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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3310-3322, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921427

ABSTRACT

The effect of altering the promoter region of ubiquitous chromatin-opening element (UCOE) and matrix attachment region (MAR) on stable and efficient expression of genes was investigated. Four different promoters were tested, namely, oct4 containing an enhancer region, sox2 having a CpG island, nanog having no regulatory elements, and CMV containing a CpG island and an enhancer region. Eight reporter plasmids were constructed: pOCT4-UCOE, pOCT4-MAR, pSOX2-UCOE, pSOX2-MAR, pNANOG-UCOE, pNANOG-MAR, pCMV-UCOE, and pCMV-MAR. Stable and efficient expression was observed when UCOE combined with the oct4 promoter, whereas the sox2 was the best promoter suited for MAR. Comparison of the stable clones of oct4-UCOE and sox2-MAR showed that UCOE-regulated expression is more stable and efficient than MAR-regulated expression. When CpG island-containing promoter is linked with UCOE, stable and efficient expression could be observed. These data suggest that an enhancer region in the promoter leads to high, yet unstable expression when combined with UCOE, whereas CpG islands stabilize expression. In conclusion, UCOE and MAR interact with regulatory elements on the promoter by altering the chromatin open state and chromatin loop to regulate gene expression.


Subject(s)
Chromatin/genetics , CpG Islands/genetics , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Regulation , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3061-3070, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921406

ABSTRACT

The study of distinct genes, chromosomes and the spatio-temporal relationships between them is of great significance in genetics, developmental biology and biomedicine. CRISPR/Cas9 has become the most widely used gene editing tool due to its excellent targeting ability. Recently, researchers have developed a series of advanced live cell imaging techniques based on the nuclease-inactivated mutant of Cas9 (dCas9), providing rapid and convenient tools for high-resolution imaging of specific sites in the chromatin and genome. This review summarizes the advances of CRISPR/dCas9 system in live cell imaging from three aspects, including the strategies of cell delivery, optimization of the fluorescence signals, as well as orthogonal and multicolor imaging. Furthermore, we shed light on the development trends and prospects of this field.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Chromatin , Endonucleases , Gene Editing
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879853

ABSTRACT

Neural development is regulated by both external environment and internal signals, and in addition to transcription factors, epigenetic modifications also play an important role. By focusing on the genetic mechanism of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling in children with neurodevelopmental disorders, this article elaborates on the effect of four chromatin remodeling complexes on neurogenesis and the development and maturation of neurons and neuroglial cells and introduces the clinical research advances in neurodevelopmental disorders.


Subject(s)
Child , Chromatin , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Humans , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/genetics , Neurogenesis , Transcription Factors/genetics
4.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(5): 630-635, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131133

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Follicular lesions of the thyroid with papillary carcinoma nuclear characteristics are classified as infiltrative follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma-FVPTC (IFVPTC), encapsulated/well demarcated FVPTC with tumour capsular invasion (IEFVPTC), and the newly described category "non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features" (NIFTP) formerly known as non-invasive encapsulated FVPTC. This study evaluated whether computerized image analysis can detect nuclear differences between these three tumour subtypes. Materials and methods: Slides with histological material from 15 cases of NIFTP and 33 cases of FVPTC subtypes (22 IEFVPTC, and 11 IFVPTC) were analyzed using the Image J image processing program. Tumour cells were compared for both nuclear morphometry and chromatin textural characteristics. Results: Nuclei from NIFTP and IFVPTC tumours differed in terms of chromatin textural features (grey intensity): mean (92.37 ± 21.01 vs 72.99 ± 14.73, p = 0.02), median (84.93 ± 21.17 vs 65.18 ± 17.08, p = 0.02), standard deviation (47.77 ± 9.55 vs 39.39 ± 7.18; p = 0.02), and coefficient of variation of standard deviation (19.96 ± 4.01 vs 24.75 ± 3.31; p = 0.003). No differences were found in relation to IEFVPTC. Conclusion: Computerized image analysis revealed differences in nuclear texture between NIFTP and IFVPTC, but not for IEFVPTC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Papillary , Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular , Adenocarcinoma, Follicular/genetics , Adenocarcinoma, Follicular/diagnostic imaging , Chromatin , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2791-2812, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878530

ABSTRACT

Three-dimensional (3D) genomics is an emerging discipline that studies the 3D spatial structure and function of genomes, focusing on the 3D spatial conformation of genome sequences in the nucleus and its biological effects on biological processes such as DNA replication, DNA recombination and gene expression regulation. The invention of chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology speeds up the research on 3D genomics and its related fields. Furthermore, the development of 3C-based technologies, such as the genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) and chromatin interaction analysis using paired-end tag sequencing (ChIA-PET), help scientists get insight into the 3D genomes of various species. Aims of 3D genomics are to reveal the spatial genome organization, chromosomal interaction patterns, mechanisms underlying the transcriptional regulation and formation of biological traits of microorganism, plant, animal. Additionally, the identification of key genes and signaling pathways associated with biological processes and disease via chromosome 3C technology boosts the rapid development of agricultural science, life science and medical science. This paper reviews the research progress of 3D genomics, mainly in the concept of 3D genomics, the development of chromosome 3C technologies and their applications in agricultural science, life science and medical science, specifically in the field of tumor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Nucleus , Chromatin/genetics , Chromosomes/genetics , Genome , Genomics
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2040-2050, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878464

ABSTRACT

Linear chromatin is compacted into eukaryotic nucleus through a complex and multi-layered architecture. Consequently, chromatin conformation in a local or long-distance manner is strongly correlated with gene expression. Chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology, together with its variants like 4C/5C/Hi-C, has been well developed to study chromatin looping and whole genome structure. In this review, we introduce new technologies including chromosome capture combined with immunoprecipitation, nuclei acid-based hybridization, single cell and genome sequencing, as well as their application.


Subject(s)
Cell Nucleus , Chromatin/genetics , Chromosomes/genetics , Genetic Techniques , Genome/genetics
7.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 20-26, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787278

ABSTRACT

We examined the effect of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant, on neuronal viability in mouse cortical near-pure neuronal cultures. Addition of fluoxetine to the media for 24 hours induced neuronal death in a concentration-dependent manner. To delineate the mechanisms of fluoxetine-induced neuronal death, we investigated the effects of trolox, cycloheximide (CHX), BDNF, z-VAD-FMK, and various metal-chelators on fluoxetine-induced neuronal death. Neuronal death was assessed by MTT assay. The addition of 20 µM fluoxetine to the media for 24 hours induced 60–70% neuronal death, which was associated with the hallmarks of apoptosis, chromatin condensation and DNA laddering. Fluoxetine-induced death was significantly attenuated by CHX, BDNF, or z-VAD-FMK. Treatment with antioxidants, trolox and ascorbate, also markedly attenuated fluoxetine-induced death. Interestingly, some divalent cation chelators (EGTA, Ca-EDTA, and Zn-EDTA) also markedly attenuated the neurotoxicity. Fluoxetine-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured using the fluorescent dye 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. Trolox and bathocuproine disulfonic acid (BCPS), a cell membrane impermeable copper ion chelator, markedly attenuated the ROS production and neuronal death. However, deferoxamine, an iron chelator, did not affect ROS generation or neurotoxicity. We examined the changes in intracellular copper concentration using a copper-selective fluorescent dye, Phen Green FL, which is quenched by free copper ions. Fluoxetine quenched the fluorescence in neuronal cells, and the quenching effect of fluoxetine was reversed by co-treatment with BCPS, however, not by deferoxamine. These findings demonstrate that fluoxetine could induce apoptotic and oxidative neuronal death associated with an influx of copper ions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Apoptosis , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Cell Death , Cell Membrane , Chelating Agents , Chromatin , Copper , Cycloheximide , Deferoxamine , DNA , Fluorescence , Fluoxetine , Ions , Iron , Mice , Neurons , Reactive Oxygen Species , Serotonin
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879490

ABSTRACT

With the in-depth exploration of all stages in early-stage embryos, in particular zygotic genome activation and first cell lineage differentiation, researchers have found that early embryonic epigenetics follows a strict pattern of temporal and spatial modification. Previous studies have determined the inhibitory effect of H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 on genomic expression, and found that they are involved in many core biological events in the genome such as chromatin reprogramming, genomic imprinting, maintenance of embryonic stem cell pluripotency and somatic cell nuclear transfer, though the detailed molecular mechanism has remained elusive. From the point of developmental biology and epigenetics, this article has expounded the research progress on the methylation of H3K9 and H3K27 histones in early-stage embryos, which may provide a clue for the complex mechanism of embryonic development and improvement of culture method for embryos in vitro.


Subject(s)
Chromatin , Embryonic Development , Epigenesis, Genetic , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Histones/metabolism , Humans , Methylation , Pregnancy
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763794

ABSTRACT

In previous studies, we demonstrated that some sites in the first intron likely regulate gene expression. In the present work, we sought to further confirm the functional relevance of first intron sites by estimating the quantity of rare alleles in the first intron. A basic hypothesis posited herein is that genomic regions carrying more functionally important sites will have a higher proportion of rare alleles. We estimated the proportions of rare single nucleotide polymorphisms with a minor allele frequency < 0.01 located in several histone marks in the first introns of various genes, and compared them with those in other introns and those in 2-kb upstream regions. As expected, rare alleles were found to be significantly enriched in most of the regulatory sites located in the first introns. Meanwhile, transcription factor binding sites were significantly more enriched in the 2-kb upstream regions (i.e., the regions of putative promoters of genes) than in the first introns. These results strongly support our proposal that the first intron sites of genes may have important regulatory functions in gene expression independent of promoters.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Binding Sites , Chromatin , Epigenomics , Gene Expression , Gene Frequency , Histone Code , Introns , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Transcription Factors
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763355

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Sperm cryopreservation has been widely used in assisted reproductive technology, as it offers great potential for the treatment of some types of male infertility. However, cryopreservation may result in changes in membrane lipid composition and acrosome status, as well as reductions in sperm motility and viability. This study aimed to evaluate sperm DNA fragmentation damage caused by conventional freezing using the sperm chromatin dispersion test. METHODS: In total, 120 fresh human semen samples were frozen by conventional methods, using SpermFreeze Solution as a cryoprotectant. Routine semen analysis and a Halosperm test (using the Halosperm kit) were performed on each sample before freezing and after thawing. Semen parameters and sperm DNA fragmentation were compared between these groups. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in sperm progressive motility, viability, and normal morphology after conventional freezing (32.78%, 79.58%, and 3.87% vs. 16%, 55.99%, and 2.55%, respectively). The sperm head, midpiece, and tail defect rate increased slightly after freezing. Furthermore, the DNA fragmentation index (DFI) was significantly higher after thawing than before freezing (19.21% prior to freezing vs. 22.23% after thawing). Significant increases in the DFI after cryopreservation were observed in samples with both normal and abnormal motility and morphology, as well as in those with normal viability. CONCLUSION: Conventional freezing seems to damage some sperm parameters, in particular causing a reduction in sperm DNA integrity.


Subject(s)
Acrosome , Chromatin , Cryopreservation , DNA Fragmentation , DNA , Freezing , Humans , Infertility, Male , Male , Membranes , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Semen , Semen Analysis , Sperm Head , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa , Tail
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763349

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The usual seminal profile has been customarily used for diagnosing male infertility based on an examination of semen samples. However, sperm DNA fragmentation has also been causally linked to reproductive failure, suggesting that it should be evaluated as part of male infertility assessments. To compare the ability of the five most widely utilized methodologies of measuring DNA fragmentation to predict male infertility and reactive oxygen species by Oxisperm kit assay. METHODS: In this case-control study, which received ethical committee approval, the participants were divided into fertile and infertile groups (50 patients in each group). RESULTS: The alkaline comet test showed the best ability to predict male infertility, followed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay, the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test, and the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), while the neutral comet test had no predictive power. For our patient population, the projected cut-off point for the DNA fragmentation index was 22.08% using the TUNEL assay, 19.90% using SCSA, 24.74% using the SCD test, 48.47% using the alkaline comet test, and 36.37% using the neutral comet test. Significant correlations were found between the results of the SCD test and those obtained using SCSA and TUNEL (r =0.70 and r =0.68, respectively; p<0.001), and a statistically significant correlation was also found between the results of SCSA and the TUNEL assay (r =0.77, p<0.001). Likewise, the results of the alkaline comet test showed significant correlations with those of the SCD, SCSA, and TUNEL tests (r =0.59, r =0.57, and r =0.72, respectively; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The TUNEL assay, SCSA, SCD, and the alkaline comet test were effective for distinguishing between fertile and infertile patients, and the alkaline comet test was the best predictor of male infertility.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Chromatin , DNA Fragmentation , DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase , DNA , Humans , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Infertility , Infertility, Male , Male , Male , Methods , Reactive Oxygen Species , Semen , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spermatozoa
13.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 559-562, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762372

ABSTRACT

Syringocystadenocarcinoma papilliferum (SCACP) is a rare malignant adnexal neoplasm, which is considered as a malignant counterpart of syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP). Clinically, SCACP appears as a nodule, inflammatory plaque, or tumor. The lesion is usually covered with crusts, which are formed by secretion of the apocrine epithelial cells. Histologically, SCACP resembles SCAP, with cystic papillomatous invaginations connected to the skin surface by funnel-shaped structures lined by infundibular epithelium. The stroma of the tumor consists of a dense inflammatory infiltrate of plasma cells and lymphocytes. SCACP differs from SCAP in terms of the architectural and cytological features of the tumor cells, and is characterized by higher nuclear cytoplasmic ratio, nuclear irregularity, coarse chromatin, and increased mitotic activity. However, the immunohistochemical findings of SCACP vary. Since only 49 cases of SCACP have been reported in the English literature, the clinical and histologic characteristics of SCACP have not been fully established. Further studies on the diagnostic criteria for SCACP are warranted. Here, we report a rare case of SCACP and present a review of other relevant literature.


Subject(s)
Chromatin , Cytoplasm , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium , Lymphocytes , Plasma Cells , Skin , Sweat Gland Neoplasms
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760676

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The male reproductive system generates, accumulates, and transports the sperm. In this study, 2 methods of surgically retrieving sperm, namely, testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) and percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA), are discussed and studied in men aged ≤38 years to achieve successful conception using assisted reproductive technology. The purpose was to assess the fertilization rate (FA), clinical pregnancy, and live birth rate (LBR) with sperm. METHODS: A total of 287 semen samples were divided into 4 groups as follows: fresh PESA (n=73), frozen PESA (n=65), fresh TESA (n=128), and frozen TESA (n=21). The DNA fragmentation test using sperm chromatin dispersion assay was measured and reported. RESULTS: FA was 70.3% and 65.5%, (P<0.022) for fresh and frozen epididymal sperm and 53.8% and 49.5%, (P<0.032) for fresh and frozen testicular sperm. LBR was 33.6% and 30.2% (P<0.075) for fresh and frozen epididymal sperm (PESA) and 22.7% and 18.2% (P<0.063) for fresh and frozen-thawed TESA sperm. CONCLUSION: Exposure to tissue shearing may adversely affect sperm quality. Increased sperm DNA damage due to long-term exposure while teasing enhances reactive oxygen species production foremost to membrane damage because of the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acid in lipids (lipid peroxidation), oxidation of amino acid in proteins, and inactivation of specific enzymes, all leading to enzymatic dipping and possibility of less fertilization and conception as indicated by the increase in LBR with fresh/frozen PESA compared to with fresh/frozen TESA.


Subject(s)
Chromatin , DNA Damage , DNA Fragmentation , Fertilization , Humans , Infertility , Live Birth , Male , Membranes , Pregnancy , Reactive Oxygen Species , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Retrospective Studies , Semen , Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic , Sperm Retrieval , Spermatozoa
15.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 461-466, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742559

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the associations between sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) and embryo formation rate in normal responder women to in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-three consecutive, fresh IVF/ICSI cycles performed from 2014 to 2017 were selected. All women were normal responders (4 to 14 mature oocytes were retrieved) and at least one normally fertilized oocyte with two pronuclei was obtained in all cycles. Semen was collected on the day of oocyte retrieval, and SDF levels were measured by sperm chromatin dispersion test (Halosperm assay). At day 3 after insemination, embryo quality was evaluated by morphologic criteria and categorized as A/B/C/D. Top quality embryo were defined as grade A embryos with seven cells or more. RESULTS: SDF levels showed a positive linear correlation with the male's age (r=0.307, p=0.025) and a negative linear correlation with sperm motility (r=−0.491, p70%, the cut-off value SDF was <30.7% for each. Among individuals with SDF <30.7%, the median top-quality or grade A embryo formation rate was significantly higher than that among individuals with SDF ≥30.7% (38.1% vs. 20.0%, p=0.038; 50% vs. 25.0%, p=0.017). CONCLUSION: In normal responder women, high SDF level resulted in low day 3 embryo formation rates. Our results suggest a paternal effect on embryo quality in IVF/ICSI cycles.


Subject(s)
Chromatin , DNA Fragmentation , DNA , Embryonic Structures , Female , Fertilization in Vitro , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Insemination , Oocyte Retrieval , Oocytes , Semen , Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785645

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate DNA fragmentation status in human spermatozoa according to specific tail swelling patterns determined via hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST).METHODS: Frozen semen samples from 21 healthy donors were thawed and prepared by the swim-up technique for use in intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The semen samples were treated for 5 minutes as part of the HOST procedure and then underwent the sperm chromatin dispersion test using a Halosperm kit. DNA fragmentation status (large halo, medium halo, small halo, no halo, or degraded) and the specific tail swelling pattern (“a”–“g”) were assessed at the level of a single spermatozoon. A total of 42,000 spermatozoa were analyzed, and the percentage of spermatozoa without DNA fragmentation (as evidenced by a large or medium halo) was assessed according to the specific tail swelling patterns observed.RESULTS: The HOST examinations showed that >93% of spermatozoa across all types displayed no DNA fragmentation. The percentage of spermatozoa without DNA fragmentation was 100% in type “d”, 98.67% in type “g”, and 98.17% in type “f” spermatozoa.CONCLUSION: We found that the type “d” spermatozoa displayed no DNA fragmentation, but the other types of spermatozoa also displayed very low rates of DNA fragmentation. This result may be associated with the processing of the spermatozoa by density gradient centrifugation and the swim-up technique.


Subject(s)
Centrifugation, Density Gradient , Chromatin , DNA Fragmentation , DNA , Humans , Infertility , Semen , Semen Preservation , Sperm Head , Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic , Spermatozoa , Tail , Tissue Donors
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740481

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D (VD) is essential for bone health, and VD or its analogues are widely used in clinics to ameliorate bone loss. The targets and mode of VD anti-osteoporotic actions appear to be different from those of other classes of drugs modulating bone remodeling. VD exerts its biological activities through the nuclear VD receptor (VDR)-mediated transcriptional regulation of target mRNA and non-coding RNA genes. VD-induced gene regulation involves epigenetic modifications of chromatin conformation at the target loci as well as reconfiguration of higher-order chromosomal organization through VDR-mediated recruitment of various regulatory factors. Enhancer RNAs (eRNA), a class of non-coding enhancer-derived RNAs, have recently emerged as VDR target gene candidates that act through reorganization of chromatin looping to induce enhancer-promoter interaction in activation of mRNA-encoding genes. This review outlines the molecular mechanisms of VD actions mediated by the VDR and suggests novel function of eRNAs in VDR transactivation.


Subject(s)
Bone Remodeling , Chromatin , Epigenomics , Metabolism , Receptors, Calcitriol , RNA , RNA, Messenger , RNA, Untranslated , Transcriptional Activation , Vitamin D , Vitamins
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Human amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs) may be a valuable source for cardiovascular tissue engineering and cell therapy. The aim of this study is to verify angiotensin II and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) as potential cardiomyogenic differentiation inducers of AF-MSCs. METHODS AND RESULTS: AF-MSCs were obtained from amniocentesis samples from second-trimester pregnant women, isolated and characterized by the expression of cell surface markers (CD44, CD90, CD105 positive; CD34 negative) and pluripotency genes (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, REX1). Cardiomyogenic differentiation was induced using different concentrations of angiotensin II and TGF-β1. Successful initiation of differentiation was confirmed by alterations in cell morphology, upregulation of cardiac genes-markers NKX2-5, TBX5, GATA4, MYH6, TNNT2, DES and main cardiac ion channels genes (sodium, calcium, potassium) as determined by RT-qPCR. Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis revealed the increased expression of Connexin43, the main component of gap junctions, and Nkx2.5, the early cardiac transcription factor. Induced AF-MSCs switched their phenotype towards more energetic and started utilizing oxidative phosphorylation more than glycolysis for energy production as assessed using Agilent Seahorse XF analyzer. The immune analysis of chromatin-modifying enzymes DNMT1, HDAC1/2 and Polycomb repressive complex 1 and 2 (PRC1/2) proteins BMI1, EZH2 and SUZ12 as well as of modified histones H3 and H4 indicated global chromatin remodeling during the induced differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Angiotensin II and TGF-β1 are efficient cardiomyogenic inducers of human AF-MSCs; they initiate alterations at the gene and protein expression, metabolic and epigenetic levels in stem cells leading towards cardiomyocyte-like phenotype formation.


Subject(s)
Amniocentesis , Amniotic Fluid , Angiotensin II , Angiotensins , Blotting, Western , Calcium , Cell Differentiation , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Chromatin , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Connexin 43 , Epigenomics , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gap Junctions , Glycolysis , Histones , Humans , Ion Channels , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Muscle Cells , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Phenotype , Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 , Pregnant Women , Smegmamorpha , Stem Cells , Tissue Engineering , Transcription Factors , Up-Regulation
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 169-176, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889211

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Major health challenges as the increasing number of cases of infections by antibiotic multiresistant microorganisms and cases of Alzheimer's disease have led to searching new control drugs. The present study aims to verify a new way of obtaining bioactive extracts from filamentous fungi with potential antimicrobial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities, using epigenetic modulation to promote the expression of genes commonly silenced. For such finality, five filamentous fungal species (Talaromyces funiculosus, Talaromyces islandicus, Talaromyces minioluteus, Talaromyces pinophilus, Penicillium janthinellum) were grown or not with DNA methyltransferases inhibitors (procainamide or hydralazine) and/or a histone deacetylase inhibitor (suberohydroxamic acid). Extracts from T. islandicus cultured or not with hydralazine inhibited Listeria monocytogenes growth in 57.66 ± 5.98% and 15.38 ± 1.99%, respectively. Increment in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity was observed for the extract from P. janthinellum grown with procainamide (100%), when compared to the control extract (39.62 ± 3.76%). Similarly, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity increased from 20.91 ± 3.90% (control) to 92.20 ± 3.72% when the tested extract was obtained from T. pinophilus under a combination of suberohydroxamic acid and procainamide. Concluding, increases in antimicrobial activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition were observed when fungal extracts in the presence of DNA methyltransferases and/or histone deacetylase modulators were tested.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Penicillium/chemistry , Talaromyces/chemistry , Acetylcholinesterase/chemistry , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/metabolism , Chromatin/metabolism , Listeria monocytogenes/drug effects , Listeria monocytogenes/enzymology , Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development , Penicillium/metabolism , Talaromyces/metabolism
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717219

ABSTRACT

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a major renal complication of diabetes that leads to renal dysfunction and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Major features of DKD include accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins and glomerular hypertrophy, especially in early stage. Transforming growth factor-β plays key roles in regulation of profibrotic genes and signal transducers such as Akt kinase and MAPK as well as endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidant stress, and autophagy related to hypertrophy in diabetes. Many drugs targeting the pathogenic signaling in DKD (mostly through protein-coding genes) are under development. However, because of the limited number of protein-coding genes, noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) including microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are attracting more attention as potential new drug targets for human diseases. Some miRNAs and lncRNAs regulate each other (by hosting, enhancing transcription from the neighbor, hybridizing each other, and changing chromatin modifications) and create circuits and cascades enhancing the pathogenic signaling in DKD. In this short and focused review, the functional significance of ncRNAs (miRNAs and lncRNAs) in the early stages of DKD and their therapeutic potential are discussed.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Chromatin , Diabetic Nephropathies , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Extracellular Matrix Proteins , Humans , Hypertrophy , Kidney Failure, Chronic , MicroRNAs , Phosphotransferases , RNA, Long Noncoding , RNA, Untranslated , Signal Transduction , Transducers
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