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1.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(4): e3901, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289616

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Uno de los derivados de los clorofenoles más utilizado en Estomatología, lo constituye el p-clorofenol (4-clorofenol), empleado como agente antibacteriano en la desinfección del conducto radicular durante el tratamiento pulporradicular. Son escasos los reportes científicos sobre sus efectos en la musculatura lisa vascular arterial y la regulación del flujo sanguíneo local. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto del 4-clorofenol sobre el músculo liso vascular de aorta abdominal de ratas Wistar. Material y Métodos: Se realizó una investigación experimental preclínica, utilizando 30 anillos de aorta abdominal (porción superior) obtenidos de ratas Wistar adultas. Las preparaciones de unos 5 mm se colocaron en baño de órganos, registrándose la tensión desarrollada por el músculo liso vascular tras la adición de 4-clorofenol en diferentes concentraciones y durante diferentes intervalos de tiempo. Resultados: El 4-clorofenol, tras la preactivación del musculo liso vascular de anillos de aorta abdominal, indujo relajación del vaso, la que se incrementó durante todo el tiempo de estudio y al aumento de la concentración del medicamento. Existieron diferencias significativas entre los valores de tensión promedios registrados en los diferentes intervalos de tiempo con los de la tensión base inicial. Conclusiones: El p-clorofenol indujo in vitro, relajación del músculo liso vascular de aorta abdominal de ratas Wistar(AU)


Introduction: In Dentistry, p-chlorophenol (4-chlorophenol) is one of the most widely used derivatives of chlorophenols. It is used as an antibacterial agent in root canal disinfection during pulp-radicular treatment. There are few scientific reports on its effects on vascular smooth musculature and the regulation of local blood flow. Objective: To determine the effect of 4-chlorophenol on vascular smooth muscle of abdominal aorta from Wistar rats. Material and Methods: A preclinical experimental research was carried out using 30 abdominal aortic rings (upper portion) obtained from adult Wistar rats. The preparations of about 5 mm were placed in an organ bath, recording the tension developed by the vascular smooth muscle after the addition of 4-chlorophenol at different concentrations and during different time intervals. Results: The results demonstrate that 4-Chlorophenol induced vasorelaxation after the preactivation of the vascular smooth muscle of the abdominal aortic rings, which increased during the entire study time and with increased drug concentration. There were significant differences among average tension values registered at different intervals of time in relation to the initial base tension. Conclusions: It is concluded that in vitro, p-chlorophenol induced relaxation of abdominal aorta vascular smooth muscle in Wistar rats(AU)


Subject(s)
Rats , Oral Medicine , Dentistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , In Vitro Techniques , Chlorophenols/therapeutic use , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Rats, Wistar
2.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(2): e1104, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347458

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las plantas medicinales han demostrado poseer propiedades antibacterianas para el control de la periodontitis. Objetivo: Determinar la actividad antibacteriana frente a Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 de un gel experimental compuesto por aceite esencial de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio experimental in vitro. Se empleó el programa EPi InfoTM para el cálculo de las repeticiones. El aceite esencial se obtuvo por el método de arrastre de vapor; se identificó su composición química por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Se evaluó la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI) y concentración mínima bactericida (CMB). Se realizó un ensayo de difusión en Agar para medir los halos de inhibición del gel experimental al 4,46 por ciento frente a P. gingivalis, la comparación con clorhexidina al 0,12 por ciento se evaluó con la prueba U de Mann-Whitney. Se adoptó un nivel de significancia del 5 por ciento . Resultados: Se identificaron 11 constituyentes en el aceite esencial, los principales componentes químicos fueron 3-heptadecene, (Z)- (36,13 por ciento ), 1-tridecene (14,7 por ciento ) y 1,8-cineole (9,72 por ciento ). La CMI del aceite esencial fue 36,195 mg/mL y la CMB fue 39,114 mg/mL. Los halos de inhibición del gel experimental de P. gingivalis fueron 25,533 mm ± 0,960. mm. Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas frente a clorhexidina al 0,12 por ciento (23,282 ± 0,345) (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: El gel experimental al 4,46 por ciento compuesto por aceite esencial de Eucalyptus globulus Labill presentó una actividad antibacteriana importante frente a Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277(AU)


Introduction: Medicinal plants have proved to have antibacterial properties for the control of periodontitis. Objective: Determine the antibacterial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 of an experimental gel composed of essential Eucalyptus globulus Labill oil. Methods: An in vitro experimental study was conducted. The software EPi InfoTM was used to estimate the repetitions. The essential oil was obtained by steam entrainment, and its chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were also evaluated. An agar diffusion test was performed to measure the inhibition haloes of the 4.46 percent experimental gel against P. gingivalis. Comparison with 0.12 percent chlorhexidine was evaluated with the Mann-Whitney U test. A 5 percent significance level was adopted. Results: A total 11 constituents were identified in the essential oil. The main chemical components were 3-Heptadecene, (Z)- (36.13 percent), 1-Tridecene (14.7 percentand 1,8-cineole (9.72 percent). MIC of the essential oil was 36.195 mg/ml, whereas MBC was 39.114 mg/ml. The inhibition haloes of the experimental P. gingivalis gel were 25.533 mm ± 0.960 mm. Statistically significant differences were observed versus 0.12 percent chlorhexidine (23.282 ± 0.345) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The 4.46 percent experimental gel composed of Eucalyptus globulus Labill essential oil displayed considerable antibacterial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Periodontitis , Oils, Volatile , Chlorhexidine , Mass Spectrometry/methods , In Vitro Techniques , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 244-259, may. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342818

ABSTRACT

Essential oils from the leaves and stems of Croton adenocalyx, C. grewioides, C. heliotropiifoliusand C. blanchetianus obtained through hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC-MS. We then investigated the lethal and sublethal effects of the Croton oils and 15 major constituents against Tetranychus urticae. ß-Caryophyllene was the major component in the leaf and stem oils from C. heliotropiifolius and C. adenocalyx. Spathulenol and (E)-anethole were the major constituents identified in the leaf and stem oils of C. blanchetianus and C. grewioides, respectively. The oil with the greatest lethal and sublethal effects was those from C. adenocalyx. Among the constituents ß-caryophyllene and spatulenol were the most toxic to the mite, where as eugenol and methyl eugenol were the most repellent. The toxicity and repellency of the Croton oils, particularly the oils from C. adenocalyx, demonstrate that these oils constitute a promising alternative to synthetic acaricides for use in the control of T. urticae.


Los aceites esenciales de las hojas y tallos de Croton adenocalyx, C. growioides, C. heliotropiifolius y C. blanchetianus obtenidos mediante hidrodestilación fueron analizados a través de GC-MS. Se investigaron los efectos letales y subletales de los aceites de Croton y 15 componentes principales contra Tetranychus urticae. El ß-cariofileno fue el componente principal en los aceites de hojas y tallos de C. heliotropiifolius y C. adenocalyx. El espatulenol y el (E)-anetol fueron los principales componentes identificados en los aceites de hojas y tallos de C. blanchetianus y C. growioides, respectivamente. El aceite con los mayores efectos letales y subletales fue el de C. adenocalyx. Entre los componentes, el ß-cariofileno y el espatulenol fueron los más tóxicos para el ácaro, mientras que el eugenol y el metil eugenol fueron los más repelentes. La toxicidad y la repelencia de los aceites de Croton, particularmente los aceites de C. adenocalyx, demuestran que estos aceites constituyen una alternativa prometedora respecto a los acaricidas sintéticos para uso en el control de T. urticae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Croton/chemistry , Tetranychidae/drug effects , Acaricides/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Plant Leaves , Acaricides/chemistry
4.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(1): 61-70, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284444

ABSTRACT

Identification of the chemical compositionof essential oils is very important for ensuring the quality of finished herbal products. The objective of the study was to analyze the chemical components present in the essential oils of five Beilschmiediaspecies (i.e. B. kunstleri, B. maingayi, B. penangiana, B. madang, and B. glabra) by multivariate data analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) methods. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and fully characterized by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 108 chemical components were successfully identified from the essential oils of five Beilschmiediaspecies. The essential oils were characterized by high proportions of ß-caryophyllene (B.kunstleri), δ-cadinene (B. penangianaand B. madang), and ß-eudesmol (B. maingayiand B. glabra). Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) revealed that chemical similarity was highest for all samples, except for B. madang. The multivariate data analysis may be used for the identification and characterization of essential oils from different Beilschmiediaspecies that are to be used as raw materials of traditional herbal products.


La identificación de la composición química de los aceites esenciales es muy importante para garantizar la calidad de los productos herbales terminados. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar los componentes químicos presentes en los aceites esenciales de cinco especies de Beilschmiedia (B. kunstleri, B. maingayi, B. penangiana, B. madangy B. glabra) mediante análisis de datos multivariados utilizando los métodos de análisis de componente principal (PCA) y análisis de agrupamiento jerárquico (HCA). Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación y se caracterizaron completamente por cromatografía de gases (GC) y cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). Se identificaron con éxito un total de 108 componentes químicos a partir de los aceites esenciales de las cinco especies de Beilschmiedia. Los aceites esenciales se caracterizaron por altas proporciones de ß-cariofileno (B. kunstleri), δ-cadineno (B. penangianay B. madang) y ß-eudesmol (B. maingayiy B. glabra). El análisis de componentes principales (PCA) y el análisis de conglomerados jerárquicos (HCA) revelaron que la similitud química fue más alta para todas las muestras, excepto para B. madang. El análisis de datos multivariados puede usarse para la identificación y caracterización de aceites esenciales de diferentes especies de Beilschmiedia que se utilizan como materias primas de productos herbales tradicionales.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lauraceae/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Cluster Analysis , Distillation , Multivariate Analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Principal Component Analysis , Monoterpenes/analysis
5.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 200-208, abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115489

ABSTRACT

ANTECEDENTES: Se desconoce el contenido de grasas saturada (GS) y trans (Gtrans) en panes sin etiqueta y sin vigilancia por entidad regulatoria de Colombia. PROPÓSITO: Comparar el contenido de GS y Gtrans en panes de algunas panaderías de Medellín con lo reglamentado: 0,5 g/50 g de pan, para ambos tipos de grasa según resolución 2508 de 2012 del Ministerio de Salud. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se muestrearon 45 panes de tres tipos (aliñado, leche y croissant) en tres niveles socioeconómicos (NSE) según ubicación de la panadería. Se cuantificó grasa total gravimétricamente y GS y Gtrans por cromatografía de gases. RESULTADOS: El porcentaje de GS y Gtrans con respecto a la grasa total extraíble fue 43,8% y 0,6% en pan aliñado, 37,4% y 0,6% en pan leche y 32,2% y 0,9% en pan croissant, sin diferencia significativa entre ellos (p= 0,155 y 0,184, respectivamente). CONCLUSIONES: Comparado con la resolución 2508, el contenido de GS fue mayor al límite establecido en resolución y el contenido de Gtrans fue menor en pan aliñado, leche o croissant. Los panes evaluados en las panaderías del NSE bajo contenían mayor Gtrans que los otros.


BACKGROUND: The content of saturated (GS) and trans (Gtrans) fats in unlabeled and breads that are not regulated by the Colombian government is unknown. PURPOSE: To compare the content of GS and Gtrans in breads of bakeries in Medellín with the following regulation: 0.5 g/50 g of bread, for both types of fat according to the 2012 Ministry of Health resolution #2508. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 45 breads of three types (seasoned, milk and croissant) were sampled at bakeries from three socioeconomic levels (NSE) according to the location. Total fat was quantified gravimetrically and GS and Gtrans by gas chromatography. RESULTS: The percentage of GS and Gtrans with respect to the total extractable fat was 43.8% and 0.6% in seasoned bread, 37.4% and 0.6% in milk bread and 32.2% and 0.9% in croissant bread, with no significant difference by bread type (p= 0.155 and 0.184, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: GS content of sampled breadswas greater than the limit established in the resolution. Gtrans content was lower in seasoned bread andmilk bread compared to croissant. The breads evaluated in the bakeries of lower NSE contained higher Gtrans than the others.


Subject(s)
Bread/analysis , Dietary Fats/analysis , Trans Fatty Acids/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Colombia , Flame Ionization/methods
6.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(1): 61-68, mar. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130580

ABSTRACT

El uso de bisfenol-A (BPA) a nivel de la industria global se ha venido incrementando en los ultimos anos, y fueron los mercados emergentes los impulsores de esta demanda creciente. Las aplicaciones de BPA en la industria de los alimentos y bebidas representan solo del 3 al 4% del consumo global de policarbonato, pero su uso esta siendo reexaminado debido a que se conocieron varios trabajos cientificos que indican la existencia de una relacion directa entre el BPA y los efectos adversos para la salud. La contaminacion de los alimentos y bebidas se produce por migracion del BPA desde los envases que los contienen (alimentos enlatados, vinos, etc.), y es la principal fuente de exposicion en el humano. Para evaluar dicha exposicion se desarrollo y valido un metodo analitico por cromatografia gaseosa acoplada a espectrometria de masa para la cuantificacion de BPA total en orina de mujeres embarazadas atendidas en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires en el ano 2013, con un limite de cuantificacion de 2,0 ng/mL y un limite de deteccion de 0,8 ng/mL. De las 149 muestras de orina analizadas, el 66,4% fueron cuantificables, con la mediana de BPA total de 4,8 ng/mL (4,3 ng/mg de creatinina) y la media geometrica de 4,8 ng/mL (4,7 ng/mg de creatinina).


The use of bisphenol-A (BPA) at the level of the global industry has been increasing in recent years, with emerging markets being the drivers of this growing demand. BPA applications in the food and beverage industry represent only 3 to 4% of the global consumption of polycarbonate, but its use is being reexamined because several scientific works were reported indicating the existence of a direct relationship between BPA and adverse effects on health. The contamination of food and beverages is produced by the migration of BPA from the containers that hold them (canned foods, wines, etc.) and it is the main source of exposure in humans. To evaluate this exposure, an analytical method was developed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for the quantification of total BPA in urine of pregnant women treated at the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires in 2013, with a limit of quantification of 2.0 ng/mL and of detection of 0.8 ng/mL. Of the 149 urine samples analyzed, 66.4% were quantifiable, with a median total BPA of 4.8 ng/mL (4.3 ng/mg creatinine) and a geometric mean of 4.8 ng/mL (4.7 ng/mg creatinine).


O uso de bisfenol-A (BPA) ao nivel da industria global foi aumentando nos ultimos anos, e foram os mercados emergentes que deram impulso a essa demanda crescente. As aplicacoes de BPA na industria de alimentos e bebidas representam apenas 3 a 4% do consumo global de policarbonato, mas seu uso esta sendo reexaminado visto que varios trabalhos cientificos indicando a existencia de uma relacao direta entre o BPA e os efeitos adversos na saude foram conhecidos. A contaminacao dos alimentos e bebidas e produzida pela migracao de BPA das embalagens que os contem (alimentos enlatados, vinhos, etc.) e e a principal fonte de exposicao em humanos. Para avaliar esta exposicao, foi desenvolvido e avaliado um metodo analitico por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas para a quantificacao do BPA total na urina de gestantes atendidas no Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires em 2013, com um limite de quantificacao de 2,0 ng/mL e um limite de deteccao de 0,8 ng/mL. Das 149 amostras de urina analisadas, 66,4% foram quantificaveis, com uma mediana de BPA total de 4,8 ng/mL (4,3 ng/mg de creatinina) e a media geometrica de 4,8 ng/mL (4,7 ng/mg de creatinina).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Urine , Pregnancy/urine , Endocrine Disruptors , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Toxicology/statistics & numerical data , Food Industry , Health , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Food and Beverages , Pregnant Women , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Food
7.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(6): 566-576, nov. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102643

ABSTRACT

This paper reports for the first time volatile compounds, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from the leaves of Waltheria indica L. (Stericullaceae) growing in Nigeria. The essential oil was hydro-distilled and characterized by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated on carrageenan induced rat paw edema while the anti-nociceptive test was based on hot plate model. The hydro-distillation afforded 0.41% (dry weight basis) of light green oil. Forty compounds representing 99.8% were identified in the oil. The main constituents of the oil were limonene (34.7%), sabinene (21.2%) and citronellal (9.7%). The anti-nociceptive property of the essential oils statically inhibited edema development (p<0.001) at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg independent of time of exposure. However, the 100 mg/kg Waltheria indica essential oils (WIEO) displayed a relatively low inhibition (p<0.01-p>0.5) which declines as exposure time increases. The anti-inflammatory activities shows a steady rate and non-dose dependent activity (p<0.001) up to the 3rd h of inflammation study. Conversely, a sharp reduction at the rate of p<0.5, 0.1 and 0.01 for the 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg WIEO doses respectively. Overall, the results presented sustain and establish the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties and justifies the need for further evaluation and development of the essential oils from this plant.


Este artículo informa por primera vez de compuestos volátiles, actividades anti-nociceptivas y antiinflamatorias de aceites esenciales de las hojas de Waltheria indica L. (Stericullaceae) que crecen en Nigeria. El aceite esencial fue hidro-destilado y se caracterizó por cromatografía de gases-detección de ionización de llama (GC-FID) y cromatografía de gases junto con análisis de espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). La actividad antiinflamatoria se evaluó en el edema de pata de rata inducido por carragenano, mientras que la prueba antinociceptiva se basó en el modelo de placa caliente. La destilación hidráulica proporcionó 0,41% (en peso seco) de aceite verde claro. Cuarenta compuestos que representan el 99.8% fueron identificados en el aceite. Los principales componentes del aceite fueron el limoneno (34,7%), el sabineno (21,2%) y el citronelal (9,7%). La propiedad anti-nociceptiva de los aceites esenciales inhibió estáticamente el desarrollo del edema (p<0.001) a una dosis de 200 y 400 mg/kg independientemente del tiempo de exposición. Sin embargo, los aceites esenciales de Waltheria indica de 100 mg/kg (WIEO) mostraron una inhibición relativamente baja (p<0.01-p>0.5) que disminuye a medida que aumenta el tiempo de exposición. Las actividades antiinflamatorias muestran una tasa constante y una actividad no dependiente de la dosis (p<0.001) hasta la tercera hora del estudio de inflamación. Por el contrario, una fuerte reducción a una tasa de p<0.5, 0.1 y 0.01 para las dosis de 100, 200 y 400 mg/kg de WIEO respectivamente. En general, los resultados presentados sostienen y establecen las propiedades anti-nociceptivas y antiinflamatorias y justifican la necesidad de una mayor evaluación y desarrollo de los aceites esenciales de esta planta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Malvaceae/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Temperature , Carrageenan/toxicity , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Rats, Wistar , Monoterpenes/analysis , Flame Ionization , Analgesics/pharmacology , Inflammation/chemically induced
8.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 86: e0042018, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1009476

ABSTRACT

Dengue is a viral infection transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. In Brazil, one of the insecticides used to control the mosquito is malathion, which can be diluted in vegetable oil (1:2 v/v). The purpose of this study was to understand the persistence of malathion on different surfaces and soil. Surfaces were contaminated by malathion and then washed with water and soap. The water used to clean the surfaces was extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography with an FID detector. Soil samples received malathion 14C-TG diluted in vegetable oil (1:2 v/v) and were analyzed zero, 3, 7, 18, 32, 60, 120, 240, and 360 days after the application in a liquid scintillation analyzer. Results showed a high persistence of malathion on porous surfaces. Moreover, it did not degrade in the soil for the first 120 days.(AU)


A dengue é uma infecção viral transmitida pelo mosquito Aedes aegypti. No Brasil, um dos inseticidas utilizados para controlar o mosquito é o malathion, que pode ser diluído em óleo vegetal (1:2 v/v). O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a permanência do malathion em diferentes superfícies e no solo. As superfícies foram contaminadas com malathion e depois lavadas com água e sabão. A água utilizada para limpar as superfícies foi extraída e analisada por cromatografia gasosa com detector de ionização de chama. O malathion 14C-GT diluído em óleo vegetal (1:2 v/v) foi aplicado em amostras de solo que foram analisadas nos tempos 0, 3, 7, 18, 32, 60, 120, 240 e 360 dias após a aplicação, em um analisador de cintilação líquida. Os resultados mostraram alta permanência de malathion em superfícies porosas. Além disso, o malathion não se degradou no solo nos primeiros 120 dias.(AU)


Subject(s)
Aedes , Insecticides , Pest Control , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Urban Area , Dengue
9.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(4)jul. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-915429

ABSTRACT

Lippia graveolens Kunth (Verbenaceae) is an economically important shrub known in Mexico as Oregano. In this work, the biocidal effect of the hexane extract of L. graveolens leaves was evaluated on two crop pests. Thus, larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda were fed with mixtures of extract and artificial diet. The nematicidal activity was evaluated on juveniles of Meloydogine javanica. Regarding S. frugiperda, quantitative differences between treatments and control were observed in dead pupae, surviving adults, and deformed adults (P < 0.05). All the surviving adults from the extract treatments were deformed. Nematicidal effect was registered, the LC50 and LC90 were 0.672 (0.654-0.690) and 0.965 (0.937-0.998) mg/mL respectively. The extract was characterized by NMR and GC-MS, being thymol the most abundant component (70.6%) in addition to carvacrol (22.8%). The results suggest the consideration of the hexane extract of L. graveolens leaves within the alternatives for the biological control of pests.


Lippia graveolens Kunth (Verbenaceae) es un arbusto con importancia económica conocido en México como Orégano. En éste trabajo se evaluó el efecto biocida del extracto hexánico de hojas L. graveolens sobre dos plagas agrícolas. Así, larvas de S. frugiperda fueron alimentadas con mezclas de dieta artificial y extracto. La actividad nematicida fue evaluada en juveniles de Meloydogine javanica, Respecto a S. frugiperda, se observaron diferencias cuantitativas entre tratamiento y control en cuanto a pupas muertas, adultos sobrevivientes y adultos deformes (P < 0.05). Todos los adultos provenientes de tratamientos con extracto estuvieron malformados. Hubo efecto nematicida, calculándose CL50 y CL90 de 0.672 (0.654-0.690) y 0.965 (0.937-0.998) mg/mL respectivamente. El extracto se caracterizó por RMN y CG-EM. Los compuestos más abundantes fueron timol (70.6%), ademas del carvacrol (22.8%). Los resultados sugieren considerar al extracto hexánico de hojas de L. graveolens dentro de las alternativas para el control biológico de plagas.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Spodoptera/drug effects , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Lippia/chemistry , Antinematodal Agents/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Pest Control, Biological , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Verbenaceae , Monoterpenes/analysis , Larva , Antinematodal Agents/chemistry
10.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-915344

ABSTRACT

The chemical composition of the seasonal essential oils (2015-2016) from the leaves and flowers of Zaluzania montagnifolia is presented. The chemical content of those oils showed quantitative and qualitative differences. Germacrene D (19.9-29.8%), camphor (12.4- 19.4%) and ß-caryophyllene (13.7-18.5%) were the most abundant volatiles in the leaves. The essential oils from the flowers contained high amounts of camphor (32.7-37.2%) limonene (19.8-24.9%) and germacrene D (3.2-7.3%). All the seasonal essential oils showed a potent in vitro inhibition against HMG-CoA reductase. The essential oils from flowers (IC50, 40.5-55.1 µg mL-1) showed better inhibition properties than those of leaves (IC50, 84.4-123.5 µg mL-1). Camphor (IC50, 72.5 µg mL-1) and borneol (IC50, 84.4 µg mL-1) exerted a non-competitive inhibition on the enzyme. Additionally, the hydrodistillates exhibited antibacterial activity against the phytopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci TBR2004 (MIC, 62.7-76.5 µg mL-1) P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (MIC, 45.4-50.4 µg mL-1) and P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 (MIC, 26.7-31.9 µg mL-1). Germacrene D (MIC, 35.4-66.2 µg mL-1) and ß-caryophyllene (MIC, 36.5-54.2 µg mL-1) were the strongest anti-Pseudomonas syringae agents.


Se presenta la composición química de los aceites esenciales estacionales (2015-2016) provenientes de hojas y flores de Zaluzania montagnifolia. El contenido químico de los aceites esenciales mostró diferencias cualitativas y cuantitativas. El germacreno D (19.9-29.8%), alcanfor (12.4-19.4%) y ß-cariofileno (13.7-18.5%) fueron los volátiles más abundantes en las hojas. Los aceites esenciales de las flores contuvieron altas concentraciones de alcanfor (32.7-37.2%), limoneno (19.8-24.9%) y germacreno D (3.2-7.3%). Todos los aceites esenciales estacionales mostraron una potente inhibición in vitro contra la HMG-CoA reductasa. Los aceites esenciales de las flores (IC50, 40.5-55.1 µg mL-1) mostraron mejores propiedades inhibitorias que aquellos de las hojas (IC50, 84.4-123.5 µg mL-1). El alcanfor (IC50, 72.5 µg mL-1) y el borneol (IC50, 84.4 µg mL-1) ejercieron una inhibición no competitiva sobre la enzima. Adicionalmente, los hidrodestilados exhibieron una actividad antibacterial contra los fitopatógenos Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci TBR2004 (MIC, 62.7-76.5 µg mL-1) P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (MIC, 45.4-50.4 µg mL-1) y P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 (MIC, 26.7-31.9 µg mL-1). El germacreno D (MIC, 35.4-66.2 µg mL-1) y ß-cariofileno (MIC, 36.5-54.2 µg mL-1) fueron los agentes más fuertes contra los patovares de Pseudomonas syringae.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/chemistry , Asteraceae , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
11.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 16(6): 586-593, nov. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-914948

ABSTRACT

Essential oils from leaves of Ocotea limae and Ocotea gardneri species were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The analysis revealed the presence of 48 components accounting for 98.1 ± 1.3% e 98.0 ± 0.5% of the essential oils from the O. limae and O. gardneri, respectively. The oils were characterized by high percentage of sesquiterpenes. The mains compounds identified in the essential oils were spathulenol (13.3 ± 0.5%), ß-caryophyllene (12.4 ± 0.5%), bicyclogermacrene (11.3 ± 0.4%) and germacrene D (10.9 ± 0.3%) from the O. limae and germacrene D (26.9 ± 0.9%) e bicyclogermacrene (21.7 ± 0.7%) from the O. glomerata.


Los aceites esenciales de hojas de Ocotea limae y Ocotea gardneri fueron analizados por GC-FID y GC-MS. El análisis reveló la presencia de 48 componentes que representan 98,1 ± 1,3% y 98,0 ± 0,5% de los aceites esenciales de O. limae y O. gardneri, respectivamente. Los aceites se caracterizaron por un alto porcentaje de sesquiterpenos. Los principales compuestos identificados en los aceites esenciales fueron espatulenol (13,3 ± 0,5%), ß-cariofileno (12,4 ± 0,5%), biciclogermacreno (11,3 ± 0,4%) y germacreno D (10,9 ± 0,3%) de O. limae y germacreno D (26,9 ± 0,9%) y bicyclogermacreno (21,7 ± 0,7%) de la O. glomerata.


Subject(s)
Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Ocotea , Terpenes/analysis , Brazil , Chromatography, Gas/methods
12.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 16(5): 455-462, sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-912580

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents and insecticidal activity of essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves of Paullinia pinnata Linn (Sapindaceae) are being reported. The essential oil were analysed by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Different concentrations (50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/mL) of P. pinnata essential oil prepared separately and diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were tested on the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. The main constituents of the oil were pentadecanoic acid (17.9%), isoaromadendrene epoxide (11.5%) and wine lactone (11.2%). Other significant compounds of the essential oil were eremophilene (6.9%) and phytol (6.2%). The essential oil displayed 100% mortality (fumigant toxicity) against S. zeamais adults at tested concentration of 150 mg/mL with lethal concentrations (LC50) of 51.87 mg/mL air. This is the first report on the chemical constituents and insecticidal activity of essential oil of P. pinnata and may be explore as a potential natural herbal plant for the control of insect pest.


Se informan los componentes químicos y la actividad insecticida del aceite esencial obtenido por hidrodestilación de las hojas de Paullinia pinnata Linn (Sapindaceae). El aceite esencial se analizó mediante cromatografía de gases (GC) y cromatografía de gases acoplada con espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). Se ensayaron diferentes concentraciones (50, 100, 150, 200 y 250 mg/ml) de aceite esencial de P. pinnata preparado separadamente y diluido en dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO) en el gorgojo de maíz, Sitophilus zeamais. Los componentes principales del aceite fueron ácido pentadecanoico (17,9%), isoaromadendreno epóxido (11,5%) y vino lactona (11,2%). Otros compuestos significativos del aceite esencial fueron eremophilene (6,9%) y phytol (6,2%). El aceite esencial mostró una mortalidad del 100% (toxicidad fumigante) contra los adultos de S. zeamais a una concentración de 150 mg/ml con concentraciones letales (CL50) de 51,87 mg/ml de aire. Este es el primer informe sobre la composición del aceite esencial de P. pinnata y su actividad insecticida. Puede ser explorado como una potencial planta herbácea natural para el control de la plaga de insectos.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Paullinia/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Weevils/drug effects , Insecticides/chemistry
13.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 16(5): 463-470, sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-912583

ABSTRACT

The chemical composition of the essential oil and carotenoid content of the parasitic plant Cuscuta mitraeformis are described for the first time. The essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS revealing nonanal (24.6%) as the main constituent followed by thymol (16.5%) and eugenol (7.5%). The total carotenoid content (130 mg 100 g-1 FW) was determined by HPLC-DAD. The carotenoid fraction contained ß-carotene (76.4 mg 100 g-1 FW) and lutein (18.9 mg 100 g-1 FW) as the most abundant compounds. A weak antioxidant activity was observed by the essential oil against DPPH radical (IC50, 1.4 mg mL-1), whereas a strong antioxidant activity was determined for the carotenoid fraction (IC50, 60.1 µg mL-1). The essential oil inhibited the growth of Clavibacter michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Erwinia carotovora with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 122.5, 184.5, 234.2 µg mL-1, respectively.


La composición química del aceite esencial y el contenido de carotenoides de la planta parásita Cuscuta mitraeformis se describen por primera vez. El aceite esencial fue analizado por GC-FID y GC-MS siendo el nonanal (24.6%) el constituyente principal seguido del timol (16.5%) y el eugenol (7.5%). El contenido total de carotenoides (130 mg 100 g-1 PF) fue determinado por HPLC-DAD. La fracción de carotenoides contuvo ß-caroteno (76.4 mg 100 g-1 PF) y luteína (18.9 mg 100 g-1 PF) como compuestos mayoritarios. Fue observada una actividad antioxidante débil por parte del aceite esencial frente al radical DPPH (IC50, 1.4 mg mL-1), mientras que una fuerte actividad antioxidante fue determinada para la fracción de carotenoides (IC50, 60.1 µg mL-1). El aceite esencial inhibió el crecimiento de Clavibacter michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato y Erwinia carotovora con una concentración mínima inhibitoria de 122.5, 184.5, 234.2 µg mL-1, respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Cuscuta/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Carotenoids/analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
14.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 16(5): 506-512, sept. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-912594

ABSTRACT

Extracts from leaves of C. sylvestris have cytotoxic effect in different tumor cell lines, possibly due to clerodane type diterpenes (casearins). On the other hand, there are few studies related to the antitumor activity of the essential oils from this species. This work evaluated for the first time the cytotoxicity effects of the pure essential oil and its nanoemulsion against A549 tumor cell line (human lung carcinoma). The essential oil was obtained from fresh leaves by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS and GC/FID. Cytotoxicity evaluation was performed using the WST-1 test. The chemical analysis of the essential oil revealed a volatile fraction composed mainly of non-oxygenated sesquiterpenes (72.1%). The essential oil and its nanoemulsion exhibited cytotoxic activity against A549 tumor cells with EC50 of 4.0 µg/mL and EC50 of 1.0 µg/mL, respectively. Both samples displayed a dose dependent pattern (r = -0.79, p = 0.03) as determined by linear regression test.


Los extractos de las hojas de Casearia sylvestris tienen efectos citotóxicos en diferentes líneas celulares tumorales, posiblemente debido a los diterpenos tipo clerodane (casearinas). Por otra parte, hay muy pocos estudios relacionados con la actividad antitumoral del aceite esencial de estas especies. Este trabajo evalúa por primera vez el efecto citotóxico del aceite esencial puro y su nanoemulsión contra la línea de células tumorales A549 (carcinoma humano de pulmón). El aceite esencial fue obtenido de hojas frescas por hidrodestilación en un aparato tipo Clevenger y analizado por GC/MS y GC/FID. La evaluación de citotoxicidad fue realizada usando la prueba WST-1. El análisis químico del aceite esencial reveló una fracción volátil compuesta principalmente por sesquiterpenos no oxigenados (72,1%). El aceite esencial y su nanoemulsiónexhibió actividad citotóxica contra las células tumorales A549 con una EC50 de 4,0 µg/mL y una EC50 de 1,0 µg/mL, respectivamente. Ambas muestras exhibieron un patrón dosis-dependiente (r = -0,79, p = 0,03) determinado por análisis de regresión lineal.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Casearia , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Nanostructures , Emulsions
15.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 16(5): 513-519, sept. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-912595

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves of Atalantia roxburghiana Hook. f. and Tetradium trichotomum Lour., as well as the leaves and fruits of Macclurodendron oligophlebia (Merr.) Hartl. (Rutaceae) are being reported. The essential oils were analysed by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sabinene (36.9%) was the most singly abundant compound in the leaf of A. roxburghiana. The major constituents present in the leaf oil of T. trichotorum were (E)-ß-ocimene (24.8%), α-pinene (10.4%), (Z)-ß-ocimene (9.4%) and ß-caryophyllene (8.0%). On the other hand, while α-pinene (17.5%), ß-caryophyllene (15.5%) and caryophyllene oxide (10.6%) occurred in higher proportion in the leaf of M. oligophlebia, the fruit oil was dominated by benzyl benzoate (16.8%), (E, E)-farnesol (8.3%) and ß-caryophyllene (6.0%).


Se muestran los constituyentes químicos de los aceites esenciales obtenidos, por hidrodestilación, de las hojas de Atalantia roxburghiana Hook. f. y de Tetradium trichotomum Lour., así como de las hojas y frutos de Macclurodendron oligophlebia (Merr.) Hartl. (Rutaceae). Los aceites esenciales fueron analizados por Cromatografía de Gases (CG) y por Cromatografía de Gases acoplada a Espectrometría de Masas (CG-EM). El compuesto más abundante en las hojas de A. roxburghiana es el sabineno (36.9%); mientras que los mayoritarios en el aceite de las hojas de T. trichotomum fueron (E)-ß-ocimeno (24.8%), α-pineno (10.4%), (Z)-ß-ocimeno (9.4%) y ß- cariofileno (8.0%). En las hojas de M. oligophlebia los compuestos más abundantes fueron α-pineno (17.5%), ß-cariofileno (15.5%) y óxido de cariofileno (10.6%); sin embargo, en el aceite obtenido del fruto fueron benzoato de bencilo (16.8%), (E, E)-farnesol (8.3%) y ß- cariofileno (6.0%).


Subject(s)
Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Rutaceae/chemistry , Chromatography, Gas/methods
16.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 16(4): 385-397, jul. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-882137

ABSTRACT

Myrcianthes is a Myrtaceous genus of flowering plants of about 30 to 40 species, distributed in the American continent. The aim of this work was to study the chemical composition of the foliar essential oil from M. fragrans growing wild in central Costa Rica. The essential oil was obtained through the steam distillation process in a Clevenger type apparatus. The chemical composition of the oil was performed by capillary gas chromatography with a flame detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using the retention indices on a DB-5 type capillary column in addition to mass spectral fragmentation patterns. A total of 98 compounds were identified, accounting for 98.8% of the total amount of the oil. The major constituents in the leaf oil were (E)-methyl cinnamate (39.6%), limonene (34.6%), α-pinene (6.8%), and linalool (6.8%). This is the first report of (E)-methyl cinnamate occurring in oils of this plant genus. These findings appear to suggest a new chemotype of M. fragrans.


Myrcianthes (Myrtaceae) consta de 30 a 40 especies, distribuidas en el continente americano. El objetivo del presente trabajo consistió en identificar la composición química del aceite esencial contenido en las hojas de M. fragrans, planta que crece en forma silvestre en el Valle Central de Costa Rica. La extracción del aceite se efectuó mediante el método de hidrodestilación usando un equipo de Clevenger modificado. La composición química del aceite se analizó mediante las técnicas de cromatografía gaseoso-líquida con detector de ionización de llama (GC-FID) y de cromatografía gaseoso-líquida acoplada a un detector de masas (GC-MS). Se utilizaron índices de retención obtenidos en una columna capilar tipo DB-5 y se compararon con los patrones de iones de fragmentación de masas. Se identificaron en total 98 compuestos, correspondientes a un 98.8% de los constituyentes totales. Los componentes mayoritarios del aceite resultaron ser (E)-cinamato de metilo (39.6%), limoneno (34.6%), α-pineno (6.8%) y linalol (6.8%). Este es el primer informe de la aparición de (E)-cinamato de metilo en aceite de hojas de este género de plantas. Los datos obtenidos parecen sugerir un nuevo quimiotipo de M. fragrans.


Subject(s)
Cinnamates/analysis , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Terpenes/analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Costa Rica , Cyclohexanes/analysis
17.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 16(2): 99-109, mar. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-881373

ABSTRACT

The genus Casearia (Salicaceae) is found in sub-tropical and tropical regions of the world and comprises about 200 species. In Brazil, there are about 48 species and 12 are registered in the State of Rio de Janeiro; including Casearia arborea (Rich.) Urb. Essential oil was obtained from the fresh leaves by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The cytotoxic effect was determined by WST-1 assay. Chemical analysis of the essential oil revealed a very diversified (n = 37 compounds) volatile fraction composed mainly of non-oxygenated sesquiterpenes (90.2%). These sesquiterpenes included byciclogermacrene (18.7%), germacrene D (12.1%) and α-humulene (11.5%). In addition, the essential oil demonstrated cytotoxic effects against A549 tumor cells in the concentration of 4 µg/mL (EC50) (p < 0.05).


El género Casearia (Salicáceas) se encuentra en las regiones tropicales y sub-tropicales del planeta y comprende alrededor de 200 especies. En Brasil existen 48 especies, 12 de las cuales fueron registradas en el Estado de Río de Janeiro incluyendo Casearia arborea (Rich.) Urb. El aceite esencial fue extraído de hojas frescas por hidrodestilación y analizado por GC-MS y GC-FID. El efecto citotóxico fue determinado por ensayo WST-1. Las cavidades secretorias fueron ocasionalmente encontradas tanto en la lámina foliar como en el pecíolo. El análisis químico del aceite esencial reveló una muy diversa fracción volátil (n = 37 compuestos) formada principalmente por sesquiterpenos no oxigenados (90,2%). Estos sesquiterpenos incluyen biciclogermacreno (18,7%), germacreno D (12,1%) y α-humuleno (11,5%). Además, el aceite esencial demostró efectos citotóxicos contra las células tumorales A549 en una concentración de 4µg/mL (EC50) (p < 0.05).


Subject(s)
Casearia/chemistry , Cytotoxins/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Salicaceae/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/analysis
18.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 16(2): 110-120, mar. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-881391

ABSTRACT

The peel components and juice quality of three mandarin hybrids were investigated in this study. Peel components were extracted using the cold-press method and analyzed using GC-FID and GC-MS. Total soluble solids, total acid, pH value, ascorbic acid as well as density were determined in juice obtained from mandarin hybrids. Twenty-six, thirty-five and nineteen peel components were identified in Fortune, Robinson and Osceola respectively including: aldehydes, alcohols, esters, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and other components. The major components were limonene, γ-terpinene, (E)-ß-ocimene, ß-myrcene, sabinene, linalool and α-Pinene. Among the three scions examined, Fortune showed the highest content of aldehydes and Robinson showed the highest content of TSS. This study shows that scion has a profound influence on aldehyd and TSS that are important to quality improvement.


Los componentes de la cáscara y la calidad del jugo de tres híbridos de mandarina fueron investigados en este estudio. Los componentes de la cáscara fueron extraídos por el método de prensado en frío y se analizaron mediante GC-FID y GC-MS. el total de sólidos solubles, acidez total, pH, ácido ascórbico, así como la densidad se determinaron en el jugo obtenido a partir de híbridos de mandarina. Veintiséis, treinta y cinco y diecinueve componentes de la cáscara de Fortuna, Robinson y Osceola respectivamente fueron identificados, incluyendo: aldehídos, alcoholes, ésteres, monoterpenos, sesquiterpenos y otros componentes. Los componentes principales eran limoneno, γ-terpineno, (E) -ß-ocimeno, ß-mirceno, sabineno, linalool y α-pineno. Entre los tres vástagos examinados, Fortune mostró el mayor contenido de aldehídos y Robinson mostró el mayor contenido de SST. Este estudio muestra que el vástago tiene una profunda influencia en aldehído y SST que son importantes para mejorar la calidad.


Subject(s)
Citrus/chemistry , Fruit and Vegetable Juices/analysis , Terpenes/analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Quality Control
19.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 16(1): 1-13, ene. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-907560

ABSTRACT

Ephedra tweediana (Ephedraceae), conocida como “tramontana”, es empleada en la medicina popular como antiasmático. Se analizaron comparativamente los extractos acuosos de los tallos herbáceos, lignificados y partes subterráneas, provenientes de ejemplares femeninos y masculinos. En los tallos lignificados se determinó la presencia de proapigeninidina (cuya identidad fue corroborada por comparación con un testigo de apigeninidina sometido a estudios de FAB-MS, UV, HPLC, 1H-NMR y espectroscopía IR); mientras que en los órganos subterráneos se determinó la presencia de proapigeninidina y propelargonidina (la identidad de la pelargonidina fue establecida por comparación con un testigo de pelargonidina sometido a estudios de TLC/HPTLC y espectroscopía UV-Visible). Estos compuestos no se observaron en los tallos herbáceos. Los tallos herbáceos presentaron las mayores concentraciones de flavonoides y ácidos hidroxicinámicos totales. Los órganos subterráneos presentaron la mayor concentración de taninos y proantocianidinas. En los tallos herbáceos se detectó una reacción fuertemente positiva para flavonoides. No se observó reacción positiva para proantocianidinas. En el tallo aéreo lignificado se observó una reacción positiva para flavonoides y proantocianidinas a nivel de la peridermis. En los órganos subterráneos, los flavonoides y proantocianidinas se localizaron principalmente en los tejidos más externos. Este trabajo constituye el primer aporte a la dinámica de polifenoles de E. tweediana.


Ephedra tweediana (Ephedraceae), known as "tramontana" is used in folk medicine as antiasthmatic. Aqueous extracts obtained from young stems, woody stems and underground parts were analyzed and compared. In lignified stems was detected proapigeninidin (whose identity was confirmed by comparison with a control apigeninidin subjected to FAB-MS, UV, HPLC, 1H-NMR and IR spectroscopy), while underground organs were detected proapigeninidin and propelargonidin (by comparison with a control pelargonidin whose identity was established by studies of TLC/HPTLC, and UV-visible spectroscopy). These compounds were not observed in the herbaceous stems. The herbaceous stems had the highest concentrations of total flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids. Uderground organs had the highest concentration of tannins and proanthocyanidins. In herbaceous stems a strong positive reaction for flavonoids was detected. No positive reaction was observed for proanthocyanidins. In the periderm of woody aerial stem a positive reaction for flavonoids and proanthocyanidins were observed. In the underground organs, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins were located mainly in the more external tissues. This work is the first contribution to the dynamic of E. tweediana polyphenols.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coumaric Acids/analysis , Ephedra/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis , Phenols/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Proanthocyanidins/analysis
20.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2017. 140p ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-878464

ABSTRACT

O consumo mundial de cocaína vem crescendo e no Brasil já são estimados mais de 2 milhões de usuários, destes 370 mil usam regularmente o crack. A cocaína, em suas diversas formas, é um psicoestimulante com alto potencial de abuso e a forma fumada causa à seus usuários mais complicações de saúde do que as demais formas. Muitas dessas complicações estão relacionadas às funções cognitivas, como comprometimento da atenção e memória. O usuário de crack, no ato de fumar, está sujeito tanto à ação da cocaína volatilizada quanto a dos seus produtos de pirólise, principalmente da anidroecgnonina metil éster (AEME). Considerando que pouco se conhece a respeito da AEME, ou de sua associação com cocaína, que os distúrbios cognitivos podem estar relacionados à morte neuronal e que o hipocampo é uma das principais estruturas encefálicas relacionada com cognição e memória, este trabalho visou investigar as vias de ativação de morte celular decorrente das exposições à 1 mM de AEME, 2 mM de cocaína, bem como da associação de ambas (C + A), por 3, 6 e 12 h. Para tanto, utilizamos neurônios hipocampais de embriões de rato no 18º dia embrionário (E18) que foram mantidos em cultura por até 7 dias (DIV7), quando foram feitas as exposições. Nossos resultados mostraram que em 3 h a cocaína e a AEME promoveram aumento de atividade enzimática (pelo teste de MTT) que se reverteu ao longo de 12 h. Além disso, AEME aumentou na permeabilidade da membrana plasmática em 6 h que se manteve em 12 h. Embora essas alterações tenham ocorrido em 3 h e 6 h, caspase-8 se ativou apenas em 12 h, ativando também a sinalização apoptótica com a externalização de FS. A cocaína ativou o processo autofágico a partir de 3 h aumentando a quantificação de LC3 II, mas apresentou redução de células com vesículas ácidas em 6 h e 12 h, sugerindo que esta promova morte neuronal por causar falha no fluxo autofágico. A AEME apresentou somente aumento de células com vesículas ácidas em 3 h, revertendo-se já em 6 h, indicando que o processo autofágico só se fez presente no primeiro horário, dando vez à programação de apoptose celular, por ativação da via extrínseca. A associação dessas substâncias apresentou-se mais neurotóxica do que as substâncias isoladas, com redução de células íntegras a partir de 3 h de exposição, ativação de caspase-8 e externalização de FS em 6 h, sem envolver o sistema autofágico. Além disso, as características morfológicas observadas em 6 h, como o aumento do tamanho do núcleo e do corpo celular que se tornaram picnóticos em 12 h, podem sugerir que a neurotoxicidade induzida por C + A seja por necroptose, onde a ativação de caspases resulta em um processo tipo necrótico. Assim, concluímos que, embora a literatura mostre morte neuronal por apoptose a partir de 24 h de exposição para cocaína e para AEME, as respostas celulares que levam à este fim iniciam-se já em 12 h, por ativação da via extrínseca e a associação destas substâncias é ainda mais neurotóxica, iniciando a sinalização de morte já em 6 h e induzindo uma morfologia tipo necrótica


Cocaine market is increasing all around the world. In Brazil it is estimated that almost 2 million people make usage of this substance which 370 thousand people use the crack form. Cocaine is a psychostimulant with large potential for abuse and the smokable form produces more health problems than the other routes of use, mainly in the cognitive field related to compromising attention, memory and decision take. The crack users are exposed to both volatized cocaine and their pyrolysis products, which the main product is the anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME). Considering that the cognitive disturbs could be related to neurons death, the memory functions are also related to the hippocampal functions, and little is known about the AEME neurotoxicity or even the combination of cocaine and AEME in cell fate, our study aims to characterize the time and pathways related to the hippocampal neurotoxicity induced by 2 mM of cocaine, 1 mM of AEME and the association (C + A) of both substances during 3 h, 6 h and 12 h of exposure. Our results showed that cocaine and AEME increased enzymatic activity (MTT test) in 3 h but it reversed during 12 h of exposure. Moreover, AEME increased cell permeability in 6 h keeping it until 12 h. Although theses early alterations, both substances activated caspase -8 after 12 h when early apoptosis was also observed by the FS externalization. Cocaine activated the autophagic process at 3 h increasing the LC3 II quantification, but decreased the number of cell with acid vesicle at 6 h and 12 h, suggesting neuronal death due to failure in the autophagic flux. AEME showed increased in cell number with acid vesicle only in 3 h which returned after 6 h suggesting that the autophagic process gave place to the apoptotic program starting from the extrinsic pathway. The association of cocaine and AEME was shown more neurotoxic than them alone, decreasing the number of integral cells after 3 h, activating caspase -8 and promoting FS externalization after 6 h without involving the autophagy. In addition, taking the C + A morphology in 6 h, where it was observed increasing of nucleus and soma size that became pyknotic at 12 h, we suggest that the neuronal death could occur by necroptosis because this composition activated caspase -8 and resulted in necrotic like morphology. Thus, we conclude that cocaine- and AEME-induced apoptosis neuronal death starts in 12 h of exposure by the extrinsic pathway and the association of both substances is more neurotoxic than they alone, starting earlier after 6 h and resulting in a necrotic-like morphology


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Cell Death , Crack Cocaine/analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Flow Cytometry/methods , Hippocampus , Microscopy, Fluorescence/methods
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