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1.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 20(1): e210153, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1365199

ABSTRACT

Despite several difficulties in chromosomal analyses of small-sized fishes, the cytogenetics of the Lebiasinidae was largely improved in the last years, showing differential patterns in the chromosomal evolution inside the family. In this context, it has been shown that genus Lebiasina preserves its karyotypic macrostructure, composed of 2n = 36 chromosomes, whereas the other genera generally present higher 2n. This study focused on the comparative cytogenetics of three Lebiasina species, one of them analyzed here for the first time, using conventional and molecular procedures. The results reinforced the differentiated evolutionary path of the genus Lebiasina while, at the same time, highlighted the genomic particularities that have accompanied the evolution of each species. In this sense, the repetitive components of the genome played a significant role in the differentiation of each species. It is also notable that L. minuta and L. melanoguttata, the two species that occur exclusively in the Brazilian territory, show greater chromosomal similarities to each other than to the trans-Andean sister species, L. bimaculata.(AU)


Apesar das dificuldades encontradas em se realizar análises cromossômicas em peixes de pequeno porte, os estudos citogenéticos em Lebiasinidae vêm crescendo nos últimos anos e demonstrando padrões diferenciados na evolução cromossômica entre os membros da família. Nesse contexto, o gênero Lebiasina tem mostrado preservar sua macroestrutura cariotípica, composta por 2n = 36 cromossomos, enquanto os demais gêneros geralmente apresentam 2n maiores. Este estudo tem como foco a citogenética comparativa de três espécies de Lebiasina, sendo uma delas analisada pela primeira vez aqui, através do emprego de técnicas convencionais e moleculares. Os resultados obtidos reforçam a trajetória evolutiva diferenciada do gênero Lebiasina, ao mesmo tempo em que evidenciam as particularidades genômicas que acompanham a evolução de cada uma das espécies. Neste contexto, os componentes repetitivos do genoma tiveram um papel importante na caracterização particular de cada uma das espécies. Também, é notável que L. minuta e L. melanoguttata, duas espécies que ocorrem exclusivamente no território brasileiro, apresentam maior proximidade citogenética entre elas do que com a espécie irmã transandina, L. bimaculata.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromosomes , Genome , Cytogenetics , Characiformes/genetics , Hybridization, Genetic
2.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 739-746, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349982

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the presence of chromosome mosaicism, especially for the presence of Y derived material in 45,X women with Turner syndrome (TS). Materials and methods: FISH and PCR were performed for the presence of chromosome mosaicism and Y-derived-material and genetic findings were correlated to clinical data. Results: Thirty-one participants were enrolled: 18 (58%) had chromosome mosaicisms (FISH), Y-derived material was found in 2. Yet, SRY primer was found with PCR in only one of them and DYZ3 was not found. The most frequent clinical findings were short or webbed neck (81,82%), high-arched palate (78%), breast hypertelorism, e cubitus valgus and genu valgus (57.6%, both), short fourth metacarpals (46.9%), epicanthic folds (43.8%), shield chest (43.8%), lymphedema (37.5%), and low set ears (34.4%). Both patients with Y-derived-material had primary amenorrhea, dyslipidemia and reached the height of 150 cm despite not treated with recombinant growth hormone (GHr). One of them showed 26% of leukocytes with Y-derived material and few clinical findings. Conclusions: FISH techniques proved efficient in detecting chromosome mosaicisms and Y-derived material and searching in different tissues such as mouth cells is critical due to the possibility of tissue-specific mosaicism. Phenotypical variance in TS may be a signal of chromosome mosaicisms, especially with the presence of Y-derived material.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Turner Syndrome/genetics , Body Height , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Chromosomes , Mosaicism
3.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(2): 341-343, set 29, 2021. fig
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354651

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Ovotesticular disorder of sex development is a rare condition characterized by the concomitant presence of testicular and ovarian tissue, and usually presents genital ambiguity. They are chromosomally heterogeneous, and cytogenetic analyses is relevant. Objective: to report a patient from Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil, with ovotesticular disorder of sex differentiation 46,XX and SRY-negative. Case report: patient aged 19 years, first child of non-consanguineous parents, diagnosed at birth with genital ambiguity and, without correct diagnosis, was registered a male sex. The patient underwent surgery to correct bilateral cryptorchidism, orchiopexy and colpectomy. During puberty, he developed female and male sexual characteristics. Investigation at this time revealed: laboratory (normal total testosterone and estradiol as high follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, histopathological (right gonad, ovarian follicles and left gonad, atrophic testicles), karyotype (46, XX) and molecular (SRY-negative). Diagnosis of ovotesticular disorder of sex development was established. The patient chose to remain male and underwent bilateral mastectomy, vaginal colpectomy and bilateral gonadectomy. Currently, the patient receives hormonal replacement therapy, followup with a multi-professional approach and awaits masculinizing genitoplasty. Discussion: For OT-DSD individuals with 46, XX, the female sex is suggested as the best sex of rearing option. Unlike the reported cases, the patient chose the male sex, since the sex at registration of birth was important in his choice. Conclusion: Cytogenetic and molecular analyses allowed us to assist in the etiological diagnosis of the patient with OT-DSD. However, molecular analyses are necessary to elucidate the genes involved in the sexual determination of this patient.


Introdução: distúrbio da diferenciação do sexo ovotesticular é uma condição rara com presença concomitante de tecido testicular e ovariano, geralmente com ambiguidade genital. Os pacientes são cromossomicamente heterogêneos e a análise citogenética é fundamental. Objetivo: relatar o caso de um paciente do município de Manaus, Amazonas, portador de distúrbio da diferenciação do sexo ovotesticular 46, XX e SRY-negativo. Caso clínico: paciente de 19 anos, primeiro filho de pais não consanguíneos, que ao nascimento foi diagnosticado com ambiguidade genital, contudo, sem diagnóstico correto, foi registrado como sendo do sexo masculino. Foi submetido a cirurgias para correção da criptoquirdia bilateral, orquidopexia e colpectomia vaginal. Na puberdade, desenvolveu características sexuais feminina e masculina. Investigação diagnóstica mostrou: exames hormonais (testosterona total e estradiol normais enquanto hormônio folículo-estimulante e hormônio luteinizante elevados), histopatológicos (gônada direita, folículos ovarianos e gônadas esquerda, testículos atróficos), cariótipo (46, XX) e molecular (SRY-negativo). O diagnóstico de distúrbio da diferenciação do sexo ovotesticular foi estabelecido. O paciente optou por permanecer no sexo masculino e submeteuse à mastectomia bilateral, colpectomia vaginal e gonadectomia bilateral. Atualmente faz reposição hormonal, acompanhamento com abordagem multiprofissional e aguarda pela genitoplastia masculinizante. Discussão: aos indivíduos DDS-OT com 46, XX é sugerido como a melhor opção de sexo, o feminino. Diferentemente dos casos relatados, o paciente optou por permanecer no sexo masculino, visto que o registro de nascimento foi importante para a sua escolha. Conclusão: análises citogenéticas e moleculares permitiu auxiliar no diagnóstico etiológico do paciente com DDS-OT, contudo, análises moleculares são necessárias para elucidação de genes envolvidos na determinação sexual desse paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Disorders of Sex Development , Chromosomes , Case Reports , Castration , Mastectomy
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922016

ABSTRACT

The International System for Human Cytogenomic Nomenclature (ISCN) is an international standard used for describing genome rearrangement detected by chromosomal karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization, microarray, a variety of specific region detection technologies and high-throughput sequencing. In 2019, the ISCN standing committee has revised the ISCN and officially published it in October 2020. This article has summarized the updated content of ISCN 2020.


Subject(s)
Chromosome Aberrations , Chromosomes , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Karyotyping
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921994

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the clinical value of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for the screening of trisomy and copy number variations (CNVs) of chromosomes 21, 18 and 13.@*METHODS@#From January 2015 to December 2019, 40 628 pregnant women underwent NIPT testing using high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis to test the cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma. High-risk pregnant women underwent invasive prenatal diagnosis, while low-risk ones were followed up by telephone.@*RESULTS@#The three most common indications included intermediate risk of serological screening, high risk of serological screening and advanced maternal age. Among all pregnant women, 257 cases were detected as trisomy 21, 18 and 13 (170, 49 and 38 cases, respectively). 227 cases chose invasive prenatal diagnosis, with respectively 122, 28 and 10 cases confirmed. The positive predictive value (PPV) was 81.33% (122/150), 65.12% (28/43), 29.41% (10/34), respectively. Two false negative cases of trisomy 18 were found during follow-up. Meanwhile, NIPT has detected 46 cases (15, 16 and 15 cases, respectively) CNVs on chromosomes 21, 18 and 13, among which 37 cases underwent invasive prenatal diagnosis. There were 5, 3 and 5 positive cases, which yielded a PPV of 41.67% (5/12), 25%(3/12) and 33.33%(5/15), respectively. Two other chromosome CNVs were accidentally discovered among the false positive samples.@*CONCLUSION@#The incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in the serological screening high-risk group was 52.02%, which was significantly higher than other groups. NIPT has a high sensitivity and specificity for the screening of trisomies 21, 18 and 13, while its accuracy for detecting CNVs of chromosomes 21, 18 and 13 needs to be improved. As a screening method, NIPT has a great clinical value, though there are still limitations of false positive and false negative results.Comprehensive pre- and post-test genetic counseling should be provided to the patients.


Subject(s)
Aneuploidy , Chromosome Disorders/genetics , Chromosomes , DNA Copy Number Variations , Down Syndrome/genetics , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis , Trisomy/genetics , Trisomy 18 Syndrome/genetics
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 268-275, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921236

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Chromosomal abnormalities are important causes of ventriculomegaly (VM). In mild and isolated cases of fetal VM, obstetricians rarely give clear indications for pregnancy termination. We aimed to calculate the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities and incremental yield of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) in VM, providing more information on genetic counseling and prognostic evaluation for fetuses with VM.@*METHODS@#The Chinese language databases Wanfang Data, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and China Biomedical Literature Database (from January 1, 1991 to April 29, 2020) and English language databases PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library (from January 1, 1945 to April 29, 2020) were systematically searched for articles on fetal VM. Diagnostic criteria were based on ultrasonographic or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment of lateral ventricular atrium width: ≥10 to <15 mm for mild VM, and ≥15 mm for severe VM. Isolated VM was defined by the absence of structural abnormalities other than VM detected by ultrasonography or MRI. R software was used for the meta-analysis to determine the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities and incremental yield of CMA in VM, and the combined rate and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated.@*RESULTS@#Twenty-three articles involving 1635 patients were included. The incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in VM was 9% (95% CI: 5%-12%) and incremental yield of CMA in VM was 11% (95% CI: 7%-16%). The incidences of chromosomal abnormalities in mild, severe, isolated, and non-isolated VM were 9% (95% CI: 4%-16%), 5% (95% CI: 1%-11%), 3% (95% CI: 1%-6%), and 13% (95% CI: 4%-25%), respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Applying CMA in VM improved the detection rate of abnormalities. When VM is confirmed by ultrasound or MRI, obstetricians should recommend fetal karyotype analysis to exclude chromosomal abnormalities. Moreover, CMA should be recommended preferentially in pregnant women with fetal VM who are undergoing invasive prenatal diagnosis. CMA cannot completely replace chromosome karyotype analysis.


Subject(s)
Chromosome Aberrations , Chromosomes , Female , Fetus , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Karyotyping , Microarray Analysis , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography, Prenatal
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879257

ABSTRACT

Human chromosomes karyotyping is an important means to diagnose genetic diseases. Chromosome image type recognition is a key step in the karyotyping process. Accurate and efficient identification is of great significance for automatic chromosome karyotyping. In this paper, we propose a model named segmentally recalibrated dense convolutional network (SR-DenseNet). In each stage of the model, the dense connected network layers is used to extract the features of different abstract levels of chromosomes automatically, and then the concatenation of all the layers which extract different local features is recalibrated with squeeze-and-excitation (SE) block. SE blocks explicitly construct learnable structures for importance of the features. Then a model fusion method is proposed and an expert group of chromosome recognition models is constructed. On the public available Copenhagen chromosome recognition dataset (G-bands) the proposed model achieves error rate of only 1.60%, and with model fusion the error further drops to 0.99%. On the Padova chromosome dataset (Q-bands) the model gets the corresponding error rate of 6.67%, and with model fusion the error further drops to 5.98%. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper is effective and has the potential to realize the automation of chromosome type recognition.


Subject(s)
Chromosomes , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer
8.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(4): e210056, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351150

ABSTRACT

Moenkhausia is a highly specious genus among the Characidae, composed of 96 valid species. Only twelve species have a known karyotype. Thus, here are presented the first cytogenetic data of two allopatric populations of Moenkhausia bonita and one of M. forestii, both belonging to the upper Paraná River basin (PR) with discussion on the evolutionary and cytotaxonomic aspects of the genus. The two species presented 2n = 50 chromosomes but different karyotype formulas and occurrence of 1-2 B chromosomes. These elements are small metacentrics in M. bonita and small acrocentrics in M. forestii. In both species, B chromosomes were euchromatic. Ag-NOR sites were found in pair 3 (metacentric), coinciding with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) by the 18S rDNA probe in both species. However, the species differed in terms of the number and position of 5S rDNA sites. Heterochromatic blocks, mapped in M. bonita showed the least amount of heterochromatin in the terminal and pericentromeric regions, while the M. forestii karyotype revealed a greater amount of interstitial heterochromatic blocks. The karyotype distinctions between the two species, including the morphology of B chromosomes, may contribute as a reference in the taxonomic studies in this group.(AU)


Moenkhausia é um gênero altamente especioso dentre os Characidae, composto por 96 espécies válidas, mas apenas doze espécies têm seus cariótipos conhecidos. Portanto, são apresentados aqui os primeiros dados citogenéticos de duas populações alopátricas de Moenkhausia bonita e uma de M. forestii, ambas pertencentes à bacia do alto rio Paraná (PR), com uma ampla discussão sobre os aspectos evolutivos e citotaxonômicos do gênero. As duas espécies apresentaram 2n = 50 cromossomos, mas diferentes fórmulas cariotípicas e ocorrência de 1-2 cromossomos B. Esses elementos são pequenos metacêntricos em M. bonita e acrocêntricos pequenos em M. forestii. Em ambas as espécies, os cromossomos B apresentaram-se eucromáticos. Sítios Ag-NOR foram encontrados no par 3 (metacêntrico), coincidindo com a hibridização fluorescente in situ (FISH) pela sonda 18S rDNA em ambas as espécies. No entanto, as espécies diferiram em termos de número e posição dos sítios de 5S rDNA. Blocos heterocromáticos mapeados em M. bonita revelaram pequena quantidade de heterocromatina nas regiões terminal e pericentromérica, enquanto o cariótipo de M. forestii revelou uma maior quantidade de blocos heterocromáticos intersticiais. As distinções cariotípicas entre as duas espécies, incluindo a morfologia dos cromossomos B, podem contribuir como uma referência em estudos taxonômicos neste grupo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Heterochromatin , Chromosomes , Cytogenetics , Characidae , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879628

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) to verify a fetus with partial 18p deletion signaled by non-invasive prenatal testing.@*METHODS@#G-banding chromosomal karyotyping analysis was carried out on amniotic fluid sample of the fetus and peripheral blood samples from the parents. Amniotic DNA was also subjected to CMA analysis. The fetus was also subjected to systematic ultrasound scan.@*RESULTS@#The fetus was found to have a karyotype of 46,XX,18p+. CMA has revealed a 5 Mb deletion at 18p11.32-p11.31, a 2.9 Mb duplication at 18p11.31-p11.23, and a 2.5 Mb duplication at 18p11.23-p11.22. No chromosomal aberration or microdeletion/microduplication was detected in either parent.@*CONCLUSION@#Non-invasive prenatal testing and CMA are both sensitive for the detection of chromosomal microdeletions and microduplications. CMA can help with clarification of genotype-phenotype correlation and facilitate prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling for the family.


Subject(s)
Chromosome Deletion , Chromosomes , Female , Fetus , Humans , Karyotyping , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879594

ABSTRACT

Chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) has become the first-tier testing for chromosomal abnormalities and copy number variations (CNV). This review described the clinical validation of CMA, the development and updating of technical standards and guidelines and their diagnostic impacts. The main focuses were on the development and updating of expert consensus, practice resources, and a series of technical standards and guidelines through systematic review of case series with CMA application in the literature. Expert consensus and practice resource supported the use of CMA as the first-tier testing for detecting chromosomal abnormalities and CNV in developmental and intellectual disabilities, multiple congenital anomalies and autism. The standards and guidelines have been applied to pre- and postnatal testing for constitutional CNV and tumor testing for acquired CNV. CMA has significantly improved the diagnostic yields but still needs to overcome its technical limitations and face challenges of new technologies. Guiding and governing CMA through expert consensus, practice resource, standards and guidelines in the United States has provided effective and safe diagnostic services to patients and their families, reliable diagnosis on related genetic diseases for clinical database and basic research, and references for clinical translation of new technologies.


Subject(s)
Child , Chromosome Aberrations , Chromosomes , DNA Copy Number Variations , Developmental Disabilities/genetics , Humans , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Microarray Analysis , United States
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879590

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To carry out cyto- and molecular genetic testing for a child featuring facial dysmorphism and attention deficit and hyperactive disorder.@*METHODS@#The child was subjected to routine peripheral blood lymphocyte chromosomal karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-array) analyses.@*RESULTS@#The child's facial dysmorphism included low-set ears, curly ear auricle, protuberance of eyebrow arch, nostril notch, short and flat philtrum and thin upper lip. SNP-array revealed that he has carried a 4.883 Mb deletion at 2q37. His chromosomal karyotype was ultimately determined as 45, XY, der(2;21) (2pter→ 2q37.3::21p13→ 21p10::20p10→ 20pter), der(20) (21qter→ 21q10::20q10→ 20qter).@*CONCLUSION@#A rare case of 2q37 deletion syndrome involving three chromosomes was discovered. Combined use of various cyto- and molecular genetic techniques is crucial for the diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities with complex structures.


Subject(s)
Child , Chromosome Deletion , Chromosomes , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2 , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Karyotyping , Male , Translocation, Genetic
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879581

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To apply nanopore third-generation sequencing for the detection of chromosomal aneuploidy samples, and explore its performance and application prospects.@*METHODS@#DNA extracted from two human cell lines with X chromosome monosomy and 22.5 Mb deletion in 7q11.23-q21.3 region was sequenced with a MinION sequencer, and the results were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Respectively, 555 872 and 2 679 882 reads were obtained from the two samples within 24 hours, with genome coverage being 53.75% and 88.63%. With a sequencing depth of 0.81× and 2.40× , respectively, the abnormal chromosomal regions could be detected by comparative analysis using Minimap2.@*CONCLUSION@#With low-depth whole genome sequencing, the use of nanopore third-generation sequencing is expected to complete the detection and analysis of chromosomal aneuploidy samples within 24 hours, but its further application and promotion needs to overcome the cost constraints.


Subject(s)
Aneuploidy , Chromosomes , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Technology
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879579

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the value of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for the detection of fetal chromosome copy number variations (CNVs).@*METHODS@#Clinical data of 18 661 pregnant women who underwent NIPT were collected. For fetuses suspected for carrying CNVs, amniotic fluid samples were collected for chromosomal karyotyping and/or chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA).@*RESULTS@#Among all samples, NIPT suggested that 58 fetuses carried trisomy 21, 18 carried trisomy 18, 19 carried trisomy 13, 1 carried trisomies 18 and 21. Eighty eight women accepted invasive prenatal diagnosis. The results of CMA in 59 cases were consistent with those of NIPT, which yielded a consistency rate of 67.05%. In addition, 37 cases of fetal CNVs were detected by NIPT, of which 19 (15 microdeletions and 4 microduplications) have accepted invasive prenatal diagnosis. In 14 cases, the results were consistency with those of NIPT, with a consistent rate of 73.68%.@*CONCLUSION@#NIPT features high sensitivity and accuracy. Invasive prenatal diagnosis should be considered for CNVs detected by NIPT, and by tracing its parental origin, it can provide guidance for clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Chromosomes , DNA Copy Number Variations , Female , Fetus , Humans , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis , Trisomy/genetics
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e19033, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345461

ABSTRACT

Previously, we evaluated the effect of trichostatin A (TSA) on the expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). Fragile histidine triad (FHIT) and WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) are two of the most common down-regulated genes in many cancers located on chromosome 3p14.2 and 16q23.3-24.1 respectively. The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of TSA on these genes expression, cell growth, and apoptosis in HCC WCH 17 cell. The cells were seeded and treated with TSA at different times. Then, MTT assay, flow cytometry, and qRT-PCR were achieved to determine viability, apoptosis and gene expression respectively. Cell growth was significantly inhibited, 92 to 36% after 24 h, 86 to 28% after 48 h, and 78 to 24% after 72 h. The results of flow cytometry confirmed that TSA increased apoptosis compared to the control group, the apoptosis percentage increased to 12%, 16%, and 18% in comparison to control groups (2%). Significant up-regulation of the genes was observed in all treated groups. We concluded that re-expression of silenced WWOX and FHIT genes could be achieved by TSA resulting in cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in WCH 17 cell.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis/physiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , WW Domain-Containing Oxidoreductase , Growth/physiology , Chromosomes/classification , Flow Cytometry/instrumentation , Neoplasms/classification
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2791-2812, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878530

ABSTRACT

Three-dimensional (3D) genomics is an emerging discipline that studies the 3D spatial structure and function of genomes, focusing on the 3D spatial conformation of genome sequences in the nucleus and its biological effects on biological processes such as DNA replication, DNA recombination and gene expression regulation. The invention of chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology speeds up the research on 3D genomics and its related fields. Furthermore, the development of 3C-based technologies, such as the genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) and chromatin interaction analysis using paired-end tag sequencing (ChIA-PET), help scientists get insight into the 3D genomes of various species. Aims of 3D genomics are to reveal the spatial genome organization, chromosomal interaction patterns, mechanisms underlying the transcriptional regulation and formation of biological traits of microorganism, plant, animal. Additionally, the identification of key genes and signaling pathways associated with biological processes and disease via chromosome 3C technology boosts the rapid development of agricultural science, life science and medical science. This paper reviews the research progress of 3D genomics, mainly in the concept of 3D genomics, the development of chromosome 3C technologies and their applications in agricultural science, life science and medical science, specifically in the field of tumor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Nucleus , Chromatin/genetics , Chromosomes/genetics , Genome , Genomics
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2040-2050, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878464

ABSTRACT

Linear chromatin is compacted into eukaryotic nucleus through a complex and multi-layered architecture. Consequently, chromatin conformation in a local or long-distance manner is strongly correlated with gene expression. Chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology, together with its variants like 4C/5C/Hi-C, has been well developed to study chromatin looping and whole genome structure. In this review, we introduce new technologies including chromosome capture combined with immunoprecipitation, nuclei acid-based hybridization, single cell and genome sequencing, as well as their application.


Subject(s)
Cell Nucleus , Chromatin/genetics , Chromosomes/genetics , Genetic Techniques , Genome/genetics
17.
ARS med. (Santiago, En línea) ; 44(4): 18-23, dic-2019. Artículo de investigación
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145758

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Evaluar la disminución de la tasa de técnicas invasivas de diagnóstico prenatal tras la introducción del cribado contingente de cromosomopatías con test de DNA fetal libre circulante (DNA-lc)y demostrar que este método de cribado es coste-efectivo. Método: estudio observacional prospectivo y estudio de coste efectividad. Primero se describen los resultados del cribado combinado en dos tiempos de primer trimestre desde febrero de 2008 a junio 2018 diez primeros años del hospital): 21744 cribados realizados de un total de 23000 partos. En abril de 2016 se implementa un modelo de cribado contingente de cromosomopatías con test de DNAlc (se oferta el test a pacientes con resultado de riesgo intermedio en el cribado combinado). En segundo lugar se analizan los resultados tras la implementación del test y se comparan dos períodos de tiempo con y sin cribado contingente (año 2015 con el período abril 2016 hasta marzo de 2019). Resulta-dos: disminución total de las técnicas invasivas del 54% por disminución de la tasa de amniocentesis, manteniéndose constante la tasa de biopsias coriales. La tasa de pérdidas fetales por técnica invasiva alcanza el 0%. Usamos seis indicadores de calidad para evaluar el test. Se hanahorrado 70200 euros con la implementación del test de DNA-lc. Discusión: el test de DNAlc resulta útil en el cribado contingente de cromosomopatías porque reduce la tasa de amniocentesis por indicación de alto riesgo y además es coste efectivo. El cribado combinado de primer trimestre es la técnica de elección para el cribado de aneuploidias. El test de DNAlc no puede sustituir al cribado combinado porque es caro, pero resulta muy útil si se realiza cribado contingente a la población seleccionada de riesgo intermedio.


Subject(s)
Mass Screening , Chromosomes , Amniocentesis
18.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 20(1): 10-15, Agosto2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010309

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Turner (ST) afecta a uno de cada 2000-2500 recién nacidos vivos y tiene una prevalencia de 50 por cada 100 000 mujeres. Las manifestaciones clínicas son variables, dependiendo del tipo de alteración cromosómica y de la edad de presentación. Una de las características más prevalentes y sobresalientes del síndrome es su estatura extremadamente baja. La hormona de crecimiento humana recombinante (rh-GH) se ha usado para aumentar el crecimiento y la estatura final en las niñas que tienen el síndrome de Turner. Para valorar los efectos de la hormona de crecimiento recombinante en las niñas y adolescentes con ST, hemos tomado en cuenta el efecto de la hGH, considerando la velocidad en la talla de crecimiento como un punto importante del estudio observacional retrospectivo. Resultados principales: El uso de rh-GH tiene una relación estadísticamente significativa (p0.049 <0.05), que se asocia con un factor de influencia positiva en relación con la velocidad de crecimiento, como variable principal. Al comparar a las pacientes que recibieron la hormona de crecimiento con las que no la recibieron, en las primeras existe la tendencia a acercarse a la curva del percentil 10 en comparación con la de aquellas que no recibieron la rh-GH, que estuvieron más lejos de la curva.


Turner syndrome (TS) affects about one in 1500 to 2500 live-born females. One of the most prevalent and salient features of the syndrome is extremely short stature. Recombinant human growth hormone (rh-GH) has been used to increase growth and final height in girls who have Turner syndrome. To assess the effects of recombinant growth hormone in children and adolescents with TS we have evaluated the effect of HGH considering growth rate as an important point through a retrospective observational study. Main results: The use of rh-GH has a statistically significant relationship (p0.049 <0.05) that is associated with an influencing factor in favor of the use of rh-GH in relation to the variable growth rate. When comparing the patients who received growth hormone with those who did not receive, there is the tendency to arrive closer to the 10th percentile curve compared to the curve of the patients who did not receive rh-GH, which is further away.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Turner Syndrome , Growth Hormone , Growth , Women , Body Height , Chromosomes
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776765

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities and outcome of pregnancy for fetuses with increased nuchal translucency (NT).@*METHODS@#Between July 2014 and February 2018, 247 fetuses with increased NT (>95th centile)were analyzed by chromosome microarray analysis (CMA). The fetuses were divided into ones with isolated increased NT (168 cases), increased NT with cystic hygroma (20 cases), increased NT with edema (12 cases) or increased NT with other abnormalities (47 cases). All couples were followed up by telephone calls.@*RESULTS@#The rate of chromosomal abnormalities was 31.6% (78/247), which included 66 cases with chromosomal aneuploidies and 12 with copy number variants (CNVs). CNVs accounted for 31.4% (11/35) of total abnormalities among fetuses with isolated increased NT, whilst only 2.3% (1/43) of the total abnormalities among fetuses with non-isolated increased NT. Three fetuses with a normal CMA result had mental and physical retardation. Two of them were diagnosed with single gene disorders by whole exome sequencing.@*CONCLUSION@#CMA can detect more chromosomal microdeletion/microduplications among fetuses with isolated increased NT. Furthermore, fetuses with increased NT and anegative CMA result during pregnancy cannot exclude all adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
Aneuploidy , Chromosome Aberrations , Chromosomes , DNA Copy Number Variations , Edema , Female , Fetus , Humans , Lymphangioma, Cystic , Microarray Analysis , Nuchal Translucency Measurement , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Prenatal Diagnosis , Ultrasonography, Prenatal
20.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1325-1329, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775720

ABSTRACT

Abstract  The curative efficacy of adult patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph ALL) has been improved substantially with the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, there is no consensus so far on the following issues, which TKIs should be chosen in combination with chemotherapeutic regimens; which regimen of intensive chemotherapy incorporated into TKIs would be more beneficial to patients. The prognosis of the patients with Ph ALL has been so significantly improved by the combinatorial treatment of TKIs and chemotherapy, thus it is necessary to reevaluate the role of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the management of Ph ALL. In addition, immunotherapy has achieved an initial success in the treatment of Ph ALL. In this review, the treatment paradigms for the disease are summrized briefly.


Subject(s)
Chromosomes , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Philadelphia Chromosome , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Prognosis , Protein Kinase Inhibitors
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