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1.
RFO UPF ; 28(1): 78-85, 20230808. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1509414

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a resistência de união do cimento Biodentine® à dentina radicular após a utilização de diferentes irrigantes finais. Método: Vinte dentes humanos extraídos tiveram seu terço médio radicular cortado em fatias que foram submersas em hipoclorito de sódio 2,5% e posteriormente divididas aleatoriamente em 4 grupos experimentais (n=15) conforme o irrigante final utilizado (1) água destilada (controle), (2) QMixTM, (3) ácido cítrico 10%, (4) EDTA 17%. Após a imersão na substância teste as amostras foram preenchidas com o cimento Biodentine e imersas em solução salina tamponada com fosfato (PBS) por um período de 7 dias. O teste de push out foi realizado e os valores de resistência de união em Mpa foram obtidos. Os dados foram analisados pelos testes de Kruskal Wallis e Studend- Newman-Keuls. Resultados: Os piores valores de união foram obtidos após a utilização do EDTA enquanto a água destilada, o QMix e o ácido cítrico apresentaram resultados estatisticamente semelhantes entre si. Conclusão: A remoção da smear layer não resultou em melhora nos resultados de união do cimento Biodentine.(AU)


Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the bond strength of Biodentine® cement to root dentin after the use of different final irrigants. Method: Twenty extracted human teeth had their middle root third cut into slices that were submerged in 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and then randomly divided into 4 experimental groups (n=15) according to the final irrigant used (1) distilled water (control), (2) QMixTM, (3) 10% citric acid, (4) 17% EDTA. After immersion in the test substance the samples were filled with Biodentine cement and immersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for a period of 7 days. The push out test was performed and the bond strength values in MPa were obtained. The data were analyzed by Kruskal Wallis and Studend- Newman-Keuls tests. Results: The worst bond values were obtained after using EDTA while distilled water, QMix and citric acid showed statistically similar results to each other. Conclusion: Removal of the smear layer did not result in improved bonding results of Biodentine cement.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Cementation/methods , Silicates/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Materials Testing , Distilled Water , Edetic Acid/chemistry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Citric Acid/chemistry
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246568, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278537

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fishmeal; being a limited and costly feed ingredient is continuously been substituted with locally available plant proteins. However, the occurrence of anti-nutritional factors in plant meal suppresses its potential to be fully replaced. Therefore, in this study we aimed to study the synergistic effects of dietary additives like citric acid and phytase enzyme supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. Canola meal (CM) was used as a test ingredient to replace fishmeal (FM) as; 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%. These four diets were further supplemented by varying levels of phytase (0 and 750 FTU kg-1) and citric acid (0% and 2.5%) to formulate total sixteen test diets as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 and T16. Each treatment contained three replicates; applied to fish groups having 15 fingerlings each; following 3×3 factorial arrangement. 1% of chromic oxide was added as an inert marker. Maximum weight gain% (288%) and the lowest value of FCR (1.07) were recorded when fish was fed on diet T12 as compared to fish fed control diet (T1). Similarly, optimum nutrient digestibility values such as crude protein (77%), crude fat (84%) and gross energy (70%) were noted on same level. It was concluded that 50% canola meal can optimally replace fishmeal when supplemented with phytase and citric acid at the levels of 750 FTU kg-1 and 2.5%, respectively.


Resumo A farinha de peixe, por ser um ingrediente alimentar limitado e caro, é continuamente substituída por proteínas vegetais disponíveis localmente. No entanto, a ocorrência de fatores antinutricionais na farinha de plantas suprime seu potencial de ser totalmente substituída. Portanto, neste estudo objetivamos estudar os efeitos sinérgicos de aditivos dietéticos como ácido cítrico e suplementação com enzima fitase sobre o desempenho de crescimento e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de Cirrhinus mrigala. A farinha de canola (CM) foi usada como ingrediente de teste para substituir a farinha de peixe (FM) como: 0%, 25%, 50% e 75%. Essas quatro dietas foram suplementadas por níveis variados de fitase (0 e 750 FTU kg-1) e ácido cítrico (0% e 2,5%) para formular um total de 16 dietas de teste como T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 e T16. Cada tratamento continha três repetições; aplicado a grupos de peixes com 15 alevinos cada; seguindo o arranjo fatorial 3 × 3. 1% de óxido crômico foi adicionado como um marcador inerte. % de ganho de peso máximo (288%) e o valor mais baixo de FCR (1,07) foram registrados quando os peixes foram alimentados com dieta T12 em comparação com peixes alimentados com dieta controle (T1). Da mesma forma, valores ótimos de digestibilidade de nutrientes, como proteína bruta (77%), gordura bruta (84%) e energia bruta (70%) foram anotados no mesmo nível. Concluiu-se que 50% da farinha de canola pode substituir de forma ideal a farinha de peixe quando suplementada com fitase e ácido cítrico nos níveis de 750 FTU kg-1 e 2,5%, respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Animals , 6-Phytase , Nutrients , Chickens , Citric Acid , Dietary Supplements , Diet/veterinary , Digestion , Animal Feed/analysis , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-8, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468836

ABSTRACT

Fishmeal; being a limited and costly feed ingredient is continuously been substituted with locally available plant proteins. However, the occurrence of anti-nutritional factors in plant meal suppresses its potential to be fully replaced. Therefore, in this study we aimed to study the synergistic effects of dietary additives like citric acid and phytase enzyme supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. Canola meal (CM) was used as a test ingredient to replace fishmeal (FM) as; 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%. These four diets were further supplemented by varying levels of phytase (0 and 750 FTU kg-1) and citric acid (0% and 2.5%) to formulate total sixteen test diets as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 and T16. Each treatment contained three replicates; applied to fish groups having 15 fingerlings each; following 3×3 factorial arrangement. 1% of chromic oxide was added as an inert marker. Maximum weight gain% (288%) and the lowest value of FCR (1.07) were recorded when fish was fed on diet T12 as compared to fish fed control diet (T1). Similarly, optimum nutrient digestibility values such as crude protein (77%), crude fat (84%) and gross energy (70%) were noted on same level. It was concluded that 50% canola meal can optimally replace fishmeal when supplemented with phytase and citric acid at the levels of 750 FTU kg-¹ and 2.5%, respectively.


A farinha de peixe, por ser um ingrediente alimentar limitado e caro, é continuamente substituída por proteínas vegetais disponíveis localmente. No entanto, a ocorrência de fatores antinutricionais na farinha de plantas suprime seu potencial de ser totalmente substituída. Portanto, neste estudo objetivamos estudar os efeitos sinérgicos de aditivos dietéticos como ácido cítrico e suplementação com enzima fitase sobre o desempenho de crescimento e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de Cirrhinus mrigala. A farinha de canola (CM) foi usada como ingrediente de teste para substituir a farinha de peixe (FM) como: 0%, 25%, 50% e 75%. Essas quatro dietas foram suplementadas por níveis variados de fitase (0 e 750 FTU kg-1) e ácido cítrico (0% e 2,5%) para formular um total de 16 dietas de teste como T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 e T16. Cada tratamento continha três repetições; aplicado a grupos de peixes com 15 alevinos cada; seguindo o arranjo fatorial 3 × 3. 1% de óxido crômico foi adicionado como um marcador inerte. % de ganho de peso máximo (288%) e o valor mais baixo de FCR (1,07) foram registrados quando os peixes foram alimentados com dieta T12 em comparação com peixes alimentados com dieta controle (T1). Da mesma forma, valores ótimos de digestibilidade de nutrientes, como proteína bruta (77%), gordura bruta (84%) e energia bruta (70%) foram anotados no mesmo nível. Concluiu-se que 50% da farinha de canola pode substituir de forma ideal a farinha de peixe quando suplementada com fitase e ácido cítrico nos níveis de 750 FTU kg-¹ e 2,5%, respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brassica rapa , Carps/growth & development , Carps/metabolism , Diet/veterinary , Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases/administration & dosage , Citric Acid/administration & dosage
4.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2022. 65 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1516406

ABSTRACT

Citrato de clomifeno (CC) e letrozol (LE) são indutores de ovulação que, apesar das altas taxas de ovulação confirmada, atingem baixas taxas de gravidez. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar os efeitos de CC e LE in vitro, isoladamente ou em combinação com estradiol (E), na apoptose de células do cumulus oophorus humano. Realizamos um estudo prospectivo controlado utilizando culturas primárias de células do cumulus de pacientes submetidas à fertilização in vitro (n=22). A coloração com Giemsa e a imunocitoquímica para alfa-inibina foram utilizadas para avaliar a pureza e a morfologia da cultura celular. A viabilidade celular foi avaliada pelo ensaio MTT, o ciclo celular por citometria de fluxo e a expressão gênica de Caspase-3, Bax e Superóxido dismutase 2 (SOD-2) e S26 por reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR) em tempo real. As células foram tratadas por 24 horas em 5 grupos de tratamento: CC, CC + E, LE, LE + E e controle. Nenhum dos tratamentos afetou a viabilidade celular, mas o LE reduziu a porcentagem média de células na fase S em relação ao controle (24,79 versus 21,70, p=0,0014). O tratamento com CC aumentou a expressão gênica de Bax (4 vezes) e SOD-2 (2 vezes), que foi revertida quando adicionado E à cultura. A expressão de SOD-2 aumentou em células tratadas com LE quando comparado ao controle (4 vezes), que foi também revertida por adição de E. Estes achados sugerem que CC e LE não afetam significativamente a viabilidade das células do cumulus humana. Porém, houve modulação na expressão de genes envolvidos na apoptose por essas drogas isoladamente e em associação com E, sugerindo que CC e LE podem ter efeitos diretos nas células do cumulus além de seus mecanismos de ação conhecidos.


Clomiphene citrate (CC) and letrozole (LE) are ovulatory stimulants that, despite high ovulation rates, achieve low pregnancy rates. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro effects of CC and LE, alone or in combination with estradiol (E), on apoptosis in human cumulus cells. We performed a controlled prospective study using primary cumulus cell cultures from patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (n=22). Giemsa stain and alpha-inhibin immunocytochemistry was used to assess cell culture purity and morphology. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay, cell cycle status by flow cytometry, and Caspase-3, Bax and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD-2), and S26 gene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Cells were treated for 24 hours in 5 conditioned media: CC, CC + E, LE, LE + E and control. None of the treatments affected cell viability, but LE reduced the mean percentage of cells in the S phase compared to control (24.79 versus 21.70, p=0.0014). CC treatment increased mRNA expression of Bax (4 fold) and SOD-2 (2 fold), which was reversed by co-treatment with E. SOD-2 expression increased in cells treated with LE compared to control (4 fold), which was also reversed by E. These findings suggest that CC and LE do not significantly affect the viability of human cumulus cells. Still, the expression of genes involved in apoptosis was modulated by these drugs alone and in association with E, suggesting that CC and LE may have direct effects on cumulus cells beyond their known mechanisms of action.


Subject(s)
Clomiphene , Citric Acid , Academic Dissertation
5.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 29-37, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935969

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the application effects of bundle nursing of citric acid extracorporeal anticoagulation on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) of severe burn patients. Methods: A non-randomized controlled study was conducted. Forty-six patients who met the inclusion criteria and received regular nursing of citric acid extracorporeal anticoagulation during CRRT in the First Affiliated Hospital of Army Medical University (the Third Military Medical University) from January to December 2017 were included in regular nursing group (30 males and 16 females, aged 42.0 (38.7,47.0) years, with 201 times of CRRT performed), and 48 patients who met the inclusion criteria and received bundle nursing of citric acid extracorporeal anticoagulation during CRRT in the same hospital from January to December 2018 were included in bundle nursing group (32 males and 16 females, aged 41.0 (36.0,46.0) years, with 164 times of CRRT performed). The clinical data of all the patients in the two groups were recorded, including the length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, total cost of treatment in ICU, cost of CRRT, unplanned ending of treatment, ending of treatment due to operation (with the rates of unplanned ending of treatment and ending of treatment due to operation calculated), times of disposable hemodialysis filter and supporting pipeline filter (hereinafter referred to as filter) with use time>24 h, times of CRRT, and lifetime of filter. For the patients in both groups who continuously received CRRT for 3 days or more from the first treatment, the prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), international normalized ratio (INR), total calcium, ionic calcium (with the difference of total calcium or ionic calcium between before and after treatment calculated), creatinine, urea, β2 microglobulin, cystatin C, platelet count, mean arterial pressure, pH value, oxygenation index, bicarbonate radical, and lactic acid levels before the first treatment (hereinafter referred to as before treatment) and 3 days after the first treatment (hereinafter referred to as after 3 days of treatment). The treatment-related complications of all patients in the two groups were recorded during hospitalization. Data were statistically analyzed with independent sample t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and chi-square test. Results: Compared with those in regular nursing group, the length of ICU stay was significantly shortened (Z=-4.71, P<0.01), the total cost of treatment in ICU was significantly reduced (t=-1.39, P<0.01), the cost of CRRT had no significant change (P>0.05), the rates of unplanned ending of treatment and ending of treatment due to operation were both significantly decreased (with χ2 values of 12.20 and 17.83, respectively, P<0.01), the times of filter service time>24 h was increased significantly (Z=-5.93, P<0.01), the times of CRRT were significantly reduced (Z=-4.75, P<0.01), and the filter service life was significantly prolonged (Z=-9.24, P<0.01) among patients in bundle nursing group. Thirty-one patients in bundle nursing group and 28 patients in regular nursing group continuously received CRRT for 3 days or more from the first treatment. Before treatment, PT, APTT, and INR of patients in bundle nursing group were 24.10 (16.08, 39.20) s, 38.81 (32.32, 45.50) s, and 1.17 (1.12, 1.19), respectively, similar to 31.75 (22.99, 40.96) s, 41.82 (35.05, 48.06) s, and 1.15 (1.11, 1.19) of patients in regular nursing group (P>0.05); the levels of total calcium and ionic calcium of patients in the two groups were similar (P>0.05). After 3 days of treatment, PT, APTT, and INR of patients in bundle nursing group and regular nursing group were 29.06 (20.11, 39.46) s, 35.25 (30.06, 40.28) s, 1.13 (1.09, 1.17) and 36.51 (26.64, 42.92) s, 39.89 (34.81, 46.62) s, 1.14 (1.10, 1.18), respectively, similar to those before treatment (P>0.05); the level of ionic calcium of patients in regular nursing group was significantly higher than that before treatment (Z=-2.08, P<0.05); the levels of total calcium and ionic calcium of patients in bundle nursing group were both significantly higher than those before treatment (with Z values of -3.55 and -3.69, respectively, P<0.01); compared with those in regular nursing group, APTT of patients was significantly shorter (Z=-2.29, P<0.05), while the total calcium level of patients was significantly higher in bundle nursing group (Z=-2.26, P<0.05). The difference of total calcium between before and after treatment of patients in bundle nursing group was significantly higher than that in regular nursing group (Z=-3.15, P<0.01). The differences of ionic calcium between before and after treatment of patients in the two groups were similar (P>0.05). Before treatment, the level of β2 microglobulin of patients in bundle nursing group was significantly higher than that in regular nursing group (Z=-2.84, P<0.01), the platelet count of patients in bundle nursing group was significantly lower than that in regular nursing group (Z=-2.44, P<0.05), while the levels of creatinine, urea, cystatin C, mean arterial pressure, pH value, oxygenation index, bicarbonate radical, and lactic acid of patients in the two groups were similar (P>0.05). After 3 days of treatment, the levels of creatinine, urea, β2 microglobulin, cystatin C, pH value, bicarbonate radical, and lactic acid of patients were all significantly lower than those before treatment (with Z values of -2.10, -2.90, -3.11, -2.02, -2.34, -2.63, and -2.84, respectively, P<0.05 or P<0.01), while the levels of platelet count, oxygenation index, and mean arterial pressure of patients were all significantly higher than those before treatment in bundle nursing group (with Z values of -6.65 and -2.40, respectively, t=-9.97, P<0.05 or P<0.01); the levels of creatinine, urea, β2 microglobulin, cystatin C, platelet count, pH value, bicarbonate radical, and lactic acid of patients were all significantly lower than those before treatment (with Z values of -5.32, -2.31, -2.41, -2.21, -3.68, -2.93, -2.20, and -2.31, respectively, P<0.05 or P<0.01), while the oxygenation index and mean arterial pressure of patients were both significantly higher than those before treatment in regular nursing group (Z=-5.59, t=-7.74, P<0.01). After 3 days of treatment, compared with those in regular nursing group, the levels of creatinine, cystatin C, platelet count, oxygenation index, bicarbonate radical, and mean arterial pressure of patients were all significantly higher (with Z values of -2.93, -1.99, -6.39, -2.09, and -2.52, respectively, t=-3.28, P<0.05 or P<0.01), while the levels of urea, β2 microglobulin, pH value, and lactic acid of patients were all significantly lower (with Z values of -3.87, -2.58, -4.24, and -2.75, respectively, P<0.05 or P<0.01) in bundle nursing group. During hospitalization, there were no treatment-related bleeding events or hypernatremia related to citric acid treatment of patients in the two groups. The ratio of total calcium to ionic calcium in one patient in bundle nursing group was >2.5, but there was no manifestation of citric acid accumulation poisoning; 1 patient had hypoionic calcemia, and 1 patient had severe metabolic alkalosis. Five patients had hypoionic calcemia and 2 patients had severe metabolic alkalosis in regular nursing group. Conclusions: The implementation of bundle nursing of citric acid extracorporeal anticoagulation during CRRT for severe burn patients shortens the length of ICU stay, reduces the total cost of treatment in ICU and the occurrence of treatment-related complications, relieves the economic burden of patients, and improves the continuity and quality of treatment.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Anticoagulants , Burns/therapy , Citric Acid , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies
6.
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(4): 1-9, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1337584

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study attempted to investigate the effect of enamel deproteinization using citric acid, PEG 400 and NaOCL on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to enamel using nano-silver modified resin for the prevention of white spot lesions. Material and Methods: 68 premolars were used in the study; nano-silver modified adhesive resin was used to bond orthodontic brackets to the enamel. Specimens were divided into 4 groups according to the applied surface treatment before bonding. Group I (control): acid etching with 37% phosphoric acid. Group II: deproteinization using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) before acid etching. Group III:deproteinization using 10% citric acid before acid etching. Group IV:deproteinization using 5% polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) before acid etching. The specimens were then thermo- cycled for 6000 cycles. They were examined for surface roughness, shear bond strength and using electron microscope. Results: In both surface roughness and shear bond strength tests, Group III (citric acid) showed the highest values, followed by Group II (sodium hypochlorite); (p < 0.001). The least values were shown for Groups I (control) and IV (PEG 400), with no statistically significant difference between them (p = 0.948). SEM revealed etching pattern type 1 and 2 in the citric acid group while PEG 400 showed shallower micro- porosities. Conclusions: Deproteinization of enamel using either NaOCl or citric acid increased the bond strength of nano-sliver modified resin to enamel, with citric acid showing greater increase in bond strength. Deproteinization using PEG 400 did not increase the bond strength. (AU)


Objetivo: Este estudo buscou investigar o efeito da desproteinização do esmalte utilizando ácido cítrico, PEG 400 e NaOCl na resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes ortodônticos ao esmalte usando resina modificada com nanoprata para a prevenção de lesões de manchas brancas. Material e Métodos: 68 pré-molares foram usados no estudo; resina adesiva modificada com nanoprata foi usada para colar os braquetes ortodônticos ao esmalte. Os corpos-de-prova foram divididos em 4 grupos de acordo com o tratamento de superfície aplicado antes da colagem. Grupo I (controle): condicionamento ácido com ácido fosfórico a 37%. Grupo II: desproteinização com hipoclorito de sódio a 5,25% (NaOCl) antes do condicionamento ácido. Grupo III: desproteinização com ácido cítrico a 10% antes do condicionamento ácido. Grupo IV: desproteinização com polietilenoglicol 5% (PEG 400) antes do condicionamento ácido. As amostras foram então termocicladas por 6.000 ciclos. Eles foram examinados quanto à rugosidade da superfície, resistência ao cisalhamento e usando microscópio eletrônico. Resultados: Nos testes de rugosidade superficial e resistência ao cisalhamento, o Grupo III (ácido cítrico) apresentou os maiores valores, seguido do Grupo II (hipoclorito de sódio); (p <0,001). Os menores valores foram apresentados para os Grupos I (controle) e IV (PEG 400), sem diferença estatisticamente significativa entre eles (p = 0,948). A microscopia eletrônica revelou padrão de ataque tipo 1 e 2 no grupo de ácido cítrico, enquanto PEG 400 mostrou microporosidades mais rasas. Conclusões: A desproteinização do esmalte com NaOCl ou ácido cítrico aumentou a força de união da resina modificada com nanoprata ao esmalte, com o ácido cítrico apresentando maior aumento na força de união. A desproteinização usando PEG 400 não aumentou a resistência de união. (AU)


Subject(s)
Sodium Hypochlorite , Citric Acid , Dental Cements , Dental Enamel
7.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 26(2): 166-171, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1150026

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Sodium fluoroacetate, known as compound 1080, was discovered in Germany during the Second World War. It is usually used as a rodenticide, it is an odorless and tasteless substance, with a lethal dose in humans of 2 mg / kg that is why it was withdrawn from the market in some countries, including Colombia; however, it is obtained illegally. This substance has biochemical and physiological effects at the cellular level that alter the transport of citrate at the mitochondrial level, generating accumulation of lactic acid and alteration of the glucose use. The clinical manifestations are nonspecific since there is no any cardinal symptom. Therefore, its diagnosis is made due to high clinical suspicion associated with establishment of exposure to the compound in view of the difficulty to obtain paraclinical confirmation in a timely manner. Methods: We present a case report of intentional ingestion of sodium fluoroacetate in an adolescent that is associated with an infection added to the bloodstream by methicillin- sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). The patient developed multiple complications that lead to support in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with a satisfactory outcome. In view of the lack of a specific antidote, she was treated with ethanol in order to increase the level of acetate; thus, offering an alternative substrate to the Krebs cycle. It is suggested that the ethanol offers benefits in the acute treatment of these patients. Results: The patient with sodium fluoroacetate poisoning and kidney failure received renal replacement therapy with a favorable evolution and survival at discharge from the intensive care unit of a third-level hospital in the city of Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia. Conclusions: Sodium fluoroacetate poisoning is relatively rare and can cause acute kidney injury and multi-organ failure with a high rate of complications and death. A case of self-inflicted poisoning that received a timely manner continuous renal replacement therapy with a favorable outcome in terms of ICU survival was presented.


Resumen Introducción: El fluoroacetato de sodio ⎯conocido como compuesto 1080⎯, fue descubierto en Alemania durante la segunda guerra mundial, suele ser utilizado como raticida y se caracteriza por ser una sustancia inodora e insabora. En humanos, una dosis de 2 a mg/kg es letal; debido a su toxicidad fue retirado del mercado en algunos países, incluyendo Colombia, no obstante, se consigue de forma ilegal. Esta sustancia tiene efectos bioquímicos y fisiológicos a nivel celular que altera el transporte del citrato a nivel mitocondrial, generando acumulación de ácido láctico y alteración en la utilización de la glucosa. Las manifestaciones clínicas son inespecíficas y no existe un síntoma cardinal. Por ende, su diagnóstico se realiza por alta sospecha clínica, asociado al establecimiento de la exposición al compuesto, ya que la confirmación paraclínica es difícil de realizar oportunamente. Métodos: Se presenta un reporte de caso de ingestión intencional en un adolescente, asociado con infección agregada al torrente sanguíneo por Estafilococos Aureos Meticilino Sensible (EAMS). El paciente desarrolló múltiples complicaciones y requirió asistencia en Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) con desenlace satisfactorio. Ya que no se cuenta con antídoto específico , se le dio tratamiento con etanol para aumentar el nivel de acetato, ofreciendo así un sustrato alterno al ciclo de Krebm. Se estima que el etanol puede ofrecer beneficios en el tratamiento agudo de estos pacientes. Resultados: Paciente con intoxicación por fluoroacetato de sodio e insuficiencia renal, recibe terapia de reemplazo renal con un evolución favorable y supervivencia al alta de la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos de un hospital de tercer nivel en la ciudad de Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia. Conclusiones: La intoxicación por fluoroacetato de sodio es relativamente poco frecuente y puede causar injuria renal aguda y falla multiorgánica con alta tasa de complicaciones y muerte. Se presentó un caso de intoxicación autoinfligida que recibió terapia de reemplazo renal continua temprana con un desenlace favorable en términos de supervivencia en la UCI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Staphylococcus aureus , Toxicity , Fluoroacetates , Methicillin , Acetates , Rodenticides , Citric Acid Cycle , Citric Acid , Lactic Acid , Diagnosis , Ethanol , Eating , Acute Kidney Injury , Hoarding , Survivorship , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Glucose , Hospitals , Intensive Care Units , Lead
8.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(4): 436-446, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156326

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: el cáncer colorrectal es un problema de salud pública; sin embargo, la detección temprana reduce su morbimortalidad. La colonoscopia es el procedimiento de elección para detectar lesiones premalignas y el éxito depende de una limpieza adecuada. El objetivo es evaluar el desempeño de dos preparaciones de bajo volumen empleados en un hospital de alto nivel. Materiales y métodos: estudio prospectivo en adultos que asistieran a colonoscopia en la Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá, Colombia. Las preparaciones se evaluaron con la escala de Boston, con puntaje ≥ 6 puntos para una limpieza adecuada. Se realizó un análisis de regresión logística para establecer la efectividad de los medicamentos con un cálculo de no inferioridad del 3 %-5 %. Resultados: 598 pacientes fueron evaluados. El 49 % (293) fue expuesto al picosulfato de sodio/citrato de magnesio y el 51 % (305) fue expuesto al sulfato de sodio/potasio/magnesio. Con un promedio de Boston de 6,98 ± 1,86 (78 % con puntaje de Boston ≥ 6) y 7,39 ± 1,83 (83 %), respectivamente (p = 0,649). Según el análisis de la presencia y frecuencia de síntomas no deseados, el picosulfato fue mejor tolerado (p < 0,001). Conclusiones: los estudios de preparación intestinal en pacientes de un escenario real son muy escasos. Los medicamentos de bajo volumen obtuvieron una efectividad global y por segmento de colon similar, confirmando la no-inferioridad; el picosulfato de sodio/citrato de magnesio fue mejor tolerado. Un estudio de costo-efectividad podría definir esto según las necesidades de la población de estudio.


Abstract Introduction: Colorectal cancer is a public health problem; however, early detection reduces morbidity and mortality. Colonoscopy is the procedure of choice for detecting precancerous lesions, and success depends on proper bowel cleansing. Objective: To evaluate the performance of two low-volume agents used in a high-level hospital. Materials and methods: Prospective study in adults who underwent colonoscopy at the Fundación Santa Fe in Bogotá, Colombia. Preparations were evaluated using the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale. A score ≥6 points indicated adequate preparation. A logistic regression analysis was carried out to establish the effectiveness of the medicines with a non-inferiority ratio of 3-5%. Results: 598 patients were evaluated. 49% (293) received sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate and 51% (305) received sodium sulfate/potassium/magnesium, with an average Boston score of 6.98±1.86 (78% Boston ≥6) and 7.39±1.83 (83%), respectively (p=0.649). According to the analysis of the presence and frequency of unwanted symptoms, picosulfate was better tolerated (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Bowel preparation studies in patients from a real-life scenario are scarce. Low-volume agents had similar overall and segmental effectiveness in the colon, confirming non-inferiority; sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate was better tolerated. A cost-effectiveness study could establish the best option according to the needs of the study population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Patients , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Colorectal Neoplasms , Prospective Studies , Colonoscopy , Potassium , Sodium , Effectiveness , Citric Acid , Costs and Cost Analysis , Disaster Preparedness , Magnesium
9.
Revista Naval de Odontologia ; 47(1): [7-13], 12/06/2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359694

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the ex vivo effectiveness of different final irrigation protocols in smear layer removal and intraradicular dentine erosion. Thirty five extracted human canines were instrumented and randomly divided, according to final rinse techniques used, into 7 groups: 1 (ED3M) and 3 (ED3US), 17% EDTA for 3 minutes with manual and ultrasonic agitation, respectively; 2 (CA30M) and 4 (CA30US), 10% citric acid for 30 seconds with manual and ultrasonic agitation, respectively; 5 (CA3M) and 6 (CA3US), 10% citric acid for 3 minutes with manual and ultrasonic agitation, respectively; and, 7 (Na3), 5.25% NaOCl for 3 minutes without agitation (control). All specimens then were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl, split lengthwise, and examined under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in apical, middle and coronal thirds. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. The effectiveness of 17% EDTA and 10% citric acid in removing smear layer was significantly greater than 5.25% NaOCl (control). There were no significant differences among final irrigation protocols in smear layer removal or erosive effects. However, when comparing the thirds in groups 1 (ED3M) and 2 (CA30M), the least smear layer removal and erosion was seen in the apical third, but the group 4 procedure (CA30US) was more effective than 1 (ED3M) (p=0.0004), 2 (CA30M) (p=0.0018) or 3 (ED3US) (p=0.0003) in smear layer removal for the apical third. It was concluded that protocols used in this study were similar in smear layer removal and erosive effects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tooth Erosion , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Edetic Acid , Citric Acid
10.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(6): 1113-1121, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056346

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To establish whether the citrate concentration in the seminal fluid ([CITRATE]) measured by means of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HNMRS) is superior to the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration in detecting of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) in men with persistently elevated PSA. Materials and Methods: The group of patients consisted of 31 consecutively seen men with histological diagnosis of clinically localized csPCa. The control group consisted of 28 men under long-term follow-up (mean of 8.7 ± 3.0 years) for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), with persistently elevated PSA (above 4 ng/mL) and several prostate biopsies negative for cancer (mean of 2.7 ± 1.3 biopsies per control). Samples of blood and seminal fluid (by masturbation) for measurement of PSA and citrate concentration, respectively, were collected from patients and controls. Citrate concentration in the seminal fluid ([CITRATE]) was determined by means of 1HNMRS. The capacities of PSA and [CITRATE] to predict csPCa were compared by means of univariate analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: Median [CITRATE] was significantly lower among patients with csPCa compared to controls (3.93 mM/l vs. 15.53 mM/l). There was no significant difference in mean PSA between patients and controls (9.42 ng/mL vs. 8.57 ng/mL). The accuracy of [CITRATE] for detecting csPCa was significantly superior compared to PSA (74.8% vs. 54.8%). Conclusion: Measurement of [CITRATE] by means of 1HNMRS is superior to PSA for early detection of csPCa in men with elevated PSA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Semen/chemistry , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Citric Acid/analysis , Prostatic Hyperplasia/diagnosis , Prostatic Hyperplasia/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Biopsy , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Middle Aged
11.
Rev. ADM ; 76(5): 278-281, sept.-oct. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053117

ABSTRACT

La instrumentación mecánica durante el tratamiento periodontal trae consigo la formación de escombros microcristalinos que inhiben la adhesión tisular a la superfi cie radicular y favorece la proliferación bacteriana, lo cual perjudica los resultados del tratamiento periodontal a corto y largo plazo. Hoy en día el acondicionamiento radicular con el uso de biomodifi cadores es una opción de tratamiento adicional en el tratamiento de la periodontitis y el tratamiento de cobertura radicular. El objetivo del presente estudio es realizar una revisión de la literatura acerca de las aplicaciones y del acondicionamiento radicular con ácido cítrico, tetraciclina, EDTA y láser en el tratamiento periodontal no quirúrgico y quirúrgico (AU)


Mechanical instrumentation during periodontal treatment brings the formation of microcrystalline debris that inhibits tissue adhesion to the root surface and favors bacterial proliferation, which harms the results of the short and long term periodontal treatment. Nowadays, root conditioning with the use of biomodifi cators is an additional treatment option in the treatment of periodontitis and root coverage therapy. The aim of the present study is to conduct a literature review about the applications and the root conditioning with citric acid, tetracycline, EDTA and laser in the non surgical and surgical periodontal treatment (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Periodontal Diseases/surgery , Periodontal Diseases/therapy , Tooth Root/drug effects , Tetracyclines , Dental Scaling , Root Planing , Edetic Acid , Citric Acid , Laser Therapy
12.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 1192-1195, abr.-maio 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482126

ABSTRACT

As frutas são constituídas por substâncias que exercem ação antioxidante, dentre tais substâncias estão incluídas as vitaminas. Os ácidos orgânicos mais comuns e presentes em frutas são: ácido ascórbico e ácido cítrico. Tais ácidos orgânicos bem como os tocoferóis ocorrem de forma natural nos alimentos e são potentes antioxidantes que possuem a capacidade de eliminar diversos radicais livres. O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar e quantificar ácidos orgânicos (ascórbico e cítrico) e α-tocoferol presentes na polpa da goiaba araçá fazendo-se uso da Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE). Os teores de ácido ascórbico e ácido cítrico encontrados no presente estudo foram de 2,501 mg.g-1 e 9,240 mg.g-1, respectivamente, enquanto que o teor α-tocoferol foi de 3,399 µg.g-1. Comparadas a outras frutas, os teores de ácidos orgânicos e α-tocoferol encontrados no presente estudo indicam que a goiaba araçá é rica em compostos antioxidantes.


Subject(s)
Psidium/chemistry , alpha-Tocopherol/analysis , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Citric Acid/analysis , Antioxidants , Organic Acids/analysis
13.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180107, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975878

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to compare two in vitro erosion protocols, in which one simulates in vivo conditions experienced by patients with gastroesophageal disorders or bulimia (HCl-pepsin protocol), and the other simulates the diet of an individual who consumes a high volume of erosive beverages (citric acid protocol). In addition, the mechanical properties and surface gloss of eroded human dentin were compared with those of sound human dentin. Materials and Methods Blocks of cervical dentin were used: sound human dentin (n=10), human dentin with erosive lesions (n=10), and bovine dentin (n=30). Twenty bovine blocks were subjected to either of two erosion protocols (n=10/protocol). In the first protocol, samples were demineralized using HCl-pepsin solution, then treated with trypsin solution. In the second protocol, samples were demineralized with 2% citric acid. Toothbrushing was performed in both protocols using a toothbrushing machine (15 s with a 150 g load). Ten bovine dentin blocks were not subjected to any erosive treatment. All samples of bovine and human dentin were analyzed to obtain Martens hardness values (MH), elastic modulus (Eit*) and surface gloss. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's test were performed to analyze the data (α=0.05). Results Sound human and eroded human dentin groups showed similar MH and Eit* values (p>0.05); however, sound human dentin showed a higher surface gloss value when compared to eroded human dentin (p<0.05). Sound bovine dentin and HCl-pepsin-treated bovine dentin treatments resulted in similar values for both MH and Eit* (p>0.05), but HCl-pepsin-treated bovine dentin and citric acid-treated bovine dentin resulted in lower surface gloss than sound bovine dentin (p<0.05). Conclusions The HCl-pepsin protocol modified bovine dentin properties that could be similar to those that occur on human dentin surfaces with erosive lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Dentin/drug effects , Reference Values , Surface Properties/drug effects , Tooth Erosion/etiology , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Pepsin A/chemistry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Citric Acid/chemistry , Dentin/chemistry , Elastic Modulus , Hardness Tests
14.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 513-527, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776711

ABSTRACT

Aluminum (Al) is the most abundant metal element in the earth's crust. On acid soils, at pH 5.5 or lower, part of insoluble Al-containing minerals become solubilized into soil solution, with resultant highly toxic effects on plant growth and development. Nevertheless, some plants have developed Al-tolerance mechanisms that enable them to counteract this Al toxicity. One such well-documented mechanism is the Al-induced secretion of organic acid anions, including citrate, malate, and oxalate, from plant roots. Once secreted, these anions chelate external Al ions, thus protecting the secreting plant from Al toxicity. Genes encoding the citrate and malate transporters responsible for secretion have been identified and characterized, and accumulating evidence indicates that regulation of the expression of these transporter genes is critical for plant Al tolerance. In this review, we outline the recent history of research into plant Al-tolerance mechanisms, with special emphasis on the physiology of Al-induced secretion of organic acid anions from plant roots. In particular, we summarize the identification of genes encoding organic acid transporters and review current understanding of genes regulating organic acid secretion. We also discuss the possible signaling pathways regulating the expression of organic acid transporter genes.


Subject(s)
Aluminum , Toxicity , Anions , Biological Transport , Citric Acid , Metabolism , Malates , Metabolism , Oxalic Acid , Metabolism , Plant Roots , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Physiology
15.
Intestinal Research ; : 413-418, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study compared the efficacy, compliance, and safety of bowel preparation between sodium picosulfate with magnesium citrate (SPMC) and oral sulfate solution (OSS). METHODS: A prospective randomized multicenter study was performed. Split preparation methods were performed in both groups; the SPMC group, 2 sachets on the day before, and 1 sachet on the day of the procedure, the OSS group, half of the OSS with 1 L of water on both the day before and the day of the procedure. The adenoma detection rate (ADR), adequacy of bowel preparation using the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS) score, patient satisfaction on a visual analog scale (VAS), and safety were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: This study analyzed 229 patients (121 in the SPMC group and 108 in the OSS group). ADR showed no differences between 2 groups (51.7% vs. 41.7%, P>0.05). The mean total BBPS score (7.95 vs. 8.11, P>0.05) and adequate bowel preparation rate (94.9% vs. 96.3%, P>0.05) were similar between the 2 groups. The mean VAS score for taste (7.62 vs. 6.87, P=0.006) was significantly higher in the SPMC group than in the OSS group. There were no significant differences in any other safety variables between the 2 groups except nausea symptom (36.1% vs. 20.3%, P=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Bowel preparation for colonoscopy using low volume OSS and SPMC yielded similar ADRs and levels of efficacy. SPMC had higher levels of satisfaction for taste and feeling than did OSS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenoma , Citric Acid , Colonoscopy , Compliance , Magnesium , Nausea , Patient Satisfaction , Prospective Studies , Sodium , Visual Analog Scale , Water
16.
Gut and Liver ; : 479-480, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763880

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asian People , Breath Tests , Citric Acid , Meals
17.
Gut and Liver ; : 506-514, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763876

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The validity of ¹³C-urea breath test (¹³C-UBT) for Helicobacter pylori detection is influenced by atrophic gastritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of citric acid on the accuracy of ¹³C-Urea breath test after H. pylori eradication therapy in a region where atrophic gastritis is common. METHODS: In this prospective study, H. pylori-positive patients received ¹³C-UBT after H. pylori eradication regimen. They were classified into citric acid group and control group. To determine diagnostic accuracy of ¹³C-UBT, patients were offered invasive methods. RESULTS: A total of 1,207 who successfully took H. pylori-eradication regimen received UBT. They were assigned into the citric acid group (n=562) and the control group (n=645). The mean ¹³C-UBT value of the citric acid group was 10.3±26.4‰, which was significantly (p<0.001) higher than that of that control group (5.1‰±12.6‰). Of these patients 122 patients were evaluated by endoscopic biopsy methods. Based on invasive tests, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of ¹³C-UBT for the citric acid group were 83.3%, 91.7%, 81.3%, 55.0%, and 97.5%, respectively. Those of the control group were 87.7%, 90.9%, 88.2%, 62.5%, and 97.8%, respectively. They were not significantly different between the two groups. Although the presence of gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia (IM) decreased the accuracy, the decrease was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a country with high prevalence of atrophic gastritis or IM, false positivity remained common despite the use of citric acid in ¹³C-UBT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrophy , Biopsy , Breath Tests , Citric Acid , Diagnosis , Gastritis, Atrophic , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Metaplasia , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Journal of Dental Hygiene Science ; (6): 1-8, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764406

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Erosion is a gradual process that occurs fairly quickly, and the full extent of the erosive effects of acidic beverages is not yet clear. The present study aimed to determine the differences in the erosive potentials among four naturally acidic fruit nectars within the same range of titratable acidity and to determine the influence of the components of organic acids on tooth erosion. METHODS: Diluted fruit nectars (mandarin 1:1.1, orange 1:1.7, lemon 1:15, grapefruit 1:20) with the same range of titratable acidity (7.9 ml) and their corresponding organic acids (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% citric acid, malic acid, and a citric and malic acid mixture [pH 2.8], respectively) were used. Specimens were placed in conical tubes with 50 ml of each of the test solutions for 1 hour. A microhardness test and scanning electron microscopy were used to measure enamel erosion. Acid separation was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography to analyze the composition of each test solution. RESULTS: Similar decreases in the Vickers hardness number (VHN) were observed among the groups treated with the following diluted fruit nectars: diluted mandarin nectar (75.9 ΔVHN), diluted lemon nectar (89.1 ΔVHN), diluted grapefruit nectar (91.7 ΔVHN), and diluted orange nectar (92.5 ΔVHN). No statistically significant differences were found in the enamel surface hardness after erosion (p>0.05). Citric and malic acids were the major organic acids in the test fruits. The lemon and orange groups had the highest malic acid concentrations, and the mandarin group had the lowest malic acid concentration. CONCLUSION: The titratable acidity and the citric and malic acid contents of the fruits could be crucial factors responsible for enamel erosion. Therefore, fruit-based drinks should be regarded as potentially erosive.


Subject(s)
Beverages , Chromatography, Liquid , Citric Acid , Citrus paradisi , Citrus sinensis , Dental Enamel , Fruit , Hardness , In Vitro Techniques , Microscopy , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Plant Nectar , Tooth Erosion
19.
Korean Journal of Family Medicine ; : 278-279, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759807

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Citric Acid , Otitis Media, Suppurative
20.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 100-107, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758970

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare the impact of citrate dialysate (CD) and standard acetate dialysate (AD) in hemodialysis by central delivery system (CDS) on heparin demand, and clinical parameters. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 75 patients on maintenance hemodialysis with CDS. Patients underwent hemodialysis with AD over a six-month period (AD period), followed by another six-month period using CD (CD period). Various parameters including mean heparin dosage, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), calcium-phosphate product (CaxP), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), and urea reduction ratio (URR) were collated at the end of each period. RESULTS: Patients were 60.5 ± 14.7 years old, of whom 62.7% were male. Patients required less heparin when receiving CD (AD period: 1,129 ± 1,033 IU/session vs. CD period: 787 ± 755 IU/session, P < 0.001). After the CD period (Δ(CD)), pre-dialysis total CO₂ increased to 1.21 ± 2.80 mmol/L, compared to −2.44 ± 2.96 mmol/L (P < 0.001) after the AD period (Δ(AD)). After the CD period, concentrations of iPTH (Δ(AD): 73.04 ± 216.34 pg/mL vs. Δ(CD): −106.66 ± 251.79 pg/mL, P < 0.001) and CaxP (Δ(AD): 4.32 ± 16.63 mg²/dL² vs. Δ(CD): −4.67 ± 15.27 mg²/dL², P = 0.015) decreased. While hsCRP levels decreased after the CD period (Δ(AD): 0.07 ± 4.09 mg/L vs. Δ(CD): −0.75 ± 4.56 mg/L, P = 0.705), the change was statistically insignificant. URR remained above clinical guideline of 65% after both periods (Δ(AD): 72.33 ± 6.92% vs. Δ(CD) period: 69.20 ± 4.49%, P = 0.046). CONCLUSION: Our study confirmed that the use of CD in CDS required lower heparin doses compared to the use of AD. The use of CD also provided a more stable acid-base status.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Acetates , C-Reactive Protein , Citric Acid , Heparin , Parathyroid Hormone , Renal Dialysis , Retrospective Studies , Urea
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