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1.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(11): e201901102, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054682

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effect of Picroside II on testicular ischemia and reperfusion (l/R) injury and the underlying mechanism. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham operated group (Sham), Sham with Picroside II treatment group (Sham+ Pic II), l/R group (l/R) and l/R with Picroside II treatment group (I/R+ Pic II). l/R model was established by rotating the left testis 720° in a clock-wise direction for 4 hours. The histopathologic and spermatogenetic evaluation was performed. The apoptosis changes and the levels of HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1), MPO (myeloperoxidase), NOX (NADPH oxidase), SOD (superoxide dismutase), XO (xanthine oxidase) and NOS (nitric oxide synthase) were measured. Results: The seminiferous tubules were damaged in l/R rats, but Picroside II alleviated the changes induced by l/R. The increased level of apoptosis was decreased by Picroside II (P=0.01, 9.05±0.35 vs. 4.85±0.25). The activities of HO-1, MPO, NOX, XO and MDA content were increased and the SOD activity was decreased in l/R (P<0.05) and could be reversed by Picroside II (P=0.03, 405.5±7.5 vs. 304±17U/mgprot; P=0.02, 0.99±0.05 vs. 0.52±0.04 mgprot; P=0.01, 260+7 vs. 189±2 mgprot; P=0.04, 10.95+0.55 vs. 8.75+0.35 U/mgprot; P=0.045, 6.8+0.7 vs. 3.75+0.35 mgprot; P=0.04, 44.5+3.5 vs. 57.5+3.5 mgprot). Western blot showed that the expression of iNOS, nNOS and eNOS were increased in l/R (P<0.05); however, they were decreased after Picroside II treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion: Picroside II attenuated testicular I/R injury in rats mainly through suppressing apoptosis and oxidative stress through reduction of nitric oxide synthesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Testis/blood supply , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Iridoid Glucosides/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Random Allocation , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Peroxidase/analysis , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Heme Oxygenase-1/analysis , Malondialdehyde/analysis , NADP/analysis
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(6): 849-853, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041494

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and malaria cause morbidity globally. The drugs currently used for treatment have limitations. Activity of cinnamic acid analogs against Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma cruzi, and Plasmodium falciparum was evaluated in the interest of identifying new antiprotozoal compounds. METHODS In vitro effects of analogs against L. braziliensis, L. infantum chagasi, T. cruzi, and P. falciparum, and hemolytic and cytotoxic activities on NCTC 929 were determined. RESULTS Three analogs showed leishmanicidal and tripanocidal activity. No antiplasmodial, hemolytic, or cytotoxic activity was observed. CONCLUSIONS Antiprotozoal activity of analogs against L. infantum braziliensis, L. infantum chagasi, and T. cruzi was demonstrated.


Subject(s)
Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Leishmania/drug effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Cinnamates/chemistry , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Antiprotozoal Agents/chemistry
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(12): e6145, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888968

ABSTRACT

Chronic systemic inflammation and repetitive damage of vascular endothelia by incompatible dialysis system are probable causes of cardiovascular disease in patients on dialysis. The present study aimed to assess in vitro biocompatibility and anti-inflammatory effect of hemodialysis fluid supplemented with rosmarinic acid (RA) using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). HUVECs (5×106 cells/mL) were pre-exposed to 1 μg/mL of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and incubated with RA-supplemented hemodialysis fluid (HDF). Cytotoxicity was assessed qualitatively by morphologic assessment and quantitatively by MTT assay. Expressions of proinflammatory mediators were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR and production of NO was quantified. Phosphorylation of AKT and nuclear localization of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) were examined using western blotting. Exposure of HUVECs to RA-supplemented HDF had no influence on morphology and viability. Inhibition of proinflammatory mediator production in HUVECs by RA supplementation to HDF was significant in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to RA-supplemented HDF resulted in a decrease in nitric oxide synthase expression and reduction of NO production in LPS-stimulated HUVECs. RA supplementation of HDF suppressed Akt activation in LPS-stimulated HUVECs. In addition, the level of cellular IκB was increased in parallel to a reduced nuclear translocation of NF-κB in LPS-induced endothelial cells. Our results suggest that RA-supplemented HDF is biocompatible and significantly suppressed inflammation induced in endothelial cells. In this respect, the use of HDF supplemented with RA could alleviate inflammation and improve long-term treatment of patients with renal failure on dialysis. Further clinical studies are required to confirm the effects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Depsides/pharmacology , Hemodialysis Solutions/pharmacology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Analysis of Variance , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/drug effects , Formazans , Hemodialysis Solutions/chemistry , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Immunoblotting , Inflammation/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , NF-kappa B/analysis , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Phosphorylation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results , Tetrazolium Salts
4.
Clinics ; 69(2): 134-144, 2/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-701378

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects of ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate isolated from Kaempferia galanga. METHODS: The anti-inflammatory effects of ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate were assessed using the cotton pellet granuloma assay in rats, whereby the levels of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured in the animals' blood. In addition, the levels of interleukin, tumor necrosis factor, and nitric oxide were measured in vitro using the human macrophage cell line (U937). The analgesic effects of ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate were assessed by the tail flick assay in rats. The anti-angiogenic effects were evaluated first by the rat aortic ring assay and, subsequently, by assessing the inhibitory effects of ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate on vascular endothelial growth factor, proliferation, migration, and tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. RESULTS: Ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate strongly inhibited granuloma tissue formation in rats. It prolonged the tail flick time in rats by more than two-fold compared with the control animals. The inhibition of interleukin and tumor necrosis factor by ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate was significant in both in vivo and in vitro models; however, only a moderate inhibition of nitric oxide was observed in macrophages. Furthermore, ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate considerably inhibited microvessel sprouting from the rat aorta. These mechanistic studies showed that ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate strongly inhibited the differentiation and migration of endothelial cells, which was further confirmed by the reduced level of vascular endothelial growth factor. CONCLUSION: Ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate exhibits significant anti-inflammatory potential by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines and angiogenesis, thus inhibiting the main functions of endothelial cells. Thus, ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate could be a promising therapeutic agent ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Rats , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/drug effects , Zingiberaceae/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Interleukin-1/analysis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reproducibility of Results , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/drug effects , /drug effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis
5.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 12(2): 201-208, mar. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722793

ABSTRACT

In this paper we investigated the antibacterial activity of a methanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. and their main constituents, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, against 37 nosocomial strains of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Results obtained showed that both the rosemary extract and carnosic acid inhibited all clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus methicillin-resistant and Enterococcus faecalis gentamicin and streptomycin-resistant bacteria examined (MICs 60 ug/mL vs. 200 ug/mL, respectively). Rosemary extract showed MIC values between 400 and 1600 ug/ml against the Gram-negative multidrug-resistant bacteria: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Morganella morganii and Providencia stuartii, while carnosic acid showed MIC of 120 to 240 ug/mL. Bactericidal effect of carnosic acid against S. aureus and E. faecalis was observed at their MIC value, while 2 x MIC to 4 x MIC were needed to kill Gram-negative bacteria. Rosmarinic acid showed a narrow spectrum of action against a few Gram-negative clinical isolates. Our findings suggest that carnosic acid would be a good lead candidate useful in counteracting drug-resistant infections.


En este trabajo evaluamos la actividad antibacteriana de un extracto metanólico de Rosmarinus officinalis L. y sus principales componentes el ácido carnósico y ácido rosmarínico, contra 37 cepas de bacterias multirresistentes nosocomiales. Los resultados muestran que el extracto de romero y el ácido carnósico, inhibieron las bacterias Gram-positivas Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a meticilina y Enterococcus faecalis resistentes a gentamicina y estreptomicina (CIM 200 ug/mL y 60 ug/mL, respectivamente). El extracto de romero inhibió los Gram negativos multirresistentes: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Morganella morganii y Providencia stuartii (CIM 400 a 1600 ug/mL), mientras que el ácido carnósico mostró valores de CIM entre 120 a 240 ug/mL. El ácido carnósico mostró actividad bactericida contra S. aureus y E. faecalis a su CIM, mientras que 2 a 4 X CIM se requirieron para matar las bacterias Gram-negativas. El ácido rosmarínico mostró inhibió unos pocos aislados clínicos Gram-negativos. Estos hallazgos sugieren que el ácido carnósico puede ser de utilidad contra infecciones bacterianas multirresistentes a antibióticos.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Abietanes/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rosmarinus/chemistry , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Cinnamates/analysis , Depsides/analysis , Depsides/pharmacology , Abietanes/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Rosmarinus
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 28(supl.1): 83-87, 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-663898

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The rationale of the present review is to analize the activity of Rosmarinus officinalis in the the cardiovascular system METHODS: A MEDLINE database search (from January 1970 to December 2011) using only rosmarinic acid as searched term. RESULTS: The references search revealed 509 references about rosmarinic acid in 40 years (the first reference is from 1970). There is a powerful prevalence of antioxidant and cancer studies. Other diseases are few cited, as inflammation, brain (Alzheimer and Parkinson disease) and, memory; allergy; diabetes; atherosclerosis, and; hypertension. It is necessary to consider the complete absence of studies on coronary artery disease, myocardial ischemia, heart failure or ischemia/reperfusion injury. CONCLUSION: Rosmarinic acid is underestimated as an experimental cardiovascular drug and deserves more attention.


OBJETIVO: A justificativa da revisão é analisar a atividade de Rosmarinus officinalis no sistema cardiovascular MÉTODOS: Uma busca de banco de dados MEDLINE (de janeiro de 1970 a dezembro de 2011), utilizando apenas o ácido rosmarínico como termo pesquisado. RESULTADOS: A busca referências revelou 509 referências sobre o ácido rosmarínico em 40 anos (a primeira referência é de 1970). Há uma prevalência poderoso antioxidante e estudos do câncer. Outras doenças são citados alguns, como o cérebro, inflamação (de Alzheimer e doença de Parkinson) e, a memória, hipertensão, alergia, diabetes, aterosclerose, e. É necessário ter em conta a ausência completa de estudos sobre a doença de artéria coronária, isquemia do miocárdio, insuficiência cardíaca ou isquemia / lesão de reperfusão. CONCLUSÃO: O ácido rosmarínico é subestimado como uma droga experimental cardiovascular e merece mais atenção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cinnamates/therapeutic use , Depsides/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Agents/pharmacology , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Depsides/pharmacology
7.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 11(1): 74-76, ene. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-654803

ABSTRACT

The in vitro anti-bacterial activity of auraptene and four prenyloxycinnamic and benzoic acids was evaluated against a panel of three bacterial strain. All compounds were shown to be active as inhibitory agents of the growth of Staphylococcus aureus.


La actividad antibacteriana in vitro del auraptene y de cuatro ácidos preniloxycinámicos y benzoicos ha sido evaluada sobre un grupo de tres distintas cepas bacterianas. Todos los compuestos mostraron ser activos como agentes inhibitorios del crecimiento del Staphylococcus Aureus.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Coumarins/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-219399

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic islet transplantation can correct the abnormal glucose metabolism of Type 1 diabetes. Although immunosuppressants greatly reduce the acute rejection rate in transplant patients, the long-term side effects can be debilitating. Therefore, researchers are seeking to develop new immunosuppressive regimens that induce maximal levels of immunosuppression with minor side effects. Rosmarinic acid (Ros A) is a secondary metabolite of certain herbs and has multiple biological activities, including anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we have investigated whether treatment of mice with a combination of Ros A and anti-CD154 monoclonal antibody (MR1) improves islet allograft survival in a murine model. After transplantation, the mice were treated with either Ros A, MR1, or both (the "double" treatment). Allograft survival was prolonged in the double-treated animals compared to animals that received only Ros A or MR1. As is the case with the single-treated animals at 15 days after transplantation, the double-treated recipients did not display a significant decrease in the expression of cytokines or the population of activated T cells. Infiltrating CD3+ T cells were reduced in the MR1- or double therapy relative to control or RosA group. However, at the same time point, double-treated graft showed fewer apoptotic cells and increased expression of insulin and glucagons, compared to the single-treatment groups. Furthermore, long-term (>150 days) allografts that were received with double therapy exhibited larger islet clusters and contained more insulin- and glucagon-positive cells, relative to the MR1-treated grafts. In conclusion, treatment with both Ros A and MR1 has a synergistic effect in murine islet allotransplantation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , CD40 Ligand/immunology , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Depsides/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Flow Cytometry , Glucose/metabolism , Glucose Tolerance Test , Graft Survival/drug effects , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Islets of Langerhans/drug effects , Islets of Langerhans Transplantation , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Time Factors , Transplantation, Homologous
9.
DARU-Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy Tehran University of Medical Sciences. 2005; 13 (2): 65-69
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-70327

ABSTRACT

Echium amoenum Fisch. and C.A. Mey. [Boraginaceae] is an indigenous Iranian plant, that its dry violet-blue petals [Gol-e-Gavzaban] have long been used in traditional medicine of Iran. In this study concentrated metanolic extract of the grounded dried petals of E. amoenum was fractionated by column chromatography and the fractions were purified by preparative HPLC. The structure of main pure component which was characterized by UV, IR, one and two dimensional 1H and 13C-NMR and Mass spectroscopy was found to be rosmarinic acid which is widespread in the plants of the Lamiaceae and Boraginaceae families in insignificant quantities and has antimicrobial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory effects


Subject(s)
Cinnamates , Cinnamates/chemistry , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Lamiaceae , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/statistics & numerical data , Plants, Medicinal , Plant Extracts
10.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1998 Apr; 36(4): 371-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56187

ABSTRACT

Picroliv, an iridoid glycoside mixture from the root and rhizome of Picrorhiza kurrooa, at the dose of 6 mg/kg p.o. for two weeks provided significant protection against the generation of lipid peroxidation products in serum beta-lipoproteins of P. berghei infected M. coucha. Incubation of normal rat hepatocytes with very low density lipoprotein or low density lipoprotein isolated from infected animals caused significant generation of lipid peroxides followed by a decrease in the viability of these cells, however these effects were partially reversed with the lipoproteins from infected and picroliv treated groups. High density lipoprotein from infected animals was not toxic to hepatocytes in vitro.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cells, Cultured , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Glycosides/pharmacology , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Lipoproteins, HDL/blood , Lipoproteins, LDL/blood , Malaria/blood , Muridae , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plasmodium berghei/isolation & purification , Rats , Vanillic Acid/pharmacology
11.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1997 Dec; 35(12): 1302-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56235

ABSTRACT

Picroliv, the active constituent of P. kurrooa, showed a dose dependent (1.5-12 mg/kg, po for 7 days) hepatoprotective activity against oxytetracycline induced hepatic damage in rat. It increased the number of viable hepatocytes (ex-vivo) significantly. Increase in bile volume and its contents in conscious rat suggests potent anticholestatic property. Picroliv also antagonised alterations in enzyme levels (GOT, GPT, and alkaline phosphatase) in isolated hepatocytes and serum, induced by oxytetracycline (200 mg/kg, i.p.) feeding. Picroliv was more potent than silymarin a known hepatoprotective drug.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Female , Glycosides/pharmacology , India , Liver/drug effects , Male , Oxytetracycline/toxicity , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats , Silymarin/pharmacology , Vanillic Acid/pharmacology
12.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1994 May; 32(5): 324-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-62584

ABSTRACT

Picroliv, the standardized preparation of iridoid glycosides from Picrorhiza kurrooa, at the dose of 6 mg/kg, po for two weeks provided significant protection against depletion of reduced glutathione levels in liver and brain of Plasmodium berghei infected Mastomys natalensis. The activation of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase enzyme and decreased levels of cysteine, sulphydryl groups as well as glutathione synthesis in both tissues due to P. berghei infection were reversed by picroliv. Enzymatic and non enzymatic lipid peroxidation in microsomes in vitro was significantly reduced by picroliv along with the recovery of reduced glutathione.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain/drug effects , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Glycosides/pharmacology , Liver/drug effects , Malaria/enzymology , Male , Muridae/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plasmodium berghei , Vanillic Acid/pharmacology , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/drug effects
13.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 1992 Oct; 29(5): 428-32
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-27676

ABSTRACT

Picroliv from root and rhizome of Picrorhiza kurroa showed reversal of low density lipoprotein (LDL) binding to paracetamol-induced damaged hepatocytes of rats. Changes in levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, conjugated dienes and lipids of hepatocytes were significantly prevented by picroliv at different doses. The effect of picroliv on enzyme levels, LDL receptor binding and lipids in damaged hepatocytes was found to be comparable to silymarin, a known hepatoprotective agent.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen/toxicity , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Glycosides/pharmacology , Humans , Lipoproteins, LDL/metabolism , Liver/cytology , Male , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Inbred Strains , Receptors, LDL/drug effects , Vanillic Acid/pharmacology
14.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1992 Aug; 30(8): 711-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-61476

ABSTRACT

Administration of picroliv, the active principle from Picrorhiza kurrooa, at a dose of 6 mg/kg, po for two weeks showed significant protection against changes in liver and brain glutathione metabolism of Plasmodium berghei infected Mastomys natalensis. The depletion of reduced glutathione level and inhibition of glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities due to P. berghei infection were markedly recovered by picroliv. The increased levels of lipid peroxidation products in damaged tissues were also reduced along with the recovery of glutathione metabolism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain/metabolism , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Glutathione/metabolism , Glycosides/pharmacology , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Liver/metabolism , Malaria/drug therapy , Male , Muridae , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plasmodium berghei , Vanillic Acid/pharmacology
15.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1992 Jan; 30(1): 68-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-61525

ABSTRACT

Oral administration of picroliv, a standardised fraction of roots and rhizomes of Picrorhiza kurroa, showed stimulation of nucleic acid and protein synthesis in rat liver. Results are comparable with a standard hepatoprotective agent, silymarin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Glycosides/pharmacology , Liver/metabolism , Male , Nucleic Acids/biosynthesis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Protein Biosynthesis , Proteins/drug effects , Rats , Rats, Inbred Strains , Silymarin/pharmacology , Vanillic Acid/pharmacology
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-21077

ABSTRACT

Administration of carbon tetrachloride to normal rats increased activities of hepatic 5(1)-nucleotidase, acid phosphatase, acid ribonuclease while the activities of succinate dehydrogenase, glucose 6-phosphatase, superoxide dismutase and cytochrome P450 were decreased. Levels of lipid peroxides, total lipids and cholesterol of liver were also increased. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were increased. Other serum parameters showing changes after carbon tetrachloride were: bilirubin, proteins, cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoprotein-X. Picroliv (from the plant Picrorhiza kurroa) in doses of 6 and 12 mg/kg provided a significant protection against most of the biochemical alterations produced by carbon tetrachloride. The degree of protection afforded by picroliv, when administered simultaneously or as a pretreatment was almost equal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbon Tetrachloride/antagonists & inhibitors , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Enzymes/blood , Glycosides/pharmacology , Lipid Metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Male , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats , Vanillic Acid/pharmacology
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