patients with no sign of submacular hemorrhage during the follow-up period were included in the no-hemorrhage group (n = 69). Visual outcomes were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) before the development of submacular hemorrhage, once the hemorrhage had developed, and 6 months after the development of hemorrhage was 0.59 ± 0.45, 1.24 ± 0.57, and 0.99 ± 0.64, respectively. BCVA was significantly worse 6 months after the hemorrhage compared to before the hemorrhage (p < 0.001). The BCVA before the development of hemorrhage (measured at a mean of 12.9 months after diagnosis) was comparable to that of the no-hemorrhage group (mean, 0.58 ± 0.37 at a mean of 12.4 months). However, the BCVA 6 months after identification of hemorrhage (mean, 21.5 months) was significantly worse in the hemorrhage group than in the no-hemorrhage group (mean, 0.73 ± 0.44 at mean 21.2 months) (p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Visual acuity was significantly worse after hemorrhage than before hemorrhage, even after treatment. In addition, patients with submacular hemorrhage had markedly worse visual outcomes than patients without hemorrhage. This result suggests that the development of hemorrhage during the treatment course of neovascular AMD has a devastating effect on visual prognosis.
Subject(s)Choroidal Neovascularization , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Humans , Macular Degeneration , Observational Study , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Visual Acuity
The great diversity of molecules found in spider venoms include amino acids, polyamines, proteins and peptides, among others. Some of these compounds can interact with different neuronal receptors and ion channels including those present in the ocular system. To study potential toxicity and safety of intravitreal injection in rabbits of LyeTx I b, a synthetic peptide derived from the toxin LyeTx I found in venom from the spider Lycosa eritrognatha and to evaluate the angiogenic activity on a CAM model. Methods: ARPE-19 cells were treated with LyeTx I b (0.36; 0.54; 0.72; 2.89; 4.34 or 9.06 µM). In this study, New Zealand rabbits were used. LyeTx I b (2.89 µM) labeled with FITC dissolved in PBS, or only PBS, were injected into vitreous humor. Electroretinogram (ERG) was recorded 1 day before injection and at 7,14 and 28 days post-injection. Clinical examination of the retina was conducted through tonometer and eye fundus after ERG. Eyes were enucleated and retinas were prepared for histology in order to assess retinal structure. CAMs were exposed to LyeTx I b (0.54; 0.72; 2.17 or 2.89 µM). Results: ARPE-19 cells exposed to LyeTx I b showed cell viability at the same levels of the control. The fluorescence of LyeTx I b labeled with FITC indicated its retinal localization. Our findings indicate ERG responses from rats injected in the eye with LyeTx I b were very similar to the corresponding responses of those animals injected only with vehicle. Clinical examination found no alterations of intraocular pressure or retinal integrity. No histological damage in retinal layers was observed. CAM presented reduced neovascularization when exposed to LyeTx I b. Conclusions: Intravitreal injection of LyeTx I b is safe for use in the rabbit eye and prevents neovascularization in the CAM model, at Bevacizumab levels. These findings support intravitreal LyeTx l b as a good candidate to develop future alternative treatment for the retina in neovascularization diseases.(AU)
Subject(s)Animals , Peptides , Choroidal Neovascularization , Intravitreal Injections
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of central vision loss in developed countries. The incidence of AMD has increased rapidly in Korea. The objective of this article is to introduce the latest knowledge about the pathophysiology, diagnostic tools and therapeutic modalities of AMD. The risk factors for AMD are age, smoking, familial history, genetic factors related to the complement system, diet, and cholesterol levels. Inflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of AMD and is associated with the complement system. Genes associated with the complement system affect the pathophysiology, expression, progression and therapeutic response of AMD. The use of antioxidants, zinc, and omega-3 fatty acids inhibits progression from moderate AMD to advanced AMD. Although there is no established treatment for dry AMD, treatment with agents that inhibit the complement system or through other mechanisms is under study. A number of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents have been developed for the prevention of choroidal neovascularization in the treatment of wet AMD and are being used clinically. Therapeutic alternatives to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents are under study.
Subject(s)Antioxidants , Cholesterol , Choroidal Neovascularization , Complement System Proteins , Developed Countries , Diet , Endothelial Growth Factors , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Incidence , Inflammation , Korea , Macular Degeneration , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Zinc
PURPOSE: To report a delayed onset of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome in a patient with punctate inner choroidopathy. CASE SUMMARY: A 23-year-old female complained about sudden visual loss in the right eye. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/100 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. In fundus examination and optical coherence tomographic images, subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) with hemorrhage was observed in the right eye, accompanied by multiple lesions of atrophic pigmentation on the posterior pole in both eyes. We diagnosed the patient as punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) and CNV in the right eye, and treated her using three monthly intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (Avastin®, Roche, Basel, Switzerland; 1.25 mg/0.05 mL). The CNV regressed and the BCVA improved to 20/20. Two years later, she complained of visual impairment in her left eye. The BCVA was 20/40. Fundus photography revealed numerous small white dots around the posterior pole and optic disc. Disruption of the photoreceptor layer was seen in optical coherence tomography images. Small white dots were observed as multiple hyperfluorescent dots in fluorescein angiography and hypofluorescent spots in indocyanine green angiography. An enlarged blind spot was observed in the visual field. We diagnosed her as multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS). One month after systemic steroid treatment, the multiple white dots disappeared and the BCVA improved to 20/20. CONCLUSIONS: We determined that PIC and MEWDS, which belong to the white dot syndrome, could occur in a patient at different times.
Subject(s)Angiography , Bevacizumab , Choroidal Neovascularization , Female , Fluorescein Angiography , Hemorrhage , Humans , Indocyanine Green , Intravitreal Injections , Optic Disk , Photography , Pigmentation , Switzerland , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Vision Disorders , Visual Acuity , Visual Fields , Young Adult
PURPOSE: To evaluate the characteristics of patients aged ≥ 90 years who were diagnosed with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records was performed for 44 patients aged ≥ 90 years diagnosed with neovascular AMD. History of cerebrovascular or cardiovascular disorder and visual acuity at diagnosis were assessed. Fellow eye visual acuity data were also collected. When the fellow eye visual acuity was worse than 0.5, the primary reason for the visual deterioration was identified. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 91.5 ± 1.5 years (range: 90–95 years). Ten (22.7%) patients had histories of cerebrovascular or cardiovascular disorders. The mean logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) of visual acuity was 1.11 ± 0.51 and the visual acuity was worse than 0.1 in 20 eyes (45.5%). The fellow eye visual acuity was worse than 0.5 in 26 eyes (59.1%). The primary reason was neovascular or atrophic AMD in 23 eyes (88.5%). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of cerebrovascular or cardiovascular disorders was relatively high in patients aged ≥ 90 years. Patients also had poor visual acuity at diagnosis and a high incidence of fellow eye visual deterioration. These systemic conditions should be considered when treating these patients. Additionally, a regular ophthalmic examination is recommended for the early detection of these disorders.
Subject(s)Choroidal Neovascularization , Diagnosis , Humans , Incidence , Macular Degeneration , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Visual Acuity
PURPOSE: To evaluate long-term treatment outcomes of intravitreal aflibercept monotherapy for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records was performed with 46 patients who were diagnosed with PCV and treated with aflibercept monotherapy for 24 months. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) values measured at diagnosis, 3 months, 12 months, and 24 months were compared. Baseline morphological factors associated with the 24 month BCVA were additionally investigated. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 65.8 ± 7.9 years. The patients were treated with a mean of 7.0 ± 2.3 aflibercept injections. The mean logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) BCVA at diagnosis, 3 months, 12 months, and 24 months was 0.56 ± 0.40, 0.36 ± 0.36, 0.45 ± 0.42, and 0.52 ± 0.47, respectively. When compared with baseline values, the BCVA was significantly improved at 3 months (p < 0.001) and 12 months (p = 0.022). However, the value at 24 months was not significantly different (p = 1.000). The BCVA was improved or maintained in 35 eyes (76.1%). Extrafoveal polypoidal lesions were associated with a better 24 month visual outcome than subfoveal/juxtafoveal lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Aflibercept monotherapy was found to be an effective method to maintain or improve long-term visual acuity in PCV patients. The location of polypoidal lesions was a predictive factor for long-term visual outcomes.
Subject(s)Choroid , Choroidal Neovascularization , Diagnosis , Humans , Macular Degeneration , Medical Records , Methods , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Visual Acuity
PURPOSE: We assessed the visual and anatomical outcomes, and the safety profile of long-term intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections (aflibercept, ranibizumab, and bevacizumab) given to treat neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NAMD). METHODS: We analyzed medical records collected over 7 years of treatment-naive NAMD patients who received outpatient clinic-based intravitreal anti-VEGF injections. All were treated employing either “treat-and-extend” or “as needed” protocols at the discretion of the retinal specialist. The number of injections, adverse events associated with injection, and measures of visual acuity (VA), central foveal thickness (CFT), and intraocular pressure (IOP) were recorded. RESULTS: Overall, we assessed 196 eyes of 196 patients (average age 68.6 ± 9.6 years; 77 females). Patients received an average of 17.3 ± 13.5 injections over 78.0 ± 16.5 months of clinical follow-up. The initial mean VA (logMAR) was 0.75 ± 0.58 and the CFT was 349.7 ± 152.6 µm. Both parameters exhibited maximal improvements at the 6-month visit (p < 0.05). However, the clinical outcomes worsened over the 7-year clinical course; the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.91 ± 0.78 and the CFT was 284.5 ± 105.8 µm at 7 years. The BCVA at 7 years was significantly correlated with the initial BCVA. IOP-related events increased 11-fold and anterior chamber reactions increased 3-fold over the years, but no significant complications such as endophthalmitis were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: The use of intravitreal anti-VEGF agents was associated with initial visual improvements over 6 months but did not prevent the worsening of NAMD over 5 years. The BCVA at the initial visit was a strong predictor of the final BCVA. A more intensive injection schedule might improve long-term outcomes.
Subject(s)Anterior Chamber , Appointments and Schedules , Choroidal Neovascularization , Endophthalmitis , Endothelial Growth Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intraocular Pressure , Macular Degeneration , Medical Records , Outpatients , Ranibizumab , Retinaldehyde , Specialization , Visual Acuity
PURPOSE: To report a case of choroidal osteoma (CO) complicated by extensive subretinal hemorrhage treated with intravitreal bevacizumab and aflibercept injections. CASE SUMMARY: A 42-year-old female patient presented with decreased visual acuity and a temporal visual field defect in the left eye. The patient had a history of retinal hemorrhage in the left eye 3 years prior, which improved without any treatment. The patient's visual acuity had decreased to 0.6 at the initial visit. On fundus examination, orange-colored elevated lesions involving the superior peripapillary area with massive subretinal hemorrhage extending to the macular area were revealed. Optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and B-scan ultrasonography results indicated CO complicated by choroidal neovascularization (CNV). With multiple intravitreal injections of bevacizumab and aflibercept (bevacizumab ×1, aflibercept ×2), the patient's visual acuity improved and the CNV lesion was kept stable without recurrence as of the 1-year follow-up visit. CONCLUSIONS: Intravitreal bevacizumab and aflibercept injections can be helpful in the treatment of CO complicated by CNV, by improving visual acuity and the retinal anatomy.
Subject(s)Adult , Bevacizumab , Choroid , Choroidal Neovascularization , Female , Fluorescein Angiography , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Osteoma , Recurrence , Retinal Hemorrhage , Retinaldehyde , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Ultrasonography , Visual Acuity , Visual Fields
ABSTRACT Herein, we report two cases of vision loss after successful cataract surgery, associated with drusenoid retinal pigment epithelial detachment without features of choroidal neovascularization on optical coherence tomography along with angiographic examinations suggestive of choroidal neovascularization in which anatomical and functional improvements were achieved with intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor.
RESUMO Relatamos dois casos de baixa visual após cirurgia bem sucedida de catarata, associada a descolamento drusenóide do epitélio pigmentar da retina (DPED) sem achados de neovascularização de coroide a tomografia de coerência óptica OCT (CNV silente ao OCT) e com exames angiográficos sugestivos de neovascularização da coroide (CNV), nos quais melhoras anatômicas e funcionais foram obtidas com aplicações intravítreas de anti-VEGF.