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São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2023. 180 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437402


Diversas evidências científicas demonstram que o consumo de ácidos graxos trans está associado com mortes por doenças cardiovasculares. A OMS, em 2018, considerando a presença de ácidos graxos trans nos alimentos recomendou a sua total eliminação até o ano de 2023. Sendo assim, no Brasil, em 2019, a RDC 332 aborda que a partir de 01 de janeiro de 2023 estarão proibidas a produção e a importação de ácidos graxos trans em alimentos destinados ao consumo humano. Atualmente, a legislação que está em vigor sobre ácidos graxos trans é a RDC 54, da ANVISA, que estabelece que, somente os alimentos que apresentarem teores de ácidos graxos trans ≤ 0,1 g por porção e somatória de ácidos graxos saturados e ácidos graxos trans até 1,5 g por porção podem alegar zero trans na rotulagem nutricional. As bolachas recheadas e bolachas wafers são importantes representantes de alimentos ultraprocessados, sendo muito consumidas por adultos e principalmente por crianças pelo seu baixo custo e acessibilidade. A partir destas considerações, o objetivo desse estudo foi o de avaliar os teores de ácidos graxos trans e ácidos graxos saturados por cromatografia gasosa em bolachas recheadas e bolachas wafers, comercializadas no Estado de São Paulo, analisando os teores dos ácidos graxos e comparando com a RDC 54. Em 2018 e 2019, foram analisadas 65 bolachas recheadas, e 40 bolachas wafers, as bolachas foram divididas entre as que possuíam ácidos graxos trans nos rótulos, e as que possuíam a ausência dessa gordura. Os teores de ácidos graxos trans encontrados nas bolachas com a presença de ácidos graxos trans na rotulagem, variaram de 0,34 a 5,21 g por 100 g e 0,19 e 8,54 g por 100 g nas bolachas recheadas e nas bolachas wafers, respectivamente. Diante disso, constatou-se que algumas marcas de bolachas recheadas e bolachas wafers apresentaram grandes quantidades de gordura trans em sua composição. Em relação às bolachas recheadas e wafers com a ausência de gordura trans nos rótulos, todas as bolachas estavam em acordo com a legislação vigente em relação aos valores menores ou iguais a 0,1 g de gordura trans por porção, porém, em relação à somatória de ácidos graxos trans e ácidos graxos saturados de até 1,5 g por porção, todas estavam com valores superiores, dessa maneira, os fabricantes dessas bolachas não poderiam alegar zero trans na rotulagem nutricional, e por isto, estavam em desacordo com a legislação vigente. Em 2022, foram reanalisadas seis amostras de bolachas recheadas e quatro amostras de bolachas wafers, que em 2018 apresentaram altos teores de ácidos graxos trans. Também foram analisadas três bolachas wafers que em 2022 ainda apresentavam altos teores de gorduras trans nos rótulos. Os resultados dessas amostras demonstraram que em 2022 ainda há em supermercados brasileiros, bolachas com altos teores de ácidos graxos trans e ácidos graxos saturados em sua composição. Diante disso, ratifica-se a necessidade do cumprimento da legislação vigente e da RDC 332 em 2023 e de fiscalizações mais frequentes pelos órgãos competentes, devido aos malefícios do consumo dos ácidos graxos trans para a saúde da população

There is a lot of scientific evidence showing that consumption of trans fatty acids is associated with deaths from cardiovascular diseases. The WHO in 2018, considering the presence of trans fatty acids in foods, recommended their total elimination by the year 2023. Therefore, in Brazil in 2019, RDC 332 addresses that from January 1, 2023, the production and the importation of trans fatty acids in foods intended for human consumption are prohibited. Currently, the legislation in force on trans fatty acids is ANVISA's RDC 54, this RDC establishes that only foods that have trans fatty acids contents ≤ 0.1 g per serving and the sum of saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids up to 1.5 g per serving can claim zero trans on nutrition labels. Stuffed cookies and wafer cookies are important representatives of ultra-processed foods, being widely consumed by adults and especially children due to their low cost and accessibility. Based on these considerations, the objective of this study was to evaluate the contents of trans fatty acids and saturated fatty acids by gas chromatography (AOAC method 996.06) in stuffed cookies and wafers cookies, commercialized in the State of São Paulo, analyzing the contents of the fatty acids and comparing with RDC 54. In 2018 and 2019, 65 stuffed cookies and 40 wafers cookies were analyzed, the cookies were divided between those that had trans fatty acids on the labels, and those that had the absence of this fat. The levels of trans fatty acids found in the cookies with the presence of trans fatty acids on the label ranged from 0.34 to 5.21 g per 100 g and 0.19 and 8.54 g per 100 g in the stuffed cookies and wafers cookies, respectively. Therefore, it was found that some brands of stuffed cookies and wafers cookies had large amounts of trans fat in their composition. Regarding the stuffed cookies and wafers cookies with the absence of trans fat on the labels, all cookies were in accordance with current legislation in relation to values less than or equal to 0.1 g of trans fat per serving, but in relation to the sum of acids trans fatty acids and saturated fatty acids up to 1.5 g per serving, all had higher values, thus, the manufacturers of these cookies could not claim zero trans on the nutrition label, and therefore, they were in disagreement with the current legislation. In 2022, six samples of stuffed cookies and four samples of wafers were reanalyzed, which in 2018 had high levels of trans fatty acids. Three wafers were also analyzed, which in 2022 still had high levels of trans fats on the labels. The results of these samples showed that in 2022 there are still cookies in brazilian supermarkets with high levels of trans fatty acids and saturated fatty acids in their composition. In view of this, the need to comply with current legislation and RDC 332 in 2023 and more frequent inspections by competent institutions are ratified, due to the harmful effects of the consumption of trans fatty acids on the health of the population

Brazil/ethnology , Trans Fatty Acids/analysis , Cookies , Fatty Acids/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Minors/classification , Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency , Nutritional Sciences/classification
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21088, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439546


Abstract The present study was aimed at conducting phytochemical analysis and evaluating the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of the essential oil obtained from the fruits of J. oxycedrus L. Hydro-distillation was used to extract the essential oil from the fruits of Juniper oxycedrus. The essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The antioxidant activity of the essential oil against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals was determined in vitro using varying concentrations of the essential oil and vitamin C as a standard antioxidant compound. A disc diffusion test was employed to evaluate the antifungal activity of the essential oil against two test fungal strains, Penicillium citrinum, and Aspergillus niger. The results revealed that 49 constituents were identified in fruit oil, representing 91.56% of the total oil and the yield was 1.58%. Juniper fruit oil was characterized by having high contents of ß-pinene (42.04%), followed by limonene (15.45%), sabinene (9.52%), α-pinene (5.21%), (E)-caryophyllene (3.77%), ρ-cymene (1.56%), caryophyllene oxide (2.02%), and myrcene (1.02%). The radical scavenging activity (% inhibition) of the essential oil was highest (81.87± 2.83%) at a concentration of 200 µg/mL. The essential oil of J. oxycedrus exhibited antifungal activity against A. niger and P. citrinum with minimum inhibitory concentration values (MIC) ranging from 2.89 to 85.01 µl/mL. The findings of the study reveal that the antioxidant and antifungal properties of J. oxycedrus essential oil and their chemical composition are significantly correlated

Oils, Volatile/analysis , Juniperus/adverse effects , Phytochemicals/analysis , Fruit/classification , Morocco/ethnology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Mass Spectrometry/methods , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-8, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468943


This study determines the associations among serum lipid profiles, risk of cardiovascular disease, and persistent organic pollutants. Using Gas chromatography technique, the intensity of toxic pollutant residues in serum samples of Hypertensive patients were measured. Based on statistical analysis, the effects of different covariates namely pesticides, age, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and lipid profile duration was checked using the logistic regression model. Statistical computation was performed on SPSS 22.0. The P-values of F-Statistic for each lipid profile class are greater than 0.01 (1%), therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis for all cases. The estimated coefficients, their standard errors, Wald Statistic, and odds ratio of the binary logistic regression model for different lipid profile parameters indicate if pesticides increase then the logit value of different lipid profile parameters changes from -0.46 to -0.246 except LDL which increases by 0.135. The study reports a significantly increased threat of cardiovascular disease with increased concentrations of toxic pollutants.

Este estudo determina as associações entre o perfil lipídico sérico, o risco de doença cardiovascular e os poluentes orgânicos persistentes. Por meio da técnica de cromatografia gasosa, mediu-se a intensidade dos resíduos de poluentes tóxicos em amostras de soro de pacientes hipertensos. Com base na análise estatística, os efeitos de diferentes covariáveis – ou seja, pesticidas, idade, pressão arterial sistólica, pressão arterial diastólica e duração do perfil lipídico – foram verificados usando o modelo de regressão logística. O cálculo estatístico foi realizado no SPSS 22.0. Os valores P da estatística F para cada classe de perfil lipídico são maiores que 0,01 (1%), portanto não podemos rejeitar a hipótese nula para todos os casos. Os coeficientes estimados, seus erros padrão, estatística de Wald e odds ratio do modelo de regressão logística binária para diferentes parâmetros do perfil lipídico indicam se os pesticidas aumentam, então o valor logit de diferentes parâmetros do perfil lipídico muda de -0,46 para -0,246, exceto LDL, que aumenta em 0,135. O estudo relata um aumento significativo da ameaça de doença cardiovascular com aumento das concentrações de poluentes tóxicos.

Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Organic Pollutants , Chromatography, Gas
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 81: e37903, mar.1, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, VETINDEX, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1411149


Lipids in food are conventionally analyzed in two stages: extraction with organic solvent and fat esterification reaction, in this case, the type of fat of each food influences the choice of extraction and esterification reagents. In the direct method, such procedures are performed in one step. This work compared the conventional extraction method and quantification of lipids and fatty acids, with a direct method in infant formula. A reference sample of infant formula conteining certified lipids and fatty acids values from the National Institute of Standards and Technology was used. The conventional method for lipid analysis used the acid hydrolysis method; for the determination of fatty acids, the fats were extracted with a mixture of ethyl ether and petroleum ether. The direct method consisted of direct trans esterification with sodium methoxide. In the analysis of fatty acids, the majority of the results showed statistically equal values (α < 0.05) for both methods. The direct method proved suitable, mainly because of reduction in analytical time and quantity of solvents (AU).

Os lipídios em alimentos são analisados, de forma convencional, em duas etapas: extração com solvente orgânico e reação de esterificação da gordura, neste caso o tipo de gordura de cada alimento influencia na escolha dos reagentes da extração e esterificação. No método direto, estes procedimentos são realizados em uma etapa única. Este trabalho comparou a metodologia convencional de extração e quantificação de lipídios e ácidos graxos, com um método direto em fórmula infantil. Foi utilizada uma amostra de referência de fórmula infantil com valores certificados para lipídios e ácidos graxos da Nacional Institute of Standards and Technology. A metodologia convencional para a análise de lipídios empregou método com hidrólise ácida; para a determinação dos ácidos graxos, a gordura foi extraída com uma mistura de éter etílico e éter de petróleo. O método direto fundamentou-se na transesterificação direta com metóxido de sódio. Na análise dos ácidos graxos, a maioria dos resultados demonstrou valores estatisticamente iguais (α < 0,05) para os dois métodos. O método direto demonstrou ser apropriado, principalmente pela diminuição do tempo de análise e quantidade de solventes (AU).

Chromatography, Gas , Fats , Fatty Acids
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e21609, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420501


Abstract The potential of the biome caatinga (exclusive from northeastern Brazil) has been evaluated in recent research for application in the pharmaceutical industry. Among the species of medicinal plants from caatinga, one can highlight the Commiphora leptophloeos (umburana), which has been used as infusions and syrups by the regional population for inflammatory and infectious diseases. Essential oils from umburana leaves and barks were obtained in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and total phenolic and flavonoids were determined by spectrophotometric analysis. It was observed that a large part of the major compounds present in the essential oil is described as having antitumor activity, enabling research in investigational oncology with umburana (C. leptophloeos). In addition, some little explored components have been identified, such as cadinene, alpha-selinene, and elemenone. Despite being easily found in several plants, there are no clinical trials involving their biological activity in a well-defined isolated form, which could make exploring new studies possible. Furthermore, the presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids allows future studies about the potential antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.

Plants, Medicinal/classification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Plant Leaves/classification , Bursera/adverse effects , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Drug Industry/classification
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 99 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396713


O principal hormônio associado aos processos do amadurecimento é o etileno, porém, na formação de compostos voláteis nos frutos, observa-se que as auxinas, o ácido abscísico e os jasmonatos também podem atuar como reguladores. Estudos indicam que em frutos climatéricos deve haver uma interação entre o metil jasmonato (MeJA) e o etileno na formação de compostos voláteis, mas em frutos não-climatéricos tal interação não é tão evidente. Há evidências de que o MeJA atue na regulação de algumas vias metabólicas relacionadas ao amadurecimento em frutos, sendo capaz de induzir aumento na produção de várias classes de compostos voláteis, através da expressão de genes que codificam as enzimas relacionadas às suas vias biossintéticas. Neste sentido, o objetivo deste projeto foi avaliar o efeito do metil jasmonato sobre o padrão de produção de compostos voláteis do aroma em frutos climatéricos e não-climatéricos. Precedentes do laboratório de Química, Bioq. e Biol. Molecular de Alimentos indicam que o MeJA apresentou padrões diferentes de comportamento em frutos climatéricos e não-climatéricos no que tange a formação do aroma. Assim, o presente projeto tem por hipótese a diferença de influência que o MeJA exerce sobre a produção de compostos voláteis em frutos climatéricos e não-climatéricos. Para testar esta hipótese foi avaliado o efeito do tratamento com MeJA na produção de compostos voláteis do aroma durante o amadurecimento de banana (Musa acuminata, cv. Nanicão), como exemplo de fruto climatérico e laranja (Citrus sinensis cv Pêra) para não-climatéricos. Os frutos foram divididos em grupo controle e tratado com MeJA (10 ppm/24h), armazenados em caixas plásticas tampadas e lacradas. Após tratamento foram submetidos a análises diárias da produção de etileno por cromatrogafia gasosa (CG), cor da casca e pesagem. Baseado em escalas de cor e a polpa foi congelada em N2 líq. e armazenada a -80°C para posterior análise dos compostos voláteis por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (GC-MS). Ésteres, álcoois, cetonas e aldeídos foram compostos majoritariamente identificados na banana e terpenos, aldeídos, ésteres na laranja. As Bananas sofreram influência no perfil de acetato de isoamila, butonoato de butila, isobutirato de isoamila e isolvalerato de isoamila do começo ao fim do tratamento com MeJA, e as laranjas o tratamento influenciou os compostos Cis-muirola-3-5-diene, gamageraniol, alfa-copaeno, valenceno, alfa-pineno, carvone, geranial, entre outros terpenos, aldeídos como 3-hexanal e 2-hexenal (E) e ésteres como butirato de etila, nerol e tiglato de etilo. Os ésteres em frutos são produzidos por várias isoformas das álcool acil transferases (AATs). Estudos explicam que, ao menos 31 transcritos de AATs foram identificados em bananas, sendo 8 com altos níveis de expressão. Assim, é plausível supor que tal variedade de transcritos, e por conseguinte as AATs que codificam, sejam reguladas por múltiplos fatores, o que pode incluir o MeJa dentre outros sinais hormonais. Os terpenos são formados a partir de duas rotas, a do ácido mevalônico (MVA) e a rota do metileritritol fosfato (MEP). Compostos como, D-limoneno (51) e beta-selineno (62) tiveram níveis relativos maiores nos frutos do grupo controle, enquanto compostos terpênicos como geranial (59), valenceno (79) e o-cimeno (128), apresentaram maiores níveis nos frutos tratados com MeJa, no primeiro dia após o tratamento. Os resultados mostraram que o tratamento hormonal com MeJA causou mudanças do início ao fim do amadurecimento na composição do aroma de bananas (Musa acuminata cv Nanicão) e laranjas (Citrus sinensis cv Pera)

The main hormone associated with ripening processes is ethylene, but in the formation of volatile compounds in fruits, auxins, abscisic acid and jasmonates can also act as regulators. Studies indicate that in climacteric fruits there should be an interaction between methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and ethylene in the formation of volatile compounds, but in nonclimacteric fruits such interaction is not so evident. There is evidence that MeJA acts in the regulation of some metabolic pathways related to fruit ripening, being able to induce an increase in the production of several classes of volatile compounds, through the expression of genes that encode enzymes related to their biosynthetic pathways. In this sense, the objective of this project was to evaluate the effect of methyl jasmonate on the production pattern of aroma volatile compounds in climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. Precedents from the Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Bioq. and Molecular Biol. Molecular Chemistry, Bioq. and Molecular Biol. of Foods laboratory indicate that MeJA showed different behavior patterns in climacteric and non-climacteric fruits regarding aroma formation. Thus, the present project hypothesizes the different influence that MeJA has on the production of volatile compounds in climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. To test this hypothesis the effect of MeJA treatment on the production of volatile aroma compounds during ripening of banana (Musa acuminata, cv. Nanicão) as an example for climacteric fruit and orange (Citrus sinensis cv Pêra) for non-climacteric fruit was evaluated. Fruits were divided into control and MeJA treated group (10 ppm/24h), stored in capped and sealed plastic boxes. After treatment they were subjected to daily analysis of ethylene production by gas chromatography (GC), peel color and weighing. Based on color scales and the pulp was frozen in liquid N2 and stored at -80°C for subsequent analysis of volatile compounds by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Esters, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes were compounds mostly identified in banana and terpenes, aldehydes, esters in orange. Bananas were influenced in the profile of isoamyl acetate, butyl butonoate, isoamyl isobutyrate and isoamyl isolvalerate from the beginning to the end of the MeJA treatment, and oranges the treatment influenced the compounds Cis-myrola-3-5-diene, gamma-geraniol, alpha-copaene, valencene, alpha-pinene, carvone, geranial, among other terpenes, aldehydes like 3-hexanal and 2-hexenal (E), and esters like ethyl butyrate, nerol, and ethyl tiglate. Esters in fruits are produced by various isoforms of the alcohol acyl transferases (AATs). Studies explain that at least 31 AAT transcripts have been identified in bananas, 8 of which have high expression levels. Thus, it is plausible to assume that such a variety of transcripts, and therefore the AATs they encode, are regulated by multiple factors, which may include MeJa among other hormonal signals. Terpenes are formed from two routes, the mevalonic acid (MVA) route and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) route. Compounds such as, D-limonene (51) and beta-selinene (62) had higher relative levels in the fruits of the control group, while terpenic compounds such as geranial (59), valencene (79) and o-cymene (128), showed higher levels in the MeJa treated fruits on the first day after treatment. The results showed that the hormonal treatment with MeJA caused changes from the beginning to the end of ripening in the aroma composition of bananas (Musa acuminata cv Nanicão) and oranges (Citrus sinensis cv Pera)

Musa/classification , Citrus sinensis/classification , Food , Fruit/classification , Odorants/analysis , Phosphates/antagonists & inhibitors , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Food Chemistry , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Acetates/antagonists & inhibitors
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20735, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420479


Abstract Herein the chemical constituents and the anti-pain properties of the essential oil from the stem bark of Casuarina equisetifolia L. (Casuarinaceae) grown in Nigeria were evaluated. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation method in an all glass Clevenger-type apparatus, and characterized by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The hot plate method was used to determine the anti-nociceptive property whereas the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced and formalin experimental models. The pale-yellow essential oil was obtained in yield of 0.21% (v/w), calculated on a dry weight basis. The main constituents of the essential oil were methyl salicylate (30.4%), a-zingiberene (15.5%), (E)-anethole (9.5%), b-bisabolene (8.6%), b- sesquiphellandrene (6.9%), and ar-curcumene (6.2%). In the anti-nociceptive study, the rate of inhibition increases as the doses of essential oil increases with optimum activity at the 30th and 60th min for all tested doses. The essential oil displayed anti-nociceptive activity independently of reaction time at the highest tested dose (200 mg/kg). The essential oil of C. equisetifolia moderately reduced pain responses in early and late phases of the formalin test. The oil inhibited the paw licking in the neurogenic phase (60-63%) compared to the late phase of the formalin test. The carrageenan- induced oedema model revealed the suppression of inflammatory mediators within the 1st - 3rd h. Thus, C. equisetifolia essential oil displayed both anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities independent of the dose tested. The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of C. equisetifolia essential oil are herein reported for the first time

Animals , Male , Rats , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Plant Stems/anatomy & histology , Plant Bark/classification , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Carrageenan/adverse effects , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission/methods , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977477


Aims@#The utilisation of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production reduces the dependency on fossil fuels as a source of energy and emission of greenhouse gas (GHG). However, studies in this emerging field are hampered by the cost of ethanol quantification methods. Due to the volatile nature of ethanol, the method for the quantification of bioethanol production should be reproducible and rapid to avoid any evaporation loss to the surroundings. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a simple, rapid and precise bioethanol quantification method using a gas chromatographyflame ionisation detector (GC-FID) without having to go through distillation process for ethanol purification.@*Methodology and results@#The bioethanol was produced via consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) using Trichoderma asperellum B1581 and paddy straw. The peak corresponding to ethanol was obtained at 2.347 min with a peak area of 189.66, equating to 0.159% (v/v) or 1.25 g/L ethanol. A comparison between the quantity of ethanol detected by GC-FID and spectrophotometric analysis (340 nm) showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in the amount of ethanol detected by GC analysis, thus validating the accuracy of the GC method.@*Conclusion, significance and impact of study@#This work presents a simple, precise and reliable method to determine the amount of bioethanol in the sample using a GC-FID. Currently, there are many GC-FID methods available for the determination of ethanol/alcohol in a human blood samples or in beverages but not in bioethanol samples. Thus, this method was developed to facilitate the determination of bioethanol in the samples produced from lignocellulosic materials.

Chromatography, Gas , Flame Ionization , Ethanol
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935796


Objective: To establish a method for the determination of butyronitrile and isobutyronitrile in the air of workplace by gas chromatography. Methods: In March 2020, butyronitrile and isobutyronitrile in the air of workplace was collected by silica gel, eluted with methanol, separated and determined by gas chromatogram with flame ionization detector, the characteristics of determination of nitrile and isobutyronitrile by gas chromatography were analyzed. Results: The limit of detection for butyronitrile and isobutyronitrile was 0.33 μg/ml. The linear range of butyronitrile determined by this method was 1.60-1600.00 μg/ml, y=2.295x-3.480, and the coefficient correlation was 0.99998, and the minimum detection concentration was 0.22 mg/m(3) (collected sample volume was 1.50 L) . The within-run precisions were 2.43%-4.12%, the between-run precisions were 1.72%-3.70%, and the desorption rates were 93.26%-98.41%. The linear range of isobutyronitrile determined by this method was 1.52-1520.00 μg/ml, y=2.208x-0.102, and the coefficient correlation was 0.99998, and the minimum detection concentration was 0.22 mg/m(3) (collected sample volume was 1.50 L) . The within-run precisions were 2.52%-3.22%, the between-run precisions were 1.20%-3.82%, and the desorption rates were 96.85%-102.50%. The sealed samples could be stored at least 10 days at room temperature without significant loss. Conclusion: The method has the advantages of good precision, high sensitivity and simple operation. It is suitable for the simultaneous determination of butyronitrile and isobutyronitrile in the air of workplace.

Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Nitriles , Workplace
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935781


Objective: To establish a method for rapid detection of DB-WAX capillary column and determination of the workplace air in 30 kinds of volatile organic pollutants. Methods: In August 2020, N-pentane, n-hexane, methylcyclohexane, octane, Acetone, ethyl acetate, butanone, benzene, 3-pentanone, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, butyl acetate, 2-hexanone, Isoamyl acetate, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, m-xylene, amyl acetate, o-xylene, chlorobenzene, styrene, cyclohexanone, P-chlorotoluene, bromobenzene, M-dichlorobenzene, p-dichlorobenzene, O-dichlorobenzene, o-Chlorotoluene, 1, 2 , 4-trichlorobenzene of 30 kinds of substances in air were collected by activated carbon tube. After analysis by carbon disulfide, the analytical solution was analyzed by DB-WAX column and determined by FID detector. Results: The above 30 kinds of volatile organic pollutants had good separation effect, the correlation coefficient of the standard curve was above 0.999, the relative standard deviation was 0.1%-3.2%, the desorption efficiency was 77.0%-117.1% , the lower limit of quantitation was 0.33-5.33 μg/ml, and the lowest quantitation concentration was 0.22-3.55 mg/m(3), the recoveries ranged was 95.4%-104.9%. Conclusion: The method can effectively separate and accurately determine 30 volatile organic compounds in these workplaces, and the method is simple and quick.

Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Benzene/analysis , Chromatography, Gas , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis , Workplace
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(4): e3901, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289616


Introducción: Uno de los derivados de los clorofenoles más utilizado en Estomatología, lo constituye el p-clorofenol (4-clorofenol), empleado como agente antibacteriano en la desinfección del conducto radicular durante el tratamiento pulporradicular. Son escasos los reportes científicos sobre sus efectos en la musculatura lisa vascular arterial y la regulación del flujo sanguíneo local. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto del 4-clorofenol sobre el músculo liso vascular de aorta abdominal de ratas Wistar. Material y Métodos: Se realizó una investigación experimental preclínica, utilizando 30 anillos de aorta abdominal (porción superior) obtenidos de ratas Wistar adultas. Las preparaciones de unos 5 mm se colocaron en baño de órganos, registrándose la tensión desarrollada por el músculo liso vascular tras la adición de 4-clorofenol en diferentes concentraciones y durante diferentes intervalos de tiempo. Resultados: El 4-clorofenol, tras la preactivación del musculo liso vascular de anillos de aorta abdominal, indujo relajación del vaso, la que se incrementó durante todo el tiempo de estudio y al aumento de la concentración del medicamento. Existieron diferencias significativas entre los valores de tensión promedios registrados en los diferentes intervalos de tiempo con los de la tensión base inicial. Conclusiones: El p-clorofenol indujo in vitro, relajación del músculo liso vascular de aorta abdominal de ratas Wistar(AU)

Introduction: In Dentistry, p-chlorophenol (4-chlorophenol) is one of the most widely used derivatives of chlorophenols. It is used as an antibacterial agent in root canal disinfection during pulp-radicular treatment. There are few scientific reports on its effects on vascular smooth musculature and the regulation of local blood flow. Objective: To determine the effect of 4-chlorophenol on vascular smooth muscle of abdominal aorta from Wistar rats. Material and Methods: A preclinical experimental research was carried out using 30 abdominal aortic rings (upper portion) obtained from adult Wistar rats. The preparations of about 5 mm were placed in an organ bath, recording the tension developed by the vascular smooth muscle after the addition of 4-chlorophenol at different concentrations and during different time intervals. Results: The results demonstrate that 4-Chlorophenol induced vasorelaxation after the preactivation of the vascular smooth muscle of the abdominal aortic rings, which increased during the entire study time and with increased drug concentration. There were significant differences among average tension values registered at different intervals of time in relation to the initial base tension. Conclusions: It is concluded that in vitro, p-chlorophenol induced relaxation of abdominal aorta vascular smooth muscle in Wistar rats(AU)

Rats , Oral Medicine , Dentistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , In Vitro Techniques , Chlorophenols/therapeutic use , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Rats, Wistar
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(4): e3971, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289617


Introducción: El aceite esencial de Minthostachys mollis ha demostrado poseer importantes propiedades antimicrobianas. Objetivo: Caracterizar químicamente las fracciones obtenidas del aceite esencial de Minthostachys mollis y evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana sobre Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis y Candida albicans. Material y Métodos: Las fracciones de éter de petróleo, diclorometano y metanol del AE de M. mollis fueron caracterizadas químicamente por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Las repeticiones del ensayo antimicrobiano se calcularon con el programa EPIDAT v.4.2. La actividad antimicrobiana se realizó por el método de difusión de disco y se calculó la concentración mínima inhibitoria por el método de microdilución. Los datos fueron analizados empleando la prueba ANOVA (p=0,05). Resultados: Los principales constituyentes de las fracciones de éter de petróleo, diclorometano y metanol fueron cis-Menthone (39,8 por ciento, thymol (31,2 por ciento) y α-Terpineol (43,6 por ciento), respectivamente. Todas las cepas fueron sensibles a las tres fracciones, aunque C. albicans fue la cepa más sensible, registrando halos de inhibición de 14,73±0,57 mm para la fracción de metanol, 20,91±0,55 mm para éter de petróleo y 20,38±0,58 mm para diclorometano, se encontraron diferencias significativas cuando se compararon frente a Clorhexidina al 0,12 por ciento y Nistatina (p<0,05). Las concentraciones mínimas inhibitorias de las fracciones variaron de 0,2 a 3,2 µg/mL. Conclusiones: Los principales constituyentes de las fracciones de éter de petróleo, diclorometano y metanol fueron cis-Menthone, thymol y α-Terpineol. Las fracciones de éter de petróleo y diclorometano fueron altamente efectivas para inhibir el crecimiento de S. mutans, L. acidophilus, E. faecalis, P. gingivalis y C. albicans(AU)

Introduction: The essential oil of Minthostachys mollis has demonstrated to have important antimicrobial properties. Objective: To chemically characterize the fractions obtained from the essential oil of Minthostachys mollis and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Candida albicans. Material and Methods: The petroleum ether, dichloromethane and methanol fractions of the AE of M. mollis were chemically characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The repetitions of the antimicrobial test were calculated using the EPIDAT v.4.2 program. The antimicrobial activity was performed by the disk diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration was calculated by the microdilution method. The data were analyzed using the ANOVA test (p=0.05). Results: The main constituents of the petroleum ether, dichloromethane and methanol fractions were cis-Menthone (39,8 percent), thymol (31,2 percent)) and α-Terpineol (43,6 percent)), respectively. All strains were sensitive to the three fractions, although C. albicans was the most sensitive strain, registering inhibition halos of 14,73±0.57 mm for the methanol fraction, 20,91±0.55 mm for petroleum ether and 20.38±0.58 mm for dichloromethane, finding significant differences when compared to 0,12 percent) Chlorhexidine and Nystatin (p<0,05). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the fractions ranged from 0,2 to 3,2 µg/mL. Conclusions: The main constituents of the petroleum ether, dichloromethane and methanol fractions were cis-Menthone, thymol and α-Terpineol. The petroleum ether and dichloromethane fractions were highly effective in inhibiting the growth of S. mutans, L. acidophilus, E. faecalis, P. gingivalis, and Calbicans(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Enterococcus faecalis , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Analysis of Variance , Chromatography, Gas
Rev. med. vet. zoot ; 68(2): 150-169, mayo-ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1352100


RESUMEN La leche de vaca es un componente importante en la dieta humana y uno de sus aportes nutricionales es la fracción lipídica formada por diversos ácidos grasos, entre ellos, el ácido linoleico (AL) de familia omega-6 y el ácido alfa-linolénico (AAL) de familia omega-3, ambos constituyentes estructurales de membranas de tejidos celulares y reguladores metabólicos. Por su importancia, el objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la concentración de ácidos grasos omega-3 (alfa-linolénico) y omega-6 (linoleico) mediante cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC-MS), en relación con la influencia de los factores región (Costa, Sierra y Amazonia) y época (lluviosa y seca) sobre la concentración de dichos ácidos. Se trabajó con 30 centros de acopio y se recolectó según el protocolo LCL-INS-01. El análisis composicional se realizó bajo el método ISO 9622-IDF 141/2013 /LCL-PE-01 y el análisis del perfil lipídico mediante GC-MS. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron concentraciones (%) promedio de 2,72 y 0,06 para AL y AAL, respectivamente, en el perfil lipídico. En cuanto al factor región, Costa presentó 2,07%, Sierra 3,03% y Amazonía 3,06%, por lo que se evidenció alta diferencia significativa (p ≤ 0,01) para el AL, mientras que el AAL no mostró variación. En el factor época, el AL presentó 2,63% en época seca y 3,03% en época lluviosa, y el AAL 0,14 y 0,06%, respectivamente. Los resultados permitieron concluir que el factor región influye en la concentración del AL, pero no en el AAL, y el factor época no es influyente en la concentración del AL ni en la del AAL.

ABSTRACT Cow's milk is an important component in human diet and one of its nutritional contributions is the lipid fraction formed by various fatty acids, including linoleic acid (AL) of the omega-6 family and alpha-linolenic acid (AAL) of the omega-3 family, both structural constituents of cell tissue, membranes, and metabolic regulators. Due to its importance, the purpose of this research was to determine the concentration of omega-3 (alpha-linolenic) and omega-6 (linoleic) fatty acids present in bovine milk, by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS), establishing a relation between the influence of the region (Costa, Sierra and Amazonia) and the season (rainy and dry), and the concentration of these acids. 30 collection centers were analyzed and collected, according to the LCL-INS-01 protocol. The compositional analysis was carried out under the method ISO 9622-IDF 141/2013 /LCL-PE-01, and the analysis of the lipid profile was made by GC-MS. The results obtained show average concentrations (%) of 2,72 and 0,06 for AL and AAL respectively on the lipid profile. Regarding the region factor, Costa presented 2,07%, Sierra 3,03% and Amazonia 3,06%, showing significant difference (p ≤ 0,01) in AL, while the AAL showed no variation. With reference to the season factor, AL showed 2,63% in the dry season and 3,03% in the rainy season, and AAL 0,14 and 0,06% respectively. The results allowed to conclude that the region factor influences AL concentration but does not influence in AAL, and the season factor is not influential neither on AL nor on AAL concentration.

Animals , Cattle , Fatty Acids , Chromatography , Chromatography, Gas , Milk , Ecuador
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(2): e1104, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347458


Introducción: Las plantas medicinales han demostrado poseer propiedades antibacterianas para el control de la periodontitis. Objetivo: Determinar la actividad antibacteriana frente a Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 de un gel experimental compuesto por aceite esencial de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio experimental in vitro. Se empleó el programa EPi InfoTM para el cálculo de las repeticiones. El aceite esencial se obtuvo por el método de arrastre de vapor; se identificó su composición química por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Se evaluó la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI) y concentración mínima bactericida (CMB). Se realizó un ensayo de difusión en Agar para medir los halos de inhibición del gel experimental al 4,46 por ciento frente a P. gingivalis, la comparación con clorhexidina al 0,12 por ciento se evaluó con la prueba U de Mann-Whitney. Se adoptó un nivel de significancia del 5 por ciento . Resultados: Se identificaron 11 constituyentes en el aceite esencial, los principales componentes químicos fueron 3-heptadecene, (Z)- (36,13 por ciento ), 1-tridecene (14,7 por ciento ) y 1,8-cineole (9,72 por ciento ). La CMI del aceite esencial fue 36,195 mg/mL y la CMB fue 39,114 mg/mL. Los halos de inhibición del gel experimental de P. gingivalis fueron 25,533 mm ± 0,960. mm. Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas frente a clorhexidina al 0,12 por ciento (23,282 ± 0,345) (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: El gel experimental al 4,46 por ciento compuesto por aceite esencial de Eucalyptus globulus Labill presentó una actividad antibacteriana importante frente a Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277(AU)

Introduction: Medicinal plants have proved to have antibacterial properties for the control of periodontitis. Objective: Determine the antibacterial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 of an experimental gel composed of essential Eucalyptus globulus Labill oil. Methods: An in vitro experimental study was conducted. The software EPi InfoTM was used to estimate the repetitions. The essential oil was obtained by steam entrainment, and its chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were also evaluated. An agar diffusion test was performed to measure the inhibition haloes of the 4.46 percent experimental gel against P. gingivalis. Comparison with 0.12 percent chlorhexidine was evaluated with the Mann-Whitney U test. A 5 percent significance level was adopted. Results: A total 11 constituents were identified in the essential oil. The main chemical components were 3-Heptadecene, (Z)- (36.13 percent), 1-Tridecene (14.7 percentand 1,8-cineole (9.72 percent). MIC of the essential oil was 36.195 mg/ml, whereas MBC was 39.114 mg/ml. The inhibition haloes of the experimental P. gingivalis gel were 25.533 mm ± 0.960 mm. Statistically significant differences were observed versus 0.12 percent chlorhexidine (23.282 ± 0.345) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The 4.46 percent experimental gel composed of Eucalyptus globulus Labill essential oil displayed considerable antibacterial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Periodontitis , Oils, Volatile , Chlorhexidine , Mass Spectrometry/methods , In Vitro Techniques , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 244-259, may. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342818


Essential oils from the leaves and stems of Croton adenocalyx, C. grewioides, C. heliotropiifoliusand C. blanchetianus obtained through hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC-MS. We then investigated the lethal and sublethal effects of the Croton oils and 15 major constituents against Tetranychus urticae. ß-Caryophyllene was the major component in the leaf and stem oils from C. heliotropiifolius and C. adenocalyx. Spathulenol and (E)-anethole were the major constituents identified in the leaf and stem oils of C. blanchetianus and C. grewioides, respectively. The oil with the greatest lethal and sublethal effects was those from C. adenocalyx. Among the constituents ß-caryophyllene and spatulenol were the most toxic to the mite, where as eugenol and methyl eugenol were the most repellent. The toxicity and repellency of the Croton oils, particularly the oils from C. adenocalyx, demonstrate that these oils constitute a promising alternative to synthetic acaricides for use in the control of T. urticae.

Los aceites esenciales de las hojas y tallos de Croton adenocalyx, C. growioides, C. heliotropiifolius y C. blanchetianus obtenidos mediante hidrodestilación fueron analizados a través de GC-MS. Se investigaron los efectos letales y subletales de los aceites de Croton y 15 componentes principales contra Tetranychus urticae. El ß-cariofileno fue el componente principal en los aceites de hojas y tallos de C. heliotropiifolius y C. adenocalyx. El espatulenol y el (E)-anetol fueron los principales componentes identificados en los aceites de hojas y tallos de C. blanchetianus y C. growioides, respectivamente. El aceite con los mayores efectos letales y subletales fue el de C. adenocalyx. Entre los componentes, el ß-cariofileno y el espatulenol fueron los más tóxicos para el ácaro, mientras que el eugenol y el metil eugenol fueron los más repelentes. La toxicidad y la repelencia de los aceites de Croton, particularmente los aceites de C. adenocalyx, demuestran que estos aceites constituyen una alternativa prometedora respecto a los acaricidas sintéticos para uso en el control de T. urticae.

Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Croton/chemistry , Tetranychidae/drug effects , Acaricides/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Plant Leaves , Acaricides/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(1): 61-70, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284444


Identification of the chemical compositionof essential oils is very important for ensuring the quality of finished herbal products. The objective of the study was to analyze the chemical components present in the essential oils of five Beilschmiediaspecies (i.e. B. kunstleri, B. maingayi, B. penangiana, B. madang, and B. glabra) by multivariate data analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) methods. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and fully characterized by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 108 chemical components were successfully identified from the essential oils of five Beilschmiediaspecies. The essential oils were characterized by high proportions of ß-caryophyllene (B.kunstleri), δ-cadinene (B. penangianaand B. madang), and ß-eudesmol (B. maingayiand B. glabra). Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) revealed that chemical similarity was highest for all samples, except for B. madang. The multivariate data analysis may be used for the identification and characterization of essential oils from different Beilschmiediaspecies that are to be used as raw materials of traditional herbal products.

La identificación de la composición química de los aceites esenciales es muy importante para garantizar la calidad de los productos herbales terminados. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar los componentes químicos presentes en los aceites esenciales de cinco especies de Beilschmiedia (B. kunstleri, B. maingayi, B. penangiana, B. madangy B. glabra) mediante análisis de datos multivariados utilizando los métodos de análisis de componente principal (PCA) y análisis de agrupamiento jerárquico (HCA). Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación y se caracterizaron completamente por cromatografía de gases (GC) y cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). Se identificaron con éxito un total de 108 componentes químicos a partir de los aceites esenciales de las cinco especies de Beilschmiedia. Los aceites esenciales se caracterizaron por altas proporciones de ß-cariofileno (B. kunstleri), δ-cadineno (B. penangianay B. madang) y ß-eudesmol (B. maingayiy B. glabra). El análisis de componentes principales (PCA) y el análisis de conglomerados jerárquicos (HCA) revelaron que la similitud química fue más alta para todas las muestras, excepto para B. madang. El análisis de datos multivariados puede usarse para la identificación y caracterización de aceites esenciales de diferentes especies de Beilschmiedia que se utilizan como materias primas de productos herbales tradicionales.

Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lauraceae/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Cluster Analysis , Distillation , Multivariate Analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Principal Component Analysis , Monoterpenes/analysis
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284447


This paper described the chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from the leaves and stem of Amomum rubidumLamxay & N. S. Lý, collected from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, Lam Dong, Vietnam. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodisitllation method while antimicrobial activity was evaluetd by microdilution broth susceptibility assay. The main constituents of the leaf essential oil were identified as 1,8-cineole (37.7%), δ-3-carene (19.5%) and limonene (16.3%) while δ-3-carene (21.9%), limonene (17.8%) and ß-phellandrene (14.6%) dominated in the stem essentialoil. The leaf and stem essential oils displayed stronger inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC of 25 µg/mLand 50 µg/mL respectively. The stem essential oil was active against Candida albicans (MIC, 50 µg/mL) while both essential oils inhibited the growth of Fusarium oxysporum (MIC 50 µg/mL). This is the first report on chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of A. rubidum.

Este artículo describe la composición química y la actividad antimicrobiana de aceites esenciales de las hojas y el tallo de Amomum rubidum Lamxay & N. S. Lý recolectados del Parque Nacional Bidoup Nui Ba, Lam Dong, Vietnam. Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron mediante el método de hidrodisitilación, mientras que la actividad antimicrobiana se evaluó mediante un ensayo de susceptibilidad de caldo de microdilución. Los principales componentes del aceite esencial de la hoja se identificaron como 1,8-cineol (37,7%), δ-3-careno (19,5%) y limoneno (16,3%), mientras que δ-3-careno (21,9%), limoneno (17,8 %) y ß-felandreno (14,6%) dominaron en el aceite esencial del tallo. Los aceites esenciales de hoja y tallo mostraron una inhibición más fuerte de Pseudomonas aeruginosa con un MIC de 25 µg/mL y 50 µg/mL, respectivamente. El aceite esencial del tallo fue activo contra Candida albicans (MIC, 50 µg/mL) mientras que ambos aceites esenciales inhibieron el crecimiento de Fusarium oxysporum (MIC 50 µg/mL). Este es el primer informe sobre los componentes químicos y la actividad antimicrobiana de los aceites esenciales de A. rubidum.

Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Amomum/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Distillation , Chromatography, Gas , Plant Stems , Plant Leaves , Monoterpenes/analysis , Fusarium/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190730, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285554


Abstract Pyroligneous acid (PA) was obtained by condensation of the vapors produced in the thermal decomposition of culms residues from Guadua angustifolia Kunth (G. angustifolia) cultivated in Colombia, with and without previous preservation treatment with borax salts. Chemical characterization by GC-MS showed that PA extracts has high content of phenolic compounds. Mequinol, isocreosol, 4-ethylphenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxytoluene and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol were the most abundant substances, identified. The total phenolic content (TPC) and DPPH free radical scavenging activity, were investigated. TPC showed a concentration of 1.959 mg GA g-1±0.010 and 3.844 mg GA g-1±0.027 to PAC and PAS samples. These samples also exhibited high DPPH activity of 70.975%±0.921 and, 16.667%±0.298, respectively. The chemical composition, TPC and DPPH results indicate that the PA extracts obtained from G. angustifolia may be used as a raw material in the food industry as natural preservative, in medicine as alternative to antibiotics and in agriculture as insect repellent and foliar fertilizer.

Mass Spectrometry , Bambusa/chemistry , Chromatography, Gas , Acetic Acid , Antioxidants/chemistry
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(supl.1): e1450, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289473


Introducción: La Minthostachys mollises una planta aromática que crece en América Latina y produce aceites esenciales con acción antimicrobiana. Objetivo: Determinar la actividad del aceite esencial de Minthostachys mollis en diferentes concentraciones, comparado con doxiciclina y fluconazol frente a Porphyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus y Candida albicans, a las 24, 48 y 72 horas. Métodos: Se realiza estudio experimental in vitro y longitudinal. Se prepararon 15 pocillos por subgrupo para evaluar el efecto inhibitorio de todas las concentraciones, dando un total de 360 pocillos. Por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas se identificaron los componentes químicos del aceite esencial. Se analizó el efecto inhibitorio por el método de difusión de Kirby-Bauer en Agar Columbia y Agar Muller Hinton. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante la prueba ANOVA y Tukey. Resultados: En el análisis químico se identificó principalmente pulegona (30,17 por ciento) y mentona (16,55 por ciento). Los halos de inhibición de Minthostachys mollis al 100 por ciento a las 24, 48 y 72 horas frente a la Porphyromonas gingivalis, midieron: 10,2 mm, 9,8 mm y 9,6 mm, respectivamente; frente al Staphylococcus aureus, midieron: 10,4 mm, 9,7 mm y 9,4 mm, respectivamente; y, por último, frente a Candida albicans midieron: 9,8 mm, 8,9 mm y 8,5 mm, respectivamente. Todas las concentraciones de Minthostachys mollis presentaron un efecto antimicrobiano significativamente menor que el fluconazol y la doxiciclina (p < 0,001). Conclusiones: El aceite esencial de Minthostachys mollis al 100 % presentó su mejor actividad inhibitoria frente al Staphylococcus aureus, la Porphyromonas gingivalis y la Candida albicans a las 24 horas. Sin embargo, este efecto antimicrobiano disminuye a medida que pasa el tiempo(AU)

Introduction: Minthostachys mollis is an aromatic plant species growing in Latin America which produces essential oils with antimicrobial activity. Objective: Determine the activity of essential oil from Minthostachys mollis at various concentrations as compared with doxycycline and fluconazole against Porphyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans at 24, 48 and 72 hours. Methods: An in vitro experimental longitudinal study was conducted. Fifteen wells were prepared per subgroup to evaluate the inhibitory effect of all concentrations, for a sum total of 360 wells. Chemical components of the essential oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The inhibitory effect was analyzed with the Kirby-Bauer diffusion method in Mueller-Hinton and Columbia agar. Statistical analysis was based on ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: Chemical analysis mainly found pulegone (30.17 percent) and menthone (16.55 percent). The inhibition halos of 100 percent Minthostachys mollis at 24, 48 and 72 hours against Porphyromonas gingivalis measured 10.2 mm, 9.8 mm and 9.6 mm, respectively, against Staphylococcus aureus they measured 10.4 mm, 9.7 mm and 9.4 mm, respectively, and against Candida albicans they measured 9.8 mm, 8.9 mm and 8.5 mm, respectively. The antimicrobial effect of Minthostachys mollis at all concentrations was significantly lower than that of fluconazole and doxycycline (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The essential oil from 100% Minthostachys mollis displayed its best inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Candida albicans at 24 hours. However, such antimicrobial effect decreases with the passing of time(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , In Vitro Techniques , Oils, Volatile , Fluconazole , Analysis of Variance , Chromatography, Gas , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Longitudinal Studies , Chemical Phenomena
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 127 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379383


Estenose de Junção Ureteropélvica (JUP) é uma doença caracterizada pelo bloqueio do fluxo de urina da pelve renal (porção proximal do ureter no rim) ao ureter, tubo que liga o rim à bexiga. Essa formação congênita é uma das maiores causas de dilatação do rim (hidronefrose) em recém-nascidos e, em alguns casos, pode causar danos mais severos ao órgão. A hidronefrose causada pela estenose de JUP pode desaparecer espontaneamente sem perda da função renal, entretanto, é preciso um acompanhamento clínico. Por outro lado, em casos mais severos, onde a dilatação pode causar danos maiores ao rim, um tratamento cirúrgico se faz necessário. Embora existam métodos para o diagnóstico da estenose de JUP, como ultrassonografia, tomografia computadorizada, ressonância e cintilografia, é um grande desafio diferenciar os pacientes que requerem um tratamento cirúrgico e os que necessitam apenas de um acompanhamento convencional. A metabolômica global, que investiga de modo comparativo o conjunto de metabólitos de baixa massa molecular expressos em indivíduos em condições pré-selecionadas, tem o potencial de servir como ferramenta diagnóstica para os pacientes com estenose de JUP e, consequentemente, auxiliar na tomada de decisão entre um acompanhamento clínico ou tratamento cirúrgico. Assim sendo, no presente trabalho, três grupos de pacientes com estenose de JUP, pré-diagnosticados por métodos convencionais, foram investigados sob a perspectiva da metabolômica global, por meio de análises de urina, utilizando cromatografia gasosa e cromatografia líquida, ambas acoplada à espectrometria de massas (GC-MS e RPLC10 MS, respectivamente): pacientes que requerem tratamento cirúrgico (CIR), pacientes que requerem acompanhamento clínico (CLI), e indivíduos sãos (CON). Os resultados mostram que é possível encontrar metabólitos discriminantes entre todas as comparações (CON x CLI, CON x CIR e CLI x CIR); os metabólitos encontrados nas análises multivariada e univariada foram utilizados para construção da curva ROC, para confirmar a possibilidade de utilização desses compostos como biomarcadores. Foram observadas alterações em rotas metabólicas importantes para o bom funcionamento das funções renais, principalmente entre a comparação mais desafiadora (CLI x CIR), como o metabolismo da fenilalanina, da tirosina, da beta-alanina, dos aminoaçúcares e dos nucleotídeos. Há indícios de que o ciclo de Krebs também sofre alteração. Os resultados obtidos podem servir como ponto de partida para uma futura análise alvo e validação biológica

Ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) stenosis is a disease characterized by the interruption of the flow of urine from the renal pelvis (proximal part of ureter in the kidney) to the ureter, tube that links the kidney to bladder. That congenital formation is one of the main causes of kidney dilation (hydronephrosis) in newborns and, sometimes, can cause more serious damage to the organ. The hydronephrosis caused by UPJ stenosis can disappear spontaneously without compromising renal function, although a clinical follow-up is required. On the other hand, in more serious cases, when dilation can induce larger damage to the kidney, surgery intervention is necessary. Although there are methods to diagnose UPJ stenosis, such as ultrasound, computed tomography, resonance and scintigraphy, it is still a great challenge to distinguish patients that require surgery from those whose a clinical follow-up suffices. Global metabolomics, a method that investigates in a comparative manner the set of low molecular mass metabolites expressed by an individual in pre-selected conditions, has the potential to function as a diagnostic tool for patients with UPJ stenosis to support decisions about patient treatment, i.e., surgery versus clinical follow-up. In this work, three groups of UPJ stenosis patients were investigated with the aid of global metabolomics using urine analysis by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS and RPLC-MS, respectively): one group consisted of UPJ stenosis patients requiring clinical follow-up (CLI), other group UPJ stenosis patients requiring surgery intervention (CIR) and a third group comprising healthy individuals, the control group (CON).12 The results show that it was possible to find discriminant metabolites among all pairwise comparisons (CON versus CLI, CON versus CIR and CLI versus CIR). The metabolites found by multivariate and univariate analyses were used to build ROC curves, to confirm whether it is possible to use them as biomarkers. Alterations in metabolic pathways that are important for the good maintenance of kidney functions were found, especially in the most challenged comparison (CLI versus CIR), such as the metabolism of phenylalanine, tyrosine, beta-alanine, amino acids and nucleotides. There are evidences that Krebs cycle was also impacted. The results obtained here can serve as a starting point to future targeted analysis and biological validation

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Child , Constriction, Pathologic/pathology , Metabolomics/classification , Phenylalanine/agonists , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Urinary Bladder/abnormalities , Biomarkers/chemistry , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/instrumentation , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Chromatography, Liquid/methods