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1.
Infectio ; 25(2): 101-107, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250075

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Estimar la resistencia del Staphylococcus aureus frente a diferentes antibióticos usados para el manejo ambulatorio de piodermias. Métodos: Se realizaron análisis descriptivos y de tendencias mediante modelos de regresión segmentada. Resultados: La mayor resistencia se presentó a la oxacilina, con mediana de 54,3% (RIQ: 43 - 58,8), seguido de eritromicina con el 20%, (RIQ: 15,4 - 26,5), clindami cina con el 14% (RIQ: 7,9 - 20), gentamicina con el 7,5% (RIQ: 0 -10), trimetoprima/sulfametoxazol (SXT) con el 5,5% (RIQ: 4 - 11), y ciprofloxacina con 2,1% (RIQ: 2 - 8.4). La tendencia de la resistencia del S. aureus a la oxacilina fue creciente con un cambio anual porcentual no significativo de (0,07) (IC 95%: -3,7; 3,9). Para eritromicina, clindamicina, ciprofloxacina, trimetoprima/sulfametoxazol, y gentamicina hubo decrecimiento. Conclusiones: La resistencia del S. aureus a oxacilina fue ligeramente creciente para el periodo 2010 al 2019 y francamente creciente en los últimos 3 años, superando en promedio a lo reportado a nivel país y Latinoamérica. Los antibióticos con menor resistencia fueron ciprofloxacina, SXT, clindamicina para uso sistémico, y ácido fusídico, mupirocina para manejo tópico y descolonización. Es pertinente articular la vigilancia del S. aureus en la atención ambulatoria a la red de vigilancia nacional.


Abstract Objective: To estimate the resistance trend of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) against different antibiotics in a reference dermatology outpatient center in Colombia. Methods: Descriptive and trend analyzes were performed using segmented regression models for the period 2010 to 2019. Results: The greatest resistance was presented to oxacillin, with a median of 54.3% (RIQ: 43 - 58.8), followed by erythromycin with 20%, (RIQ: 15.4 - 26.5), then clindamycin with 14% (RIQ: 7.9 - 20), gentamicin with 7.5% (RIQ: 0 -10), trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole (SXT) with 5.5% (RIQ: 4 - 11), and ciprofloxacin with 2.1% (RIQ: 2 - 8.4). The trend of S. aureus resistance to oxacillin from 2010 to 2019 was increasing with a non-significant Annual Percent Change (APC) of (0.07) (95% CI -3.7, 3.9). APC for erythromycin (-1.2) (95% CI: -11.3; 10), clindamycin (-1.7) (95% CI: 11; -12.9), ciprofloxacin (-25.4) (95% CI: -44.6; 0.5) and trimethoprim / sul famethoxazole (-20.7) (95% CI: -43.5; 11.2), were decreasing not significant. For gentamicin the trend was decreasing and significant (-44.2) (95% CI: -19.9; -61.1). Conclusions: The resistance of S. aureus to oxacillin exhibited a slightly increasing trend for the period 2010 to 2019 and increasing in the last 3 years, exceeding on average that reported at the country level and the world average. Antibiotics for outpatient management of skin and soft tissue pyoderma with less resistance were ciprofloxacin, SXT, clindamycin for systemic use, and fusidic acid, mupirocin for topical management and decolonization. It is important to articulate surveillance of S. aureus in outpatient care to the national surveillance network.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Dermatology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus aureus , Sulfamethoxazole , Gentamicins , Ciprofloxacin , Fusidic Acid , Anti-Bacterial Agents
2.
Femina ; 49(2): 109-114, 20210228. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224067

ABSTRACT

A endometrite crônica (EC) é uma doença que, apesar de ainda pouco investigada, tem sido associada a resultados reprodutivos desfavoráveis. Estudos têm mostrado que a EC pode prejudicar a receptividade endometrial, levando a falhas de implantação e perdas gestacionais recorrentes. Os métodos padronizados para diagnóstico incluem histeroscopia, histologia para pesquisa de plasmócitos e cultura endometrial para identificação de agentes bacterianos. O tratamento com antibióticos para EC parece melhorar as taxas de gestação e nascidos vivos em pacientes com falhas de implantação e perdas gestacionais recorrentes sem causa conhecida. Esta publicação tem por objetivo fazer uma revisão da etiologia, fisiopatologia, diagnóstico e tratamento da EC, seu impacto no microambiente endometrial e sua associação com infertilidade. Esta revisão narrativa da literatura atualizada sintetiza os achados encontrados em bases de dados computadorizadas.(AU)


Chronic endometritis (CE) is a poorly investigated disease, which has been related to adverse reproductive outcomes. Published studies have shown that CE can impair endometrial receptivity, which is associated with implantation failure and recurrent pregnancy loss. The standard tools for diagnosis include hysteroscopy, histology to identification of plasma cells and endometrial culture for identification of bacterial pathogens. Effective antibiotic treatment for CE seems to improve the pregnancy and live birth rates in patients with implantation failure and unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss. This paper intends to provide an overview of etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of CE, its impact on endometrial microenvironment and its association with infertility. This narrative review of the current literature synthesizes the findings retrieved from searches in computerized databases.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Endometritis/diagnosis , Endometritis/etiology , Endometritis/physiopathology , Endometritis/drug therapy , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , Hysteroscopy , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Infertility, Female/complications , Metronidazole/therapeutic use
3.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281089

ABSTRACT

La fosfomicina es un antibiótico natural, que actúa sobre la síntesis de la pared celular, con actividad bactericida y de amplio espectro. En este trabajo se evaluó la sensibilidad in vitro de aislados de Escherichia coli (E. coli), incluidos aquellos que producen Beta Lactamasa de Espectro Extendido (BLEE) obtenidos a partir de urocultivos, tomados en diferentes lapsos de colección de datos, en personas de ambos sexos. Fueron incluidos 260 muestras de orina con desarrollo de E. coli provenientes de pacientes que concurrieron al Laboratorio San Roque. El aislamiento e identificación bacteriana se realizó según métodos convencionales y la sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos por el método de difusión de disco. Para la detección de la sensibilidad frente a fosfomicina fueron utilizados discos de 200 µg con el agregado de 50 µg de glucosa 6-fosfato. Se observó frente a los antibióticos evaluados mayor sensibilidad a fosfomicina (98,5%) y nitrofurantoína (97,7%). Ciprofloxacina, trimetoprima y la combinación sulfametoxazol/trimetoprima exhibieron frente a los mismos aislados sensibilidad menor y muy similar entre ellos, con 64,2%, 61,2% y 61,2% respectivamente. En 44 (16,9%) de los aislados de E. coli se detectó la presencia de BLEE y es destacable la alta sensibilidad que mostraron fosfomicina y nitrofurantoína, aún frente a los aislados BLEE positivos, con frecuencias de 90,9% y 93,2%, respectivamente. En resumen, la alta sensibilidad demostrada en el presente estudio por E. coli ante la fosfomicina, abre la posibilidad de considerar a este antibiótico de primera elección en las infecciones urinarias bajas, aún en los casos de gérmenes productores de BLEE, en la población de nuestro país.


Fosfomycin is a natural antibiotic, which acts on the synthesis of the cell wall, with broad spectrum bactericidal activity. In this study, the in vitro sensitivity of Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates was evaluated, including those that produce Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) obtained from urine cultures taken at different data collection times, in people of both sexes. Were included 260 urine samples with development of E. coli from patients who attended the San Roque laboratory. Bacterian isolation and identification was carried out according to conventional methods and antimicrobial sensitivity by the disk diffusion method. For detection of sensitivity to fosfomycin, 200 µg discs were used with the addition of 50 µg of glucose 6-phosphate. A greater sensitivity for fosfomycin (98.5%) and nitrofurantoin (97.7%) was observed against the evaluated antibiotics. Ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim and the sulfamethoxazole / trimethoprim combination exhibited in front of the same isolated lower sensitivity and very similar among them, with 64.2%, 61.2% and 61.2% respectively. In 44 (16.9%) of the E. coli isolates the presence of ESBL was detected and the high sensitivity shown by fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin is noteworthy, even compared to the positive ESBL isolates, with frequencies of 90.9% and 93,2%, respectively. In summary, the high sensitivity demonstrated in the present study by E. coli to fosfomycin opens the possibility of considering this first-choice antibiotic in lower urinary infections, even in ESBL-producing germs, in the population of our country.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli , Fosfomycin , Nitrofurantoin , Ciprofloxacin , Anti-Bacterial Agents
4.
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1253408

ABSTRACT

Background Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) infection after kidney transplantation (KT) is associated with high mortality. Methods We analysed an outbreak of infection/colonization with IMP-1-producing CRPA on a KT ward, conducting a case-control study. Cases were identified through routine surveillance culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for carbapenemase performed directly from rectal swab samples. Controls were randomly selected from patients hospitalized on the same ward during the same period, at a ratio of 3:1. Strain clonality was analysed through pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and whole-genome sequencing was performed for additional strain characterization. Results CRPA was identified in 37 patients, in 51.4% through surveillance cultures and in 49.6% through clinical cultures. The median persistence of culture positivity was 42.5 days. Thirteen patients (35.1%) presented a total of 15 infections, of which 7 (46.7%) were in the urinary tract, among those, 30-day mortality rate was 46.2%. PFGE analysis showed that all of the strains shared the same pulsotype. Multilocus sequence typing analysis identified the sequence type as ST446. Risk factors for CRPA acquisition were hospital stay > 10 days, re-transplantation, urological surgical re-intervention after KT, use of carbapenem or ciprofloxacin in the last three months and low median lymphocyte count in the last three months. Conclusions KT recipients remain colonised by CRPA for long periods and could be a source of nosocomial outbreaks. In addition, a high proportion of such patients develop infection. During an outbreak, urine culture should be added to the screening protocol for KT recipients.


Subject(s)
Ciprofloxacin , Mortality , Culture , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(7): 519-524, July 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135657

ABSTRACT

We analyzed 77 Salmonella spp. strains, from which 20 were isolated from broilers (cloacal swabs) and 57 from chickens from slaughterhouses under federal inspection. The following serotypes were identified: Salmonella Saint Paul (29), Salmonella Heidelberg (27), Salmonella Anatum (9), Salmonella Cerro (5), Salmonella Senftenberg (5), Salmonella enterica (O: 4,5) (1) and Salmonella enterica (O: 9.12) (1). Fifteen strains (19.5%) were resistant to enrofloxacin, six (7.8%) to ciprofloxacin, and 26 (33.8%) to nalidixic acid in the Disk Diffusion Test. The fifteen enrofloxacin resistant strains were selected for the PCR to detect the genes gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE, and genetic sequencing to identify mutations in these genes. Five strains (33.3%) had point mutations in the gyrA gene, and one (6.7%) presented a point mutation in the parC gene. None of the 15 strains had mutations in the gyrB and parE genes, and none had more than one mutation in the gyrA gene or the other genes. The presence of point mutations in the strains studied corroborates with the phenotypic resistance observed to nalidixic acid. However, it did not explain the resistance to fluoroquinolones found in the 15 strains. Other mechanisms may be related to the fluoroquinolones resistance, highlighting the need for additional mutation screening.(AU)


Foram analisadas neste estudo 77 estirpes de Salmonella spp., 20 isoladas de frangos vivos (suabes de cloaca) e 57 isoladas de carcaças, provenientes de abatedouros frigoríficos sob Inspeção Federal. Foram identificados os seguintes sorotipos: Salmonella Saint Paul (29), Salmonella Heidelberg (27), Salmonella Anatum (9), Salmonella Cerro (5), Salmonella Senftenberg (5), Salmonella enterica (O: 4,5) (1) e Salmonella enterica (O: 9,12) (1). Do total de estirpes estudadas, 15 (19,5%) se mostraram resistentes à enrofloxacina, seis (7,8%) à ciprofloxacina e 26 (33,8%) ao ácido nalidíxico no Teste de Difusão em Disco. Foram selecionadas as 15 estirpes resistentes à enrofloxacina para a realização da PCR para detecção dos genes gyrA, gyrB, parC e parEe para sequenciamento genético do produto da PCR para identificação de mutações nesses genes. Cinco estirpes (33,3%) apresentaram mutações pontuais no gene gyrA e uma (6,7%) apresentou mutação pontual no gene parC. Nenhuma das 15 estirpes apresentou mutações nos genes gyrB e parE e nenhuma apresentou mais de uma mutação no gene gyrA ou nos outros genes. A existência apenas de mutações pontuais em alguns genes das estirpes analisadas está de acordo com a resistência fenotípica observada ao ácido nalidíxico, mas não explica a resistência às fluoroquinolonas encontrada nas 15 estirpes. Outros mecanismos de resistência podem estar relacionados à resistência encontrada às fluoroquinolonas e estudos adicionais são necessários para investigar sua presença.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Salmonella/drug effects , Chickens/microbiology , Quinolones , Fluoroquinolones , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Ciprofloxacin , Nalidixic Acid , Abattoirs , Enrofloxacin
6.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(3): 217-223, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115545

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Es importante mantener programas de vigilancia bacteriana para disminuir resistencia y definir esquemas farmacológicos adecuados. Los pacientes con abdomen agudo representan un grupo microbiológico especial. Objetivos: Hacer una revisión de agentes patógenos en pacientes adultos operados en nuestro Servicio de Urgencia por patología abdominal con líquido libre y analizar los resultados obtenidos de cultivos respecto a las cepas y la susceptibilidad a los antibióticos. Materiales y Método: Estudio de cohorte prospectiva con estadística descriptiva. Se incluyen pacientes consecutivos, mayores de 18 años, operados por abdomen agudo que presentan líquido libre intraperitoneal entre noviembre de 2017 y abril de 2018. Se excluyen casos con terapia antimicrobiana, hospitalización y/o cirugía en los 3 meses previos. Se registran los cultivos positivos, cepas aisladas, susceptibilidad antimicrobiana, datos demográficos y evolución clínica. Resultados: De 63 pacientes 55% fueron hombres, edad promedio 52,2 años. Las patologías más frecuentes fueron de origen apendicular (62%) y de causa entérica (30%). En un 44% el cultivo fue positivo y en 36% con más de un germen. Escherichia coli fue el patógeno más frecuente (64,2%) seguidos de Enterococcus faecium y Streptococcus anginosus (7,1%). De los otros patógenos cultivados sólo se observó resistencia múltiple en un caso aislado de Morganella Morganii. Conclusiones: Estos datos constituyen la realidad microbiológica local en abdomen agudo. La Escherichia Coli sigue siendo el germen más frecuente, debe enfrentarse con profilaxis y tratamiento antibiótico adecuado. Es necesario mantener vigilancia microbiología local para un manejo acorde.


Introduction: It is important to maintain bacterial surveillance programs to decrease resistance and define adequate pharmacological schemes. Patients with abdomen represent a special microbiological group. Objetives: Make a review of pathogens in adult patients operated in our Emergency Service for abdominal pathology with free fluid and analyze the results obtained from cultures with respect to the strains and susceptibility to antibiotics. Materials and Method: Prospective cohort study with descriptive statistics. We include consecutive patients, older than 18 years old, operated on by abdomen who present free intraperitoneal fluid between November 2017 and April 2018. Cases with antimicrobial therapy, hospitalization and/or surgery 3 months prior are excluded. Positive cultures, isolated strains, antimicrobial susceptibility, demographic data and clinical evolution are recorded. Results: Of 63 patients, 55% were men and the average age was 52.2 years. The most frequent pathologies were of appendicular origin (62%) and of enteric origin (30%). In 44% the crop was positive and in 36% with more than one germ. Escherichia coli was the most frequent pathogen (64.2%) followed by Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus anginosus (7.1%). Of the others, cultivated pathogens have only observed multiple resistance in an isolated case of Morganella Morganii. Conclusions: These data include the local microbiological reality in acute abdomen. Escherichia coli is still the most frequent germ that must be faced with the profile and the appropriate treatment. It is necessary to maintain local microbiology surveillance for a proper management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Abdomen, Acute/surgery , Abdomen, Acute/complications , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Ascitic Fluid , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Streptococcus anginosus , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Abdomen, Acute/pathology , Metronidazole
7.
Acta méd. colomb ; 45(2): 49-49, Jan.-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1149049

ABSTRACT

Los medicamentos que con mayor frecuencia se asocian a lesiones esofágicas son los antibióticos, pero hay pocas publicaciones sobre el tema en nuestro medio; por lo anterior, reportamos el caso de una mujer de 71 años que tomó Ciprofloxacino por una infección de vías urinarias. Setenta y dos horas después de su ingesta presentó dolor torácico súbito, en la esofagogastroduodenoscopia se hallaron úlceras en el tercio medio e inferior del esófago. Al suspender el medicamento y recibir inhibidores de bomba de protones la paciente mejoró. Doce semanas después se realizó el control endoscópico y se encontró cicatrización de las úlceras.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Ulcer , Esophagus , Publications , Women , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Ciprofloxacin , Control
9.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(1): 60-66, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056357

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: To investigate the characteristics of cases of NIH category I acute prostatitis developed after transrectal prostate biopsy and clarifiy the risk factors and preventive factors. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 3.479 cases of transrectal ultrasound-guided needle biopsies performed with different prophylactic antibiotherapy regimens at two different institutions between January 2011 and February 2016. The patients of Group I have received ciprofl oxacin (n=1.523, 500mg twice daily) and the patients of Group II have received ciprofl oxacin plus ornidazole (n=1.956, 500mg twice daily) and cleansing enema combination as prophylactic antibiotherapy. The incidence, clinical features and other related microbiological and clinical data, were evaluated. Results: Mean age was 62.38±7.30 (47-75), and the mean prostate volume was 43.17±15.20 (21-100) mL. Of the 3.479 patients, 39 (1.1%) developed acute prostatitis after the prostate biopsy procedure. Of the 39 cases of acute prostatitis, 28/3.042 occurred after the first biopsy and 11/437 occurred after repeat biopsy (p=0.038). In Group I, 22 of 1.523 (1.4%) patients developed acute prostatitis. In Group II, 17 of 1.959 (0.8%) patients developed acute prostatitis. There was no statistical difference between the two groups according to acute prostatitis rates (X2=2.56, P=0.11). Further, hypertension or DM were not related to the development of acute prostatitis (P=0.76, X2=0.096 and P=0.83, X2=0.046, respectively). Conclusions: Repeat biopsy seems to increase the risk of acute prostatitis, while the use of antibiotics effective for anaerobic pathogens seems not to be essential yet.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Ornidazole/administration & dosage , Prostatitis/etiology , Biopsy, Needle/adverse effects , Ciprofloxacin/administration & dosage , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Enema/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Prostate/pathology , Prostatitis/prevention & control , Time Factors , Biopsy, Needle/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Drug Combinations , Middle Aged
10.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 8(2): 35-59, 2020. ilus., tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-1147988

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: se realizó un estudio teórico computacional de la ciprofloxacina calculando detalladamente las propiedades moleculares del mismo. Se caracterizó este antibiótico, presentado valores de longitudes de enlace y ángulos, así como de propiedades químicas de interés en estudios QSAR, de energías y de reactividad, obtenidos por métodos mecano cuánticos utilizando la teoría funcional de densidad DFT B3LYP/6-31G*. OBJETIVO: determinar las propiedades moleculares, de QSAR y de reactividad de la Ciprofloxacina usando el método teórico de cálculo denominado: Teoría del Funcional de la Densidad (DFT) MÉTODO: la estructura de la ciprofloxacina fue trazada usando la interfaz de SPARTAN; esta fue sometida a cálculos de optimización geométrica inicialmente de Mecánica Molecular para obtener la estructura más estable, posteriormente todas las estructuras fueron analizadas utilizando la teoría de Hartree-Fock para obtener valores más confiables de energía y geometría. Posteriormente sobre estas estructuras se aplica la Teoría de Funcional de Densidad DFT usándose la base 6-31G*. Con esta estructura se realizaron cálculos de energía en conjunto con un análisis de población natural (NPA) para la molécula neutra e ionizada (positiva y negativa) para determinar los centros nucleofílicos, electrofílicos y radicalarios, y obtener posteriormente los descriptores de la reactividad local y las funciones de Fukui nucleofílica y electrofílica. RESULTADOS: Los valores experimentales de longitud de enlace para los enlaces C=C aromático del fenilo de 1.400 Å, respecto a longitudes de enlace C(10q)-C(5)=1.401 Å y C(8)- C(9q)=1.406 Å mostraron diferencias de 0.001 y 0.006. El enlace característico con el flúor F-C aromático reportado de 1.363Å, respecto al calculado en este estudio de 1.353Å muestra una diferencia de 0.01 del valor experimental. La longitud de enlace N1 de la quinolina y el C9 del ciclopropil reportado con 1.465Å y el calculado 1.450Å muestra una diferencia de 0.015. La longitud de enlace experimental C=O aromático de 1.230Å respecto al encontrado O(3)-C(4) de 1.227Å, muestra una diferencia de 0.003. Finalmente, en el anillo piperazina la longitud experimental C-N reportado de 1.465 Å, la calculada 1.463 Å diferencia de 0.002 De acuerdo con los datos calculados y reportados experimentalmente, se puede concluir que existe una buena correlación en los valores de las longitudes de enlace a nivel DFT B3LYP/6-31G*. Los ángulos entre átomos de carbono del sistema aromático encontrados en la ciprofloxacina oscilan entre 120.02° a 122.27°, en relación al valor teórico de este tipo de átomos de carbono con hibridación sp2 cuentan con un ángulo de 120°. En cuanto a la reactividad química, los índices descriptores de reactividad química global y local, el orbital HOMO es el dador y el orbital LUMO el aceptor. Un band-gap de 4.65 ev indica claramente que la molécula es muy estable. CONCLUSIÓN: se establecieron valores de las propiedades moleculares y así como de propiedades químicas de interés en estudios de estructura actividad QSAR, de energías y de reactividad del antibiótico ciprofloxacina.


INTRODUCTION: a theoretical computational study of ciprofloxacin was performed, calculating in detail the molecular properties of it. This antibiotic was characterized, presenting values of link lengths and angles as well as chemical properties of interest in QSAR, energy and reactivity studies, obtained by quantum mechanic methods using the Functional Density Theory DFT B3LYP / 6-31G *. OBJECTIVE: to determine the molecular, QSAR and reactivity properties of Ciprofloxacin using the theoretical calculation method called: Density Functional Theory (DFT). METHOD: the structure of ciprofloxacin was mapped using the SPARTAN interface; This was initially subjected to calculations of geometric optimization of Molecular Mechanics to obtain the most stable structure, later all the structures were analyzed using the Hartree-Fock theory to obtain more reliable values of energy and geometry. Subsequently on these structures the DFT Density Functional Theory is applied using the 6-31G * base. With this structure, energy calculations were performed in conjunction with a natural population analysis (NPA) for the neutral and ionized molecule (positive and negative) to determine the nucleophilic, electrophilic and radical centers, and subsequently obtain the descriptors of the local reactivity and the nucleophilic and electrophilic Fukui functions. RESULTS: The experimental values of bond length for the aromatic C = C bonds of the phenyl of 1,400 Å, with respect to link lengths C (10q) -C (5) = 1,401 Å and C (8) -C (9q) = 1,406 Å showed differences of 0.001 and 0.006. The characteristic link with the reported aromatic F-C fluorine of 1,363Å, compared to that calculated in this study of 1,353Å shows a difference of 0.01 of the experimental value. The linkage length N1 of the quinoline and the C9 of the cyclopropyl reported with 1,465Å and the calculated 1,450Å shows a difference of 0.015. The experimental aromatic C = O link length of 1,230Å with respect to the found O (3) -C (4) of 1,227Å, shows a difference of 0.003. Finally, in the piperazine ring, the reported CN experimental length of 1,465 Å, the calculated 1,463 Å difference of 0.002 According to the data calculated and reported experimentally, it can be concluded that there is a good correlation in the values of the link lengths at the DFT level B3LYP / 6-31G *. The angles between carbon atoms of the aromatic system found in ciprofloxacin range from 120.02 ° to 122.27 °, in relation to the theoretical value of this type of carbon atoms with sp2 hybridization have an angle of 120 °. Regarding chemical reactivity, the indexes describing global and local chemical reactivity [2], the HOMO orbital is the donor and the LUMO orbital is the acceptor. A band-gap of 4.65 ev clearly indicates that the molecule is very stable. The chemical potential obtained for the neutral ciprofloxacin of (-3,715ev) indicates that the electronic density of the system can vary spontaneously, since it has a negative value. The hardness gave the value of 2,325ev, indicates that ciprofloxacin will have little tendency to give or receive electrons, that is, the hardness has been associated with the stability of the chemical system. CONCLUSION: molecular and chemical properties values of interest were established in QSAR activity structure studies, energies and reactivity of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin.


Subject(s)
Calculi , Ciprofloxacin , Chemical Properties , Piperazine , Fluorine , Density Functional Theory , Hardness
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816603

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii as a nosocomial pathogen is one of the major public health problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of an efflux pump gene adeJ for the multidrug resistance of A. baumannii clinical isolates.METHODS: Two groups (MDRAB and SAB) of A. baumannii clinical isolates were studied. The SAB group consisted of strains that did not meet the criteria of MDRAB and were susceptible to more categories of antibiotics than MDRAB. Antimicrobial susceptibility results obtained by VITEKII system were used in data analysis and bacterial group allocation. We performed real-time reverse transcription PCR to determine relative expression of adeJ. We compared relative expression of adeJ in comparison groups by considering two viewpoints: i) MDRAB and SAB groups and ii) susceptible and non-susceptible groups for each antibiotic used in this study.RESULTS: The mean value of relative expression of adeJ of MDRAB and SAB groups was 1.4 and 0.92, respectively, and showed significant difference (P=0.002). The mean values of relative expression of adeJ of susceptible and non-susceptible groups to the antibiotics cefepime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, tigecycline, piperacillin/tazobactam, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, piperacillin, and gentamicin showed statistically significant differences.CONCLUSION: The overexpression of adeIJK might contribute to the multi-drug resistance in A. baumannii clinical isolates. Further, the overexpression of adeIJK might be one of the factors contributing to the resistance to numerous antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Acinetobacter , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Ceftazidime , Ciprofloxacin , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Gentamicins , Imipenem , Piperacillin , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Public Health , Reverse Transcription , Statistics as Topic
12.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 25(1): 10-14, ene.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1058565

ABSTRACT

Resumen En este estudio se investigó la susceptibilidad a antibióticos y el perfil plasmídico de S aureus aislado de queso costeño, blando, semiduro y duro, expendidas en diferentes puntos de venta de la ciudad de Valledupar. Por el método de Difusión del disco en agar, se determinó la resistencia a antibióticos y con la técnica de lisis alcalina y electroforesis en gel de agarosa, el perfil plasmídico. Como resultado, se obtuvo una carga microbiana por encima de 103 UFC/g, que está sobre el valor promedio máximo permitido, según la norma covenin 1538-92, el cual indica que se puede desencadenar brotes por intoxicación con estafilocócos. Se demostró la presencia de S. aureus en los quesos costeños blandos (75%), seguidos por los quesos semiduros (25%) ambos de origen (artesanal), los cuales son de alto consumo en Valledupar. Se establecieron 4 patrones diferentes de resistencia en las cepas de S. aureus aisladas de los quesos, siendo el patrón TER común para dos cepas, el resto de los patrones fueron únicos (PR, CR y EI). Una cepa fue resistente a P, productora de β-lactamasas, su CMI más alta fue 32µg/ml; todas las cepas mostraron sensibilidad a oxacilina, gentamicina, ciprofloxacina, cefoxitin, clindamicina, trimetoprim sulfa, vancomicina, rifampin, e imipenen. Hubo bandas plasmídicas con tamaños de 23kb encontrándose cepas con 1 plásmidos.


Abstract In this study, the antibiotic susceptibility was investigated and the plasmid profile of S aureus isolated from coastal cheese, soft, semi-hard and hard, expended in different outlets of the city of Valledupar. For the method of diffusion of the agar disk, the antibiotic resistance was determined and with the technique of alkaline lysis and electrophoresis in the agarose gel, the plasmid profile. As a result, was obtained one microbial load, above of 103 UFC/g, which is on average the maximum allowed value, according to the standard covenin 1538-92, which indicates that it can trigger outbreaks by Staphylococcal poisoning. The presence of S.aureus in coastal soft cheese was shown (75%), followed by semi-hard cheeses (25%) both home (handmade), which are of high consume in Valledupar. four different resistance patterns were established in the strains of the S.aureus isolated from the cheeses, being TER the common pattern for five strains, the rest of the patterns were unique (PR, CR and EI). One strain was resistant to P, producer of the β-lactamases, the CMI more tall was 32µg/ml; All the strains show sensibility to oxacillin, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, cephoxitin, clindamycin, trimetoprim sulfa, vancomycin, rifampin, and imipenem. There plasmid bands with sizes between 23kb, being 1 strains with plasmids.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plasmids , Staphylococcus aureus , Cheese , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Poisoning , Trimethoprim , Clindamycin , Vancomycin , Ciprofloxacin , Disease Susceptibility , Electrophoresis , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel
13.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(3): 167-173, June 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020054

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones del pie diabético se asocian a complicaciones graves y constituyen la principal causa de hospitalización relacionada con diabetes y amputación de miembros inferiores. Para evitar su progresión, se requiere una conducta inicial rápida y adecuada que incluye toma de muestras para cultivos e inicio inmediato de tratamiento antibiótico empírico, según las características de las lesiones y la prevalencia local de microorganismos. Por ello, es necesario conocer y vigilar la microbiología local y la resistencia a los antimicrobianos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir la frecuencia de gérmenes en infecciones de pie diabético en pacientes ambulatorios asistidos en nuestro hospital en 2018 e identificar el esquema antibiótico con mayor cobertura, en comparación con los resultados de un estudio similar realizado en 2015. Fueron analizadas 72 muestras tomadas mediante punción por piel sana de partes blandas. Entre los 68 gérmenes aislados, los Gram negativos fueron los más frecuentes (47.1%), lo que representa un aumento significativo en relación a la frecuencia observada en 2015 (24.6%) p = 0.01 y un aumento de la sensibilidad a ciprofloxacina de 25% a 62.5% (p=0.03). El esquema con mayor cobertura fue amoxicilina-clavulánico con ciprofloxacina (77.9%) mientras que en 2015 fue amoxicilina-clavulánico con trimetoprima sulfametoxazol. La vigilancia de la microbiología local es fundamental para la elección del antibiótico empírico en las infecciones de pie diabético. En nuestro hospital, cuando la infección es de partes blandas, se recomienda la combinación amoxicilina-clavulánico más ciprofloxacina como esquema antibiótico empírico según los hallazgos de este estudio.


Diabetic foot infections are related to severe complications and constitute the main reason for diabetes-related hospitalization and lower limb amputations. A diabetic foot infection requires prompt actions to avoid progression of the infected wound; a soft tissue sample has to be taken for microbiological culture and empiric antibiotic therapy must be started immediately. Empiric antibiotic schemes should be chosen based on the severity of the infection and the local prevalence of microbial causal agents. Therefore, it is important to monitor these indicators. The aim of this study was to determine which microorganisms were more prevalent in cultures of diabetic foot infections during 2018 and what antibiotic combination was better to cover local microbiology, compared with data available from 2015 for a similar cohort. A total of 68 positive cultures were obtained of 72 soft tissue specimens analyzed. The most frequent microorganisms were Gram negative (47.1%), and resulted significantly more frequent than in 2015 (24.6%) p = 0.01. These Gram negative germs also resulted more sensitive to ciprofloxacin than in 2015 (62.5% vs. 25.0%) p = 0.03. Amoxicillin-clavulanate plus ciprofloxacin was the optimal combination therapy in 2018, while in 2015 it was amoxicillin-clavulanate plus trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole. In agreement with these results, we recommend amoxicillin-clavulanate plus ciprofloxacin as the empiric antibiotic regimen of choice for soft tissue infections in diabetic foot. We consider surveillance of local microbiology to be an important tool in the management of diabetic foot infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Diabetic Foot/drug therapy , Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Wound Infection/microbiology , Wound Infection/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Diabetic Foot/etiology , Diabetic Foot/microbiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Drug Therapy, Combination , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification
14.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 17(1): 47-53, abr. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1007944

ABSTRACT

Se evaluó la actividad sinérgica de los alcaloides crotsparina y esparsiflorina, aislados de Croton bomplandianum Baill. con los antibacterianos gentamicina y ciprofloxacina frente a Pseudomonas aeruginosa, microorganismo frecuentemente responsable de infecciones intrahospitalarias. Se empleó el método del "tablero de damas". Se encontraron combinaciones que presentaban efecto sinérgico, logrando la reducción de 87,5% de la CMI de gentamicina, mientras que para ciprofloxacina se logró una reducción del 25,0%. Esto abre interesantes perspectivas sobre el uso combinado de productos naturales puros y fármacos en uso clínico para el tratamiento de infecciones producidas por este microrganismo(AU)


Subject(s)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Gentamicins/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Croton , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Gentamicins/isolation & purification , Drug Synergism , Alkaloids/chemistry
15.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(1): 15-21, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001499

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the influence of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ciprofloxacin (CIP) on biofilm formation and virulence factors of Escherichia coli clinical isolates. Methods: Sub-MICs of CIP were determined using growth curve experiments. The biofilm-forming capacity of E. coli clinical isolates and E. coli ATCC 25922 treated or untreated with sub-MICs of CIP was assessed using a crystal violet staining assay. The biofilm structure of E. coli isolate was assessed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The expression levels of the virulence genes fim, usp, and iron and the biofilm formation genes of the pgaABCD locus were measured using quantification RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) in E. coli isolates and E. coli ATCC 25922. Results: Based on our results, the sub-MICs of CIP were 1/4 MICs. Sub-MICs of CIP significantly inhibited biofilm formation of E. coli clinical isolates and E. coli ATCC 25922 (p < 0.01). SEM analyses indicated that the biofilm structure of the E. coli changed significantly after treatment with sub-MICs of CIP. Expression levels of the virulence genes fim, usp, and iron and the biofilm formation genes of the pgaABCD locus were also suppressed. Conclusions: The results revealed that treatment with sub-MICs of CIP for 24 h inhibited biofilm formation and reduced the expression of virulence genes and biofilm formation genes in E. coli.


Subject(s)
Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Virulence Factors , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Gene Expression/drug effects , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gentian Violet
16.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180396, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1002404

ABSTRACT

Abstract Endodontic revascularization is based on cell recruitment into the necrotic root canal of immature teeth after chemical disinfection. The clinical outcome depends on the ability of surviving cells from the apical tissue to differentiate and promote hard tissue deposition inside the dentinal walls. Objective To investigate the effect of calcium hydroxide (CH) and modified triple antibiotic paste (mTAP - ciprofloxacin, metronidazole and cefaclor) on the viability and mineralization potential of apical papilla cells (APC) in vitro . Material and Methods APC cultures were kept in contact with CH or mTAP (250-1000 µg/mL) for 5 days, after which cell viability was assessed using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Next, APCs were subjected to CH or mTAP at 250 µg/mL for 5 days before inducing the differentiation assay. After 14 and 21 days, calcium deposition was assessed by the Alizarin Red S staining method, followed by elution and quantification using spectrophotometry. Data were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc test. Results CH induced cell proliferation, whereas mTAP showed significant cytotoxicity at all concentrations tested. APC treated with CH demonstrated improved mineralization capacity at 14 days, while, for mTAP, significant reduction on the mineralization rate was observed for both experimental periods (14 and 21 days). Conclusion Our findings showed that CH induces cell proliferation and improves early mineralization, whereas mTAP was found cytotoxic and reduced the mineralization potential in vitro of APCs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Calcium Hydroxide/pharmacology , Dental Papilla/cytology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Tetrazolium Salts , Time Factors , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Cefaclor/pharmacology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Dental Papilla/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Formazans , Metronidazole/pharmacology
17.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180291, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-984570

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of modified triple antibiotic paste and an experimental composition using calcium hydroxide on lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-primed apical papilla cells (APC). Material and Methods Human APC were tested for in vitro cytotoxicity of modified Triple Antibiotic Paste (mTAP - Ciprofloxacin, Metronidazole and Cefaclor at 1:1:1) and of a paste of Ciprofloxacin, Metronidazole and Calcium hydroxide (CMC - 1:1:2) and modified CMC (mCMC - 2:2:1) by using MTT assay. The substances were reconstituted in DMEM at 1,000 µg/mL and » serially diluted before being kept in contact with cells for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. Further, cells were primed with 1 µg/mL of Enterococcus faecalis LTA for 7 days prior to the viability test with 1,000 µg/mL of each substance. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and two-way ANOVA respectively followed by Tukey's post-test. Significance levels were set at p<0.05. Results In the first assay, the higher cytotoxic rates were reached by mTAP for all experimental periods. CMC was found toxic for APC at 5 and 7 days, whereas mCMC did not affect the cell viability. Only CMC and mCMC were able to induce some cellular proliferation. In the second assay, when considering the condition with medium only, LTA-primed cells significantly proliferated in comparison to LTA-untreated ones. At this context, mTAP and CMC showed similar cytotoxicity than the observed for LTA-untreated cells, while mCMC was shown cytotoxic at 7 days only for LTA-primed APC. Comparing the medications, mTAP was more cytotoxic than CMC and mCMC. Conclusion mTAP showed higher cytotoxicity than CMC and mCMC and the effect of topic antimicrobials might differ when tested against apical papilla cells under physiological or activated conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Teichoic Acids/toxicity , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Enterococcus faecalis/chemistry , Tooth Apex/cytology , Dental Papilla/cytology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/toxicity , Root Canal Irrigants/toxicity , Time Factors , Calcium Hydroxide/toxicity , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Ciprofloxacin/toxicity , Ciprofloxacin/chemistry , Cefaclor/toxicity , Cefaclor/chemistry , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Tooth Apex/drug effects , Dental Papilla/drug effects , Metronidazole/toxicity , Metronidazole/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180254, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985162

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance has been reported in the drugs used for the treatment of typhoid fever. The immunomodulatory substance β-glucan can be used as an alternative therapy as it potentiates host immunity. The aims of this study are to observe the effect of Candida albicans cell wall (CCW) extract towards host immunity (TCD8+ and TCD4+ cells in spleen, intestinal sIgA) and its capacity to kill Salmonella in the intestine and liver of typhoid fever mice models. METHODS: Typhoid fever mice models were created by infecting mice with S. Typhimurium orally. Mice were divided into four groups: the Non-Infected, Infected, CCW (infected mice treated with 300 µg CCW extract/mouse once a day), and Ciprofloxacin groups (infected mice treated with 15 mg/kg BW ciprofloxacin twice a day). RESULTS: Secretory IgA (sIgA) concentrations of mice in the CCW group remained unchanged. However, their TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells increased substantially compared to those in the Non-Infected group. In the Ciprofloxacin group, sIgA concentrations increased markedly compared to those in the Non-Infected and CCW groups; TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells also increased significantly compared to those in the Infected Group, but not significant compared to those in the CCW group. Colonization of S. Typhimurium in the intestine and liver decreased significantly in the CCW and Ciprofloxacin groups compared to that in the Infected group, with the lowest reduction being found in the Ciprofloxacin group. CONCLUSIONS The inhibition of S. Typhimurium colonization by CCW is associated with the increase in TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects , Typhoid Fever/microbiology , Candida albicans/chemistry , beta-Glucans/pharmacology , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/microbiology , Ciprofloxacin , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cell Wall , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/microbiology , Disease Models, Animal , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Intestines/microbiology , Liver/microbiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C
19.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(12): e201901206, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054688

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To evaluate the effects of prednisolone against sodium diclofenac both with ciprofloxacin compared to artificial tears on the symptoms and signs of acute viral conjunctivitis. Methods Study included 37 patients diagnosed with acute conjunctivitis and distributed by three groups: A (1% prednisolone acetate + ciprofloxacin (0.3%); B (Sodium diclofenac (0.1%) + ciprofloxacin (0.3%) and C (artificial tears + ciprofloxacin (0.3%). Patients received medication 6/6 hours daily. Signs and symptoms (e.g. lacrimation, burning, photophobia, etc.) were scored at baseline and on the first, third, fifth and seventh days and in the end of treatment using a standardized questionnaire and slit lamp anterior segment examination. Results All three groups demonstrated an improvement in the signs and symptoms of conjunctivitis in their follow-up visits. There was no significant difference in symptom and sign scores between Group A and B and B and C in the study visits ( p >0.05). However, the comparison between groups A and C showed a clinical trend (p=0.05) on third evaluation suggesting better clinical action using the corticosteroids. Conclusion The prednisolone acetate was not superior to the use of sodium diclofenac or artificial tears in relieving the signs and symptoms of viral conjunctivitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Prednisolone/analogs & derivatives , Ciprofloxacin/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Conjunctivitis, Viral/drug therapy , Diclofenac/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Ophthalmic Solutions/administration & dosage , Prednisolone/administration & dosage , Acute Disease , Analysis of Variance , Interleukins/analysis , Interferon-gamma , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Treatment Outcome , Nitric Oxide Synthase/analysis , Lubricant Eye Drops/administration & dosage
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741741

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess positive culture rate and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Mycoplasma hominis (MH) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) in symptomatic general population and pregnant women admitted with preterm labor and premature rupture of membranes. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients who have undergone culture test and antimicrobial susceptibilities at our center from January 2017 to April 2018. Patients with positive culture for MH, UU, or both were included in this study. RESULTS: There were 200 patients who were eligible for enrollment. Of these patients, 34 (17%) were pregnant women and 166 (83%) were non-pregnant women. Of these 200 patients, positive culture results were as follows: MH only, n=10 (5%); UU only, n=58 (29%); and both MH and UU, n=36 (18%). Susceptibilities of MH only to doxycycline, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and azithromycin were 100%, 10%, 40%, and 0%, respectively. Susceptibilities of UU only to doxycycline, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and azithromycin were 94.8%, 87.9%, 5.2%, and 81%, respectively. Susceptibilities of both MH and UU to doxycycline, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and azithromycin were 97.2%, 5.6%, 11.1%, and 11.1%, respectively. CONCLUSION: UU only was the leading causative pathogen for genitourinary infection in our study. MH only accounted for about one sixth of UU only infections. Doxycycline was still the best antibiotics as most patients with MH only, UU only, or both MH and UU positive culture showed susceptibility. For ciprofloxacin, less than 12% of those with UU only and both MH and UU culture positive results showed susceptibility.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Azithromycin , Ciprofloxacin , Doxycycline , Erythromycin , Female , Humans , Medical Records , Membranes , Mycoplasma hominis , Mycoplasma , Obstetric Labor, Premature , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Retrospective Studies , Rupture , Ureaplasma urealyticum , Ureaplasma
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