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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18373, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364428

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial activities of Alchemilla mollis, Alchemilla persica as well as ellagic acid and miquelianin against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans by using microbroth dilution method and anti-inflammatory activity by using human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization method. Microbroth dilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial activities. Extracts possessed activity having MIC values of 2.5-5-10mg/ mL, compounds possessed activity having MIC values of 1.25-2.5-4-5mg/mL. A.mollis aerial parts displayed the highest anti-inflammatory activity (IC50=1.22±0.07mg/mL). Ellagic acid and miquelianin were also determined as anti-inflammatory agents with 0.57±0.01mg/mL and 1.23±0.02mg/mL IC50 values, respectively. Total phenolic content and tannin content of the A.mollis and A.persica were determined as 357.00±75.80mg, 282.50±28.70mg PGE/g plant material and 18.02%, 18.63% respectively according to the method described by European Pharmacopoeia. Ellagic acid, miquelianin and catechin were analyzed by HPLC. The highest catechin content was detected in A.persica roots (6.69±0.05g/100g plant material). A.mollis aerial parts contain higher miquelianin (0.39±0.02g/plant material) and ellagic acid (1.56±0.01g/ plant material) than A.persica.


Subject(s)
Alchemilla/classification , Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus subtilis , Candida albicans , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Dilution/methods , Ellagic Acid/pharmacology , Membranes , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e19094, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345458

ABSTRACT

Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disrupter, can migrate from packaging material into food stuff. This research was designed to measure BPA levels in makdous, a traditional Syrian food. Forty three samples of makdous stored in different plastic containers (polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and unspecified plastic containers) were analyzed every 3 months for one year beginning July 2017. Quantification of BPA was carried out by an RP-HPLC system equipped with fluorescence detector after solid phase extraction. Migration was found in PE and PP plastic containers with slight differences. Statistically significant differences in BPA levels were observed between samples assayed after two weeks of preparation and samples assayed after 12 months (mean 16.32 vs. 38.26 µg/kg, p value=0.003). According to these amounts, BPA levels were all under the specific migration limit of 0.05 mg/kg as newly referred in Regulation (EU) No 2018/213. These levels of exposure would only contribute to 2.15% and 2.75% of the EFSA t-TDI in both men and women respectively based on mean dietary exposure estimates derived from a 24-h dietary information study from 875 participants. Hence there are no concerns about potential health risks from makdous consumption


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Endocrine Disruptors/classification , Solid Phase Extraction/instrumentation , Food/classification , Plastics/adverse effects , Polypropylenes , Weights and Measures , Product Packaging/classification , Health Risk , Dietary Exposure/adverse effects
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e18896, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339309

ABSTRACT

Tizanidine hydrochloride is a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant, used in the management of spasticity. This drug is commercially available only as tablets, which highlights the need to develop oral liquid formulations. In the hospital environment, this aspect is circumvented by the preparation of suspensions, to allow administration to children and adults with impaired swallowing, but there are no data regarding their stability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical andmicrobiological stability of liquid dosage forms prepared in the hospital environment from tizanidine hydrochloride tablets, applying high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and microbiological analysis. A simple and stability-indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for specificity, linearity, limits of detection and quantification, precision, accuracy and robustness. The liquid formulations were placed in amber PET and glass bottles, which were stored under three different conditions: at room temperature, under refrigeration and at 40 ºC. The liquid formulations were analyzed and demonstrated chemical stability for 56 days, allowing their use for long periods. However, the determination of microbiological stability showed that these formulations are prone to microbial contamination, which has dramatically reduced its stability to 7 days, in both bottles and at all evaluated temperatures


Subject(s)
Tablets/pharmacology , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Microbiological Techniques/instrumentation , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Amber , Dosage Forms , Drug Stability , Methods
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e18901, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350236

ABSTRACT

The plant, Malva neglecta wallr., is widely consumed for medicinal and nutritional purposes. The current study was carried out to assess the hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic potential of aqueous methanolic extract of M. neglecta. Chemical evaluation of the extract was performed by high pressure liquid chromatography. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was done in diabetic rats pre-exposed to 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg plant extract via the oral route. For hypoglycemic and biochemical study, the same therapy was administered to alloxan induced diabetic rats for 14 days. The standard control group received Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). Ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and other phenolic acids were detected and estimated in the extract. Administration of the plant extract significantly reduced blood glucose level in diabetic rats subjected to OGTT. The plant extract lowered the fasting blood glucose and alpha amylase, and prevented the damage to pancreas. It also corrected dyslipidemia in diabetic animals following 14 days therapy. Hence, this experimental study establishes the fact that M. neglecta exhibited significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities in alloxan induced diabetic rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Plant Extracts/analysis , Malvaceae/classification , Malva/adverse effects , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Hypolipidemic Agents/administration & dosage , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e19073, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345463

ABSTRACT

A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with ultraviolet detection was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of antiretroviral drugs lamivudine (3TC), stavudine (d4T), and zidovudine (AZT) in perfusate samples obtained from the Single-Pass Intestinal Perfusion studies. The chromatographic analysis was performed using a Gemini C18 column and didanosine as internal standard (IS). The following parameters were considered for the validation procedure: system suitability, accuracy, precision, linearity and selectivity. The limits of detection were 0.32 µg/mL for 3TC, 0.11 µg/mL for d4T and 0.45 µg/mL for AZT and the limits of quantification were 1.06 µg/mL for 3TC, 0.38 µg/mL for d4T and 1.51 µg/mL for AZT. Repeatability and intermediate precision ranged from 1.05 to 1.31 and 1.50 to 1.87, respectively, and are expressed as percent of relative standard deviation (RSD). Based on these results, the developed and validated RP-HPLC method can be used for simultaneous determination of 3TC, d4T, and AZT in perfusate samples. Furthermore, this method is simple and adequate for measurements of the antiretroviral drugs in the same sample, since those compounds are mostly co-administered. Besides, this work can be used as an initial base for the development of similar methods in the same conditions presented in our study.


Subject(s)
Zidovudine/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Lamivudine/pharmacology , Validation Study , Anti-Retroviral Agents/pharmacology , Perfusion/instrumentation , Permeability , Measurements, Methods and Theories , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Limit of Detection
6.
Rev. ciênc. farm. básica apl ; 41: [14], 01/01/2020. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128573

ABSTRACT

Neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. fam. Meliaceae) has been extensively employed to combat diverse pathologies. Moreover, it has been described that its leaf extract present anticarcinogenic action. Thus, the neem extract (NE) chemical and antioxidant properties was evaluated, and also, the capacity of two dermatological formulations incorporated with neem extract (F1 and F2) to avoid oxidative UVB-induced skin injury in hairless mice. NE constituents were investigated and free radical scavenging ability were determined by different methods in vitro. Skin from mice treated with F1 and F2 and submitted to UVB radiation were tested for different parameters of inflammation and oxidative injury. Results show that the NE polyphenol and flavonoid content were 135.30 and 37.12mg/g, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) results demonstrated the existence of azarachtin, rutin, ursolic acid and tannic acid. NE presented scavenging ability by ABTS radical, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), inhibition of lipid peroxidation and iron chelation. In vivo, it was observed that mice treated with F1 and F2 showed amelioration of the inflammation by reducing UVB induced skin edema. However, only samples from animals treated with F1 had lower neutrophil recruitment (measured by myeloperoxidase activity), and returning the oxidative status to baseline levels in parameters such as reduced glutathione level, ferric reducing ability (FRAP), and scavenging of free radical (ABTS). Concluding, NE demonstrated a good antioxidant property in vitro, and the data suggest the use of NE added F1 to prevent skin damage caused by UVB irradiation.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Azadirachta , Antioxidants/radiation effects , Administration, Cutaneous , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Mice
7.
Rev. ciênc. farm. básica apl ; 41: [13], 01/01/2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128572

ABSTRACT

The therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is an important strategy for the effectiveness and safety of long-term pharmacotherapy, such as the use of phenobarbital as an anticonvulsant drug in epilepsy. In this sense, HLPC has been presented as a technique for the measurement of phenobarbital in serum. However, the ideal conditions for carrying out the method must be established for each laboratory reality. An analytical method using HPLC was developed and validated in order to identify and quantify Phenobarbital in blood. The chromatographic conditions were C-18 column (Shimpack XR-ODS 50L x 3.0), acetonitrile-water mobile phase (30:70, v v-1), 0.2 mL min-1 flow and reading wavelength of 210 nm. Linearity was established in the range of 2.5 to 80 µg mL-1, the linear correlation coefficient was 0.9981. The average of the coefficient of variation of the precision was 5.30%. The relative standard error of the accuracy was -2.17% and of the recovery coefficient was 97.83%. In all eleven patients, phenobarbital concentrations were below the therapeutic range. The tested method was selective, linear, precise, accurate and showed good recovery.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Phenobarbital/blood , Drug Monitoring/methods , Anticonvulsants/pharmacokinetics , Phenobarbital/adverse effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drug Combinations , Validation Studies as Topic
8.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2020. 190 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290975

ABSTRACT

Apesar da grande relevância médica e social, e por serem responsáveis por grande parte das mortes em países subdesenvolvidos e em desenvolvimento as doenças negligenciadas (DN), ainda, não apresentam terapêutica eficaz. Dentre as diversas DN, doenças como a doença de Chagas, a Leishmaniose visceral e a malária, se destacam no cenário nacional, por terem alta incidência e prejuízos sociais. Os fármacos disponíveis para o tratamento destas parasitoses, apresentam alta toxicidade e, em alguns casos, resistência por parte dos parasitas. Assim sendo, faz-se necessário o planejamento e desenvolvimento de novos agentes quimioterápicos mais seguros e eficazes. Dentre as diferentes estratégias de planejamento de fármacos, selecionamos o planejamento de fármacos baseado na estrutura do ligante - LBDD (Ligand-Based Drug Design) - como base para desenvolvimento deste trabalho. Nesta estratégia, utiliza-se o conhecimento de moléculas (ligantes) e de suas atividades biológicas conhecidas previamente determinadas experimentalmente, como protótipos para a busca de novas entidades químicas com atividade biológica semelhante ou melhorada. Sendo assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo a síntese e avaliação biológica de moléculas bioativas para o tratamento de doenças parasitárias. Baseando-se no conhecimento prévio da atividade antiparasitária de compostos carbonílicos α,ß-insaturados e hidrazonas, foram sintetizados séries de compostos destas classes químicas na busca de novos agentes quimioterápicos. Os compostos obtidos foram avaliados contra a forma epimastigota de Trypanosoma cruzi, promastigota de Leishmania donovani, amastigota de Leishmania infantum e, também, determinou-se o seu grau de citotoxicidade (CC50) frente a células de macrófago humanos diferenciado (THP-1). As 31 moléculas obtidas foram caracterizadas por técnicas de ponto de fusão, RMN 1H e RMN 13C e avaliada sua pureza por HPLC. Os compostos da classe da cinamoil-hidrazonas apresentaram-se como promissores antiparasitários, mostrando atividade frente a forma promastigota (Leishmania donovani), 4 dos 12 compostos foram ativos (IC50= 1,27 - 13,68 µM) e frente a forma amastigota (Leishmania infantum), 10 dos 12 compostos apresentaram atividade (9,09 - 63,5 µM). Mesmo apresentando citotoxicidade moderada (CC50 = 8,83 - 87,47 µM), os compostos obtiveram valores inferiores ao fármaco de referência (doxorubicina: CC50 = 0,26 µM). Diante do exposto, o planejamento de fármacos realizado por LBDD mostrou-se bem-sucedido, pois a classe de cinamoil-hidrazonas mostrou-se promissora como antiparasitários, visto sua atividade na escala de baixo micromolar e moderada citotoxicidade em células humanas. Esses resultados assinalam que a classe de compostos descrita está passível a continuar sendo investigada no intuito de aprimorar os protótipos obtidos na busca de novos agentes quimioterápicos antiparasitários e desvendar os mecanismos de ação leishmanicida


Despite to the great medical and social relevance and the amount of deaths in underdeveloped and developing countries, neglected diseases (ND) still do not have an effective therapy. Among the various ND, illnesses such as Chagas disease, visceral leishmaniasis and malaria holds a great importance in the Brazilian scenario due to high incidence and social damage. The drugs available for the treatment of these parasitosis present high toxicity and, in some cases, resistance by the pathogens. Thus, the planning and development of new, safer and more effective chemotherapeutic substances are urgent needed. Among the different drug planning strategies, we selected ligand-based drug design (LBDD) as the basis for the development of this work. In this strategy, we use the knowledge of molecules (ligands) and their known biological activities previously determined experimentally, as prototypes to search for new chemical entities with similar or improved biological activity. Therefore, the present work aimed the synthesis and biological evaluation of bioactive molecules for the treatment of parasitic diseases. Based on previous knowledge of the antiparasitic activity of α,ß-unsaturated and hydrazone carbonyl compounds, series of compounds of these chemical classes were synthesized in search of new chemotherapeutic agents. The compounds obtained were evaluated against the epimastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani promastigote, Leishmania infantum amastigote and their cytotoxicity (CC50) against differentiated human macrophages (THP-1). The 31 molecules obtained were characterized by melting point, 1 H NMR and 13C NMR techniques and their purity were characterized by HPLC. The cinnamoyl hydrazone class compounds showed promising antiparasitic activity, showing activity against promastigote form (L. donovani), 4 of 12 compounds were active (IC50 = 1.27 - 13.68 µM) and amastigote form (L. infantum), 10 of the 12 compounds showed activity (9.09 - 63.5 µM). Even presenting moderate cytotoxicity (CC50 = 8.83 - 87.47 µM), the compounds had values below the reference drug (doxorubicin: CC50 = 0.26 µM). Considering the results, LBDD drug planning proved to be successful and the class of cinnamoyl hydrazones were promising as antiparasitics due to its activity in low micromolar scale and moderate cytotoxicity in human cells. These results indicate that the described class of compounds can be further investigated in order to improve the prototypes obtained in the search for new antiparasitic chemotherapeutic agents and to unravel the mechanisms of action of leishmanicidal molecules


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Chalcones/adverse effects , Neglected Diseases/complications , Antiparasitic Agents/adverse effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Health Strategies , Developing Countries/classification , Carbon-13 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Antineoplastic Agents/analysis
9.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18456, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249172

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of crude extracts from Eugenia uniflora, Libidibia ferrea and Psidium guajava. The extracts were obtained by turbo-extraction using water (AQ) or acetone-water (AC-W) (7:3, v/v) as solvents and lyophilized to obtain the crude extracts (CE). The CE were characterized by UV-Vis, TLC and HPLC. The activity of CEs was investigated against clinical isolates of Candida spp. and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), MIC50 and MIC90 were determinated. The analysis by TLC showed that all CEs presented polyphenols (flavonoids and tannins). The CEs from E. uniflora showed higher amount of polyphenols (30.35 ± 2.15%, AC-W) and the HPLC analysis revealed the tannins in all extracts. The CEs of E. uniflora showed MIC range from 1.9 to 500.0 µg/mL, and lower values of MIC50 and MIC90 against non-albicans Candida isolates. Regarding L. ferrea and P. guajava, the results showing MIC from 3.9 to 1000.0 µg/mL (CE-AQ) against C. albicans. The results demonstrate antifungal performance from CE against various species of Candida spp., suggesting that the herbal species may be use as new potential antifungal agents. Additionally, the polyphenol content can play a pivotal role in the antifungal properties of CE.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/methods , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Polyphenols/analysis , Phytochemicals , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Flavonoids/pharmacokinetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18094, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285510

ABSTRACT

Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a secondary bile acid (BA), has been used as a drug to treat various liver diseases. UDCA is synthesised from cholic or chenodeoxycholic acid (CA/CDCA), two primary BAs frequently used as the starting materials. Nowadays, swine, cattle, and poultry bile are the main sources of those BAs. However, other commercial animals could be promising sources as well. We identified two livestock, two poultries, and eight fishes that are commercially cultivated in Indonesia. Four free BAs including CA, CDCA, deoxycholic acid (DCA), and lithocholic acid (LA) were identified for their occurrences using thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. CA was detected in cow, duck, red tilapia, gourami, the common carp, and grouper, whereas CDCA was only detected in two poultries and the common carp. The occurrence of DCA was common and abundant in most tested animals. In contrast, the presence of LA was found to be very low in all samples. The biliary bile of tilapia has been found to contain a high abundance of free CA (43% of the total bile). A simple extraction was able to purify CA from biliary bile of tilapia. This is a new promising and competitive source of CA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Bile/drug effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Chromatography, Thin Layer/methods , Indonesia/ethnology , Animals , Ursodeoxycholic Acid , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/antagonists & inhibitors , Bile Acids and Salts/therapeutic use , Chenodeoxycholic Acid , Tilapia/classification , Cholic Acid/agonists , Deoxycholic Acid , Lithocholic Acid
11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e17707, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142495

ABSTRACT

Solidago chilensis Meyen (= Solidago microglossa) popularly known as "Brazilian arnica" is used to treat of inflammatory disorders. S. chilensis is constant in the Therapeutic Memento of the Rio de Janeiro city and belongs to the medicinal species of Brazilian National List of Medicinal Plants of Interest of the Unified National Health System (SUS). There are no studies in the literature showing the direct activity of this plant species on immune system cells. The present study evaluated the chemical composition as well as the cytotoxic and pharmacological activity of the ether-ethanol extract from S. chilensis inflorescences (SCIE) in murine macrophage cell line J774A.1. The results showed that higher concentrations (50 to 200 µg/mL) of SCIE had significant cytotoxicity on J774A.1 cells, however, lower concentrations (from 10 to 0.1 µg/mL) did not produce significant cytotoxic effects and exhibited an inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated J774A.1 cell line. The chemical analysis by HPLC-UV-PDA indicated that the SCIE contains flavonoid derived from quercetin and kaempferol; and diterpenes, probably labdanes. These findings complement data in the literature regarding the activity of this plant species on an important cell from the immune system involved in the innate and acquired immune response, the macrophages.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Arnica/adverse effects , Asteraceae/classification , Quercetin/analysis , Flavonoids/adverse effects , Cells , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Immune System
12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18484, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132064

ABSTRACT

Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vasculature. Uncontrolled angiogenesis is associated with progression of several ocular pathologies, such as diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration. Thus, the inhibition of this process consists in an interesting therapeutic target. Corosolic acid (CA) is a natural derivative of ursolic acid, found in many medicinal herbs and exhibits numerous biological properties, including the antiangiogenic activity. The present study reports the production of CA-loaded poly d,l-lactidecoglycolide acid (PLGA) devices by melt technique. HPLC-UV method was developed and validated to evaluate the uniformity and the release profile of the developed systems. The devices were also characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and scanning electron morphology. It was studied the antiangiogenic activity of the CA-polymer system, using an in vivo model, the chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM). CA was dispersed uniformly in the polymer matrix and no chemical interaction between the components of the formulation was verified. The implants presented a sustained release of the drug, which was confirmed by the morphological study and demonstrated an antiangiogenic activity. Therefore, the developed delivery system is a promising therapeutic tool for the treatment of ocular diseases associated with neovascularization or others related to the angiogenic process.


Subject(s)
Chorioallantoic Membrane/abnormalities , Macular Degeneration/pathology , Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology , Polymers , Ultraviolet Rays/classification , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , Diabetic Retinopathy
13.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18327, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132053

ABSTRACT

Hypericum sinaicum L. is an endangered Egyptian medicinal plant of high importance due to the presence of naphthodianthrones (hypericins), which have photodynamic properties and pharmaceutical potential. We sought to assess H. sinaicum ability to develop hairy roots that could be cultured in contained conditions in vitro and used as a source for hypericin production. We used four A. rhizogenes strains differing in their plasmids and chromosomal backgrounds to inoculate excised H. sinaicum root, stem and leaf explants to induce hairy root development. Additionally, inoculum was applied to shoots held in Rockwool cubes supporting their stand after removal of the root system. All explant types were susceptible to A. rhizogenes although stem explants responded more frequently (over 90%) than other explant types. The A4 and A4T A. rhizogenes strains were highly, and equally effective in hairy root induction on 66-72% of explants while the LBA1334 strain was the most effective in transformation of shoots. Sonication applied to explants during inoculation enhanced the frequency of hairy root development, the most effective was 60 s treatment doubling the percentage of explants with hairy roots. However, shoot transformation was the most effective approach as shoots developed hairy roots within 10 days after inoculation. Molecular analyses confirmed that the established hairy root cultures in vitro were indeed obtained due to a horizontal gene transfer from bacteria. These cultures grew fast and the hypericin content in hairy roots was about two fold higher than in H. sinaicum plants as determined by HPLC.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/classification , Plant Roots/adverse effects , Hypericum/adverse effects , Agrobacterium/metabolism , Plasmids , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission/methods
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e17737, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132050

ABSTRACT

The aim of this work was to perform solubility studies for fexofenadine hydrochloride and establish dissolution conditions for this drug in oral suspension dosage form. The solubility study was executed through the shake-flask method, below 37 ºC±1 ºC, at 100 rpm stirring for 12 h in three buffer solutions: hydrochloric acid pH 2.0, acetate pH 4.5 and phosphate pH 6.8. The dissolution test was developed in vessels containing 900 mL of the same buffer, employing the paddle apparatus in speed of 25 and 50 rpm, below 37 ºC±0.5 ºC. The drug was classified as low solubility according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System, since the dose/solubility ratio was higher than 250 mL in all media tested (326.55 mL in buffer pH 2.0; 2,456.33 mL in buffer pH 4.5 and 1,021.16 mL in buffer pH 6.8). The dissolution test showed that a release of 85% in 30 min could be established. The rotation speed of 25 rpm, media volume of 900 mL and insertion of the samples through weighted syringes are adequate. The buffered media pH 2.0 could be chosen as dissolution media.


Subject(s)
Solubility , Suspensions/pharmacology , Dissolution/methods , Biopharmaceutics , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Dosage Forms
15.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e17194, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132044

ABSTRACT

It is important to study the stability of plant extracts used as active ingredients in phytotherapic medicine, as degradation of the active principles directly affects the efficacy and safety of these products. Therefore, a stability study of the hydroalcoholic extract of the species: Mikania glomerata and Mikania laevigata was conducted in order to determine the speed of degradation and shelf life of these extracts, which are incorporated in cough syrup in Brazil. Leaves of both species were dried in an oven or by lyophilization (freeze-dried). Hydroalcoholic extracts underwent both accelerated stability study of six months and long-term stability study for 12 months. Samples were stored at different temperatures and every three months were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) to monitor their chemical profile, quantifying coumarin and chlorogenic acid. For all conditions of the study, a reduction of the content of the chemical marker of this species, coumarin, greater than 5% was observed, so a shelf life of two years cannot be assigned to the hydroalcoholic extracts of these species as observed in commercial extracts.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/analysis , Efficacy , Asteraceae/classification , Mikania/classification , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Chlorogenic Acid/adverse effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Cough , Coumarins/classification
16.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18793, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249163

ABSTRACT

Rutin is a flavonoid glycoside, mainly consists of phenolic compounds, responsible for many biological activities. The objective of the present study was to develop and validate a precise, simple, robust, rapid and reliable reverse phase high -performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) technique by using Qbd approach for evaluating the rutin in nanoparticles. Central composite design (CCD) was employed for optimizing the experimental conditions of RP-HPLC method. Buffer pH, methanol content in the mobile phase composition, flow rate, and wavelength were selected as independent variables whereas retention time, peak area, and asymmetry factor was selected as dependent variables. The retention time, peak area and asymmetric factor of rutin by using optimized independent variables were found to be 3.75 min, 1014.79 mV, and 1.26 respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation values were found to be 0.005 µg/mL and 0.15 µg/mL respectively. For confirming linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness, the optimized assay condition was validated as per ICH guidelines. The proposed method, which was optimized by QbD approach was found to be a suitable method for analyzing the rutin in chitosan-sodium alginate nanoparticles.


Subject(s)
Rutin/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Nanoparticles/analysis , Quality Management , Phenolic Compounds/adverse effects , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
17.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18817, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132040

ABSTRACT

A simple, accurate, precise and robust stability indicating RP-HPLC assay method has been developed for the estimation of trimethobenzamide in stress sample. An isocratic separation of trimethobenzamide was achieved on Kromasil 100 C-18 column (250 X 4.6mm, 5µ) with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and by using a photodiode array detector to detect the analyte at 213nm. The optimized mobile phase consisted of methanol: ammonium formate (44:56, v/v). The drug was subjected to different forced degradation conditions according to ICH guidelines including acid, base, neutral hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis and thermal degradation. Degradation products were found only in basic and oxidative degradation conditions. All the degradation products got eluted in an overall analytical run time of 12min. The developed analytical method has been validated according to the ICH guidelines. Response of trimethobenzamide was linear over the concentration range of 0.5-50µg/mL (r2 = 0.999). Accuracy was found to be in between 94.03% to 100.39%. Degradation products resulting from the stress studies did not interfere with the detection of the analyte.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Determination/analysis , Validation Study , Methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Hydrolysis
18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18782, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249151

ABSTRACT

Cnidoscolus chayamansa is a native plant of the Mayan region, which is also cultivated in other places like northern Mexico, Tunisia and India. Many properties are attributed to Mayan Chaya, such as aid in the control of glycemia in diabetics. Thus this study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effects of chaya aqueous extracts in a model of streptozotisin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Chaya aqueous extracts were collected from plants cultivated in Quinta Roo (Mayan region) and Durango (northern Mexico), and in this study we compare their effect with metformin (as a control). Additionally, we compared the extracts mass profiles from both regions by high-resolution liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole tandem mass detector (HPLC-MS/MS QQQ). Finally, a study of the pancreatic tissue was carried out to evaluate the effects of the extracts on the Langerhans islets. Both extracts showed a good hypoglycemic effect after two weeks of treatment, and the Langerhans islets showed a partial recovery due to the effect of the treatment. Although the plants were cultivated at a distance of 2,350 km and under different weather, the compounds found in both did not show significant differences.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Streptozocin/administration & dosage , Euphorbiaceae/classification , Diabetes Mellitus/chemically induced , Hyperglycemia , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Plants , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Islets of Langerhans
19.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17249, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055327

ABSTRACT

In the present study we reported the antimicrobial activity of actinomycetes isolated from aridic soil sample collected in Karoo, South Africa. Eighty-six actinomycete strains were isolated and purified, out of them thirty-four morphologically different strains were tested for antimicrobial activity. Among 35 isolates, 10 (28.57%) showed both antibacterial and antifungal activity. The ethyl acetate extract of strain KRG-1 showed the strongest antimicrobial activity and therefore was selected for further investigation. The almost complete nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene as well as distinctive matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) profile of whole-cell proteins acquired for strain KRG-1 led to the identification of Streptomyces antibioticus KRG-1 (GenBank accession number: KX827270). The ethyl acetate extract of KRG-1 was fractionated by HPLC method against the most suppressed bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (Newman). LC//MS analysis led to the identification of the active peak that exhibited UV-VIS maxima at 442 nm and the ESI-HRMS spectrum showing the prominent ion clusters for [M-H2O+H]+ at m/z 635.3109 and for [M+Na]+ at m/z 1269.6148. This information could be assigned to chromopeptide lactone antibiotic - actinomycin. Our results suggest that unexplored soils could be an interesting source for exploring antibacterial secondary metabolites.


Subject(s)
Soil , Actinobacteria/classification , Dactinomycin/analysis , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Streptomyces antibioticus , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Methods
20.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17695, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039080

ABSTRACT

The influence of common tea preparation procedures (temperature, infusion time, consumption time interval and tea bag/loose-leaf) and the type of water used, on the total phenolic content (TPC), the radical scavenging activity and the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity were assessed. Higher TPC and antioxidant activity were obtained when using lower mineralized waters. Tea bags also evidenced higher antioxidant activity than loose-leaf samples. Under the same conditions (90 ºC and five minutes of infusion time) green tea contains almost twice the quantity of polyphenols and the free radical scavenging ability of black tea. In the α-glucosidase assay all infusions were active (97-100 %). Furthermore, HPLC allowed to identify some of the polyphenols present in both teas and to monitor their composition change with time. After twenty-four hours, the antioxidant activity was maintained without significant changes, but a small decrease in enzyme inhibition was observed, although this activity was still very high


Subject(s)
Tea/classification , alpha-Glucosidases/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Water/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Polyphenols
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