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1.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 889-895, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013193

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical and molecular diagnostic status of Fanconi anemia (FA) in China. Methods: The General situation, clinical manifestations and chromosome breakage test and genetic test results of 107 pediatric FA cases registered in the Chinese Blood and Marrow Transplantation Registry Group (CBMTRG) and the Chinese Children Blood and Marrow Transplantation Registry Group (CCBMTRG) from August 2009 to January 2022 were analyzed retrospectively. Children with FANCA gene variants were divided into mild and severe groups based on the type of variant, and Wilcoxon-test was used to compare the phenotypic differences between groups. Results: Of the 176 registered FA patients, 69 (39.2%) cases were excluded due to lack of definitive genetic diagnosis results, and the remaining 107 children from 15 hospitals were included in the study, including 70 males and 37 females. The age at transplantation treatment were 6 (4, 9) years. The enrolled children were involved in 10 pathogenic genes, including 89 cases of FANCA gene, 7 cases of FANCG gene, 3 cases of FANCB gene, 2 cases of FANCE gene and 1 case each of FANCC, FANCD1, FANCD2, FANCF, FANCJ, and FANCN gene. Compound heterozygous or homozygous of loss-of-function variants account for 69.2% (72/104). Loss-of-function variants account for 79.2% (141/178) in FANCA gene variants, and 20.8% (37/178) were large exon deletions. Fifty-five children (51.4%) had chromosome breakage test records, with a positive rate of 81.8% (45/55). There were 172 congenital malformations in 80 children.Café-au-Lait spots (16.3%, 28/172), thumb deformities (16.3%,28/172), polydactyly (13.9%, 24/172), and short stature (12.2%, 21/172) were the most common congenital malformations in Chinese children with FA. No significant difference was found in the number of congenital malformations between children with severe (50 cases) and mild FANCA variants (26 cases) (Z=-1.33, P=0.185). Conclusions: FANCA gene is the main pathogenic gene in children with FA, where the detection of its exon deletion should be strengthened clinically. There were no phenotypic differences among children with different types of FANCA variants. Chromosome break test is helpful to determine the pathogenicity of variants, but its accuracy needs to be improved.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child , Fanconi Anemia/genetics , Chromosome Breakage , Retrospective Studies , Exons , China/epidemiology
2.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-6, 01/jan./2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411461

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mutagenic potential of fluoxetine and fluoxetine-galactomannan. Methods: Chromosomal aberration test and Salmonella typhimurium/microsome mutagenicity assay. Results: The results showed that fluoxetine (250 µg/mL) can cause chromosomal breaks of treated leukocytes and increase the frequency of reversion of the tester strains of S. typhimurium / microsome assay only at the highest concentration (5 mg/mL), while fluoxetine encapsulated in galactomannan did not cause these changes (leukocytes and S. typhimuriums strains). Conclusion: In summary, fluoxetine showed a mutagenic effect detectable only at high concentrations in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic models. Furthermore, the fluoxetine/galactomannan complex, in this first moment, prevented the mutagenicity attributed to fluoxetine, emphasizing that the present encapsulation process can be an alternative in preventing these effects in vitro.


Objetivos: avaliar o potencial mutagênico da fluoxetina e da fluoxetina-galactomanana. Métodos: Teste de aberração cromossômica e ensaio de mutagenicidade de Salmonella typhimurium /microssoma. Resultados: a fluoxetina (250 µg/mL) pode causar quebras cromossômicas de leucócitos tratados e aumentar a frequência de reversão das cepas testadoras de S. typhimurium /microssoma apenas na concentração mais alta (5 mg/mL), enquanto a fluoxetina encapsulada em galactomanano não causou essas alterações (leucócitos e cepas de S. typhimurium). Conclusão: a fluoxetina mostrou um efeito mutagênico detectável apenas em altas concentrações em modelos eucarióticos e procarióticos. Além disso, o complexo fluoxetina/galactomanan, neste primeiro momento, evitou a mutagenicidade atribuída à fluoxetina, ressaltando que o presente processo de encapsulamento pode ser uma alternativa na prevenção desses efeitos in vitro.


Subject(s)
Fluoxetine , Chromosome Aberrations , Salmonella typhimurium , Chromosome Breakage , Microsomes , Mutagenicity Tests
3.
Genomics & Informatics ; : e27-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763820

ABSTRACT

Supernumerary B chromosomes were found in Lilium amabile (2n = 2x = 24), an endemic Korean lily that grows in the wild throughout the Korean Peninsula. The extra B chromosomes do not affect the host-plant morphology; therefore, whole transcriptome analysis was performed in 0B and 1B plants to identify differentially expressed genes. A total of 154,810 transcripts were obtained from over 10 Gbp data by de novo assembly. By mapping the raw reads to the de novo transcripts, we identified 7,852 differentially expressed genes (log₂FC > |10|), in which 4,059 and 3,794 were up-and down-regulated, respectively, in 1B plants compared to 0B plants. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that various differentially expressed genes were involved in cellular processes including the cell cycle, chromosome breakage and repair, and microtubule formation; all of which may be related to the occurrence and maintenance of B chromosomes. Our data provide insight into transcriptomic changes and evolution of plant B chromosomes and deliver an informative database for future study of B chromosome transcriptomes in the Korean lily.


Subject(s)
Cell Cycle , Chromosome Breakage , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression , Lilium , Microtubules , Plants , Transcriptome
4.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 13(2): 221-225, Apr-Jun/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751414

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess adherence of the prescribing physicians in a private cancer care center to the American Society of Clinical Oncology guideline for antiemetic prophylaxis, in the first cycle of antineoplastic chemotherapy. Methods: A total of 139 chemotherapy regimens, of 105 patients, were evaluated retrospectively from 2011 to 2013. Results: We observed 78% of non-adherence to the guideline rate. The main disagreements with the directive were the prescription of higher doses of dexamethasone and excessive use of 5-HT3 antagonist for low risk emetogenic chemotherapy regimens. On univariate analysis, hematological malignancies (p=0.005), the use of two or more chemotherapy (p=0.05) and high emetogenic risk regimes (p=0.012) were factors statistically associated with greater adherence to guidelines. Treatment based on paclitaxel was the only significant risk factor for non-adherence (p=0.02). By multivariate analysis, the chemotherapy of high emetogenic risk most correlated with adherence to guideline (p=0.05). Conclusion: We concluded that the adherence to guidelines is greater if the chemotherapy regime has high emetogenic risk. Educational efforts should focus more intensely on the management of chemotherapy regimens with low and moderate emetogenic potential. Perhaps the development of a computer generated reminder may improve the adherence to guidelines. .


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a adesão dos médicos prescritores, de um centro privado especializado em oncologia, à diretriz de antiêmese profilática da American Society of Clinical Oncology, no primeiro ciclo de quimioterapia antineoplásica. Métodos: Foram avaliados retrospectivamente 139 esquemas de quimioterapia, de 105 pacientes, tratados no período de 2011 a 2013. Resultados: Foram observados 78% de taxa de não adesão à diretriz. As principais discordâncias com a diretriz foram prescrição de doses mais elevadas de dexametasona e uso excessivo de antagonista 5-HT3 para regimes de quimioterapia de risco emetogênico baixo. Pela análise univariada, malignidades hematológicas (p=0,005), uso de dois ou mais quimioterápicos (p=0,05) e regimes de alto risco emetogênico (p=0,012) foram fatores estatisticamente associados a maior adesão à diretriz. O tratamento baseado em paclitaxel foi o único fator estatisticamente significativo para a não adesão (p=0,02). Pela análise multivariada, a quimioterapia de alto risco emetogênico apresentou maior correlação com a adesão à diretriz (p=0,05). Conclusão: Houve maior aderência para a quimioterapia de alto risco emetogênico. Esforços educacionais devem se concentrar mais intensamente na gestão de regimes de quimioterapia com potencial emetogênico baixo e moderado. Talvez o desenvolvimento de lembretes gerados por sistemas informatizados possa melhorar a aderência à diretriz. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , DNA Damage , Recombinational DNA Repair , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/chemistry , Amino Acid Motifs , Amino Acid Sequence , BRCA1 Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , Cell Line , Chromosome Breakage , Conserved Sequence , DNA Repair , DNA-Binding Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Deoxyribonucleases/metabolism , Histones/metabolism , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Ubiquitination , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism
5.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 30(3): 273-279, jul.-set. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-723765

ABSTRACT

La anemia de Fanconi (AF) es un síndrome de inestabilidad cromosómica caracterizado por diversos rasgos dismórficos, pancitopenia progresiva y predisposición a neoplasias hematológicas. El ensayo de sensibilidad a la mitomicina C (MMC) proporciona un marcador celular único para el diagnóstico de la enfermedad. Con el objetivo de introducir este ensayo de roturas cromosómicas, se aplicó la técnica en dos muestras procedentes de un paciente con sospecha clínica de AF y un sujeto control. Las muestras de sangre periférica fueron cultivadas según los protocolos establecidos para los estudios citogenéticos. Se prepararon cuatro frascos de cultivo por cada muestra. A uno de ellos se le añadió solo cloruro de sodio (cultivo control) y a los restantes se les añadieron concentraciones crecientes de MMC (50, 150 y 300 nM). Fueron analizadas cincuenta metafases por cada frasco. La exposición de los linfocitos del paciente a todas las concentraciones de MMC provocó diferencias significativas en el número de células con roturas cromosómicas respecto a la misma exposición en el control (p <0.005). Se comprobó el éxito del ensayo teniendo en cuenta que a 300 nM en el control sano solo aparece el 32 por ciento de células con roturas. Es interesante resaltar que en la muestra del paciente a la concentración más elevada, se apreció la presencia de 2 líneas celulares, una con pocas o ninguna rotura (38 por ciento) similar a las que aparecen en las células no-AF; y otra con múltiples roturas (62 por ciento) típicas de las células AF. Esto indicó la presencia de mosaicismo somático en los linfocitos T del paciente. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos se confirmó la sospecha clínica de que se trata de un paciente AF, por la hipersensibilidad a la acción de la MMC que presenta mosaicismo somático en linfocitos T...


Fanconi anemia (FA) is a chromosomal instability syndrome characterized by various dysmorphic features, progressive pancytopenia and predisposition to hematological malignancies. The assay sensitivity to mitomycin C (MMC) provides a unique cell marker for the diagnosis of the disease. In order to introduce this chromosomal breakage test the technique was applied in two samples from a patient with clinical suspicion of AF and a control subject. Peripheral blood samples were cultured by protocols established for cytogenetic studies. Four flasks were prepared for each sample culture. Only sodium chloride was added to one of the flasks (control) and to the remaining flasks increasing concentrations of MMC (50, 150 and 300 nM) were added. Fifty metaphases were analyzed for each bottle. Exposure of lymphocytes from the patient at all concentrations of MMC caused significant differences in the number of cells with chromosome breaks with respect to the same exposure in the control (p <0.005). Assay success was proved considering that in 300 nM in healthy control only 32 percent shows cell breakage. It is interesting to remark that in the patient sample with highest concentration, the presence of two cell lines were observed, one with little or no breakage (38 percent) similar to those found in no-F cells and other with multiple breaks (62 percent), typical of AF cells. These results indicated the presence of somatic mosaicism in patient´s T lymphocytes. The results obtained confirmed the clinical suspicion that this is an AF patient, due to the hypersensitivity to the action of MMC and the presence of somatic mosaicism in T lymphocytes...


Subject(s)
Humans , Fanconi Anemia/diagnosis , Mitomycin , Chromosome Breakage , Case-Control Studies
6.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : 125-134, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-120725

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to characterize Korean patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), which is a rare but very challenging genetic disease. METHODS: The medical records of 12 FA patients diagnosed at Chonnam National University Hospital from 1991 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 6.2 years. All patients showed evidence of marrow failure and one or more physical stigmata. Chromosome breakage tests were positive in 9 out of 11 available patients. The median follow-up duration was 69.5 months. The Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival of all patients was 83.3% at 10 years and 34.7% at 20 years, respectively. Seven patients underwent 9 stem cell transplantations (SCTs). Among them, 5 were alive by the end of the study. Ten-year KM survival after SCT was 71.4% with a median follow-up of 3.4 years. All 5 patients treated with supportive treatment alone died of infection or progression at the median age of 13.5 years, except for one with short follow-up duration. Acute leukemia developed in 2 patients at 15.4 and 18.1 years of age. Among 6 patients who are still alive, 3 had short stature and 1 developed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSION: We provide information on the long-term outcomes of FA patients in Korea. A nation-wide FA registry that includes information of the genotypes of Korean patients is required to further characterize ethnic differences and provide the best standard of care for FA patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone Marrow , Christianity , Chromosome Breakage , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diagnosis , Fanconi Anemia , Follow-Up Studies , Genotype , Korea , Leukemia , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Standard of Care , Stem Cell Transplantation , Treatment Outcome
7.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 122-125, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-359789

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by bone marrow failure, congenital abnormalities and predisposition to neoplasia. Hypersensitivity of FA cells to the clastogenic effect of mitomycin C (MMC) provides a unique marker for the diagnosis before the beginning of hematological manifestations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between Single-Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) and mitomycin C-induced chromosomal breakage in children with FA.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Between January 2007 and June 2011, 248 children (< 15 years) with hypocytosis were included. Chromosomal breakage was induced by MMC 0 ng/ml, 40 ng/ml, and 80 ng/ml. SCGE was performed at the same time. We analyzed the results of the two methods and compared with each other. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the parameters in SCGE.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Seventeen patients were diagnosed as FA and 231 as non-FA. Chromosomal breakage was found to be significantly higher in FA patients [(32.2 ± 4.8)%] than non-FA [(19.9 ± 3.0)%] and controls[(21.6 ± 4.8)%] when induced by MMC 80 ng/ml. The parameters of SCGE were significantly different between FA patients and non-FA or controls. All the parameters were rectilinearly correlated with MMC (P = 0.000). The most closely correlated parameter was the rate of comet cell (r = 0.848, P = 0.000). The results of ROC curves suggested the comet cell rate (0.999) was more important.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>SCGE might be used to discriminate between FA and non-FA individuals. The relationship between SCGE and MMC-induced chromosomal breakage was significant. The rate of comet cell was the important parameter.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Anemia, Aplastic , Diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Chromosomal Instability , Chromosome Breakage , Comet Assay , Methods , DNA Damage , Diagnosis, Differential , Fanconi Anemia , Diagnosis , Genetics , Mitomycin , Pharmacology , Mosaicism , Pancytopenia , Diagnosis , Genetics , ROC Curve
8.
Indian J Hum Genet ; 2012 May; 18(2): 269
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143288
9.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 117-121, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335332

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the cytogenetic profiles of follicular lymphoma (FL) in Chinese patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Conventional karyotype in 57 FL patients from Shanghai area was analyzed. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) for t(14;18) and Bcl-6 and IgH gene rearrangement was performed in these cases.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The most frequent breakpoints (frequency > or = 10% ) of the 57 FL cases were at band 14q32 (68.4%), 18q21 (38.6%), 3q27 (21.1%), 1q10 (15.8%) and 1q21 (12.3%). Nineteen (33.3%) of the 57 cases had t(14;18). The breakpoint of 18q21 and t(14;18) were more frequent in FL grade 1-2 and less frequent in FL grade 3 (57.6% vs. 12.5%; 54.5% vs. 4.2%, P < 0.05), whereas the 3q27/Bcl-6 rearrangement was more frequent in FL grade 3 and less frequent in FL grade 1-2 (37.5% vs. 9.1% , P < 0.05). The cohort of FL was more frequent in gains of chromosomes X, 1q, 5, 6p, 7 and 12q and losses of chromosomes 1p, 6p and 14q32. Gain of 18q was more frequent in FL grade 1-2 than in FL grade 3 (P < 0.05). Loss of 14q32 was more frequent in t(14;18) negative FL than in t(14;18) positive FL (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Compared with the data of Western patients reported in the literature, Chinese FL cases had distinct cytogenetic profiles from Western FL cases that the t(14;18) is less frequent and the gain of 1q is more frequent in Chinese FL cases, which are more significant in high grade FL.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Asian People , Genetics , Chromosome Breakage , Chromosome Deletion , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14 , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18 , Gene Rearrangement , Genes, bcl-2 , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Lymphoma, Follicular , Genetics , Pathology , Neoplasm Grading , Translocation, Genetic
10.
JCPSP-Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. 2012; 22 (7): 458-460
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-144303

ABSTRACT

Fanconi anaemia [FA] is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder with progressive bone marrow failure, associated congenital malformation and solid and haematological malignancies. Acute myeloid leukemia is the commonest haematological malignancy followed by myelodysplastic syndrome in children with FA. FA transformed into acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL] is a rare phenomenon and one of the rarest haematological malignancies associated with this disorder. We are reporting a 13 years old girl with FA and positive chromosomal breakage. She required regular blood product transfusion. She was planned for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation [HSCT] but the sibling-matched donor was found to have chromosomal breaks as well. Later on, her peripheral smear showed blast cell. Bone marrow showed pre-B ALL. She was started on chemotherapy but died shortly due to complications of the treatment. For this rare condition conservative management is indeed essential, however, safe and appropriate chemotherapy regimen is needed


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/genetics , Fanconi Anemia/genetics , Rare Diseases , Chromosome Breakage , Bone Marrow/pathology
11.
Indian J Hum Genet ; 2011 Sept; 17(3): 145-151
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-138954

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder that shows an increased sensitivity to the intercalating agents such as mytomycin C (MMC), measured as chromosomal aberrations. This study was conducted to differentiate between FA and “idiopathic” aplastic anemia on the basis of induced chromosomal breakage study with MMC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MMC stress tests in different final concentrations of 20 and 50 ng/ml of MMC were conducted on peripheral blood lymphocytes from 32 patients with aplastic anemia and 13 healthy controls. Fifty nanograms per milliliter of MMC from old, fresh and frozen stocks was used to check the sensitivity of diagnosis on FA-diagnosed patients. Statistical analysis was used for the assessment of aberrations, including chromatid and chromosome breaks and exchanges. RESULTS: Eight patients (25%) with a very high percentage of chromosomal breakage were diagnosed as FA on the basis of the chromosomal breakage study. Six of these patients exhibited congenital anomalies at presentation, while another two lacked such anomalies or had minor physical problems. Freshly made MMC has shown more sensitivity to detect FA patients compared with frozen or 1-week-old MMC stock. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that freshly made MMC stress test provides an unequivocal means of differentiation between FA and “idiopathic” aplastic anemia. Further, the study, the first of its kind from Iran, stresses on the need for conducting this test in all aplastic anemia cases, even those without congenital anomalies, for accurate and timely diagnosis of FA to implement appropriate therapy.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Aplastic/diagnosis , Anemia, Aplastic/genetics , Chromosome Breakage/genetics , Fanconi Anemia/diagnosis , Fanconi Anemia/genetics , Female , Humans , Iran , Male , Mitomycin/diagnosis
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-148880

ABSTRACT

Background: Epidemiological studies indicate increased risk of leukemia, lymphoma, and brain tumor among electrical workers exposed to electromagnetic field (EMF). Other investigator reported that continuous exposure of four successive generations of mice to EMF in doses of 1 kV to 5 kV caused tumor formation in offspring. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of continuous exposure of three successive generations of mice (Mus musculus L) to EMF of 3 kV, 4 kV, and 5 kV and its implication of chromosomal breakage, as detected by double minute formation. Methods: Four couples of mice of Swiss Webster strain, 3-4 months of age, and 7-40 gram of body weight were exposed to EMF at the doses of 3 kV, 4 kV, and 5 kV, and one couple served as control. Double minute formation was examined in all offspring, except one couple of each group to be exposed with the same doses of EMF to get the F2 generation, and so forth until F3 generation. Twenty metaphases of chromosomes were examined and frequencies of double minute were calculated in the three generations of all group. Results: Frequencies of double minute in F1, F2, and F3 of mice exposed to EMF of 3 kV were respectively 0.78 ± 0.08; 0.83 ± 0.09; and 0.80 ± 0.05. In the 4 kV group were 0.083 ± 0.11; 0.73 ± 0.03; and 0.96 ± 0.15, and in the 5 kV group were 0.96 ± 0.25; 0.75 ± 0.05; and 0.99 ± 0.33, whereas no double minute chromosomes were noted in control group. Frequencies of the double minute in mice exposed to EMF were significantly higher than control group. Conclusions: Continuous exposure of mice during three successive generations to EMF at doses of 3 kV, 4 kV, and 5 kV causes increased chromosomal breakage as detected as double minute chromosome formation.


Subject(s)
Electromagnetic Fields , Chromosome Breakage , Mice
13.
Indian J Hum Genet ; 2011 May; 17(2): 77-81
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-138939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Natural honey is widely used all over the world as a complementary and alternative medicine in various disorders including Fanconi anemia (FA). FA is a rare genetic chromosomal instability syndrome caused by impairment of DNA repair and reactive oxygen species (ROS) imbalance. This disease is also related to bone marrow failure and cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytoprotective effect of honey on mitomycin C (MMC-) induced chromosomal damage in peripheral lymphocytes from FA patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Treatment of these complications with alkylation agents MMC may enhance chromosomal breakage. We have evaluated the effect of honey on MMC- induced chromosomal breakage in FA blood cells using chromosomal breakage assay. The basal chromosomal breakage count was higher among FA patients than healthy subjects. RESULTS: The addition of MMC alone gave a significantly higher of chromosomal breakage in FA patients than control group (P < 0.0001). Pre- treatment with honey significantly inhibited breakage induced by MMC in FA patients by its antioxidant effect. CONCLUSION: Honey can prevent MMC- induced chromosomal breakage by its antioxidant effect.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Chromosome Breakage/drug effects , Chromosome Breakage/genetics , Female , Honey/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Mitomycin/adverse effects
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 42(3): 237-243, Mar. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-507350

ABSTRACT

Fanconi anemia is a rare hereditary disease showing genetic heterogeneity due to a variety of mutations in genes involved in DNA repair pathways, which may lead to different clinical manifestations. Phenotypic variability makes diagnosis difficult based only on clinical manifestations, therefore laboratory tests are necessary. New advances in molecular pathogenesis of this disease led researchers to develop a diagnostic test based on Western blot for FANCD2. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy of this method for the diagnosis of 84 Brazilian patients with Fanconi anemia, all of whom tested positive for the diepoxybutane test, and 98 healthy controls. The FANCD2 monoubiquitinated isoform (FANCDS+/FANCD2L-) was not detected in 77 patients (91.7 percent). In 2 patients (2.4 percent), there was an absence of both the monoubiquitinated and the non-ubiquitinated proteins (FANCD2S-/FANCD2L-) and 5 patients (5.9 percent) had both isoforms (FANCD2S+/FANCD2L+). This last phenotype suggests downstream subtypes or mosaicism. All controls were diepoxybutane negative and were also negative on the FANCD2 Western blot. The Western blot for FANCD2 presented a sensitivity of 94 percent (79/84) and specificity of 100 percent (98/98). This method was confirmed as an efficient approach to screen Brazilian patients with deleterious mutations on FANCD2 (FANCD2S-/FANCD2L-) or other upstream genes of the FA/BRCA pathway (FANCDS+/FANCD2L-), to confirm the chromosome breakage test and to classify patients according to the level of FA/BRCA pathway defects. However, patients showing both FANCD2 isoforms (FANCD2S+/FANCD2L+) require additional studies to confirm mutations on downstream Fanconi anemia genes or the presence of mosaicism.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , /analysis , /genetics , Fanconi Anemia/diagnosis , Blotting, Western , Case-Control Studies , Chromosome Breakage , Epoxy Compounds , Fanconi Anemia/genetics , Genetic Markers/genetics , Phenotype , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
15.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 200-202, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287424

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To perform genetic analysis of a complex chromosome rearrangement (CCR) 46,XY, t(3;11)(q27; q13), ins(11;3)(q13;p26p13) in an azoospermic man.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Peripheral blood lymphocytes we re obtained for karyotyping, and metaphases were studied by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization procedure, Y chromosomal microdeletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF) region were analyzed with multiplex polymerase chain reaction.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The case was a complex chromosomal translocation between chromosomes 3 and 11 with four breakpoints, and accompanied with a band of chromosome 3 inserting into chromosome 11. No Y-chromosome microdeletions were identified at 6 STS sequences of the AZF loci.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>CCR can have a significant impact on male fertility. Molecular cytogenetic techniques may contribute to improving and personalizing reproductive counseling.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Azoospermia , Genetics , Chromosome Breakage , Chromosome Deletion , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14 , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3 , Chromosomes, Human, X , Chromosomes, Human, Y , DNA , Karyotyping , Translocation, Genetic
16.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 2008 Jul-Aug; 74(4): 398-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-53110
17.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2008 Jul; 75(7): 679-84
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-80825

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare inherited genomic instability syndrome and usually associated with endocrine dysfunctions. We aimed to assess the diagnostic standards of chromosomal instability in FA and to correlate the breakage frequency with the severity of endocrinal dysfunctions. METHODS: Twenty seven FA patients were randomly selected from Hematology Unit of Mansoura University Children's Hospital; their mean age 8.8 yr. Sixteen normal children matched for age and sex were used as controls. Cytogenetic studies included peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures using phytohemagglutinin to obtain chromosomal spreads. Chromosomal breakage was induced by (i) Diepoxybutane 0.1 mug/ml. (ii) Mitomycin C 0.1 microg/ml. (iii) Irradiation of cultures to four radiation doses; 75, 150, 300 and 400 rads (rad1, rad2, rad3 and rad4 respectively). Chromosomal aberrations were scored from the previous 6 cultures besides a culture for spontaneous chromosomal breakage; then mean chromosomal breakage was calculated for the seven cultures. Endocrinal evaluation included quantitative determination of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and tetraiodothyronine (T4), serum growth hormone (GH), insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin levels. RESULTS: Chromosomal breakage was found to be significantly higher in patients than control when induced by Diepoxybutane (p = 0.003), Mitomycin (p = 0.001), rad3 (p = 0.043) and rad4 (p = 0.001). Mean chromosomal breakage was significantly negative correlated to head circumference (r = -0.57) and GH level (r = -0.50), with no significant correlation to other hormonal parameters. Mitomycin and rad4 were found more accurate than DEB test for diagnosis of FA in suspected cases. CONCLUSION: Correction of the frequently associated hormonal dysfunction (reduced GH and T4) should be considered in the treatment discipline of FA patients to improve their final height.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Cells, Cultured , Child , Child, Preschool , Chromosomal Instability/genetics , Chromosome Breakage/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Egypt , Epoxy Compounds/pharmacology , Fanconi Anemia/genetics , Female , Growth Hormone/blood , Humans , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism , Lymphocytes , Male , Mitomycin/pharmacology , Mutagens/pharmacology , Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Thyroid Hormones/blood , Thyrotropin/blood
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-37592

ABSTRACT

The myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) represents a group of clonal hematological disorders characterized by progressive cytopenia reflecting defects in erythroid, myeloid and mega karyocytic maturation. The incidence of MDS is greter in older age groups. Detailed studies on MDS from India are not available. Cytogenetic study using GTG-banding and FISH revealed 54.5% clonal chromosomal abnormalities. We have carried out chromosomal breakage study from peripheral blood cultures induced with mitomycin C, in karyotypically normal MDS (49) and 15 (30.6%) showed significant (p < 0.001) increase in chromosome damage compared to controls. Among 22 occupationally exposed MDS, 6 (27.3%) showed a high frequency of chromosome breakage while in the non-exposure (n=27) group, high chromosome breakage was noted in 9 (33.3% ) MDS patients. Our results suggest that the high chromosome damage may be due to acquired Fanconi anemia which leads to multiple defects in chromosomes and clonal chromosome anomalies.


Subject(s)
Alkylating Agents/pharmacology , Blast Crisis , Chromosome Banding , Chromosome Breakage , Fanconi Anemia/blood , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , India , Karyotyping , Mitomycin/pharmacology , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/blood
19.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 506-510, 2008.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-308029

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the possible relationship between defects in the FA/BRCA pathway of genomic stability and potential pathogenesis of T and B cell lymphoma.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Nineteen cell lines derived from diverse subtypes of lymphoma for possible FA pathway defects were screened.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>No defect in FANCD2 ubiquitination was observed. However, the FANCN protein was absent in cell lines HT and Sudhl4. This absence was correlated with enhanced MMC-induced G2 arrest, growth inhibition and high chromosomal breakage rate in both cell lines. In addition, in exon-5a of FANCN gene, a mutation of c.1769 C>T, p. A590V was found in cell line HT, but not in cell line Sudhl4.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>This mutation may be the reason causing the absence of the FANCN protein expression or making the protein unstable and losing its function.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic , Pharmacology , BRCA2 Protein , Metabolism , Base Sequence , Cell Cycle , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Chromosome Breakage , Fanconi Anemia , Metabolism , Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group D2 Protein , Metabolism , Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group N Protein , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Genomic Instability , Lymphoma , Genetics , Pathology , Mitomycin , Pharmacology , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutation , Nuclear Proteins , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Protein Stability , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Signal Transduction , Tumor Suppressor Proteins , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism
20.
Korean Journal of Hematology ; : 62-67, 2008.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-720810

ABSTRACT

Fanconi anemia is an autosomal recessive disease that's characterized by congenital anomalies, defective hematopoiesis and a high risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia and certain solid tumors. The clinical phenotype is extremely variable; therefore, the diagnosis is frequently delayed until the pancytopenia appears. Chromosomal instability, especially on exposure to an alkylating agent, may be seen in affected patients and it is the basis for a diagnostic test. This cellular phenotype can be demonstrated in cultured T cells, B cells, fibroblasts and fetal cells cultured from both amniotic fluid and chorionic villi. But somatic mosaicism may make the diagnosis of Fanconi anemia difficult because of inconclusive chromosome breakage studies. If the test is negative in lymphocytes and yet the clinical setting is highly suspicious, then the skin fibroblasts must be assessed. Because skin fibroblasts are somatic cells, a definitive test can be performed on primary skin fibroblasts. In this report we describe a case of Fanconi anemia that was diagnosed with the use of cultured skin fibroblasts, and this was despite the normal breakage studies in the peripheral blood.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Amniotic Fluid , B-Lymphocytes , Chorionic Villi , Chromosomal Instability , Chromosome Breakage , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Fanconi Anemia , Fibroblasts , Hematopoiesis , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Lymphocytes , Mosaicism , Pancytopenia , Phenotype , Skin , T-Lymphocytes
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