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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242536, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339356

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chromium (VI) a highly toxic metal, a major constituent of industrial waste. It is continuously release in soil and water, causes environmental and health related issues, which is increasing public concern in developing countries like Pakistan. The basic aim of this study was isolation and screening of chromium resistant bacteria from industrial waste collected from Korangi and Lyari, Karachi (24˚52ʹ46.0ʺN 66˚59ʹ25.7ʺE and 24˚48ʹ37.5ʺN 67˚06ʹ52.6ʺE). Among total of 53 isolated strains, seven bacterial strains were selected through selective enrichment and identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics. These strains were designated as S11, S13, S17, S18, S30, S35 and S48, resistance was determined against varying concentrations of chromium (100-1500 mg/l). Two bacterial strains S35 and S48 showed maximum resistance to chromium (1600 mg/l). Bacterial strains S35 and S48 were identified through 16S rRNA sequence and showed 99% similarity to Bacillus paranthracis and Bacillus paramycoides. Furthermore, growth condition including temperature and pH were optimized for both bacterial strains, showed maximum growth at temperature 30ºC and at optimum pH 7.5 and 6.5 respectively. It is concluded that indigenous bacterial strains isolated from metal contaminated industrial effluent use their innate ability to transform toxic heavy metals to less or nontoxic form and can offer an effective tool for monitoring heavy metal contamination in the environment.


Resumo O cromo (VI), metal altamente tóxico, é um dos principais constituintes dos resíduos industriais. É liberado no solo e na água, causa problemas ambientais e de saúde de crescente preocupação pública em países em desenvolvimento como o Paquistão. O objetivo básico deste estudo foi o isolamento e a triagem de bactérias resistentes ao cromo de resíduos industriais coletados em Korangi e Lyari, Karachi (24˚52'46,0"N 66˚59'25,7"E e 24˚48'37,5"N 67˚06'52,6"E). Do total de 53 cepas isoladas, sete cepas bacterianas foram selecionadas por enriquecimento seletivo e identificadas com base em características morfológicas e bioquímicas. Essas cepas foram designadas como S11, S13, S17, S18, S30, S35 e S48, apresentaram alta resistência aos metais contra concentrações variáveis (100-1500 mg / l) de cromo. Já as cepas S35 e S48 foram identificadas por meio da sequência 16S rRNA e apresentaram 99% de similaridade com Bacillus paranthracis e Bacillus paramycoides. Além disso, as condições de crescimento incluindo temperatura e pH foram otimizadas e ambas as cepas bacterianas apresentaram crescimento máximo na temperatura de 30 ºC, enquanto seu pH ótimo foi observado em 7,5 e 6,5, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o potencial de resistência dessas bactérias resistentes ao cromo pode ser efetivamente utilizado na remoção de cromo de efluentes industriais contaminados. Técnicas de base biológica usando bactérias ajudarão a fornecer métodos mais baratos e ecológicos de remoção, recuperação e desintoxicação de cromo.


Subject(s)
Chromium , Metals, Heavy , Bacillus , Bacteria/genetics , Biodegradation, Environmental , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Industrial Waste/analysis
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 995-999, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285279

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da suplementação de cromo-metionina em dietas para frangos de corte criados em estresse por calor, no período de 22 a 43 dias de idade, nos parâmetros de qualidade da carne. Foram utilizados 336 frangos de corte, machos, da linhagem Cobb 500, com 21 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento em blocos inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro blocos (cada câmara climática), seis tratamentos (0; 0,10; 0,20; 0,40; 0,80 e 1,20mgkg-1 de Cr na forma de Cr-metionina), oito repetições e sete aves por unidade experimental. Aos 43 dias de idade, duas aves por unidade experimental foram selecionadas e abatidas para avaliação da qualidade da carne de peito, por meio dos parâmetros de pH15min, pH24h, luminosidade (L*), teor de vermelho (a*), teor de amarelo (b*), croma (C*), ângulo hue (Hº), capacidade de retenção de água, perda de peso por cozimento e força de cisalhamento. Houve efeito quadrático (P=0,0070) na capacidade de retenção de água da carne de peito. A suplementação de CrMet não afetou (P>0,05) os demais parâmetros de qualidade da carne. Assim, recomenda-se a suplementação de 0,59mgkg-1 de CrMet para frangos de corte para melhoria da capacidade de retenção de água do peito.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens/physiology , Chromium/administration & dosage , Meat/analysis , Methionine/administration & dosage , Heat-Shock Response/physiology , Heat Stress Disorders/veterinary
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 214-222, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153052

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar a influência da suplementação com minerais biocomplexados sobre a qualidade da carne de frangos da linhagem Label Rouge, de ambos os sexos, criados em sistema alternativo. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso (DIC), disposto em esquema fatorial (3x2), sendo três dietas (controle; 0,50ppm de selênio; 0,40ppm de cromo) e dois sexos. Para a estabilidade lipídica, foi utilizado o DIC, disposto em esquema fatorial (3x2x2), sendo três dietas, dois sexos e dois tempos de armazenamento (zero e 12 meses). Os parâmetros avaliados no peito e na coxa foram: pH final, cor (L* - luminosidade, a* - índice de vermelho, b* - índice de amarelo, C* - índice de saturação e h* - ângulo de tonalidade), perda de peso por cozimento (PPC), força de cisalhamento (FC) e estabilidade lipídica. Além disso, foram avaliadas a proporção das formas químicas da mioglobina da coxa e a quantificação do conteúdo de selênio no peito. Não houve efeito isolado da dieta sobre os parâmetros físicos e químicos do peito e da coxa e sobre a concentração de selênio no peito. As fêmeas apresentaram médias superiores de L* (57,57), b* (10,55) e C* (10,60) do peito; e os machos de L* (55,09) da coxa. Entre os machos, as aves alimentadas com a dieta controle e com cromo expressaram valores superiores de FC da coxa em relação às suplementadas com selênio; para o tratamento com cromo, os machos apresentaram média superior de FC da coxa e, em contrapartida, para o tratamento com selênio, as fêmeas manifestaram a maior média. As amostras submetidas ao período de 12 meses de armazenamento mostraram maiores valores de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS) em ambos os cortes. A suplementação com cromo e selênio biocomplexados não provocou alterações na qualidade da carne; as fêmeas demonstraram melhores atributos de qualidade da carne.(AU)


The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the supplementation with biocomplexed minerals on the quality of the meat of label Rouge lineage chicken, of both genders, reared in an alternative system. The experimental design was completely randomized (CRD) in a factorial scheme (3x2), with three diets (control; 0.50ppm of selenium; 0.40ppm of chromium) and two genders. For lipid stability, the CRD arranged in a factorial scheme (3x2x2) was used, being three diets, two genders and two storage times (0 and 12 months). The parameters evaluated in the breast and in the thigh were: final pH, color (L* - luminosity, a* - red index, b* - yellow index, C* - saturation index and h* - tonality angle), weight loss per cooking (WLC), shear force (SF) and lipid stability. In addition, we evaluated the proportion of chemical forms of myoglobin of the thigh and the quantification of selenium content in the breast. There was no isolated effect of diet on the physical and chemical parameters of the breast and thigh and selenium concentration in the breast. Females had higher mean values of L* (57.57), b* (10.55) and C* (10.60) of the breast; and males of L* (55.09) of the thigh. Among males, poultry fed with the control diet and chromium showed higher SF values of the thigh than those supplemented with selenium; for the treatment with chromium, the males presented superior average of SF of the thigh and, in contrast, for the treatment with selenium, the females had the highest average. Samples submitted to the period of 12-month of storage showed higher values of substances reactive to thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) in both cuts. Supplementation with biocomplexed chromium and selenium did not cause changes in meat quality; females presented better attributes of meat quality.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Selenium/administration & dosage , Chickens/growth & development , Chromium/administration & dosage , Meat/analysis , Myoglobin , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Animal Feed/analysis
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3591-3603, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921450

ABSTRACT

Wet detoxification has traditionally been seen as the most promising technology for treating chromium-contaminated sites. However, the addition of chemicals in the wet detoxification process not only increases the cost but also introduces extra pollutants. Moreover, the chromium-containing slag may be re-dissolved in the form of Cr(VI), and the increased concentration of Cr(VI) results in a serious "returning to yellow" phenomenon in the chromium-contaminated sites, causing undesirable secondary pollution. Microbial remediation is a promising technology to address the re-dissolution of chromium-containing slag after wet detoxification, and this article reviews the advances in this area. Firstly, the toxicity, current situation and conventional technologies for treating the chromium-containing slag were briefly summarized. The mechanisms of the inevitable re-dissolution of chromium-containing slag after wet detoxification were summarized. Three main mechanisms, namely bioreduction, biosorption and biomineralization, which are involved in the environmental-friendly and efficient microbial remediation technology, were reviewed. The variation of microbial species and the succession of microbial community during the bioremediation of chromium-contaminated sites were discussed. Finally, future research directions were prospected with the aim to develop long-term, stable and sustainable technologies for remediating the chromium-contaminated sites.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Chromium/toxicity , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity
5.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64(spe): e21200455, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278455

ABSTRACT

Abstract Six sample preparation procedures were evaluated for selective extraction of Cr(VI) from commercial samples of chromium oxide green (Cr2O3) pigments prior to formation of its diphenylcarbazone complex [CrDPCO]- for determination by visible spectrophotometry: (I) water-soluble chromium; (II) EPA method 3060A without Mg2+; (III) EPA method 3060A with Mg2+; (IV) Na3PO4 based extraction; (V) method IRSA16 based on acidic extraction and; (VI) Na2CO3 based extraction. Evaluation of the influence of concomitant Cr(III) ions, time and stability of the [CrDPCO]- complex was investigated. Recoveries of soluble and insoluble Cr(VI) species were 86% and 80%, respectively, using procedure (VI). Direct calibration against aqueous standards prepared in the extraction medium was successful for Cr(VI) in the concentration range 0.05-1.50 μg L-1. Limits of detection and quantitation were 0.3 µg g-1 and 1.0 µg g-1, respectively, for 250 mg subsamples/25 mL. Procedure (VI) was applied to the analysis of four commercial samples of Cr2O3 pigments, three determined to have Cr(VI) within compliance limits below 1.0 µg g-1, but one at 16.6 ± 0.6 µg g-1, prohibiting use of this pigment in cosmetic formulations. This sample was conveniently employed to evaluate the accuracy of the method. The recommended procedure is simple and accurate and has been adopted by Tecpar's laboratory of Parana Institute of Technology (Curitiba, Brazil).


Subject(s)
Humans , Pigments, Biological , Spectrophotometry/instrumentation , Chromium/analysis , Brazil
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 518-522, July-Sept. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132416

ABSTRACT

Abstract A feeding trial was carried out to assess the effect of dietary chromium supplementation on apparent nutrient digestibility coefficient (%) of gelatinized and non-gelatinized corn in Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings for 90 days. Using various levels of chromium chloride hexahydrate six test diets designated as T1 (G/0.0 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg Kg-1), T2 (NG/0.0 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg Kg-1), T3 (G/0.2 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg Kg-1), T4 (NG/0.2 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg Kg-1), T5 (G/0.4 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg Kg-1) and T6 (NG/0.4 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg Kg-1) were prepared. Results showed highest apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of nutrients dry matter, crude lipid and gross energy in test diet T5 that was gelatinized and supplemented with chromium 0.4 mg/Kg while, for crude protein higher value of nutrient digestibility was recorded in T3 test diet (G/0.2 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg/Kg). It was concluded that chromium supplementation with gelatinized corn in fish (Cirrhinus mrigala) diet can improve the nutrients digestibility more efficiently.


Resumo Um experimento referente à alimentação foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da suplementação dietética de cromo, no coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente do nutriente (%) do milho gelatinizado e não gelatinizado em alevinos de Cirrhinus mrigala por 90 dias. Usando vários níveis de cloreto de cromo hexa-hidratado, seis dietas testes foram designadas e preparadas como: T1 (G/0,0 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg Kg-1); T2 (NG/0,0 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg Kg-1); T3 (G/0,2 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg Kg-1); T4 (NG/0,2 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg Kg-1); T5 (G/0,4 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg Kg-1) e T6 (NG/0,4 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg Kg-1). Os resultados mostraram maior coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente (CDA) em matéria seca de nutrientes, lipídios brutos e energia bruta na dieta teste T5, que foi gelatinizada e suplementada com cromo 0,4 mg / Kg; enquanto que para a proteína bruta, foi registrada maior digestibilidade dos nutrientes na dieta teste T3 (G/0,2 Cr2Cl3.6H2O mg/Kg). Concluiu-se que a suplementação de cromo com milho gelatinizado na dieta de peixes (Cirrhinus mrigala) pôde melhorar a digestibilidade dos nutrientes de forma mais eficiente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Zea mays , Animal Feed/analysis , Carbohydrates , Nutrients , Chlorides , Chromium , Chromium Compounds , Dietary Supplements , Diet , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(2): 97-101, Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098446

ABSTRACT

Dietary chromium supplementation before, during, and after weaning was conducted to evaluate the hypothesis that chromium supplementation could reduce weaning-induced cortisol release in beef calves. We examined the effects of chromium supplementation in 150 crossbred calves (male and female) between five and six months of age. The calves were randomly divided by sex and breed into two equal homogeneous groups (n=75). One group was used as the control, and the other experimental group received supplementation with 0.9mg of chromium carbon-amino-phospho-chelate per 100kg BW. The chromium supplement was mixed with mineral salt for the consumption of 0.1% of BW, and the supplement was administered via creep feeding 60 days before and 60 days after forced weaning. Calves were weighed, and their blood and urine samples were obtained at four time-points: T0 (60 days before weaning), T1 (at weaning), T2 (48 hours after weaning), and T3 (60 days after weaning). Blood samples were used to determine chromium, cortisol, total protein, and albumin concentrations, and urine samples were used to determine urinary creatinine and chromium levels. Cumulative weight gain was higher in calves supplemented with chromium before weaning and during the experiment (P<0.05). In addition, weaning-related stress caused an increase in chromium excretion in the urine, and chromium supplementation reduced stress, which resulted in lower cortisol and total protein levels during weaning.(AU)


O estudo foi realizado para avaliar a hipótese de que a suplementação dietética com cromo antes, durante e após a desmama possa diminuir a concentração de cortisol causado por este processo em bezerros de corte. Para tal, foram utilizados 150 bezerros mestiços, machos e fêmeas, entre cinco e seis meses de idade. Os animais foram divididos randomicamente por sexo e grupo genético em dois grupos homogêneos (n=75), um mantido como controle e outro suplementado com 0,9mg de carboaminofosfoquelato de cromo/100 kg PV misturado a um sal proteinado para ser consumido na base de 0,1% do PV via creep feeding, no decorrer de 60 dias antes e 60 dias após à desmama forçada. Os animais foram pesados e foram coletadas amostras sanguíneas e urinárias no M0 (60 dias antes da desmama), M1 (desmama), M2 (48 horas após a desmama) e M3 (60 dias após à desmama) para determinação de cromo, cortisol, proteína total e albumina no sangue e da concentração urinária de creatinina e cromo. O ganho acumulado de peso foi superior nos bezerros suplementados com cromo antes da desmama e no decorrer de todo o experimento (P<0,05). A suplementação com cromo reduziu os teores de cortisol e de proteína total durante a desmama. O estresse da desmama provocou aumento da excreção de cromo pela urina.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Weaning , Cattle/growth & development , Cortisone/antagonists & inhibitors , Weight Gain , Chromium/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements , Urine
8.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 33: e190141, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101408

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective In this paper, we studied three different types of ordinary sports supplements containing whey protein: whey protein-based ones, hypercaloric ones, and protein bars. Methods A sample preparation procedure was studied employing microwave-assisted wet digestion in order to determine the Chromium and Manganese levels by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Results The developed methods have presented good accuracy (recoveries in the range of 90% to 109%) and precision (Relative standard deviation <8%). Although an adequate detectability was obtained (50ng g-1 for Manganese and 65ng g-1 for Chromium), the sample preparation method was also adequate to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. The method was applied to 26 commercial samples, in which the Chromium concentrations were in the range between 0.22 and 1.0μg g-1 and the Manganese concentrations varied from 2.0 to 37μg g-1. Conclusion The results obtained by atomic absorption for both analytes were in agreement with those obtained by mass spectrometry. In addition, some samples presented concentrations of Chromium above the recommended daily intake and, as a result, we used the X-ray powder diffraction technique as an analytical tool to evaluate the oxidation state of Chromium in such samples.


RESUMO Objetivo Neste trabalho, foram estudados diferentes tipos de suplementos esportivos contendo proteína de soro de leite, conhecidos como: whey protein, hipercalóricos e barras de proteína. Métodos Um procedimento de preparo de amostras foi estudado com o emprego de digestão úmida assistida por micro-ondas, a fim de determinar os teores de cromo e manganês por espectrometria de absorção atômica em forno de grafite. Resultados Os métodos adotados apresentaram boa exatidão (recuperações na faixa de 90 a 109%) e precisão (Desvio padrão relativo <8%). Embora tenha sido obtida uma capacidade de detecção adequada de 50ng g-1 para o manganês e de 65ng g-1 para o cromo, o método de preparo da amostra também se revelou adequado para a utilização em análises por espectrometria de massas com plasma indutivamente acoplado. O método foi aplicado a 26 amostras comerciais, cujas concentrações de cromo variaram entre 0,22 e 1,0μg g-1, e de manganês entre 2,0 e 37μg g-1. Conclusão Os resultados obtidos por absorção atômica, para ambos os analitos, mostraram-se de acordo com aqueles obtidos por espectrometria de massas. Além disso, algumas amostras apresentaram concentrações de cromo acima da recomendação de consumo diário e, como resultado, a técnica de difração de raios-X em pó foi utilizada como ferramenta analítica para avaliar o estado de oxidação do cromo em tais amostras.


Subject(s)
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy/methods , Chromium/analysis , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Manganese/analysis
9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 117(4): 245-251, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1054928

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Debido a la fuerte industrialización de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y alrededores, la población podría estar expuesta a metales. Para poder evaluar el nivel de exposición de los niños al cromo y al mercurio, es fundamental tener valores de referencia (VR) propios. El objetivo fue determinar los VR pediátricos para cromo y mercurio en la muestra aislada de orina. Población y métodos: Se incluyeron niños y niñas no expuestos a los contaminantes evaluados que concurrieron al Servicio de Bajo Riesgo y al Consultorio del Jardín Maternal del Hospital de Pediatría S.A.M.I.C. "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan". Se cuantificó cromo (UCr), mercurio (UHg) y creatinina urinarios. Se calcularon los p95 con su intervalo de confianza del 95 % [IC 95 %] según el concepto para VR de la German Human Biomonitoring Commission. Resultados: Se incluyeron 160 pacientes en el estudio. Se obtuvieron 144 muestras de niños y niñas de entre 1 y 17 años (mediana: 7 años). Se cuantificó UCr a 137 muestras y UHg a 129. La mediana y rango de cromo fue 0,54 (indetectable -3,06) µg/g de creatinina y la de mercurio fue 0,49 (indetectable -7,57) µg/g de creatinina.Conclusiones: Los VR fueron, para UCr, hasta 1,5 µg/l [1,2-2,8] y hasta 2,2 µg/g de creatinina [1,8-3,0] y para UHg, hasta 2,5 µg/l [1,8-4,8] y 3,2 µg/g de creatinina [2,5-4,7


Introduction. Due to the heavy industrialization of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and Greater Buenos Aires, the population may have become exposed to metals.To assess the level of exposure to chromium and mercury in children, it is critical to have local reference values (RVs). Our objective was to determine pediatric RVs for chromium and mercury in a single urine sample.Population and methods: Children who were not exposed to the studied contaminants and who attended the Department of Low Risk Conditions and the Daycare Center Office of Hospital de Pediatría S.A.M.I.C. "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" were included. Urinary chromium (UCr), urinary mercury (UHg), and urinary creatinine were measured. The p95 and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were estimated based on the RV concept proposed by the German Human Biomonitoring Commission.Results: The study included 160 patients. A total of 144 samples from children aged 1-17 years (median: 7 years) were collected. UCr was measured in 137 samples and UHg, in 129 samples. The median value of chromium was 0.54 µg/g of creatinine (range, undetectable to 3.06), while that of mercury was 0.49 µg/g of creatinine (range, undetectable to 7.57). Conclusions: The RVs for UCr were up to 1.5 µg/L [1.2-2.8] and up to 2.2 µg/g of creatinine [1.8-3.0], and for UHg, up to 2.5 µg/L [1.8-4.8] and 3.2 µg/g of creatinine [2.5-4.7]


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Reference Values , Chromium/urine , Mercury/urine , Urban Population , Urine , Environmental Exposure/analysis
10.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4546, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-998216

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the levels of nickel and chromium ions in hair and Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) of orthodontic patients and to evaluate the corrosion of orthodontic bracket surfaces. Material and Methods: Nickel and chromium ion concentrations were measured in hair and GCF of 15 patients (9 females and 6 males, aged 16-28 years old) who had fixed orthodontic treatment using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The samples were taken before treatment (baseline), 4, 8, and 16 months later during treatment. Along with ionic sampling, microscopic sampling was done. One of each patient brackets was removed to get 15 brackets per group. Five brackets were taken randomly from each group to be examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Data obtained were analyzed using paired t-tests. Results: After 16 months, compared with the baseline, average hair nickel level changed from 0.125 µg/g to 0.956 µg/g with statistically significant difference (p=0.00); average chromium level changed from 0.090 µg/g to 0.295 µg/g but no significant difference (p>0.05); average GCF nickel level changed from 3.335 µg/g to 10.410 µg/g; average chromium level changed from 1.859 µg/g to 9.818 µg/g. Both of these increases were significant (p=0.000). SEM examinations showed that the corrosion on brackets was seen in the fourth month, and more severely visible after 8 and 16 months of uses. Conclusion: After 16 months of treatment, compared with the baseline, the hair nickel level was increased by 7.7 times; while for chromium was by 3.3 times. Gingival crevicular fluid nickel level was increased by 3.1 times and chromium level was by 5.3 times. The longer time of treatment, the more ions released and the more corrosion of brackets will be.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Orthodontics , Longitudinal Studies , Chromium , Dental Etching/methods , Nickel , Indonesia , Ions
11.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4990, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-998269

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine and compare the corrosion resistance (based on the release of nickel and chromium in artificial saliva) of various brands of stainless steel brackets after thermal recycling by direct flaming. Material and Methods: This research study employed 40 stainlesssteel maxillary premolar brackets from different brands (Ormco, GAC, Versadent, S-Ortho, and Protect), which were divided into 5 groups consisting of 8 brackets. The nickel and chromium content of the metal brackets were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), conducted before immersion. For the first treatment, each group was immersed in artificial saliva without direct flaming (recycling); for the second treatment, each group was immersed in artificial saliva with direct flaming (recycling) for 30 days in a pH-neutral (pH=7) solution. ICP-MS was employed to analyze the nickel and chromium released in saliva. The mean differences were measured with Wilcoxon, Kruskal Wallis test, and Post-Hoc Mann Whitney test. Differences were considered statistically significant when p-value<0.05. Results: The mean corrosion resistance based on the nickel content released by the new brackets was 99.95%, 99.87%, 87.09%, 90.58%, and 90.26% for groups A, B, C, D, and E, respectively. The mean corrosion resistance based on the nickel content released by the recycled brackets was 99.90%, 99.80%, 98.19%, 89.76%, and 72.82%, respectively. There was a significant difference in corrosion resistance among the 5 groups after recycling by direct flaming and between new and recycled brackets in each group. Conclusion: The corrosion resistance of the brackets in groups A (Ormco), B (GAC), D (S-Ortho), and E (Protect) decreased after thermal recycling by direct flaming. The Ormco brackets had the highest corrosion resistance after thermal recycling by direct faming.


Subject(s)
Stainless Steel , Chromium , Orthodontic Brackets , Dental Etching , Nickel , Spectrum Analysis/methods , Indonesia
12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18148, 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039038

ABSTRACT

According to Anvisa risk rating, hypodermic needles offer medium risk to the user's health. This study discussed the importance of the corrosion resistance test in tubes of hypodermic needles, in the product quality control. A review of cannulas of hypodermic needles was carried out according to ISO 9626:2003 and 9259:1997 ABNT NBR. For the results evaluation, a scale which classifies the extent of corrosion was adjusted. 174 samples of PNI needles from 17 States and 9 different record holders were analyzed. According to the methodology of ISO 9626:2003, 100% of the samples were considered satisfactory. However, in accordance with the methodology of ISO 9259:1997, 97.1% of the samples were rejected. Irregularities can lead to impairment of product quality, resulting in risks to the consumer's health. Since 2011 the product has undergone certification, so it is necessary to reflect on the importance of corrosion resistance testing and mandatory certification for health monitoring.


Subject(s)
Quality Control , Corrosion , Needles/standards , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing , Brazil/ethnology , Chromium/analysis , Cannula , Legislation as Topic/standards
13.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 414-419, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762357

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Herbs have been used worldwide as complementary and alternative medicines. In Korea, herbs for medical purpose are strictly controlled by the Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA). But it does not provide standards for metal antigens. OBJECTIVE: This study conducted to identify the metal contents of Korean herbs and herbal products and to give information on counselling metal allergic patient. METHODS: The concentration of three metal allergens with high antigenicity, cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) was quantitatively determined using inductively coupled plasma with a mass spectrometer after nitric acid (HNO₃) digestion. The herbal objects are as follows: 1) ten kinds of herb plants, 2) ten herbal products sold in Korean drugstores, and 3) ten herbal extracts prescribed by Korean herbal doctors. RESULTS: In 30 samples, Ni and Cr were detected in all items. Co was not detected in two drugstore products. CONCLUSION: Although the levels of metal detected in this study were very low relative to international guidelines and KFDA regulations, the herbal preparations contained similar or higher metal levels than known metal-rich foods. It can cause problems when it added to the daily diet and cause deterioration of skin lesions of metal sensitized person.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Chromium , Cobalt , Complementary Therapies , Dermatitis , Diet , Digestion , Herbal Medicine , Humans , Korea , Metals , Nickel , Nitric Acid , Plant Preparations , Plasma , Skin , Social Control, Formal , United States Food and Drug Administration
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764305

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. There are many occupational factors that have been suggested to cause prostate cancer. Our aim was to evaluate the evidence for causality by a literature review of occupational factors. We searched literature in Medline and SCOPUS from 1966 to June 30, 2015 to identify occupational risk factors for prostate cancer. The following risk factors were selected: farmers/agricultural workers, pesticides – whole group, and separately organophosphate and organochlorine pesticides, carbamates and triazines, cadmium, chromium, cutting fluids, acrylonitrile, rubber manufacturing, whole body vibration, shift work, flight personnel, ionizing radiation, and occupational physical activity. For each factor a literature search was performed and presented as meta-analysis of relative risk and heterogeneity (Q and I² index). A total of 168 original studies met the inclusion criteria with 90,688 prostate cancer cases. Significantly increased risks were observed for the following occupational exposures: pesticides (metaRR = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–1.32; I² = 84%), and specifically group of organochlorine pesticides (meta relative risk [metaRR] = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.03–1.14; I² = 0%), chromium (metaRR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.07–1.34; I² = 31%), shift work (metaRR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.05–1.49; I² = 78%) and pilots (metaRR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.02–1.94; I² = 63%) and occupational physical activity in cohort studies (metaRR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.81–0.94; I² = 0%). The literature review supports a causal association for a few of the previously suggested factors.


Subject(s)
Acrylonitrile , Cadmium , Carbamates , Chromium , Cohort Studies , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Male , Motor Activity , Occupational Exposure , Pesticides , Population Characteristics , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms , Radiation, Ionizing , Risk Factors , Rubber , Triazines , Vibration
15.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 141-150, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence on associations between occupational diesel exhaust and gasoline exposure and colorectal cancer is limited. We aimed to assess the effect of workplace exposure to diesel exhaust and gasoline on the risk of colorectal cancer. METHODS: This caseecontrol study included 181,709 colon cancer and 109,227 rectal cancer cases diagnosed between 1961 and 2005 in Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Cases and controls were identified from the Nordic Occupational Cancer Study cohort and matched for country, birth year, and sex. Diesel exhaust and gasoline exposure values were assigned by country-specific job-exposure matrices. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using conditional logistic regression models. The results were adjusted for physical strain at work and occupational exposure to benzene, formaldehyde, ionizing radiation, chlorinated hydrocarbons, chromium, and wood dust. RESULTS: Diesel exhaust exposure was associated with a small increase in the risk of rectal cancer (odds ratio 1/4 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.02–1.08). Gasoline exposure was not associated with colorectal cancer risk. CONCLUSION: This study showed a small risk increase for rectal cancer after workplace diesel exhaust exposure. However, this finding could be due to chance, given the limitations of the study.


Subject(s)
Benzene , Case-Control Studies , Chromium , Cohort Studies , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Dust , Finland , Formaldehyde , Gasoline , Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated , Iceland , Logistic Models , Norway , Occupational Exposure , Odds Ratio , Parturition , Radiation, Ionizing , Rectal Neoplasms , Scandinavian and Nordic Countries , Sweden , Vehicle Emissions , Wood
16.
Immune Network ; : 42-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785819

ABSTRACT

There have been few studies investigating the association between atopic dermatitis (AD) and prenatal exposure to heavy metals. We aimed to evaluate whether prenatal exposure to heavy metals is associated with the development or severity of AD in a birth cohort study. A total of 331 subjects were followed from birth for a median duration of 60.0 months. The presence and severity of AD were evaluated at ages 6 and 12 months, and regularly once a year thereafter. The concentrations of lead, mercury, chromium, and cadmium in umbilical cord blood were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) were isolated and stimulated for analysis of cytokine production using ELISA. Heavy metal levels in cord blood were not associated with the development of AD until 24 months of age. However, a positive correlation was observed between the duration of AD and lead levels in cord blood (p=0.002). AD severity was also positively associated with chromium concentrations in cord blood (p=0.037), while cord blood levels of lead, mercury, and cadmium were not significantly associated with AD severity (p=0.562, p=0.054, and p=0.055, respectively). Interleukin-13 production in CBMCs was positively related with lead and chromium levels in cord blood (p=0.021 and p=0.015, respectively). Prenatal exposure to lead and chromium is associated with the persistence and severity of AD, and the immune reaction toward a Th2 polarization.


Subject(s)
Cacao , Cadmium , Chromium , Cohort Studies , Dermatitis, Atopic , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fetal Blood , Interleukin-13 , Mass Spectrometry , Metals, Heavy , Parturition , Plasma , Umbilical Cord
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) guidance for patients with metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacements was provided in 2012 and updated in 2017 to assist in the early detection of soft-tissue reactions due to metal wear debris. A large number of MoM hip replacements were undertaken at our hospital trust. A program of recall for all patients with MoM hip replacements was undertaken and MHRA guidelines were implemented. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the revised MHRA guidelines in the detection of early adverse reactions to metal debris and to re-evaluate the indications for metal artifact reduction sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MARS-MRI) and revision surgery. METHODS: Identification and recall of all patients with MoM hip replacements from 2001 were conducted by using theatre logs, patient records, clinical coding information, and consultant logbooks. Two senior arthroplasty consultants reviewed X-rays and patient records. Postal questionnaires were forwarded to patients, together with requests for general practitioners to complete cobalt and chromium blood tests. The two consultant-led review of MOM replacements was undertaken with further radiological investigations (X-rays, MARS-MRI) performed according to the 2017 guidance with support of consultant radiologists. RESULTS: Of 674 identified patients, 297 were available for review: 26 patients did not have MoM implants, 36 were untraceable, 59 refused follow-up, 87 moved out of area, 147 had died, and 22 already had revision. Of 297 patients, 126 were women and 171 were men; age range was 39 to 95 years (mean age, 69 years); 126 had resurfacing and 171 had MoM replacements. Twenty-six patients had elevated metal ions. Thirty-three patients underwent MARS-MRI: MARS-MRI results were positive in 17 and negative in 16. Of 17 patients with positive MARS-MRI, 10 patients were asymptomatic and seven were waiting revision. CONCLUSIONS: Positive MARS-MRI can often occur in the absence of elevated metal ion levels; elevated blood metal ion levels do not mean MARS-MRI will be positive. All patients with MoM replacements were at risk. It is imperative to assess patients regularly for symptoms that may raise clinical suspicion and maintain a low threshold to performing MARS-MRI.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty , Artifacts , Chromium , Clinical Coding , Cobalt , Consultants , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Follow-Up Studies , General Practitioners , Hematologic Tests , Hip , Hospitals, District , Humans , Ions , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male
18.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(1): 59-62, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887156

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: Metals are common agents of allergic contact dermatitis, occupational or not, with decreasing incidence over the last years in some countries that have regulated the amount of nickel in objects. Objectives: To analyze and compare with previous studies the profile of metal sensitization between 2003-2015. Methods: Patients who underwent patch testing between 2003-2015 were evaluated retrospectively regarding the sensitization rates to metals, the associations between them, the relationship with profession and epidemiology. Results: Of the 1,386 patients tested, 438 (32%) had positive test to some metal, similar results to the 404/1,208 (33%) of the previous study (1995-2002) performed at the same service (p=0.32). The frequency of nickel (77%), cobalt (32%) and chromium (29%) changed slightly (p=0.20). Most cases of sensitization to chromium were related to the occupation (64%), in contrast to nickel and cobalt (p<0.0001). There was a predominance of females among those sensitized to metal in both studies (p=0.63) and the age group of 20-49 years old (p=0.11); the number of fair-skinned individuals increased (p<0.001), as well as the lesions in the cephalic segment (50.5%; p<0.0001) and hands (45%; p<0.0001), which are not the most frequent location anymore. The number of cleaners decreased (39% vs. 59%; p<0.0001), which still lead in front of bricklayers/painters, which increased (14% vs. 9%; p=0.013). The frequency of wet work reduced (65% vs. 81%; p<0.0001). Study limitations: The study included a single population group; only patients with positive tests to metals were considered - the others were not evaluated for the possibility of false negatives. Conclusion: The sensitization to metals, occupational or not, has been significant over the last 21 years, with few epidemiological changes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Allergens/adverse effects , Chromium/adverse effects , Immunization/methods , Cobalt/administration & dosage , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/etiology , Nickel/adverse effects , Time Factors , Patch Tests , Retrospective Studies , Cobalt/adverse effects , Dermatitis, Occupational/etiology
19.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 18(1): 4071, 15/01/2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-966890

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare levels of nickel and chromium in serum and urine in orthodontic patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. Material and Methods: Nickel and chromium ion concentration were measured in serum and urine of twenty patients (12 females and 8 males, aged 17-28 years old) who had fixed orthodontic treatment using Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. The samples were taken before treatment (Baseline), two months, and six months later during treatment. Data were analyzed using repeated ANOVA, Bonferroni post-hoc test, and paired t-tests. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Average serum nickel level changed from 6.420 ppb to 6.855 ppb. Average serum chromium level changed from 5.305 ppb to 5.505 ppb in 6 months. Average urinary nickel level changed from 5.320 ppb to 5.610 ppb. Average urinary chromium level changed from 5.370 ppb to 5.520 ppb in 6 months. There was a statistically significant difference in serum (p<0.001) and urinary chromium (p=0.007) levels between observation times. Conclusion: Orthodontic treatment might raise both urinary and serum nickel levels, but the differences were not statistically significant; the alterations in chromium levels were not consistent; nickel levels were higher in serum than in urine; chromium levels were higher in urine than in serum.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Orthodontic Appliances/statistics & numerical data , Urine , Longitudinal Studies , Serum , Nickel/analysis , Analysis of Variance , Chromium/analysis , Indonesia
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714899

ABSTRACT

The industrial complexes built during the course of economic development in South Korea played a pivotal role in the country's rapid economic growth. However, this growth was accompanied by health problems due to the pollutants released from the industrial complexes inevitably located near residential areas, given the limited land area available in South Korea. This study was conducted to evaluate the exposure to each pollutant emanating from industrial complexes for residents living in nearby areas, and to determine the substances requiring priority attention in future surveys. Pollutants were comprehensively categorized according to their emission and exposure levels based on data previously collected from the study areas. The emission, ambient concentration, and biomarker concentration levels of major pollutants emitted from eight national industrial complexes (Ulsan, Pohang, Gwangyang, Yeosu, Chungju, Daesan, Sihwa, and Banwol) were determined and tabulated. Each of the values was compared with the national/local average values, reference values, or control area concentrations depending on availability. Substances with completed exposure pathways and with high values for emissions, ambient concentrations, and biomarker concentrations were considered the substances posing exposure risks to the residents living near the corresponding industrial complex. The substances requiring continuous monitoring or supplementary exposure investigation were also categorized and presented. Lead and benzene had higher values for emissions, ambient concentrations, and biomarker concentrations in the Ulsan Industrial Complex area; thus, they were most likely to pose exposure risks to residents living in the area's neighborhoods. In other areas, styrene, xylene, cadmium, nitrogen oxide, trichloroethylene, nickel, manganese, and chromium required continuous monitoring, and arsenic, nickel, manganese, and chromium required biomarker measurements. In conclusion, the substances identified and categorized in this study need to be given appropriate attention in future surveys on exposure risks and health effects related to industrial complexes.


Subject(s)
Arsenic , Benzene , Cadmium , Chromium , Economic Development , Environmental Pollutants , Korea , Manganese , Nickel , Nitrogen , Reference Values , Residence Characteristics , Styrene , Trichloroethylene , Xylenes
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