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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(1): 142-151, ene. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554181

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents and antimic robial activity of the essential oil isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia menghaiensis S.Q. Tong & Y.M. Xia in S.Q. Tong from Vietnam was studied and reported. The techniques of gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were used to characterize the chemical constituents of the essential oil while the microdilution assay was used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity. The main compounds identified in the rhizome essential oil consist of ß - pinene (46.5%), ß - phellandrene (25.7%) and α - pinene (8.5%). The studied essential oil inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853 with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) value of 15.32 µg/mL ± 0. 01, and median inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 32.0 ± 0.01 µg/mL. The essential oil also displayed activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 (MIC 31.57 ± 0.01 µg/mL) and Bacillus cereus ATCC14579 (MIC, 34.21 µg/mL ± 0.01 µg/mL), and IC 50 va lue of 64.0 ± 0.01 µg/mL. This is the first report on the rhizome oil composition, as well as the antimicrobial of essential oils from A. menghaiensis . The paper discusses further the comparative analysis of essential oils from A. menghaiensis .


Se investigaron los componentes químicos y la actividad antimicrobiana del aceite escencial aislado de los rizomas de Alpinia menghaiensis S.Q. Ton g & Y. M. Xia en S.Q. Tong de Vietnam. Se usaron las técnicas de cromatografía de gases (GC) y cromatografía de gases con espectrometría de masas (GC/MS) para caracterizar los componentes químicos del aceite escencial, mientras que se utilizó un ensayo de microdilución para evaluar la actividad antimicrobial. Se identificaron los componentes principales en el aceite escencial del rizoma, compuesto de ß - pineno (46.5%), ß - fellandreno (25.7%) y α - pineno (8.5%). El aceite escencial estudiado inhibió el crecimie nto de Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853 con concentraciones de actividad mínima inhibitoria (MIC) de 15.32 µg/mL ± 0.01, y una m ediana de concentración inhibitoria (IC 50 ) de 32.0 ± 0.01 µg/mL. El aceite escencial también mostró actividad contra Staphylococ cus aureus ATCC25923 (MIC 31.57 ± 0.01 µg/mL) y Bacillus cereus ATCC14579 (MIC, 34.21 µg/mL ± 0.01 µg/mL), y valor IC 50 de 64.0 ± 0.01 µg/mL. Este es el primer reporte sobre la composición del aceite de rizoma, así como de las propiedades antimicrobianas d e los aceites escenciales de A. menghaiensis . El artículo discute el análisis comparativo de los aceites escenciales de A. menghaiensis .


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Alpinia/chemistry , Vietnam , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Alpinia/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
2.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2023. 180 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437402

ABSTRACT

Diversas evidências científicas demonstram que o consumo de ácidos graxos trans está associado com mortes por doenças cardiovasculares. A OMS, em 2018, considerando a presença de ácidos graxos trans nos alimentos recomendou a sua total eliminação até o ano de 2023. Sendo assim, no Brasil, em 2019, a RDC 332 aborda que a partir de 01 de janeiro de 2023 estarão proibidas a produção e a importação de ácidos graxos trans em alimentos destinados ao consumo humano. Atualmente, a legislação que está em vigor sobre ácidos graxos trans é a RDC 54, da ANVISA, que estabelece que, somente os alimentos que apresentarem teores de ácidos graxos trans ≤ 0,1 g por porção e somatória de ácidos graxos saturados e ácidos graxos trans até 1,5 g por porção podem alegar zero trans na rotulagem nutricional. As bolachas recheadas e bolachas wafers são importantes representantes de alimentos ultraprocessados, sendo muito consumidas por adultos e principalmente por crianças pelo seu baixo custo e acessibilidade. A partir destas considerações, o objetivo desse estudo foi o de avaliar os teores de ácidos graxos trans e ácidos graxos saturados por cromatografia gasosa em bolachas recheadas e bolachas wafers, comercializadas no Estado de São Paulo, analisando os teores dos ácidos graxos e comparando com a RDC 54. Em 2018 e 2019, foram analisadas 65 bolachas recheadas, e 40 bolachas wafers, as bolachas foram divididas entre as que possuíam ácidos graxos trans nos rótulos, e as que possuíam a ausência dessa gordura. Os teores de ácidos graxos trans encontrados nas bolachas com a presença de ácidos graxos trans na rotulagem, variaram de 0,34 a 5,21 g por 100 g e 0,19 e 8,54 g por 100 g nas bolachas recheadas e nas bolachas wafers, respectivamente. Diante disso, constatou-se que algumas marcas de bolachas recheadas e bolachas wafers apresentaram grandes quantidades de gordura trans em sua composição. Em relação às bolachas recheadas e wafers com a ausência de gordura trans nos rótulos, todas as bolachas estavam em acordo com a legislação vigente em relação aos valores menores ou iguais a 0,1 g de gordura trans por porção, porém, em relação à somatória de ácidos graxos trans e ácidos graxos saturados de até 1,5 g por porção, todas estavam com valores superiores, dessa maneira, os fabricantes dessas bolachas não poderiam alegar zero trans na rotulagem nutricional, e por isto, estavam em desacordo com a legislação vigente. Em 2022, foram reanalisadas seis amostras de bolachas recheadas e quatro amostras de bolachas wafers, que em 2018 apresentaram altos teores de ácidos graxos trans. Também foram analisadas três bolachas wafers que em 2022 ainda apresentavam altos teores de gorduras trans nos rótulos. Os resultados dessas amostras demonstraram que em 2022 ainda há em supermercados brasileiros, bolachas com altos teores de ácidos graxos trans e ácidos graxos saturados em sua composição. Diante disso, ratifica-se a necessidade do cumprimento da legislação vigente e da RDC 332 em 2023 e de fiscalizações mais frequentes pelos órgãos competentes, devido aos malefícios do consumo dos ácidos graxos trans para a saúde da população


There is a lot of scientific evidence showing that consumption of trans fatty acids is associated with deaths from cardiovascular diseases. The WHO in 2018, considering the presence of trans fatty acids in foods, recommended their total elimination by the year 2023. Therefore, in Brazil in 2019, RDC 332 addresses that from January 1, 2023, the production and the importation of trans fatty acids in foods intended for human consumption are prohibited. Currently, the legislation in force on trans fatty acids is ANVISA's RDC 54, this RDC establishes that only foods that have trans fatty acids contents ≤ 0.1 g per serving and the sum of saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids up to 1.5 g per serving can claim zero trans on nutrition labels. Stuffed cookies and wafer cookies are important representatives of ultra-processed foods, being widely consumed by adults and especially children due to their low cost and accessibility. Based on these considerations, the objective of this study was to evaluate the contents of trans fatty acids and saturated fatty acids by gas chromatography (AOAC method 996.06) in stuffed cookies and wafers cookies, commercialized in the State of São Paulo, analyzing the contents of the fatty acids and comparing with RDC 54. In 2018 and 2019, 65 stuffed cookies and 40 wafers cookies were analyzed, the cookies were divided between those that had trans fatty acids on the labels, and those that had the absence of this fat. The levels of trans fatty acids found in the cookies with the presence of trans fatty acids on the label ranged from 0.34 to 5.21 g per 100 g and 0.19 and 8.54 g per 100 g in the stuffed cookies and wafers cookies, respectively. Therefore, it was found that some brands of stuffed cookies and wafers cookies had large amounts of trans fat in their composition. Regarding the stuffed cookies and wafers cookies with the absence of trans fat on the labels, all cookies were in accordance with current legislation in relation to values less than or equal to 0.1 g of trans fat per serving, but in relation to the sum of acids trans fatty acids and saturated fatty acids up to 1.5 g per serving, all had higher values, thus, the manufacturers of these cookies could not claim zero trans on the nutrition label, and therefore, they were in disagreement with the current legislation. In 2022, six samples of stuffed cookies and four samples of wafers were reanalyzed, which in 2018 had high levels of trans fatty acids. Three wafers were also analyzed, which in 2022 still had high levels of trans fats on the labels. The results of these samples showed that in 2022 there are still cookies in brazilian supermarkets with high levels of trans fatty acids and saturated fatty acids in their composition. In view of this, the need to comply with current legislation and RDC 332 in 2023 and more frequent inspections by competent institutions are ratified, due to the harmful effects of the consumption of trans fatty acids on the health of the population


Subject(s)
Brazil/ethnology , Trans Fatty Acids/analysis , Cookies , Fatty Acids/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Minors/classification , Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency , Nutritional Sciences/classification
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21088, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439546

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was aimed at conducting phytochemical analysis and evaluating the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of the essential oil obtained from the fruits of J. oxycedrus L. Hydro-distillation was used to extract the essential oil from the fruits of Juniper oxycedrus. The essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The antioxidant activity of the essential oil against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals was determined in vitro using varying concentrations of the essential oil and vitamin C as a standard antioxidant compound. A disc diffusion test was employed to evaluate the antifungal activity of the essential oil against two test fungal strains, Penicillium citrinum, and Aspergillus niger. The results revealed that 49 constituents were identified in fruit oil, representing 91.56% of the total oil and the yield was 1.58%. Juniper fruit oil was characterized by having high contents of ß-pinene (42.04%), followed by limonene (15.45%), sabinene (9.52%), α-pinene (5.21%), (E)-caryophyllene (3.77%), ρ-cymene (1.56%), caryophyllene oxide (2.02%), and myrcene (1.02%). The radical scavenging activity (% inhibition) of the essential oil was highest (81.87± 2.83%) at a concentration of 200 µg/mL. The essential oil of J. oxycedrus exhibited antifungal activity against A. niger and P. citrinum with minimum inhibitory concentration values (MIC) ranging from 2.89 to 85.01 µl/mL. The findings of the study reveal that the antioxidant and antifungal properties of J. oxycedrus essential oil and their chemical composition are significantly correlated


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/analysis , Juniperus/adverse effects , Phytochemicals/analysis , Fruit/classification , Morocco/ethnology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Mass Spectrometry/methods , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
4.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 99 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396713

ABSTRACT

O principal hormônio associado aos processos do amadurecimento é o etileno, porém, na formação de compostos voláteis nos frutos, observa-se que as auxinas, o ácido abscísico e os jasmonatos também podem atuar como reguladores. Estudos indicam que em frutos climatéricos deve haver uma interação entre o metil jasmonato (MeJA) e o etileno na formação de compostos voláteis, mas em frutos não-climatéricos tal interação não é tão evidente. Há evidências de que o MeJA atue na regulação de algumas vias metabólicas relacionadas ao amadurecimento em frutos, sendo capaz de induzir aumento na produção de várias classes de compostos voláteis, através da expressão de genes que codificam as enzimas relacionadas às suas vias biossintéticas. Neste sentido, o objetivo deste projeto foi avaliar o efeito do metil jasmonato sobre o padrão de produção de compostos voláteis do aroma em frutos climatéricos e não-climatéricos. Precedentes do laboratório de Química, Bioq. e Biol. Molecular de Alimentos indicam que o MeJA apresentou padrões diferentes de comportamento em frutos climatéricos e não-climatéricos no que tange a formação do aroma. Assim, o presente projeto tem por hipótese a diferença de influência que o MeJA exerce sobre a produção de compostos voláteis em frutos climatéricos e não-climatéricos. Para testar esta hipótese foi avaliado o efeito do tratamento com MeJA na produção de compostos voláteis do aroma durante o amadurecimento de banana (Musa acuminata, cv. Nanicão), como exemplo de fruto climatérico e laranja (Citrus sinensis cv Pêra) para não-climatéricos. Os frutos foram divididos em grupo controle e tratado com MeJA (10 ppm/24h), armazenados em caixas plásticas tampadas e lacradas. Após tratamento foram submetidos a análises diárias da produção de etileno por cromatrogafia gasosa (CG), cor da casca e pesagem. Baseado em escalas de cor e a polpa foi congelada em N2 líq. e armazenada a -80°C para posterior análise dos compostos voláteis por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (GC-MS). Ésteres, álcoois, cetonas e aldeídos foram compostos majoritariamente identificados na banana e terpenos, aldeídos, ésteres na laranja. As Bananas sofreram influência no perfil de acetato de isoamila, butonoato de butila, isobutirato de isoamila e isolvalerato de isoamila do começo ao fim do tratamento com MeJA, e as laranjas o tratamento influenciou os compostos Cis-muirola-3-5-diene, gamageraniol, alfa-copaeno, valenceno, alfa-pineno, carvone, geranial, entre outros terpenos, aldeídos como 3-hexanal e 2-hexenal (E) e ésteres como butirato de etila, nerol e tiglato de etilo. Os ésteres em frutos são produzidos por várias isoformas das álcool acil transferases (AATs). Estudos explicam que, ao menos 31 transcritos de AATs foram identificados em bananas, sendo 8 com altos níveis de expressão. Assim, é plausível supor que tal variedade de transcritos, e por conseguinte as AATs que codificam, sejam reguladas por múltiplos fatores, o que pode incluir o MeJa dentre outros sinais hormonais. Os terpenos são formados a partir de duas rotas, a do ácido mevalônico (MVA) e a rota do metileritritol fosfato (MEP). Compostos como, D-limoneno (51) e beta-selineno (62) tiveram níveis relativos maiores nos frutos do grupo controle, enquanto compostos terpênicos como geranial (59), valenceno (79) e o-cimeno (128), apresentaram maiores níveis nos frutos tratados com MeJa, no primeiro dia após o tratamento. Os resultados mostraram que o tratamento hormonal com MeJA causou mudanças do início ao fim do amadurecimento na composição do aroma de bananas (Musa acuminata cv Nanicão) e laranjas (Citrus sinensis cv Pera)


The main hormone associated with ripening processes is ethylene, but in the formation of volatile compounds in fruits, auxins, abscisic acid and jasmonates can also act as regulators. Studies indicate that in climacteric fruits there should be an interaction between methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and ethylene in the formation of volatile compounds, but in nonclimacteric fruits such interaction is not so evident. There is evidence that MeJA acts in the regulation of some metabolic pathways related to fruit ripening, being able to induce an increase in the production of several classes of volatile compounds, through the expression of genes that encode enzymes related to their biosynthetic pathways. In this sense, the objective of this project was to evaluate the effect of methyl jasmonate on the production pattern of aroma volatile compounds in climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. Precedents from the Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Bioq. and Molecular Biol. Molecular Chemistry, Bioq. and Molecular Biol. of Foods laboratory indicate that MeJA showed different behavior patterns in climacteric and non-climacteric fruits regarding aroma formation. Thus, the present project hypothesizes the different influence that MeJA has on the production of volatile compounds in climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. To test this hypothesis the effect of MeJA treatment on the production of volatile aroma compounds during ripening of banana (Musa acuminata, cv. Nanicão) as an example for climacteric fruit and orange (Citrus sinensis cv Pêra) for non-climacteric fruit was evaluated. Fruits were divided into control and MeJA treated group (10 ppm/24h), stored in capped and sealed plastic boxes. After treatment they were subjected to daily analysis of ethylene production by gas chromatography (GC), peel color and weighing. Based on color scales and the pulp was frozen in liquid N2 and stored at -80°C for subsequent analysis of volatile compounds by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Esters, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes were compounds mostly identified in banana and terpenes, aldehydes, esters in orange. Bananas were influenced in the profile of isoamyl acetate, butyl butonoate, isoamyl isobutyrate and isoamyl isolvalerate from the beginning to the end of the MeJA treatment, and oranges the treatment influenced the compounds Cis-myrola-3-5-diene, gamma-geraniol, alpha-copaene, valencene, alpha-pinene, carvone, geranial, among other terpenes, aldehydes like 3-hexanal and 2-hexenal (E), and esters like ethyl butyrate, nerol, and ethyl tiglate. Esters in fruits are produced by various isoforms of the alcohol acyl transferases (AATs). Studies explain that at least 31 AAT transcripts have been identified in bananas, 8 of which have high expression levels. Thus, it is plausible to assume that such a variety of transcripts, and therefore the AATs they encode, are regulated by multiple factors, which may include MeJa among other hormonal signals. Terpenes are formed from two routes, the mevalonic acid (MVA) route and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) route. Compounds such as, D-limonene (51) and beta-selinene (62) had higher relative levels in the fruits of the control group, while terpenic compounds such as geranial (59), valencene (79) and o-cymene (128), showed higher levels in the MeJa treated fruits on the first day after treatment. The results showed that the hormonal treatment with MeJA caused changes from the beginning to the end of ripening in the aroma composition of bananas (Musa acuminata cv Nanicão) and oranges (Citrus sinensis cv Pera)


Subject(s)
Musa/classification , Citrus sinensis/classification , Food , Fruit/classification , Odorants/analysis , Phosphates/antagonists & inhibitors , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Food Chemistry , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Acetates/antagonists & inhibitors
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e21609, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420501

ABSTRACT

Abstract The potential of the biome caatinga (exclusive from northeastern Brazil) has been evaluated in recent research for application in the pharmaceutical industry. Among the species of medicinal plants from caatinga, one can highlight the Commiphora leptophloeos (umburana), which has been used as infusions and syrups by the regional population for inflammatory and infectious diseases. Essential oils from umburana leaves and barks were obtained in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and total phenolic and flavonoids were determined by spectrophotometric analysis. It was observed that a large part of the major compounds present in the essential oil is described as having antitumor activity, enabling research in investigational oncology with umburana (C. leptophloeos). In addition, some little explored components have been identified, such as cadinene, alpha-selinene, and elemenone. Despite being easily found in several plants, there are no clinical trials involving their biological activity in a well-defined isolated form, which could make exploring new studies possible. Furthermore, the presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids allows future studies about the potential antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/classification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Plant Leaves/classification , Bursera/adverse effects , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Drug Industry/classification
6.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 296-299, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935796

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a method for the determination of butyronitrile and isobutyronitrile in the air of workplace by gas chromatography. Methods: In March 2020, butyronitrile and isobutyronitrile in the air of workplace was collected by silica gel, eluted with methanol, separated and determined by gas chromatogram with flame ionization detector, the characteristics of determination of nitrile and isobutyronitrile by gas chromatography were analyzed. Results: The limit of detection for butyronitrile and isobutyronitrile was 0.33 μg/ml. The linear range of butyronitrile determined by this method was 1.60-1600.00 μg/ml, y=2.295x-3.480, and the coefficient correlation was 0.99998, and the minimum detection concentration was 0.22 mg/m(3) (collected sample volume was 1.50 L) . The within-run precisions were 2.43%-4.12%, the between-run precisions were 1.72%-3.70%, and the desorption rates were 93.26%-98.41%. The linear range of isobutyronitrile determined by this method was 1.52-1520.00 μg/ml, y=2.208x-0.102, and the coefficient correlation was 0.99998, and the minimum detection concentration was 0.22 mg/m(3) (collected sample volume was 1.50 L) . The within-run precisions were 2.52%-3.22%, the between-run precisions were 1.20%-3.82%, and the desorption rates were 96.85%-102.50%. The sealed samples could be stored at least 10 days at room temperature without significant loss. Conclusion: The method has the advantages of good precision, high sensitivity and simple operation. It is suitable for the simultaneous determination of butyronitrile and isobutyronitrile in the air of workplace.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Nitriles , Workplace
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20735, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420479

ABSTRACT

Abstract Herein the chemical constituents and the anti-pain properties of the essential oil from the stem bark of Casuarina equisetifolia L. (Casuarinaceae) grown in Nigeria were evaluated. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation method in an all glass Clevenger-type apparatus, and characterized by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The hot plate method was used to determine the anti-nociceptive property whereas the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced and formalin experimental models. The pale-yellow essential oil was obtained in yield of 0.21% (v/w), calculated on a dry weight basis. The main constituents of the essential oil were methyl salicylate (30.4%), a-zingiberene (15.5%), (E)-anethole (9.5%), b-bisabolene (8.6%), b- sesquiphellandrene (6.9%), and ar-curcumene (6.2%). In the anti-nociceptive study, the rate of inhibition increases as the doses of essential oil increases with optimum activity at the 30th and 60th min for all tested doses. The essential oil displayed anti-nociceptive activity independently of reaction time at the highest tested dose (200 mg/kg). The essential oil of C. equisetifolia moderately reduced pain responses in early and late phases of the formalin test. The oil inhibited the paw licking in the neurogenic phase (60-63%) compared to the late phase of the formalin test. The carrageenan- induced oedema model revealed the suppression of inflammatory mediators within the 1st - 3rd h. Thus, C. equisetifolia essential oil displayed both anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities independent of the dose tested. The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of C. equisetifolia essential oil are herein reported for the first time


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Plant Stems/anatomy & histology , Plant Bark/classification , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Carrageenan/adverse effects , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission/methods , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods
8.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(4): e3901, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289616

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Uno de los derivados de los clorofenoles más utilizado en Estomatología, lo constituye el p-clorofenol (4-clorofenol), empleado como agente antibacteriano en la desinfección del conducto radicular durante el tratamiento pulporradicular. Son escasos los reportes científicos sobre sus efectos en la musculatura lisa vascular arterial y la regulación del flujo sanguíneo local. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto del 4-clorofenol sobre el músculo liso vascular de aorta abdominal de ratas Wistar. Material y Métodos: Se realizó una investigación experimental preclínica, utilizando 30 anillos de aorta abdominal (porción superior) obtenidos de ratas Wistar adultas. Las preparaciones de unos 5 mm se colocaron en baño de órganos, registrándose la tensión desarrollada por el músculo liso vascular tras la adición de 4-clorofenol en diferentes concentraciones y durante diferentes intervalos de tiempo. Resultados: El 4-clorofenol, tras la preactivación del musculo liso vascular de anillos de aorta abdominal, indujo relajación del vaso, la que se incrementó durante todo el tiempo de estudio y al aumento de la concentración del medicamento. Existieron diferencias significativas entre los valores de tensión promedios registrados en los diferentes intervalos de tiempo con los de la tensión base inicial. Conclusiones: El p-clorofenol indujo in vitro, relajación del músculo liso vascular de aorta abdominal de ratas Wistar(AU)


Introduction: In Dentistry, p-chlorophenol (4-chlorophenol) is one of the most widely used derivatives of chlorophenols. It is used as an antibacterial agent in root canal disinfection during pulp-radicular treatment. There are few scientific reports on its effects on vascular smooth musculature and the regulation of local blood flow. Objective: To determine the effect of 4-chlorophenol on vascular smooth muscle of abdominal aorta from Wistar rats. Material and Methods: A preclinical experimental research was carried out using 30 abdominal aortic rings (upper portion) obtained from adult Wistar rats. The preparations of about 5 mm were placed in an organ bath, recording the tension developed by the vascular smooth muscle after the addition of 4-chlorophenol at different concentrations and during different time intervals. Results: The results demonstrate that 4-Chlorophenol induced vasorelaxation after the preactivation of the vascular smooth muscle of the abdominal aortic rings, which increased during the entire study time and with increased drug concentration. There were significant differences among average tension values registered at different intervals of time in relation to the initial base tension. Conclusions: It is concluded that in vitro, p-chlorophenol induced relaxation of abdominal aorta vascular smooth muscle in Wistar rats(AU)


Subject(s)
Rats , Oral Medicine , Dentistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , In Vitro Techniques , Chlorophenols/therapeutic use , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Rats, Wistar
9.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(2): e1104, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347458

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las plantas medicinales han demostrado poseer propiedades antibacterianas para el control de la periodontitis. Objetivo: Determinar la actividad antibacteriana frente a Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 de un gel experimental compuesto por aceite esencial de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio experimental in vitro. Se empleó el programa EPi InfoTM para el cálculo de las repeticiones. El aceite esencial se obtuvo por el método de arrastre de vapor; se identificó su composición química por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Se evaluó la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI) y concentración mínima bactericida (CMB). Se realizó un ensayo de difusión en Agar para medir los halos de inhibición del gel experimental al 4,46 por ciento frente a P. gingivalis, la comparación con clorhexidina al 0,12 por ciento se evaluó con la prueba U de Mann-Whitney. Se adoptó un nivel de significancia del 5 por ciento . Resultados: Se identificaron 11 constituyentes en el aceite esencial, los principales componentes químicos fueron 3-heptadecene, (Z)- (36,13 por ciento ), 1-tridecene (14,7 por ciento ) y 1,8-cineole (9,72 por ciento ). La CMI del aceite esencial fue 36,195 mg/mL y la CMB fue 39,114 mg/mL. Los halos de inhibición del gel experimental de P. gingivalis fueron 25,533 mm ± 0,960. mm. Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas frente a clorhexidina al 0,12 por ciento (23,282 ± 0,345) (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: El gel experimental al 4,46 por ciento compuesto por aceite esencial de Eucalyptus globulus Labill presentó una actividad antibacteriana importante frente a Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277(AU)


Introduction: Medicinal plants have proved to have antibacterial properties for the control of periodontitis. Objective: Determine the antibacterial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 of an experimental gel composed of essential Eucalyptus globulus Labill oil. Methods: An in vitro experimental study was conducted. The software EPi InfoTM was used to estimate the repetitions. The essential oil was obtained by steam entrainment, and its chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were also evaluated. An agar diffusion test was performed to measure the inhibition haloes of the 4.46 percent experimental gel against P. gingivalis. Comparison with 0.12 percent chlorhexidine was evaluated with the Mann-Whitney U test. A 5 percent significance level was adopted. Results: A total 11 constituents were identified in the essential oil. The main chemical components were 3-Heptadecene, (Z)- (36.13 percent), 1-Tridecene (14.7 percentand 1,8-cineole (9.72 percent). MIC of the essential oil was 36.195 mg/ml, whereas MBC was 39.114 mg/ml. The inhibition haloes of the experimental P. gingivalis gel were 25.533 mm ± 0.960 mm. Statistically significant differences were observed versus 0.12 percent chlorhexidine (23.282 ± 0.345) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The 4.46 percent experimental gel composed of Eucalyptus globulus Labill essential oil displayed considerable antibacterial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Periodontitis , Oils, Volatile , Chlorhexidine , Mass Spectrometry/methods , In Vitro Techniques , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
10.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 244-259, may. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342818

ABSTRACT

Essential oils from the leaves and stems of Croton adenocalyx, C. grewioides, C. heliotropiifoliusand C. blanchetianus obtained through hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC-MS. We then investigated the lethal and sublethal effects of the Croton oils and 15 major constituents against Tetranychus urticae. ß-Caryophyllene was the major component in the leaf and stem oils from C. heliotropiifolius and C. adenocalyx. Spathulenol and (E)-anethole were the major constituents identified in the leaf and stem oils of C. blanchetianus and C. grewioides, respectively. The oil with the greatest lethal and sublethal effects was those from C. adenocalyx. Among the constituents ß-caryophyllene and spatulenol were the most toxic to the mite, where as eugenol and methyl eugenol were the most repellent. The toxicity and repellency of the Croton oils, particularly the oils from C. adenocalyx, demonstrate that these oils constitute a promising alternative to synthetic acaricides for use in the control of T. urticae.


Los aceites esenciales de las hojas y tallos de Croton adenocalyx, C. growioides, C. heliotropiifolius y C. blanchetianus obtenidos mediante hidrodestilación fueron analizados a través de GC-MS. Se investigaron los efectos letales y subletales de los aceites de Croton y 15 componentes principales contra Tetranychus urticae. El ß-cariofileno fue el componente principal en los aceites de hojas y tallos de C. heliotropiifolius y C. adenocalyx. El espatulenol y el (E)-anetol fueron los principales componentes identificados en los aceites de hojas y tallos de C. blanchetianus y C. growioides, respectivamente. El aceite con los mayores efectos letales y subletales fue el de C. adenocalyx. Entre los componentes, el ß-cariofileno y el espatulenol fueron los más tóxicos para el ácaro, mientras que el eugenol y el metil eugenol fueron los más repelentes. La toxicidad y la repelencia de los aceites de Croton, particularmente los aceites de C. adenocalyx, demuestran que estos aceites constituyen una alternativa prometedora respecto a los acaricidas sintéticos para uso en el control de T. urticae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Croton/chemistry , Tetranychidae/drug effects , Acaricides/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Plant Leaves , Acaricides/chemistry
11.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 127 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379383

ABSTRACT

Estenose de Junção Ureteropélvica (JUP) é uma doença caracterizada pelo bloqueio do fluxo de urina da pelve renal (porção proximal do ureter no rim) ao ureter, tubo que liga o rim à bexiga. Essa formação congênita é uma das maiores causas de dilatação do rim (hidronefrose) em recém-nascidos e, em alguns casos, pode causar danos mais severos ao órgão. A hidronefrose causada pela estenose de JUP pode desaparecer espontaneamente sem perda da função renal, entretanto, é preciso um acompanhamento clínico. Por outro lado, em casos mais severos, onde a dilatação pode causar danos maiores ao rim, um tratamento cirúrgico se faz necessário. Embora existam métodos para o diagnóstico da estenose de JUP, como ultrassonografia, tomografia computadorizada, ressonância e cintilografia, é um grande desafio diferenciar os pacientes que requerem um tratamento cirúrgico e os que necessitam apenas de um acompanhamento convencional. A metabolômica global, que investiga de modo comparativo o conjunto de metabólitos de baixa massa molecular expressos em indivíduos em condições pré-selecionadas, tem o potencial de servir como ferramenta diagnóstica para os pacientes com estenose de JUP e, consequentemente, auxiliar na tomada de decisão entre um acompanhamento clínico ou tratamento cirúrgico. Assim sendo, no presente trabalho, três grupos de pacientes com estenose de JUP, pré-diagnosticados por métodos convencionais, foram investigados sob a perspectiva da metabolômica global, por meio de análises de urina, utilizando cromatografia gasosa e cromatografia líquida, ambas acoplada à espectrometria de massas (GC-MS e RPLC10 MS, respectivamente): pacientes que requerem tratamento cirúrgico (CIR), pacientes que requerem acompanhamento clínico (CLI), e indivíduos sãos (CON). Os resultados mostram que é possível encontrar metabólitos discriminantes entre todas as comparações (CON x CLI, CON x CIR e CLI x CIR); os metabólitos encontrados nas análises multivariada e univariada foram utilizados para construção da curva ROC, para confirmar a possibilidade de utilização desses compostos como biomarcadores. Foram observadas alterações em rotas metabólicas importantes para o bom funcionamento das funções renais, principalmente entre a comparação mais desafiadora (CLI x CIR), como o metabolismo da fenilalanina, da tirosina, da beta-alanina, dos aminoaçúcares e dos nucleotídeos. Há indícios de que o ciclo de Krebs também sofre alteração. Os resultados obtidos podem servir como ponto de partida para uma futura análise alvo e validação biológica


Ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) stenosis is a disease characterized by the interruption of the flow of urine from the renal pelvis (proximal part of ureter in the kidney) to the ureter, tube that links the kidney to bladder. That congenital formation is one of the main causes of kidney dilation (hydronephrosis) in newborns and, sometimes, can cause more serious damage to the organ. The hydronephrosis caused by UPJ stenosis can disappear spontaneously without compromising renal function, although a clinical follow-up is required. On the other hand, in more serious cases, when dilation can induce larger damage to the kidney, surgery intervention is necessary. Although there are methods to diagnose UPJ stenosis, such as ultrasound, computed tomography, resonance and scintigraphy, it is still a great challenge to distinguish patients that require surgery from those whose a clinical follow-up suffices. Global metabolomics, a method that investigates in a comparative manner the set of low molecular mass metabolites expressed by an individual in pre-selected conditions, has the potential to function as a diagnostic tool for patients with UPJ stenosis to support decisions about patient treatment, i.e., surgery versus clinical follow-up. In this work, three groups of UPJ stenosis patients were investigated with the aid of global metabolomics using urine analysis by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS and RPLC-MS, respectively): one group consisted of UPJ stenosis patients requiring clinical follow-up (CLI), other group UPJ stenosis patients requiring surgery intervention (CIR) and a third group comprising healthy individuals, the control group (CON).12 The results show that it was possible to find discriminant metabolites among all pairwise comparisons (CON versus CLI, CON versus CIR and CLI versus CIR). The metabolites found by multivariate and univariate analyses were used to build ROC curves, to confirm whether it is possible to use them as biomarkers. Alterations in metabolic pathways that are important for the good maintenance of kidney functions were found, especially in the most challenged comparison (CLI versus CIR), such as the metabolism of phenylalanine, tyrosine, beta-alanine, amino acids and nucleotides. There are evidences that Krebs cycle was also impacted. The results obtained here can serve as a starting point to future targeted analysis and biological validation


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Child , Constriction, Pathologic/pathology , Metabolomics/classification , Phenylalanine/agonists , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Urinary Bladder/abnormalities , Biomarkers/chemistry , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/instrumentation , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Chromatography, Liquid/methods
12.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(1): 61-70, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284444

ABSTRACT

Identification of the chemical compositionof essential oils is very important for ensuring the quality of finished herbal products. The objective of the study was to analyze the chemical components present in the essential oils of five Beilschmiediaspecies (i.e. B. kunstleri, B. maingayi, B. penangiana, B. madang, and B. glabra) by multivariate data analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) methods. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and fully characterized by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 108 chemical components were successfully identified from the essential oils of five Beilschmiediaspecies. The essential oils were characterized by high proportions of ß-caryophyllene (B.kunstleri), δ-cadinene (B. penangianaand B. madang), and ß-eudesmol (B. maingayiand B. glabra). Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) revealed that chemical similarity was highest for all samples, except for B. madang. The multivariate data analysis may be used for the identification and characterization of essential oils from different Beilschmiediaspecies that are to be used as raw materials of traditional herbal products.


La identificación de la composición química de los aceites esenciales es muy importante para garantizar la calidad de los productos herbales terminados. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar los componentes químicos presentes en los aceites esenciales de cinco especies de Beilschmiedia (B. kunstleri, B. maingayi, B. penangiana, B. madangy B. glabra) mediante análisis de datos multivariados utilizando los métodos de análisis de componente principal (PCA) y análisis de agrupamiento jerárquico (HCA). Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación y se caracterizaron completamente por cromatografía de gases (GC) y cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). Se identificaron con éxito un total de 108 componentes químicos a partir de los aceites esenciales de las cinco especies de Beilschmiedia. Los aceites esenciales se caracterizaron por altas proporciones de ß-cariofileno (B. kunstleri), δ-cadineno (B. penangianay B. madang) y ß-eudesmol (B. maingayiy B. glabra). El análisis de componentes principales (PCA) y el análisis de conglomerados jerárquicos (HCA) revelaron que la similitud química fue más alta para todas las muestras, excepto para B. madang. El análisis de datos multivariados puede usarse para la identificación y caracterización de aceites esenciales de diferentes especies de Beilschmiedia que se utilizan como materias primas de productos herbales tradicionales.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lauraceae/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Cluster Analysis , Distillation , Multivariate Analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Principal Component Analysis , Monoterpenes/analysis
13.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 200-208, abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115489

ABSTRACT

ANTECEDENTES: Se desconoce el contenido de grasas saturada (GS) y trans (Gtrans) en panes sin etiqueta y sin vigilancia por entidad regulatoria de Colombia. PROPÓSITO: Comparar el contenido de GS y Gtrans en panes de algunas panaderías de Medellín con lo reglamentado: 0,5 g/50 g de pan, para ambos tipos de grasa según resolución 2508 de 2012 del Ministerio de Salud. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se muestrearon 45 panes de tres tipos (aliñado, leche y croissant) en tres niveles socioeconómicos (NSE) según ubicación de la panadería. Se cuantificó grasa total gravimétricamente y GS y Gtrans por cromatografía de gases. RESULTADOS: El porcentaje de GS y Gtrans con respecto a la grasa total extraíble fue 43,8% y 0,6% en pan aliñado, 37,4% y 0,6% en pan leche y 32,2% y 0,9% en pan croissant, sin diferencia significativa entre ellos (p= 0,155 y 0,184, respectivamente). CONCLUSIONES: Comparado con la resolución 2508, el contenido de GS fue mayor al límite establecido en resolución y el contenido de Gtrans fue menor en pan aliñado, leche o croissant. Los panes evaluados en las panaderías del NSE bajo contenían mayor Gtrans que los otros.


BACKGROUND: The content of saturated (GS) and trans (Gtrans) fats in unlabeled and breads that are not regulated by the Colombian government is unknown. PURPOSE: To compare the content of GS and Gtrans in breads of bakeries in Medellín with the following regulation: 0.5 g/50 g of bread, for both types of fat according to the 2012 Ministry of Health resolution #2508. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 45 breads of three types (seasoned, milk and croissant) were sampled at bakeries from three socioeconomic levels (NSE) according to the location. Total fat was quantified gravimetrically and GS and Gtrans by gas chromatography. RESULTS: The percentage of GS and Gtrans with respect to the total extractable fat was 43.8% and 0.6% in seasoned bread, 37.4% and 0.6% in milk bread and 32.2% and 0.9% in croissant bread, with no significant difference by bread type (p= 0.155 and 0.184, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: GS content of sampled breadswas greater than the limit established in the resolution. Gtrans content was lower in seasoned bread andmilk bread compared to croissant. The breads evaluated in the bakeries of lower NSE contained higher Gtrans than the others.


Subject(s)
Bread/analysis , Dietary Fats/analysis , Trans Fatty Acids/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Colombia , Flame Ionization/methods
14.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(1): 61-68, mar. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130580

ABSTRACT

El uso de bisfenol-A (BPA) a nivel de la industria global se ha venido incrementando en los ultimos anos, y fueron los mercados emergentes los impulsores de esta demanda creciente. Las aplicaciones de BPA en la industria de los alimentos y bebidas representan solo del 3 al 4% del consumo global de policarbonato, pero su uso esta siendo reexaminado debido a que se conocieron varios trabajos cientificos que indican la existencia de una relacion directa entre el BPA y los efectos adversos para la salud. La contaminacion de los alimentos y bebidas se produce por migracion del BPA desde los envases que los contienen (alimentos enlatados, vinos, etc.), y es la principal fuente de exposicion en el humano. Para evaluar dicha exposicion se desarrollo y valido un metodo analitico por cromatografia gaseosa acoplada a espectrometria de masa para la cuantificacion de BPA total en orina de mujeres embarazadas atendidas en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires en el ano 2013, con un limite de cuantificacion de 2,0 ng/mL y un limite de deteccion de 0,8 ng/mL. De las 149 muestras de orina analizadas, el 66,4% fueron cuantificables, con la mediana de BPA total de 4,8 ng/mL (4,3 ng/mg de creatinina) y la media geometrica de 4,8 ng/mL (4,7 ng/mg de creatinina).


The use of bisphenol-A (BPA) at the level of the global industry has been increasing in recent years, with emerging markets being the drivers of this growing demand. BPA applications in the food and beverage industry represent only 3 to 4% of the global consumption of polycarbonate, but its use is being reexamined because several scientific works were reported indicating the existence of a direct relationship between BPA and adverse effects on health. The contamination of food and beverages is produced by the migration of BPA from the containers that hold them (canned foods, wines, etc.) and it is the main source of exposure in humans. To evaluate this exposure, an analytical method was developed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for the quantification of total BPA in urine of pregnant women treated at the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires in 2013, with a limit of quantification of 2.0 ng/mL and of detection of 0.8 ng/mL. Of the 149 urine samples analyzed, 66.4% were quantifiable, with a median total BPA of 4.8 ng/mL (4.3 ng/mg creatinine) and a geometric mean of 4.8 ng/mL (4.7 ng/mg creatinine).


O uso de bisfenol-A (BPA) ao nivel da industria global foi aumentando nos ultimos anos, e foram os mercados emergentes que deram impulso a essa demanda crescente. As aplicacoes de BPA na industria de alimentos e bebidas representam apenas 3 a 4% do consumo global de policarbonato, mas seu uso esta sendo reexaminado visto que varios trabalhos cientificos indicando a existencia de uma relacao direta entre o BPA e os efeitos adversos na saude foram conhecidos. A contaminacao dos alimentos e bebidas e produzida pela migracao de BPA das embalagens que os contem (alimentos enlatados, vinhos, etc.) e e a principal fonte de exposicao em humanos. Para avaliar esta exposicao, foi desenvolvido e avaliado um metodo analitico por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas para a quantificacao do BPA total na urina de gestantes atendidas no Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires em 2013, com um limite de quantificacao de 2,0 ng/mL e um limite de deteccao de 0,8 ng/mL. Das 149 amostras de urina analisadas, 66,4% foram quantificaveis, com uma mediana de BPA total de 4,8 ng/mL (4,3 ng/mg de creatinina) e a media geometrica de 4,8 ng/mL (4,7 ng/mg de creatinina).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Urine , Pregnancy/urine , Endocrine Disruptors , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Toxicology/statistics & numerical data , Food Industry , Health , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Food and Beverages , Pregnant Women , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Food
15.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(6): 566-576, nov. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102643

ABSTRACT

This paper reports for the first time volatile compounds, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from the leaves of Waltheria indica L. (Stericullaceae) growing in Nigeria. The essential oil was hydro-distilled and characterized by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated on carrageenan induced rat paw edema while the anti-nociceptive test was based on hot plate model. The hydro-distillation afforded 0.41% (dry weight basis) of light green oil. Forty compounds representing 99.8% were identified in the oil. The main constituents of the oil were limonene (34.7%), sabinene (21.2%) and citronellal (9.7%). The anti-nociceptive property of the essential oils statically inhibited edema development (p<0.001) at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg independent of time of exposure. However, the 100 mg/kg Waltheria indica essential oils (WIEO) displayed a relatively low inhibition (p<0.01-p>0.5) which declines as exposure time increases. The anti-inflammatory activities shows a steady rate and non-dose dependent activity (p<0.001) up to the 3rd h of inflammation study. Conversely, a sharp reduction at the rate of p<0.5, 0.1 and 0.01 for the 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg WIEO doses respectively. Overall, the results presented sustain and establish the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties and justifies the need for further evaluation and development of the essential oils from this plant.


Este artículo informa por primera vez de compuestos volátiles, actividades anti-nociceptivas y antiinflamatorias de aceites esenciales de las hojas de Waltheria indica L. (Stericullaceae) que crecen en Nigeria. El aceite esencial fue hidro-destilado y se caracterizó por cromatografía de gases-detección de ionización de llama (GC-FID) y cromatografía de gases junto con análisis de espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). La actividad antiinflamatoria se evaluó en el edema de pata de rata inducido por carragenano, mientras que la prueba antinociceptiva se basó en el modelo de placa caliente. La destilación hidráulica proporcionó 0,41% (en peso seco) de aceite verde claro. Cuarenta compuestos que representan el 99.8% fueron identificados en el aceite. Los principales componentes del aceite fueron el limoneno (34,7%), el sabineno (21,2%) y el citronelal (9,7%). La propiedad anti-nociceptiva de los aceites esenciales inhibió estáticamente el desarrollo del edema (p<0.001) a una dosis de 200 y 400 mg/kg independientemente del tiempo de exposición. Sin embargo, los aceites esenciales de Waltheria indica de 100 mg/kg (WIEO) mostraron una inhibición relativamente baja (p<0.01-p>0.5) que disminuye a medida que aumenta el tiempo de exposición. Las actividades antiinflamatorias muestran una tasa constante y una actividad no dependiente de la dosis (p<0.001) hasta la tercera hora del estudio de inflamación. Por el contrario, una fuerte reducción a una tasa de p<0.5, 0.1 y 0.01 para las dosis de 100, 200 y 400 mg/kg de WIEO respectivamente. En general, los resultados presentados sostienen y establecen las propiedades anti-nociceptivas y antiinflamatorias y justifican la necesidad de una mayor evaluación y desarrollo de los aceites esenciales de esta planta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Malvaceae/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Temperature , Carrageenan/toxicity , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Rats, Wistar , Monoterpenes/analysis , Flame Ionization , Analgesics/pharmacology , Inflammation/chemically induced
16.
RFO UPF ; 24(2): 204-210, maio/ago. 2 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1049366

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: correlacionar os exames organolépticos (método subjetivo) e a cromatografia gasosa (método objetivo) para diagnóstico conclusivo da halitose e avaliar o comportamento dos compostos sulfurados voláteis (CSVs) durante o manuseio clínico desta patologia. Metodologia: estudo longitudinal com 19 pacientes submetidos ao diagnóstico de halitose, com exames organolépticos (EOt1) e cromatografia gasosa (ECGt1) realizados durante a consulta inicial, com todos os pacientes oriundos do município de Ijuí, Rio Grande do Sul. Todos os 38 exames complementares foram confrontados entre si, por meio do teste estatístico Qui-Quadrado de independência. Para acompanhamento clínico da efetividade do tratamento da halitose e, consequentemente, análise do comportamento dos CSVs, outros quatro exames de cromatografia gasosa (ECGt2, ECGt3, ECGt4 e ECGt5) foram realizados para cada paciente, e todos (95) comparados entre si, pelo teste de Wilcoxon. Resultados: a correlação entre EOt1 e ECGt1 obteve concordância em 78,9% dos casos, indicando forte associação (p = 0,002) entre ambos. Ao avaliar a monitorização dos compostos sulfurados H2S, CH3SH e (CH3)2S, todos envolvidos em alguma fase da gênese da halitose, houve significativa redução de todos os compostos. Conclusões: os exames de cromatografia gasosa (objetivo) e organoléptico (subjetivo) são equivalentes para diagnóstico inicial da halitose, pois apresentaram correlação estatística significante. Em relação à monitorização do tratamento da halitose, a cromatografia gasosa se mostrou eficiente, apresentando altos índices de redução de todos os CSVs. (AU)


Objectives: To correlate organoleptic evaluations (subjective method) and gas chromatography (objective method) for the conclusive diagnosis of halitosis and to examine the behavior of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) during the clinical management of this pathology. Methodology: Longitudinal study with 19 patients diagnosed with halitosis through organoleptic evaluations (EOt1) and gas chromatography (ECGt1), both applied during the initial appointment. All patients were from the city of Ijuí, located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. All 38 complementary analyses were compared using the chi-square test of independence. Regarding the clinical follow-up on the effectiveness of halitosis treatment, and consequently the analysis of VSC behavior, four other gas chromatography tests (ECGt2, ECGt3, ECGt4, and ECGt5) were conducted with each patient, and all (95) were compared using the Wilcoxon test. Results: The correlation between EOt1 and ECGt1 showed concordance in 78.9% of cases, indicating a strong association (p=0.002). The evaluation of the monitoring of sulfate compounds H2S, CH3SH, and (CH3) 2S, which are all involved in some phase of the halitosis genesis, showed a significant reduction of all compounds. Conclusions: The gas and chromatography and organoleptic tests are equivalent for the initial diagnosis of halitosis because they presented significant statistical correlation. Regarding the monitoring of halitosis treatment, gas chromatography was efficient, presenting high reduction rates of all VSC. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Sulfur Compounds/analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Halitosis/diagnosis , Reference Values , Sensation , Chi-Square Distribution , Longitudinal Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
17.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 86: e0042018, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1009476

ABSTRACT

Dengue is a viral infection transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. In Brazil, one of the insecticides used to control the mosquito is malathion, which can be diluted in vegetable oil (1:2 v/v). The purpose of this study was to understand the persistence of malathion on different surfaces and soil. Surfaces were contaminated by malathion and then washed with water and soap. The water used to clean the surfaces was extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography with an FID detector. Soil samples received malathion 14C-TG diluted in vegetable oil (1:2 v/v) and were analyzed zero, 3, 7, 18, 32, 60, 120, 240, and 360 days after the application in a liquid scintillation analyzer. Results showed a high persistence of malathion on porous surfaces. Moreover, it did not degrade in the soil for the first 120 days.(AU)


A dengue é uma infecção viral transmitida pelo mosquito Aedes aegypti. No Brasil, um dos inseticidas utilizados para controlar o mosquito é o malathion, que pode ser diluído em óleo vegetal (1:2 v/v). O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a permanência do malathion em diferentes superfícies e no solo. As superfícies foram contaminadas com malathion e depois lavadas com água e sabão. A água utilizada para limpar as superfícies foi extraída e analisada por cromatografia gasosa com detector de ionização de chama. O malathion 14C-GT diluído em óleo vegetal (1:2 v/v) foi aplicado em amostras de solo que foram analisadas nos tempos 0, 3, 7, 18, 32, 60, 120, 240 e 360 dias após a aplicação, em um analisador de cintilação líquida. Os resultados mostraram alta permanência de malathion em superfícies porosas. Além disso, o malathion não se degradou no solo nos primeiros 120 dias.(AU)


Subject(s)
Aedes , Insecticides , Pest Control , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Urban Area , Dengue
18.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(4)jul. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-915429

ABSTRACT

Lippia graveolens Kunth (Verbenaceae) is an economically important shrub known in Mexico as Oregano. In this work, the biocidal effect of the hexane extract of L. graveolens leaves was evaluated on two crop pests. Thus, larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda were fed with mixtures of extract and artificial diet. The nematicidal activity was evaluated on juveniles of Meloydogine javanica. Regarding S. frugiperda, quantitative differences between treatments and control were observed in dead pupae, surviving adults, and deformed adults (P < 0.05). All the surviving adults from the extract treatments were deformed. Nematicidal effect was registered, the LC50 and LC90 were 0.672 (0.654-0.690) and 0.965 (0.937-0.998) mg/mL respectively. The extract was characterized by NMR and GC-MS, being thymol the most abundant component (70.6%) in addition to carvacrol (22.8%). The results suggest the consideration of the hexane extract of L. graveolens leaves within the alternatives for the biological control of pests.


Lippia graveolens Kunth (Verbenaceae) es un arbusto con importancia económica conocido en México como Orégano. En éste trabajo se evaluó el efecto biocida del extracto hexánico de hojas L. graveolens sobre dos plagas agrícolas. Así, larvas de S. frugiperda fueron alimentadas con mezclas de dieta artificial y extracto. La actividad nematicida fue evaluada en juveniles de Meloydogine javanica, Respecto a S. frugiperda, se observaron diferencias cuantitativas entre tratamiento y control en cuanto a pupas muertas, adultos sobrevivientes y adultos deformes (P < 0.05). Todos los adultos provenientes de tratamientos con extracto estuvieron malformados. Hubo efecto nematicida, calculándose CL50 y CL90 de 0.672 (0.654-0.690) y 0.965 (0.937-0.998) mg/mL respectivamente. El extracto se caracterizó por RMN y CG-EM. Los compuestos más abundantes fueron timol (70.6%), ademas del carvacrol (22.8%). Los resultados sugieren considerar al extracto hexánico de hojas de L. graveolens dentro de las alternativas para el control biológico de plagas.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Spodoptera/drug effects , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Lippia/chemistry , Antinematodal Agents/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Pest Control, Biological , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Verbenaceae , Monoterpenes/analysis , Larva , Antinematodal Agents/chemistry
19.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-915344

ABSTRACT

The chemical composition of the seasonal essential oils (2015-2016) from the leaves and flowers of Zaluzania montagnifolia is presented. The chemical content of those oils showed quantitative and qualitative differences. Germacrene D (19.9-29.8%), camphor (12.4- 19.4%) and ß-caryophyllene (13.7-18.5%) were the most abundant volatiles in the leaves. The essential oils from the flowers contained high amounts of camphor (32.7-37.2%) limonene (19.8-24.9%) and germacrene D (3.2-7.3%). All the seasonal essential oils showed a potent in vitro inhibition against HMG-CoA reductase. The essential oils from flowers (IC50, 40.5-55.1 µg mL-1) showed better inhibition properties than those of leaves (IC50, 84.4-123.5 µg mL-1). Camphor (IC50, 72.5 µg mL-1) and borneol (IC50, 84.4 µg mL-1) exerted a non-competitive inhibition on the enzyme. Additionally, the hydrodistillates exhibited antibacterial activity against the phytopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci TBR2004 (MIC, 62.7-76.5 µg mL-1) P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (MIC, 45.4-50.4 µg mL-1) and P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 (MIC, 26.7-31.9 µg mL-1). Germacrene D (MIC, 35.4-66.2 µg mL-1) and ß-caryophyllene (MIC, 36.5-54.2 µg mL-1) were the strongest anti-Pseudomonas syringae agents.


Se presenta la composición química de los aceites esenciales estacionales (2015-2016) provenientes de hojas y flores de Zaluzania montagnifolia. El contenido químico de los aceites esenciales mostró diferencias cualitativas y cuantitativas. El germacreno D (19.9-29.8%), alcanfor (12.4-19.4%) y ß-cariofileno (13.7-18.5%) fueron los volátiles más abundantes en las hojas. Los aceites esenciales de las flores contuvieron altas concentraciones de alcanfor (32.7-37.2%), limoneno (19.8-24.9%) y germacreno D (3.2-7.3%). Todos los aceites esenciales estacionales mostraron una potente inhibición in vitro contra la HMG-CoA reductasa. Los aceites esenciales de las flores (IC50, 40.5-55.1 µg mL-1) mostraron mejores propiedades inhibitorias que aquellos de las hojas (IC50, 84.4-123.5 µg mL-1). El alcanfor (IC50, 72.5 µg mL-1) y el borneol (IC50, 84.4 µg mL-1) ejercieron una inhibición no competitiva sobre la enzima. Adicionalmente, los hidrodestilados exhibieron una actividad antibacterial contra los fitopatógenos Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci TBR2004 (MIC, 62.7-76.5 µg mL-1) P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (MIC, 45.4-50.4 µg mL-1) y P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 (MIC, 26.7-31.9 µg mL-1). El germacreno D (MIC, 35.4-66.2 µg mL-1) y ß-cariofileno (MIC, 36.5-54.2 µg mL-1) fueron los agentes más fuertes contra los patovares de Pseudomonas syringae.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/chemistry , Asteraceae , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
20.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 379-383, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984947

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To establish an analytical method of the endosulfan concentrations (α-endosulfan and β-endosulfan) in biological samples by GC-MS/MS. To observe the distribution of endosulfan in aquatic animals and provide experimental evidence for forensic identification of relevant cases.@*METHODS@#Acetonitrile was added to the blood and muscle samples for precipitating the protein. The endosulfan concentrations were determined by GC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Qualitative analysis was performed according to the retention time and ion rate, and quantitative analysis was performed by external standard working curve method.@*RESULTS@#In blood samples, the calibration curves of α-endosulfan and β-endosulfan ranging from 0.062 5 to 10 μg/mL had good linear relationship, the correlation coefficients (r) of which were >0.99. The limits of detection (LOD) were 1 ng/mL and 2 ng/mL and the limits of quantification (LOQ) were 4 ng/mL and 8 ng/mL, respectively. In muscle samples, the calibration curves of α-endosulfan and β-endosulfan ranging from 0.062 5 to 10 μg/g, the r of which were >0.98. The LOD were 1 ng/g and 4 ng/g and the LOQ were 4 ng/g and 16 ng/g, respectively. The accuracy of α-endosulfan and β-endosulfan was 90.76%-108.91% both in blood and muscle samples, the interday and intraday precision were 2.35%-8.71% and 5.44%-10.29%, respectively. In poisoning cases, endosulfan were detected in all parts of fish and crab and the content difference was statistically significant.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The endosulfan detection method based on GC-MS/MS established in the present study is rapid, sensitive and accurate, which can be applied to the endosulfan detection in traces biological samples. The distribution of endosulfan in fish and crab was different, which can provide evidence to the sample collection and analysis for toxicological analysis in relevant forensic identification.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Endosulfan/metabolism , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Limit of Detection , Reproducibility of Results , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
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