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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(6): 575-597, nov. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369745

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the antibacterial potential of Euphorbia hirtawhole plant extracts, honey and conventional antibiotics and their synergistic effects against selected multidrug resistant and typed bacterial strains associated with otitis media. E. hirtawhole plant extract was purified using column chromatography technique. The antibacterial assays of extracts were done using standard microbiological procedures. Protein, sodium and potassium ion leakage of the synergistic mixtures was determined using flame-photometry. At 100 mg/ml, acetone extracts presented highest inhibition against S. aureus (NCTC 6571) with 32 ± 0.83 mm zone of inhibition. The fractional inhibitory concentration indices displayed higher synergism in combination of plant extract, honey and ciprofloxacin against P. mirabilisat 0.02 compared to drug combination synergy standard (≤ 0.5). This work revealed augmentation of ciprofloxacin potency when combined with purified E. hirta acetone extract and honey and implies their high potential in the treatment of multidrug resistant infectionof otitis media.


Este estudio investigó el potencial antibacteriano de extractos de plantas enteras de Euphorbia hirta, miel y antibióticos convencionales y sus efectos sinérgicos contra cepas bacterianas seleccionadas multirresistentes y tipificadas asociadas con la otitis media. El extracto de la planta entera de E. hirtase purificó usando la técnica de cromatografía en columna. Los ensayos antibacterianos de extractos se realizaron utilizando procedimientos microbiológicos estándar. La fuga de iones de proteínas, sodio y potasio de las mezclas sinérgicas se determinó mediante fotometría de llama. A 100 mg/ml, los extractos de acetona presentaron la mayor inhibición contra S. aureus (NCTC 6571) con una zona de inhibición de 32 ± 0,83 mm. Los índices de concentración inhibitoria fraccional mostraron un mayor sinergismo en combinación de extracto de planta, miel y ciprofloxacina contra P. mirabilisa 0,02 en comparación con el estándar de sinergia de combinación de fármacos (≤ 0,5). Este trabajo reveló un aumento de la potencia de la ciprofloxacina cuando se combina con extracto de acetona purificado de E. hirtay miel e implica sualto potencial en el tratamiento de infecciones de otitis media resistentes a múltiples fármacos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Otitis Media/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Euphorbia/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Proteus mirabilis/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Terpenes/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Flame Emission Photometry , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Drug Synergism , Glycosides/analysis , Honey , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
2.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 17(1): 47-53, abr. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1007944

ABSTRACT

Se evaluó la actividad sinérgica de los alcaloides crotsparina y esparsiflorina, aislados de Croton bomplandianum Baill. con los antibacterianos gentamicina y ciprofloxacina frente a Pseudomonas aeruginosa, microorganismo frecuentemente responsable de infecciones intrahospitalarias. Se empleó el método del "tablero de damas". Se encontraron combinaciones que presentaban efecto sinérgico, logrando la reducción de 87,5% de la CMI de gentamicina, mientras que para ciprofloxacina se logró una reducción del 25,0%. Esto abre interesantes perspectivas sobre el uso combinado de productos naturales puros y fármacos en uso clínico para el tratamiento de infecciones producidas por este microrganismo(AU)


Subject(s)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Gentamicins/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Croton , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Gentamicins/isolation & purification , Drug Synergism , Alkaloids/chemistry
3.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(1): 15-21, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001499

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the influence of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ciprofloxacin (CIP) on biofilm formation and virulence factors of Escherichia coli clinical isolates. Methods: Sub-MICs of CIP were determined using growth curve experiments. The biofilm-forming capacity of E. coli clinical isolates and E. coli ATCC 25922 treated or untreated with sub-MICs of CIP was assessed using a crystal violet staining assay. The biofilm structure of E. coli isolate was assessed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The expression levels of the virulence genes fim, usp, and iron and the biofilm formation genes of the pgaABCD locus were measured using quantification RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) in E. coli isolates and E. coli ATCC 25922. Results: Based on our results, the sub-MICs of CIP were 1/4 MICs. Sub-MICs of CIP significantly inhibited biofilm formation of E. coli clinical isolates and E. coli ATCC 25922 (p < 0.01). SEM analyses indicated that the biofilm structure of the E. coli changed significantly after treatment with sub-MICs of CIP. Expression levels of the virulence genes fim, usp, and iron and the biofilm formation genes of the pgaABCD locus were also suppressed. Conclusions: The results revealed that treatment with sub-MICs of CIP for 24 h inhibited biofilm formation and reduced the expression of virulence genes and biofilm formation genes in E. coli.


Subject(s)
Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Virulence Factors , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Gene Expression/drug effects , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gentian Violet
4.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180396, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1002404

ABSTRACT

Abstract Endodontic revascularization is based on cell recruitment into the necrotic root canal of immature teeth after chemical disinfection. The clinical outcome depends on the ability of surviving cells from the apical tissue to differentiate and promote hard tissue deposition inside the dentinal walls. Objective To investigate the effect of calcium hydroxide (CH) and modified triple antibiotic paste (mTAP - ciprofloxacin, metronidazole and cefaclor) on the viability and mineralization potential of apical papilla cells (APC) in vitro . Material and Methods APC cultures were kept in contact with CH or mTAP (250-1000 µg/mL) for 5 days, after which cell viability was assessed using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Next, APCs were subjected to CH or mTAP at 250 µg/mL for 5 days before inducing the differentiation assay. After 14 and 21 days, calcium deposition was assessed by the Alizarin Red S staining method, followed by elution and quantification using spectrophotometry. Data were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc test. Results CH induced cell proliferation, whereas mTAP showed significant cytotoxicity at all concentrations tested. APC treated with CH demonstrated improved mineralization capacity at 14 days, while, for mTAP, significant reduction on the mineralization rate was observed for both experimental periods (14 and 21 days). Conclusion Our findings showed that CH induces cell proliferation and improves early mineralization, whereas mTAP was found cytotoxic and reduced the mineralization potential in vitro of APCs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Calcium Hydroxide/pharmacology , Dental Papilla/cytology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Tetrazolium Salts , Time Factors , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Cefaclor/pharmacology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Dental Papilla/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Formazans , Metronidazole/pharmacology
5.
West Indian med. j ; 67(3): 226-228, July-Sept. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045848

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The main mechanism of quinolone resistance in Klebsiella (K) pneumoniae is caused by mutation of porin-related proteins and efflux pumps. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant K pneumoniae in burns patients and to understand the role of the AcrAB multidrug efflux system on minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin. For this reason, 52 K pneumoniae samples were collected from burns patients and evaluated for the mechanism of ciprofloxacin resistance. The results demonstrated that 40 isolates of K pneumoniae were ciprofloxacin-resistant and 35 showed the mutation on gyrA locus. By inhibition of the efflux system, the MIC yield showed a significant decrease. Therefore, it could be concluded that the high rate of mutation on the gyrA locus in combination with quinolone resistance was responsible for ciprofloxacin resistance and by inhibition of AcrA, the resistance rate showed a significant decrease in K pneumoniae isolated from burns patients.


RESUMEN El principal mecanismo de resistencia a la quinolona en las Klebsiella (K) Pneumoniae tiene como causa la mutación de las porinas y las bombas de eflujo. Este estudio tuvo por objetivo investigar la prevalencia de las K pneumoniae resistentes a la ciprofloxacina en pacientes con quemaduras, así como entender el papel del sistema de eflujo multidroga AcrAB en la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM) de la ciprofloxacina. Por esta razón, se recogieron 52 muestras de K pneumoniae de pacientes con quemaduras, a fin de evaluar el mecanismo de resistencia a la ciprofloxacina. Los resultados mostraron que 40 aislados de K pneumoniae eran resistentes a la ciprofloxacina y 35 mostraron la mutación en el locus gyrA. Con la inhibición del sistema de eflujo, el rendimiento de CIM tuvo una disminución significativa. Por lo tanto, se pudo concluir que la alta tasa de mutación en el locus gyrA en combinación con la resistencia a la quinolona era responsable de la resistencia a la ciprofloxacina, y por la inhibición de AcrA, la tasa de resistencia mostró una disminución significativa en las K pneumoniae aisladas de los pacientes con quemaduras.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Burns/microbiology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
6.
J. bras. nefrol ; 39(1): 82-85, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841189

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Salmonellosis is a relatively rare complication in kidney transplant recipients that cannot be clinically distinguished from other forms of enteritis. Among kidney transplant patients, it varies broadly in intensity, and is highly associated with extra-intestinal disease, bacteremia, and, in this case, a high mortality rate. Case Report: Here we describe a clinical case of ciprofloxacin resistant salmonellosis in a kidney transplant patient. Conclusion: This case illustrates how immunosuppressed patients can be exposed to rare forms of infection, often clinically difficult to identify, and possibly with severe clinical courses and poor outcomes despite evidence-based empiric antibiotic therapy.


Resumo Introdução: A salmonelose é uma complicação relativamente rara em transplantados renais, e não pode ser diferenciada de outras formas de enterite pela apresentação clínica. Em pacientes transplantados renais, a salmonelose varia em gravidade, e é frequentemente associada com formas extra intestinais, bacteremia, e, neste caso, com elevada mortalidade. Relato de Caso: Descrevemos o caso clínico de um paciente transplantado renal com salmonelose Ciprofloxacino-resistente. Conclusão: Este caso ilustra o risco, relacionado à imunossupressão, da ocorrência de formas raras de infecção, por vezes de difícil diagnóstico, e com cursos clínicos potencialmente graves e prognóstico ruim, apesar do emprego de antibioticoterapia empírica adequada e de acordo com as evidências disponíveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Kidney Transplantation , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Postoperative Complications/microbiology , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Salmonella/drug effects , Salmonella Infections/drug therapy , Sepsis/drug therapy
7.
Cell Journal [Yakhteh]. 2016; 18 (1): 103-111
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-178852

ABSTRACT

Objective: Genitourinary tract infections play a significant role in male infertility. Infections of reproductive sex glands, such as the prostate, impair function and indirectly affect male fertility. The general aim of this study is to investigate the protective effect of Korean red ginseng [KRG] on prostatitis in male rats treated with ciprofloxacin [CIPX]


Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we randomly divided 72 two male Wistar rats into 9 groups. The groups were treated as follows for 10 days: i. Control [no medication], ii. Sham [[normal saline injection into the vas deferens and oral administration of phosphate-buffered saline [PBS]], iii. Ginseng, iv. CPIX, v. CIPX+ginseng, vi. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli [E. coli] [UPEC], vii. UPEC+ginseng, viii. UPEC+CIPX, and ix. UPEC+ginseng+CIPX. The rats were killed 14 days after the last injection and the prostate glands were removed. After sample preparation, routine histology was performed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling [TUNEL] method was used to determine the presence of apoptotic cells


Results: The severity score for acinar changes and inflammatory cell infiltration in the UPEC+CIPX group did not significantly different from the UPEC group. However this score significantly decreased in the UPEC+CIPX+ginseng group compared to the UPEC group. Apoptotic index of all ginseng treated groups significantly decreased compared to the UPEC and CPIX groups


Conclusion: These results suggested that ginseng might be an effective adjunct in CIPX treatment of prostatitis. The combined use ginseng and CIPX was more effective than ginseng or CIPX alone


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Rats, Wistar , Prostate , Panax
8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 350-357, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147355

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The detection of high-level tetracycline-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (TRNG) can make important epidemiological contributions that are relevant to controlling infections from this pathogen. In this study, we aimed to determine the incidence of TRNG isolates over time and also to investigate the characteristics and genetic epidemiology of these TRNG isolates in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 601 isolates of N. gonorrhoeae from 2004 to 2011 were tested by standard Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods. To determine the molecular epidemiological relatedness, N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing was performed. RESULTS: The incidence of TRNG increased from 2% in 2004 to 21% in 2011. The minimum inhibitory concentration distributions of ceftriaxone and susceptibility of ciprofloxacin in TRNG were different from non-TRNG and varied according to the year of isolation. Most of the TRNG isolates collected from 2004 to 2007 exhibited genetic relatedness, with sequence type (ST) 1798 being the most common. From 2008 to 2011, the STs of the isolates became more variable and introduction of genetically unrelated TRNG were noted. CONCLUSION: The increased incidence of TRNG strains until 2007 appears to be due, at least in part, to clonal spread. However, we propose that the emergence of various STs since 2008 could be associated with foreign import.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Ceftriaxone/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Gonorrhea/drug therapy , Humans , Incidence , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Epidemiology , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/drug effects , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Tetracycline/pharmacology , Tetracyclines/pharmacology
10.
Clinics ; 70(2): 91-96, 2/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741421

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a costly and crippling autoimmune disease that can lead to the development of depression, contributing to suboptimal clinical outcomes. However, no longitudinal studies have identified an association between rheumatoid arthritis and subsequent depression. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors of depression among RA patients in Taiwan. METHODS: Using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 3,698 newly diagnosed RA patients aged 18 years or older, together with 7,396 subjects without RA matched by sex, age and index date, between 2000 and 2004. The incidence of depression and the risk factors among RA cases were evaluated using Cox proportional-hazard regression. RESULTS: The incidence of depression was 1.74-fold greater in the RA cohort than in the non-RA cohort (11.80 versus 6.89 per 1,000 person-years; p<0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that RA subjects who were female, were older, or had comorbidities such as stroke, chronic kidney disease, or cancer had a significantly greater risk of depression compared with those without these conditions. CONCLUSION: This population-based cohort study showed a strong relationship between RA and a subsequent risk of depression. The findings could be beneficial to healthcare providers for identifying individuals with a higher predisposition for depression, thereby possibly facilitating the provision of an appropriate rehabilitation intervention after RA onset to support the patient's adaptation. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Salmonella typhi/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Chloramphenicol/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , India , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Nalidixic Acid/pharmacology , Retrospective Studies , Typhoid Fever/microbiology
11.
Clinics ; 70(2): 114-119, 2/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741426

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe a new approach for the application of polymethylmethacrylate augmentation of bone cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screws. METHODS: Between June 2010 and February 2013, 43 patients with degenerative spinal disease and osteoporosis (T-score <-2.5) underwent lumbar fusion using cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screws. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using a Visual Analog Scale and the Oswestry Disability Index. Patients were given radiographic follow-up examinations after 3, 6, and 12 months and once per year thereafter. RESULTS: All patients were followed for a mean of 15.7±5.6 months (range, 6 to 35 months). The Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index scores showed a significant reduction in back pain (p = 0.018) and an improvement in lower extremity function (p = 0.025) in patients who underwent lumbar fusion using the novel screw. Intraoperative cement leakage occurred in four patients, but no neurological complications were observed. Radiological observation indicated no loosening or pulling out of the novel screw, and bone fusion was excellent. CONCLUSIONS: The described polymethylmethacrylate augmentation technique using bone cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screws can reduce pain and improve spinal dysfunction in osteoporotic patients undergoing osteoporotic spine surgery. .


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Salmonella typhi/drug effects , Ampicillin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , India , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/pharmacology
12.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-6, 2015. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950786

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is known to be a multidrug resistant opportunistic pathogen. Particularly, P. aeruginosa PAO1 polyphosphate kinase mutant (ppk1) is deficient in motility, quorum sensing, biofilm formation and virulence. FINDINGS: By using Phenotypic Microarrays (PM) we analyzed near 2000 phenotypes of P. aeruginosa PAO1 polyP kinase mutants (ppk1 and ppk2). We found that both ppk mutants shared most of the phenotypic changes and interestingly many of them related to susceptibility toward numerous and different type of antibiotics such as Ciprofloxacin, Chloramphenicol and Rifampicin. CONCLUSIONS: Combining the fact that ppk1 mutants have reduced virulence and are more susceptible to antibiotics, polyP synthesis and particularly PPK1, is a good target for the design of molecules with anti-virulence and anti-persistence properties.


Subject(s)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzymology , Phosphotransferases (Phosphate Group Acceptor)/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Microarray Analysis/methods , Mutation , Phenotype , Polyphosphates/metabolism , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/pathogenicity , Rifampin/pharmacology , Virulence/genetics , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Chloramphenicol/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
13.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 18(5): 512-517, Sep-Oct/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723083

ABSTRACT

Since antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens against current first line agents has affected the management of severe urinary tract infection, we determined the likelihood that antibiotic regimens achieve bactericidal pharmacodynamic exposures using Monte Carlo simulation for five antimicrobials (ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, piperacillin/tazobactam, ertapenem, and meropenem) commonly prescribed as initial empirical treatment of inpatients with severe community acquired urinary tract infections. Minimum inhibitory concentration determination by Etest was performed for 205 Brazilian community urinary tract infection Escherichia coli strains from 2008 to 2012 and 74 E. coli bloodstream strains recovered from a surveillance study. Pharmacodynamic exposure was modeled via a 5000 subject Monte Carlo simulation. All isolates were susceptible to ertapenem and meropenem. Piperacillin/tazobactam, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin showed 100%, 97.5% and 83.3% susceptibility among outpatient isolates and 98.6%, 75.7% and 64.3% among inpatient isolates, respectively. Against outpatient isolates, all drugs except ciprofloxacin (82.7% in aggressive and 77.6% in conservative scenarios) achieved high cumulative fraction of response: car-bapenems and piperacillin/tazobactam cumulative fraction of responses were close to 100%, and ceftriaxone cumulative fraction of response was 97.5%. Similar results were observed against inpatients isolates for carbapenems (100%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (98.4%), whereas ceftriaxone achieved only 76.9% bactericidal cumulative fraction of response and ciprofloxacin 61.9% (aggressive scenario) and 56.7% (conservative scenario) respectively. Based on this model, standard doses of beta-lactams were predicted to deliver sufficient pharmacodynamic exposure for outpatients. However, ceftriaxone should be avoided for inpatients and ciprofloxacin empirical prescription should be avoided in both inpatients and outpatients with complicated urinary tract infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics , Ceftriaxone/pharmacokinetics , Ceftriaxone/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacokinetics , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Escherichia coli Infections/drug therapy , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Monte Carlo Method , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Penicillanic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Penicillanic Acid/pharmacokinetics , Penicillanic Acid/pharmacology , Piperacillin/pharmacokinetics , Piperacillin/pharmacology , Pyelonephritis/microbiology , Severity of Illness Index , Thienamycins/pharmacokinetics , Thienamycins/pharmacology , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , beta-Lactams/pharmacokinetics , beta-Lactams/pharmacology
14.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(3): 197-200, May-Jun/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-710406

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Helicobacter pylori is a bacteria which infects half the world population and is an important cause of gastric cancer. The eradication therapy is not always effective because resistance to antimicrobials may occur. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility profile of H. pylori to amoxicillin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin in the population of Southern Brazil. Material and methods: Fifty four samples of H. pylori were evaluated. The antibiotics susceptibility was determined according to the guidelines of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and the Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie. Results: Six (11.1%) H. pylori isolates were resistant to clarithromycin, one (1.9%) to amoxicillin and three (5.5%) to ciprofloxacin. These indices of resistance are considered satisfactory and show that all of these antibiotics can be used in the empirical therapy. Conclusion: The antibiotics amoxicillin and clarithromycin are still a good option for first line anti-H. pylori treatment in the population of Southern Brazil.


Introdução: Helicobacter pylori é uma bactéria que infecta metade da população mundial e é considerada importante causa de câncer gástrico. A terapia de erradicação nem sempre é eficaz, pois pode ocorrer a resistência aos antimicrobianos. Este estudo determinou a sensibilidade de H. pylori frente à amoxicilina, claritromicina e ciprofloxacina na população do Sul do Brasil. Material e métodos: Foram avaliadas 54 amostras de H. pylori. A sensibilidade aos antibióticos foi determinada segundo as orientações da British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy e do Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie. Resultados e discussão: Sete (13%) isolados de H. pylori foram resistentes à claritromicina, um (1,9%) à amoxicilina e três (5,5%) à ciprofloxacina. Estes índices são satisfatórios e demonstram que esses antibióticos podem ser utilizados na terapia empírica. Conclusão: Os antibióticos amoxicilina e claritromicina ainda são uma boa opção no tratamento de primeira linha anti-H. pylori na população do Sul do Brasil.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Amoxicillin/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Clarithromycin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Helicobacter Infections/microbiology , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
15.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-163052

ABSTRACT

Aims: This study describes the potential of real-time bioluminescence imaging in evaluating the antibiotic efficiency of two cylinder-shaped bioabsorbable antibiotic-releasing composites by in vitro inhibition zone tests. The bacterial infections of bone tissue can cause extensive hard and soft tissue damage and decrease the efficiency of oral antibiotic therapy due to the poor blood circulation in the infected area. To overcome this problem, new, locally antibiotic-releasing biodegradable composites have been developed. Study Design & Methodology: The two composites evaluated in this study were composed of poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) matrix, β-tricalcium phosphate ceramic and either ciprofloxacin or rifampicin antibiotic. The composites were tested with genetically modified model pathogens of osteomyelitis (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis) in vitro in inhibition zone tests using a method of real-time bioluminescence. Results: The first signs of the effect of the released ciprofloxacin or rifampicin became visible after four hours of incubation and were seen as changed bioluminescence around the composite pellet on a culture dish. Both of the composite types showed excellent effects against the sensor bacteria within the diffusion area. Bioluminescence measurements suggested that no survivor bacteria capable of evolving resistant strains were left inside the inhibition zones. The S. epidermidis bacterial strain was an inhibition sensor and P. aeruginosa was a stress sensor. Conclusion: These results highlight the potential of the composite materials against the pathogens of osteomyelitis. The approach allows continuous visual inspection of the efficacy of the antibiotics against the bacteria


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer Techniques , Ciprofloxacin/administration & dosage , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Drug Resistance, Microbial , In Vitro Techniques , Luminescence/methods , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Rifampin/administration & dosage , Rifampin/pharmacology , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most important pathogens capable of colonization in burn patients, leading to drug-resistant wound infections. This study evaluated the distribution of the AdeABC efflux system genes and their relationship to ciprofloxacin resistance in A. baumannii isolates collected from burn patients. METHODS: A total of 68 A. baumannii clinical strains were isolated from patients hospitalized in Motahari Burns Center in Tehran, Iran. Ciprofloxacin susceptibility was tested by the disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. PCR amplification of the adeRS-adeB drug efflux genes was performed for all resistant and susceptible isolates. To assess the role of the drug efflux pump in ciprofloxacin susceptibility, carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) was used as an efflux pump inhibitor (EPI). RESULTS: Approximately 95.6% of the Acinetobacter isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 4 to > or =128 microg/mL. The susceptibility of 86.1% of the resistant isolates increased by factors of 2 to 64 in the presence of CCCP. All resistant isolates were positive for the adeRS-adeB genes, and 73.2% of them had mutations in the AdeRS regulatory system. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that AdeABC genes are common in A. baumannii, which might be associated with ciprofloxacin non-susceptibility, as indicated by the observed linkage to the presence of the genes essential for the activity of the AdeABC, several single mutations occurring in the adeRS regulatory system, and an increase of ciprofloxacin susceptibility in the presence of a CCCP EPI.


Subject(s)
ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/antagonists & inhibitors , Acinetobacter Infections/diagnosis , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Base Sequence , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Hydrazones/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mutation , Polymerase Chain Reaction
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 17(2): 125-130, Mar.-Apr. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-673188

ABSTRACT

Several studies have been conducted in recent years to elucidate the structure, function and significance of AcrB, MarA, SoxS and RamA in Salmonella enterica. In this study, the relative quantification of acrB, soxS, marA and ramA genes expression was evaluated in 14 strains of S. enterica, with or without accompanying mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA gene, that were exposed to ciprofloxacin during the exponential growth phase. The presence of ciprofloxacin during the log phase of bacterial growth activated the genes marA, soxS, ramA and acrB in all S. enterica strains analyzed in this study. The highest expression levels for acrB were observed in strains with gyrA mutation, and marA showed the highest expression in the strains without mutation. Considering only the strains with ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration values < 0.125 [1]g/mL (sensitive to ciprofloxacin), the most expressed gene in the strains both with and without mutations was acrB. In the strains with ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration values > 0.125 [1]g/mL (low susceptibility), with and without mutations in gyrA, the most expressed gene was marA. In this study, we observed that strains resistant to nalidixic acid may express genes associated with the efflux pump and the expression of the AcrAB-TolC pump genes seems to occur independently of mutations in gyrA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Genes, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Bacterial/genetics , Trans-Activators/genetics , Trans-Activators/metabolism
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 30(2): 135-139, abr. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-673994

ABSTRACT

Background: Campylobacter sp.- one of the leading causes of bacterial food-borne gastrointestinal illness worldwide- is increasingly resistant to fluoroquinolone and macrolide antimicrobials, which has become a major concern for public health. Objective: To describe the susceptibility patterns of Campylobacter jejuni strains to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin and to explore the origin of its resistance in human isolates. Material and Method: In this study, fifty-five ciprofloxacin and erythromycin susceptibility patterns of C. jejuni strains isolated from humans with diarrheal disease, performed by broth microdilution MIC, were compared with 55 and 44 isolates from chicken meat and bovines respectively, obtained from the Metropolitan Region, Chile. Results: Of the 55 human isolates of C. jejuni, 33 (60%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin and all were sensitive to erythromycin. Of the 55 isolates from chicken meat, 32 (58.2%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 1.8% were resistant to erythromycin. Of the 44 isolates of C. jejuni from cattle, 8 (18.2%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin and all were sensitive to erythromycin. Four PFGE patterns matched with certain resistance profiles and grouped isolates from human and animal. Conclusion: The findings showed continued effectiveness of erythromycin for campylobacteriosis and a high percentage of C. jejuni strains ciprofloxacin-resistant. This is interesting because it is considered that the presence of ciprofloxacin resistant strains in broiler meat can be in part the source of resistance to this antimicrobial in humans.


Introducción: El incremento de la resistencia en Campylobacter sp. (una de las principales causas de gastroenteritis bacteriana de origen alimentario) a fluoro-quinolonas y macrólidos, es un problema en salud pública. Objetivo: Conocer los patrones de susceptibilidad in vitro de Campylobacter jejuni a eritromicina y ciprofloxacina y conocer el origen de su resistencia en aislados de humanos. Material y Método: En este estudio, se compararon las susceptibilidades a ciprofloxacina y eritromicina -CIM efectuadas por microdilución en caldo- de 55 aislados de C. jejuni provenientes de humanos con enterocolitis, con 55 aislados de carne de pollo y 44 de bovinos obtenidos en la Región Metropolitana, Chile. Resultados: De 55 aislados de C. jejuni de humanos, 33(60%) presentaron resistencia a ciprofloxacina y todos presentaron susceptibilidad a eritromicina. De 55 aislados procedentes de carne de pollo, 32 (58,2%) presentaron resistencia a ciprofloxacina y un aislado resultó resistente a eritromicina (1,8%). De 44 aislados de bovinos, 8(18,2%) presentaron resistencia a ciprofloxacina y todos resultaron sensibles a eritromicina. Cuatro patrones de electroforesis a campo pulsado coincidieron en sus perfiles de resistencia y agruparon aislados de origen humano y animal. Conclusiones: Los resultados muestran que eritromicina continúa siendo efectiva para el tratamiento de la campilobacteriosis y que existe un alto porcentaje de cepas resistentes a ciprofloxacina. Se considera probable que la presencia de cepas resistentes a ciprofloxacina en la carne de pollo puede ser en parte el origen de la resistencia a este fármaco en humanos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Campylobacter jejuni/drug effects , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Erythromycin/pharmacology , Poultry/microbiology , Chickens , Chile , Campylobacter jejuni/genetics , Campylobacter jejuni/isolation & purification , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156323

ABSTRACT

Background. In the past, Neisseria gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to antimicrobial agents used for its treatment. Consequently, extended-spectrum cephalosporins form the mainstay of treatment for gonorrhoea. Methods. Samples from 88 patients attending the sexually transmitted diseases clinics from December 2009 to January 2011 in two referral hospitals in New Delhi were studied. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using the disc diffusion method as per the calibrated dichotomous sensitivity technique against the following antibiotics: penicillin (0.5 i.u.), tetracycline (10 μg), nalidixic acid (30 μg), ciprofloxacin (1 μg), spectinomycin (100 μg), ceftriaxone (0.5 μg) and cefpodoxime (10 μg) (Oxoid UK). Azithromycin (15 μg) (Oxoid, UK) was tested as per the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the Etest for penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, spectinomycin and azithromycin as per the manufacturer’s instruction (Biomerieux, France). Results. Eighteen isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were obtained. Three of these had decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone and cefpodoxime by the disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ceftriaxone for two isolates were 0.064 μg/ml and for one isolate it was 0.125 μg/ml. Conclusion. Higher minimum inhibitory concentrations to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is of concern as it has been shown to precede treatment failure. This may warrant its use in increased/multiple dosages alone or possibly in combination (dual therapy), thereby complicating effective disease control. Our report is in accordance with earlier reports from different parts of the world. Therefore, a continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is crucial to tailor treatment schedules for Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a particular geographical region.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Ceftizoxime/analogs & derivatives , Ceftizoxime/pharmacology , Ceftriaxone/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , India , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Nalidixic Acid/pharmacology , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/drug effects , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification , Penicillins/pharmacology , Spectinomycin/pharmacology , Tetracycline/pharmacology
20.
Assiut Medical Journal. 2013; 37 (2): 253-264
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-170216

ABSTRACT

Pseudoinonas aeruginosa [P. aeruginosa] represents a phenomenon of antibiotic resistance, and demonstrates practically all known mechanisms of bacterial resistance. Active efflux is an important mechanism of resistance in P. aeruginosa. It contributes to the development of multiple resistances to all strategic antipseudonional antibiotics. More than five hundred urine samples were collected from patients in Assiut University Hospital. Fifty P. aeruginosa isolates were identified by conventional methods. The antibiotic susceptihity testing of isolates showed that 68% of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 62% were resistant to levofloxacin. A comparison between the effect of three efflux pump inhibitors [Reserpine, Pantoprazole and Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone [CCCP]] on the activity of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin was done by measuring ability of these agents to potentiate effect of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin against resistant P. aeruginosa isolates. Outer membrane profile of P. aeruginosa isolates was also done using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis [SDS-PAGE]. Reserpine was able to potentiate effect of ciprofloxacin in 50% of isolates, and in 5.5% for levofloxacin. Pantoprazole results were 33.3% for ciprofloxacin, 16 7% for levofloxacin. Finally CCCP potentiate. Regarding the SDS-PAGE of P. aeruginosa isolates, all isolates produced proteins with apparent molecular masses in the range of 50-54kDa.Reserpine-ciprofloxacin proved to be the best combination against multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa. Over production of 50-54 KDa outer membrane proteins is responsible for emergence of P. aeruginosa strains highly resistant to fluoroquinolones in clinical settings


Subject(s)
Pseudomonas Infections/urine , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Levofloxacin/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology
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