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1.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 307-309, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986034

ABSTRACT

Malignant mesothelioma is a highly malignant disease that most often occurs in the pleural cavity, followed by the peritoneum and pericardium. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) accounts for 10%-15% of all mesothelioma. The most important risk factor for MPM is exposure to asbestos. MPM has no specific clinical symptoms, imaging and histopathology are critical for the diagnosis. There are currently no generally accepted guidelines for curative treatment of MPM. The patient mainly presented with abdominal pain, abdominal distension and discomfort. Due to extensive omentum metastasis, no further surgical treatment was performed. Pemetrexed combined with cisplatin chemotherapy was given for 2 cycles, and the patient is still alive.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mesothelioma, Malignant/drug therapy , Mesothelioma/diagnosis , Pemetrexed/therapeutic use , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Peritoneal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pleural Neoplasms , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy
2.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 52-58, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971179

ABSTRACT

As one of the most common malignant tumors, lung cancer poses a serious threat to human life and health. The platinum-based drug cisplatin (DDP) is used as the first-line treatment for lung cancer. The poor prognosis of lung cancer is mostly due to developed resistance to cisplatin, which poses a serious treatment challenge. The mechanism of cisplatin resistance is complex and unclear. Numerous studies have shown that DNA methylation plays a crucial role in the emergence of lung cancer cisplatin resistance. DNA hypermethylation results in the deactivation of numerous drug resistance genes and tumor suppressor genes through a change in chromatin conformation. Finding new therapeutic targets and indicators to predict the therapeutic effect can be aided by elucidating the complex mechanism. In order to discover novel strategies to overcome cisplatin resistance in lung cancer, this paper discusses DNA methylation-mediated cisplatin resistance and offers an overview of current demethylation procedures.
.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Cell Line, Tumor , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , DNA Methylation , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Lung Neoplasms/pathology
3.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 275-289, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982567

ABSTRACT

The abnormal activation of HER family kinase activity is closely related to the development of human malignancies. In this study, we used HER kinases as targets for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and explored the anti-tumor effects of the novel pan-HER inhibitor HM781-36B, alone or in combination with cisplatin. We found that HER family proteins were positively expressed in tumor tissues of some NPC patients, and the high levels of those proteins were significantly related to poor prognosis. HM781-36B inhibited NPC in vitro and in vivo. HM781-36B exerted synergistic effects with cisplatin on inhibiting proliferation and promoting apoptosis of NPC cells. In NPC xenograft models in nude mice, HM781-36B and cisplatin synergistically inhibited tumor growth. Downregulating the activity of HER family proteins and their downstream signaling pathways and regulating tumor microenvironment may explain the synergistic anti-tumor effects of HM781-36B and cisplatin. In conclusion, our study provides evidence for HER family proteins as prognostic biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for NPC. The pan-HER inhibitor HM781-36B alone or in combination with cisplatin represents promising therapeutic effects for the treatment of NPC patients, which provides a new idea for the comprehensive treatment of NPC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/drug therapy , Mice, Nude , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Tumor Microenvironment
4.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 7-13, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive disease arising from pleural mesothelial cells. Advanced pleural mesothelioma has a poor prognosis, with a median survival of no more than 15 months. First line standard chemotherapy regimen recommended is Pemetrexed based chemotherapy regimen, with or without bevacizumab. There is no consensus on whether patients who have received first-line standard chemotherapy can benefit from pemetrexed maintenance chemotherapy. The study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed maintenance therapy (PMT) after treatment with a pemetrexed and platinum regimen for patients with MPM.@*METHODS@#A total of 40 MPM patients were collected from Cancer Hospital Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from January 2013 to January 2018, eligible patients were unresectable MPM, without disease progression following 4 to 6 cycles of pemetrexed and platinum, including pemetrexed maintenance therapy group (22 cases) and observation group (18 cases). The last follow-up was conducted in January 2020. The primary endpoint were progression free survival (PFS), and the secondary end points were overall survival (OS), the efficacy, adverse reactions of PMT.@*RESULTS@#The median PFS in the PMT arm was longer than that in the observation arm (8.5 mon vs 3 mon, P=0.008), but there was no significant difference in median OS (26.4 mon vs 15.7 mon, P=0.177). Objective response rate (ORR) of two group were 22.7% and 0%, respectively. The grade 3-4 toxicity in PMT group included grade 4 neutropenia in 1 patient (4.5%), grade 3 neutropenia in 1 patient (4.5%), grade 4 anemia in 1 patient (4.5%) and grade 3 nausea and anorexia in 1 patient (4.5%).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Pemetrexed maintenance therapy following initial pemetrexed and platinum chemotherapy improve PFS in patients with MPM, and is well tolerated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Mesothelioma/drug therapy , Mesothelioma, Malignant , Neutropenia , Pemetrexed/therapeutic use , Platinum/therapeutic use , Pleural Neoplasms/drug therapy
5.
Biol. Res ; 54: 22-22, 2021. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505813

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Accumulated evidence demonstrates cisplatin, a recommended chemotherapy, modulating pro-survival autophagic response that contributes to treatment failure in lung cancer patients. However, distinct mechanisms involved in cisplatin-induced autophagy in human lung cancer cells are still unclear. RESULTS: Herein, role of autophagy in cisplatin resistance was indicated by a decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis in lung cancer H460 cells pre-incubated with wortmannin, an autophagy inhibitor, prior to treatment with 50 µM cisplatin for 24 h. The elevated level of hydroxyl radicals detected via flow-cytometry corresponded to autophagic response, as evidenced by the formation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in cisplatin-treated cells. Interestingly, apoptosis resistance, autophagosome formation, and the alteration of the autophagic markers, LC3-II/LC3-I and p62, as well as autophagy-regulating proteins Atg7 and Atg3, induced by cisplatin was abrogated by pretreatment of H460 cells with deferoxamine, a specific hydroxyl radical scavenger. The modulations in autophagic response were also indicated in the cells treated with hydroxyl radicals generated via Fenton reaction, and likewise inhibited by pretreatment with deferoxamine. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the possible role of hydroxyl radicals as a key mediator in the autophagic response to cisplatin treatment, which was firstly revealed in this study would benefit for the further development of novel therapies for lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Autophagy , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Cisplatin/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Hydroxyl Radical/therapeutic use , Hydroxyl Radical/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Cell Line, Tumor
6.
West Indian med. j ; 69(3): 148-153, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341890

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The concomitant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocations in lung adenocancers are very rare scenarios. Until now, 42 cases described in the literature have all been treated by different drugs. There is no overall consensus regarding the treatment for this adenocarcinoma subgroup. We report here a case of lung adenocarcinoma with concomitant EGFR mutation in exon 21 (L858R) and ALK rearrangement in primary tumour, EGFR mutation in exon 21 (L858R) and no ALK rearrangement in its synchronous metastasis. We treated this patient with crizotinib as the second-line therapy (after the first line docetaxel-cisplatin chemotherapy), but no response was obtained. The therapeutic choice for the lung adenocancer patients with concomitant EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement is unclear. Examination of c-ros oncogene 1 mutation can be used as an indicator in the prediction of the crizotinib treatment success. The ALK mutation may not responsible for the resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), and EGFR-TKI can be initiated to EGFR and ALK dual mutant patients as the first treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Genes, erbB-1/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Exons/genetics , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Docetaxel/therapeutic use , Crizotinib/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 977-983, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942997

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of radical radiotherapy combined with different chemotherapy regimens (fluorouracil-based versus docetaxel plus cisplatin) on the incidence of radiation intestinal injury and the prognosis in patients with non-metastatic anal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to recruit non-metastatic anal squamous cell carcinoma patients who underwent chemoradiotherapy in the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University and Nanfang Hospital from July 2013 to January 2021. Inclusion criteria: (1) newly diagnosed anal and perianal squamous cell carcinoma; (2) completed radical radiotherapy combined with concurrent chemotherapy; (3) tumor could be evaluated before radiotherapy. Exclusion criteria: (1) no imaging evaluation before treatment, or the tumor stage could not be determined; (2) patients undergoing local or radical resection before radiotherapy; (3) distant metastasis occurred before or during treatment; (4) recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma. A total of 55 patients (48 from the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University and 7 from Nanfang Hospital) were given fluorouracil (the 5-FU group, n=34) or docetaxel combined with the cisplatin (the TP group, n=21). The evaluation of radiation intestinal injury, hematological toxicity and 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate were compared between the two groups. The effects of chemotherapy regimen and other clinicopathological factors on the incidence and severity of acute and chronic radiation intestinal injury were analyzed. The assessment of radiation intestinal injury was based on the American Cancer Radiotherapy Cooperation Group (RTOG) criteria. Results: During radiotherapy and within 3 months after radiotherapy, a total of 45 patients developed acute radiation intestinal injury, including 18 cases of grade 1 (32.7%), 22 cases of grade 2 (40.0%) and 5 cases of grade 3 (9.1%). No patient developed chronic radiation intestinal injury. Among the 34 patients in the 5-FU group, 21 had grade 2-3 radiation intestinal injury (21/34, 61.8%), which was significantly higher than that in the TP group (6/21, 28.6%) (χ(2)=5.723, P=0.017). Multivariate analysis showed that 5-FU chemotherapy regimen was an independent risk factor for radiation intestinal injury (HR=4.038, 95% CI: 1.250-13.045, P=0.020). With a median follow-up period of 26 (5-94) months, the 3-year DFS rate of patients in TP group and 5-FU group was 66.8% and 77.9%, respectively, whose difference was not significant (P=0.478). Univariate analysis showed that the DFS rate was associated with sex, age, tumor location, T stage, N stage, and induction chemotherapy (all P<0.05), while the DFS rate was not associated with chemotherapy regimen or radiation intestinal injury (both P>0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that age ≥ 50 years old was an independent risk factor affecting the prognosis of patients (HR=8.301, 95% CI: 1.130-60.996, P=0.038). Conclusions: For patients with non-metastatic anal squamous cell carcinoma, radical radiotherapy combined with TP chemotherapy regimen can significantly reduce the incidence of radiation intestinal injury as compared to 5-FU regimen. However, due to the short follow-up time, the effect of different chemotherapy regimens on the prognosis is not yet clear.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Anus Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/radiotherapy , Chemoradiotherapy , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Fluorouracil/therapeutic use , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Retrospective Studies
8.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 24(2): 88-91, abr.-jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144325

ABSTRACT

Resumen El carcinoma de célula pequeña (CPCP) o microcítico de pulmón es un subtipo de cáncer de pulmón que típicamente se ha asociado al tabaquismo y que se caracteriza por su agresividad y mal pronóstico a corto plazo. Como entidad, puede metastatizar en cualquier órgano, siendo las metástasis pancreáticas raras y la mayoría de las veces asintomáticas. Por ello, la presencia de una pancreatitis neoplásica, como en el caso presentado, es excepcional, y aún más cuando presenta refractariedad al tratamiento médico convencional y responde al tratamiento citotóxico sistémico. Por todo ello, se expone esta experiencia clínica y se debate la presencia de esta rara entidad y su manejo.


Abstract Small-cell lung carcinoma is a subtype of neoplasm that has been typically associated with smoking; it is characterized by its aggressiveness and poor prognosis in the short term. As an entity, it can metastasize in any organ, but pancreatic metastases are rare and most of the time asymptomatic. Therefore, the presence of neoplastic pancreatitis as in our case is exceptional; even more when it presents refractoriness to conventional medical treatment, responding instead to systemic cytotoxic treatment. Therefore, we expose our clinical experience and discuss the presence of this rare entity and its management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pancreatic Neoplasms/secondary , Pancreatitis/etiology , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Acute Disease , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Etoposide/therapeutic use , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/drug therapy , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
9.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 47-52, Jan.-Mar. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090559

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Cisplatin damages the auditory system and is related to the generation of free radicals. Glutathione peroxidase is an endogenous free radicals remover. Objective To investigate the mechanisms involved in otoprotection by N-acetylcys- teine through the expression of glutathione peroxidase in outer hair cells from rats treated with cisplatin. Methods Male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with cisplatin (8 mg/Kg) and/or received oral administration by gavage of N-acetylcysteine (300 mg/Kg) for 3 consecutive days. On the 4th day, the animals were euthanized and beheaded. The tympanic bullae were removed and prepared for scanning electron microscopy and Results Among the groups exposed to ototoxic doses of cisplatin, there was an increase in glutathione peroxidase immunostaining in two groups, the one exposed to cisplatin alone, and the group exposed to both cisplatin and N-acetylcysteine. Conclusion The expression of glutathione peroxidase in the outer hair cells of rats exposed to cisplatin showed the synthesis of this enzyme under cellular toxicity conditions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Free Radical Scavengers/therapeutic use , Cisplatin/toxicity , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents/toxicity , Acetylcysteine/metabolism , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Cochlea/anatomy & histology , Cochlea/drug effects , Free Radicals , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/prevention & control
10.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 1412-1418, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880600

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To observe the efficacy and adverse reactions of the combination of endostar with chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced (IVb) and recurrent metastatic cervical cancer.@*METHODS@#Forty-four patients with recurrent and metastatic cervical cancer, who were admitted to the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University from December 2016 to December 2018 were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group (22 cases in each group). The control group was given gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GP) or docetaxel plus cisplatin (DP) treatment, the experimental group was treated with endostar on the basis of the control group.@*RESULTS@#The objective response rate (ORR) was 42.9% in the experimental group and 22.7% in the control group. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with chemotherapy alone, endostar combined with chemotherapy can prolong the median progression-free survival, with higher ORR and similar adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Endostatins , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Recombinant Proteins , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
11.
Lima; IETSI; 2019.
Non-conventional in Spanish | BRISA, LILACS | ID: biblio-1116900

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El cáncer de pulmón (CP) es uno de los tumores más frecuentes en el mundo. Se clasifica en dos grupos, siendo el subgrupo de CP de células no pequeñas (CPCNP) el más frecuente (80 %). A su vez, el CPCNP se subdivide en el subtipo escamoso y el no escamoso. El adenocarcinoma de pulmón es el subtipo histológico de CPCNP no escamoso más frecuente (40 % de todos los casos de CP) y tiene como tratamiento sistémico de elección a la quimioterapia en doblete basado en platino (QT-P), cuando las células tumorales no cuentan con las mutaciones EGFR y ALK (EGFR- y ALK-). El Petitorio Farmacológico de EsSalud cuenta con diferentes esquemas de QT-P (combinación de un agente quimioterapéutico, tales como docetaxel, gemcitabina, paclitaxel o pemetrexed, con un platino [cisplatino o carboplatino]) como tratamiento de primera línea de los pacientes con adenocarcinoma de pulmón metastásico, EGFR- y ALK-. Como alternativa terapéutica, los especialistas han sugerido la evaluación del uso combinado de pembrolizumab y QT-P, sustentado que dicha combinación podría ofrecer un beneficio adicional al uso de la QT-P sola. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la mejor evidencia científica disponible a la fecha sobre la eficacia y seguridad del uso combinado de pembrolizumab + QT-P, en comparación con el placebo + QT-P, para los pacientes adultos con adenocarcinoma de pulmón metastásico, EGFR- y ALK-. TECNOLOGÍA SANITARIA DE INTERÉS: Pembrolizumab: Pembrolizumab ha sido descrito ampliamente en dos dictámenes previos (Dictamen Preliminar de Evaluación de Tecnología Sanitaria Nº 025-SDEPFyOTS-DETS-IETSI-2017 y N° 059-SDEPFyOTS-DETS-IETSI-2017). En breve, pembrolizumab es un anticuerpo monoclonal tipo IgG que se une al receptor de muerte programada PD-1, lo cual bloquea la interacción de dicho receptor con sus ligandos PD-L1 y PD-L2, y, así, promueve la actividad antitumoral de los linfocitos T. METODOLOGÍA: Se llevó a cabo una búsqueda bibliográfica exhaustiva y jerárquica de la literatura con respecto a la eficacia y seguridad del pembrolizumab asociado a la QT-P, comparado con QT-P asociado a placebo, en pacientes con adenocarcinoma de pulmón metastásico, con EGFR negativo y ALK negativo. La búsqueda se inició revisando la información sobre el uso del medicamento de acuerdo con entidades reguladoras como FDA, EMA, y DIGEMID en el Perú. RESULTADOS: Se llevó a cabo una búsqueda de evidencia científica relacionada al uso de pembrolizumab + QT-P, comparado con placebo + QT-P, como tratamiento de primera línea de pacientes con adenocarcinoma de pulmón metastásico, EGFR- y ALK-. En la presente sinopsis se describe la evidencia disponible según el tipo de publicación, siguiendo lo indicado en los criterios de elegibilidad (GPC, ETS, RS, MA y ECA fase III). CONCLUSIONES: La evidencia principal que responde a la pregunta PICO establecida en el presente dictamen proviene del ECA de fase III KEYNOTE-189, el cual es un estudio doble ciego, multicéntrico, y financiado por el fabricante de pembrolizumab, Merck & Co., Inc., que evaluó la eficacia y seguridad de pembrolizumab + pemetrexed/platino (QT-P) comparado con placebo + pemetrexed/platino, en pacientes con CPCNP no escamoso, EGFR- y ALK-, que no hayan recibido ninguna terapia sistémica para la enfermedad metastásica. Con la evidencia disponible a la fecha procedente del ECA KEYNOTE-189, la cual corresponde a un análisis preliminar, luego de una mediana de 10.5 meses de seguimiento, con una madurez de la data de mortalidad al 55 %, no es posible determinar un beneficio neto con pembrolizumab + QT-P, en comparación con placebo + QT-P, con respecto a desenlaces clínicamente relevantes como la calidad de vida o la SG. Esto debido a que, luego de la corrección por sobrestimación, no se detectaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la SG ni en la SLP entre los grupos de tratamiento. Asimismo, hubo confusores fuertes en el análisis de SG, como consecuencia de desbalances en la aleatorización que se tradujo en diferencias en las características basales entre los grupos de tratamiento. También hubo un alto cruzamiento entre los grupos de tratamiento, con diferencias considerables en la elección de los esquemas de terapia subsecuente luego de progresión tumoral. Los resultados de seguridad del ECA KEYNOTE-189 no mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos de tratamiento en las tasas de EA totales, EA serios, EA fatales y EA severos. Sin embargo, se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la tasa de descontinuación del tratamiento por EA y en la proporción de pacientes que presentaron el EA serio neutropenia febril, con resultados desfavorables para el grupo pembrolizumab + QT-P. Por lo tanto, la evidencia disponible a la fecha indicaría que el uso de pembrolizumab + QT-P tendría un perfil de seguridad desfavorable en comparación con el uso de placebo + QT-P en la población de la pregunta PICO. Con todo ello, existe incertidumbre respecto al balance riesgo beneficio entre el uso combinado de pembrolizumab + QT-P, en comparación con placebo + QT-P, en el tratamiento de pacientes de la población PICO de interés para el presente dictamen. A ello se le suma el alto costo del medicamento (aproximadamente, S/ 378,436.80 anuales por paciente), por lo que su aprobación no sería una decisión costooportuna para un sistema público de salud como es EsSalud. Asimismo, actualmente se encuentra disponible en la institución la QT-P como alternativa de tratamiento, la cual también es recomendada en las GPC internacionales. Por lo expuesto, el Instituto de Evaluaciones de Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación ­ IETSI no aprueba el uso de pembrolizumab + QT-P para el tratamiento de primera línea de los pacientes adultos con adenocarcinoma de pulmón metastásico, EGFR- y ALK-.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/drug therapy , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Health Evaluation , Cost-Benefit Analysis
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5231-5239, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008388

ABSTRACT

The wide application of artemisinins in the treatment of multiple cancers reflects the advantages of traditional Chinese medicine used in this field. The existing basic and clinical studies have revealed that artesunate can effectively suppress the malignant progression of breast cancer,colon cancer,leukemia,melanoma,ovarian cancer,prostate cancer,kidney cancer and various tumors in central nervous system. The pharmacological mechanisms of artesunate against cancers are reflected in many aspects,such as inhibiting tumor cell proliferation,invasion and metastasis,inducing tumor cell apoptosis and autophagy,regulating cell signal transduction and inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. Meanwhile,growing experimental evidences have indicated that artesunate has been used for the sensitization of radiotherapy with X-ray,β-ray,γ-ray and~(60)Co γ-ray,as well as chemotherapy with cisplatin,carboplatin and doxorubicin.This review collected basic and clinical studies on the sensitization effect of artesunate on anti-cancer radiotherapy and chemotherapy published on PubMed and CNKI during April 2000 and February 2019,and summarized the clinical positioning and application of artesunate,with the aim to provide a more comprehensive explanation on the sensitization effect of artesunate on anti-cancer radiotherapy and chemotherapy,and offer the inspiration and ideas for the development of radiotherapy and chemotherapy sensitizers,as well as cancer resistance reversal agents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Artesunate/therapeutic use , Carboplatin/therapeutic use , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Doxorubicin/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents/therapeutic use
13.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180716, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055372

ABSTRACT

Abstract In a recent study, the treatment of different human cancer cell lines in vitro with ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) showed a promising anticancer activity which could be a novel promising approach for cancer treatment. The aim of this study is to address the ability of EDTA to enhance the antitumor efficacy of the low dose of cisplatin (Cis) treatment in Ehrlich ascetic carcinoma (EAC) bearing mice. Sixty female albino mice were divided into six groups. The 1st group of mice was served as a negative control. 2nd - 6th groups were inoculated intraperitoneal (i.p) with 2×106 EAC cells/mouse. After one day of inoculation, the 2nd, 3rd and 4th groups were injected daily for 6 days (early treatment) with phosphate buffer saline, low dose of Cis and Cis/EDTA, respectively. After six days, the 5th and 6th groups were injected with the low dose of Cis and Cis/EDTA for 6 consecutive days (late treatment), respectively. At day 14, all groups of mice were sacrificed, sera were collected for biochemical assessment, then tumor volumes, counts, live and dead cells were determined from all groups. The results showed that EDTA co-treatment enhanced the efficacy of low dose of Cis at early and late time points. In addition, EDTA co-treatment potentially ameliorated the Cis-induced side effects on liver and kidney functions. In summary, co-therapy with EDTA could enhance the chemotherapeutic efficacy of low dose of Cis.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor/drug therapy , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Edetic Acid/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome , Models, Animal , Mice , Antineoplastic Agents
15.
ABCD (São Paulo, Impr.) ; 31(4): e1405, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973362

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasia that requires a multidisciplinary treatment in which survival and prognosis are still not satisfactory. The complete pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy is considered a good prognosis factor, and esophagectomy is indicated. Aim: Survival analysis of cases with pathologic complete response (ypT0 ypN0) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, submmitted to esophagectomy. Methods: Between 1983-2014, 222 esophagectomies were performed, and 177 were conducted to neoadjuvant treatment. In 34 patients the pathologic response was considered complete. Medical records of the patients were retrospectively reviewed regarding type of chemotherapy applied, amount of radiotherapy, interval between the neoadjuvant therapy and the surgery, body mass index; postoperative complications; hospital admission time and survival. Results: The average age was 55.8 years. Twenty-five patients were subjected to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and nine to neoadjuvant radiotherapy. The total radiation dose ranged from 4400 until 5400 cGy. The chemotherapy was performed with 5FU, cisplatin, and carbotaxol, concomitantly with the radiotherapy. The esophagectomy was transmediastinal, followed by the cervical esophagogastroplasty performed on a average of 49.4 days after the neoadjuvant therapy. The hospital admission time was an average of 14.8 days. During the follow-up period, 52% of the patients submitted to radiotherapy and chemotherapy were disease-free, with 23.6% of them presenting more than five years survival. Conclusions: The neoadjuvant treatment followed by esophagectomy in patients with pathologic complete response is beneficial for the survival of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.


RESUMO Racional: O carcinoma epidermoide do esôfago é neoplasia de natureza agressiva, que requer tratamento multidisciplinar e tem taxas de sobrevida e prognóstico ainda não satisfatórios. A resposta patológica completa à neoadjuvância com quimioterapia e radioterapia é considerada fator de bom prognóstico e a esofagectomia está indicada. Objetivo: Análise de sobrevida dos casos com resposta patológica completa (ypT0 ypN0) à neoadjuvância com quimioterapia e/ou radioterapia, submetidos à esofagectomia. Métodos: Entre 1983-2014, 222 esofagectomias foram realizadas e 177 foram submetidas ao tratamento neoadjuvante. Em 34 pacientes, a resposta patológica foi considerada completa. Os prontuários dos pacientes foram revisados retrospectivamente quanto ao tipo de quimioterapia aplicada, quantidade de radioterapia, intervalo entre a terapia neoadjuvante e a operação, índice de massa corporal (IMC), complicações pós-operatórias, tempo de internação hospitalar e sobrevida. Resultados: A idade média foi de 55,8 anos. Vinte e cinco pacientes foram submetidos a quimioterapia e radioterapia e nove à radioterapia neoadjuvante. A dose total de radiação variou de 4400 até 5400 cGy. A quimioterapia foi realizada com 5FU, cisplatina e carbotaxol, concomitantemente à radioterapia. A esofagectomia foi transmediastinal, seguida da esofagogastroplastia cervical realizada em média 49,4 dias após a terapia neoadjuvante. O tempo de internação hospitalar foi em média de 14,8 dias. Durante o período de seguimento, 52% dos pacientes submetidos a radioterapia e quimioterapia estavam livres de doença, com 23,6% apresentando sobrevida maior que cinco anos. Conclusão: O tratamento neoadjuvante seguido de esofagectomia, nos pacientes com resposta patológica completa, oferece benefícios na sobrevida de portadores de carcinoma epidermoide do esôfago.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Esophageal Neoplasms/mortality , Esophageal Neoplasms/therapy , Esophagectomy/mortality , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/mortality , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/therapy , Time Factors , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Disease-Free Survival , Neoadjuvant Therapy/mortality , Chemoradiotherapy/mortality , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/pathology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
16.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 51-56, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742505

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: 14-3-3ζ regulates cell signaling, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis, and its overexpression is associated with disease recurrence and poor clinical outcomes in some solid tumors. However, its clinicopathological role in ovarian cancer is unknown. Our goal was to investigate whether 14-3-3ζ is associated with ovarian cancer prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined 14-3-3ζ expression by immunohistochemistry in ovarian cancer tissues obtained from 88 ovarian cancer patients. The examined tissues were of various histologies and stages. 14-3-3ζ expression was also analyzed by western blot in seven ovarian cancer cell lines and a primary ovary epithelial cell line. Cell viability was measured using an MTS-based assay following cisplatin treatment. RESULTS: Among the ovarian cancer samples, 53.4% (47/88) showed high 14-3-3ζ expression, and 14-3-3ζ overexpression was positively correlated with more advanced pathologic stages and grades. 14-3-3ζ overexpression was also significantly associated with poor disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) of ovarian cancer patients. Median DFS and OS were 1088 and 3905 days, respectively, in the high 14-3-3ζ expression group, but not reached in the low 14-3-3ζ expression group (p=0.004 and p=0.033, log-rank test, respectively). Downregulating 14-3-3ζ by RNA interference in ovarian cancer cells led to enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin-induced cell death. CONCLUSION: 14-3-3ζ overexpression might be a potential prognostic biomarker for ovarian cancer, and the inhibition of 14-3-3ζ could be a therapeutic option that enhances the antitumor activity of cisplatin.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , 14-3-3 Proteins/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Disease-Free Survival , Down-Regulation , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Gene Silencing , Immunohistochemistry , Ovarian Neoplasms/drug therapy , Ovarian Neoplasms/metabolism , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis
17.
Clinics ; 73(supl.1): e478s, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952835

ABSTRACT

The main goal of chemotherapeutic drugs is to induce massive cell death in tumors. Cisplatin is an antitumor drug widely used to treat several types of cancer. Despite its remarkable efficiency, most tumors show intrinsic or acquired drug resistance. The primary biological target of cisplatin is genomic DNA, and it causes a plethora of DNA lesions that block transcription and replication. These cisplatin-induced DNA lesions strongly induce cell death if they are not properly repaired or processed. To counteract cisplatin-induced DNA damage, cells use an intricate network of mechanisms, including DNA damage repair and translesion synthesis. In this review, we describe how cisplatin-induced DNA lesions are repaired or tolerated by cells and focus on the pivotal role of DNA repair and tolerance mechanisms in tumor resistance to cisplatin. In fact, several recent clinical findings have correlated the tumor cell status of DNA repair/translesion synthesis with patient response to cisplatin treatment. Furthermore, these mechanisms provide interesting targets for pharmacological modulation that can increase the efficiency of cisplatin chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA Damage/genetics , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , DNA Repair/genetics , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , DNA Damage/drug effects
18.
Rev. ciênc. méd., (Campinas) ; 26(1): 37-40, 9 nov. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-875994

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present report is to alert health care workers about a 64­year­old patient diagnosed with adenocarcinoma in the right lung treated with pemetrexed disodium, cisplatin and dexamethasone. He evolved with prolonged neutropenia, symptoms of lower airways infection, and recent pulmonary infiltrate in the radiographic image. The cultures for bacteria and mycobacteria in the blood and sputum were negative. Because of the lack of response to treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics and maintenance of neutropenia, a transbronchial biopsy was performed, which demonstrated infection by Aspergillus fumigatus. The patient was treated.


O objetivo do presente relato é alertar os profissionais de saúde sobre o caso de um paciente de 64 anos de idade com diagnóstico de adenocarcinoma no pulmão direito tratado com pemetrexede dissódico, cisplatina e dexametasona. Ele evoluiu com neutropenia prolongada, sintomas de infecção de vias aéreas inferiores e infiltrado pulmonar recente na imagem radiográfica. As culturas para bactérias e micobactérias no sangue e escarro foram negativas. Por falha na resposta ao tratamento com antibióticos de largo espectro e manutenção da neutropenia, foi realizada biópsia transbrônquica que demonstrou infecção por Aspergillus fumigatus e o paciente foi tratado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aspergillus , Immunosuppression Therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Neutropenia , Pneumonia , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Adenocarcinoma , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Pemetrexed/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms
19.
Rev. chil. cir ; 68(5): 355-362, oct. 2016. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-797352

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Reportar resultados de nuestro protocolo de radioquimioterapia concomitante exclusiva en el cáncer de orofaringe avanzado. Materiales y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo que incluyó 87 pacientes. Se realizó radioterapia concomitante con cisplatino semanal. Se aceptó la realización de fraccionamiento convencional (FC), hiperfraccionamiento (Hfx) o fraccionamiento acelerado tipo boost concomitante (FABC). Se revisó la sobrevida global (SG), sobrevida libre de enfermedad (SLE), sobrevida libre de recidiva local (SLRL) y regional (SLRR) según subsitio y fraccionamiento. Resultados: Ingresaron 87 pacientes. Mediana de seguimiento: 120 meses. El 53, 30 y 17% recibieron FC, FABC y Hfx respectivamente. La SG a 2, 5 y 10 años fue de un 73, 61 y 43% respectivamente. La SG a 5 años según subsitio anatómico fue: amígdala 74%, paladar blando 33%, base de lengua 33%, y pared faríngea posterior 33%. Al comparar la SG de amígdala versus otros subsitios se alcanza una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p < 0,001). La mediana de SG para amígdala no fue alcanzada, mientras que en otros subsitios fue de 22 meses. La SLE fue diferente en los distintos subsitios, superior en amígdala y diferente entre los distintos fraccionamientos, a favor de Hfx, alcanzando diferencias significativas. Las mismas tendencias se demostraron en SLRL y SLRR. Observamos un 23% de segundos primarios, siendo el pulmón el sitio más frecuente. Conclusión: La radioterapia concomitante con cisplatino semanal es un tratamiento adecuado para el cáncer de orofaringe. Ofrece excelentes resultados en cáncer de amígdala, especialmente con fraccionamiento modificado. Para los otros subsitios nos parece recomendable explorar nuevas estrategias de tratamiento.


Objective: To report results of our concomitant radiochemotherapy protocol for advanced oropharyngeal cancer. Materials and methods: Retrospective study. Concomitant radiochemotherapy was performed with weekly cisplatin. Conventional fractionation (CF), hyperfractionation (Hfx) or accelerated fractionation with concomitant boost (FABC) were accepted. Overall survival (OS), Disease-free survival (RFS), Local relapse-free survival (LRFS) and Regional relapse-free survival (RRFS) were calculated, according subsite and radiotherapy fractionation. Results: We found 87 patients. Median follow-up: 120 months. 53%, 30% and 17% received FC, FABC, Hfx respectively. OS at 2, 5 and 10 years was 73%, 61% and 43% respectively. The 5-year OS was, by anatomic subsite: Tonsillar 74%, 33% soft palate, base of tongue 33%, and 33% for posterior pharyngeal wall. By comparing the OS in tonsil versus other subsites we found statistically significant difference in favor of tonsillar cancer (P < .001). Median OS for tonsillar cancer was not achieved, while in other subsites was 22 months. DFS was different in different subsites, better for amygdala and different among different fractionations, better for Hfx, reaching significant differences. The same trends were demonstrated in LRFS and RRFS. We observed a 23% of second cancers, being lung the most common site. Conclusion: Concomitant radiotherapy with weekly cisplatin is an appropriate treatment for oropharyngeal cancer. It provides excellent outcomes in tonsillar cancer, especially with modified fractionation and Hfx type. For other subsites it seems advisable to explore a new treatment approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/radiotherapy , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Dose Fractionation, Radiation , Radiotherapy/adverse effects , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Survival Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated/methods
20.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(5): 942-954, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796874

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The present study describes the histopathological and molecular effects of P-MAPA (Protein aggregate magnesium-ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride) intravesical immunotherapy combined with systemic doxorubicin or cisplatin for treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) in an appropriate animal model. Our results showed an undifferentiated tumor, characterizing a tumor invading mucosa or submucosa of the bladder wall (pT1) and papillary carcinoma in situ (pTa) in the Cancer group. The histopathological changes were similar between the combined treatment with intravesical P-MAPA plus systemic Cisplatin and P-MAPA immunotherapy alone, showing decrease of urothelial neoplastic lesions progression and histopathological recovery in 80% of the animals. The animals treated systemically with cisplatin or doxorubicin singly, showed 100% of malignant lesions in the urinary bladder. Furthemore, the combined treatment with P-MAPA and Doxorubicin showed no decrease of urothelial neoplastic lesions progression and histopathological recovery. Furthermore, Akt, PI3K, NF-kB and VEGF protein levels were significantly lower in intravesical P-MAPA plus systemic cisplatin and in intravesical P-MAPA alone treatments than other groups. In contrast, PTEN protein levels were significantly higher in intravesical P-MAPA plus systemic cisplatin and in intravesical P-MAPA alone treatments. Thus, it could be concluded that combination of intravesical P-MAPA immunotherapy and systemic cisplatin in the NMIBC animal model was effective, well tolerated and showed no apparent signs of antagonism between the drugs. In addition, intravesical P-MAPA immunotherapy may be considered as a valuable option for treatment of BCG unresponsive patients that unmet the criteria for early cystectomy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/therapy , Carcinoma/therapy , Doxorubicin/therapeutic use , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/methods , Membrane Proteins/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Rats, Inbred F344 , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Administration, Intravesical , BCG Vaccine , Carcinoma/pathology , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , NF-kappa B/analysis , Treatment Outcome , Combined Modality Therapy , Disease Progression , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/analysis , Models, Animal , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , PTEN Phosphohydrolase/analysis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/analysis
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