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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246568, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278537

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fishmeal; being a limited and costly feed ingredient is continuously been substituted with locally available plant proteins. However, the occurrence of anti-nutritional factors in plant meal suppresses its potential to be fully replaced. Therefore, in this study we aimed to study the synergistic effects of dietary additives like citric acid and phytase enzyme supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings. Canola meal (CM) was used as a test ingredient to replace fishmeal (FM) as; 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%. These four diets were further supplemented by varying levels of phytase (0 and 750 FTU kg-1) and citric acid (0% and 2.5%) to formulate total sixteen test diets as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 and T16. Each treatment contained three replicates; applied to fish groups having 15 fingerlings each; following 3×3 factorial arrangement. 1% of chromic oxide was added as an inert marker. Maximum weight gain% (288%) and the lowest value of FCR (1.07) were recorded when fish was fed on diet T12 as compared to fish fed control diet (T1). Similarly, optimum nutrient digestibility values such as crude protein (77%), crude fat (84%) and gross energy (70%) were noted on same level. It was concluded that 50% canola meal can optimally replace fishmeal when supplemented with phytase and citric acid at the levels of 750 FTU kg-1 and 2.5%, respectively.


Resumo A farinha de peixe, por ser um ingrediente alimentar limitado e caro, é continuamente substituída por proteínas vegetais disponíveis localmente. No entanto, a ocorrência de fatores antinutricionais na farinha de plantas suprime seu potencial de ser totalmente substituída. Portanto, neste estudo objetivamos estudar os efeitos sinérgicos de aditivos dietéticos como ácido cítrico e suplementação com enzima fitase sobre o desempenho de crescimento e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de Cirrhinus mrigala. A farinha de canola (CM) foi usada como ingrediente de teste para substituir a farinha de peixe (FM) como: 0%, 25%, 50% e 75%. Essas quatro dietas foram suplementadas por níveis variados de fitase (0 e 750 FTU kg-1) e ácido cítrico (0% e 2,5%) para formular um total de 16 dietas de teste como T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11, T12, T13, T14, T15 e T16. Cada tratamento continha três repetições; aplicado a grupos de peixes com 15 alevinos cada; seguindo o arranjo fatorial 3 × 3. 1% de óxido crômico foi adicionado como um marcador inerte. % de ganho de peso máximo (288%) e o valor mais baixo de FCR (1,07) foram registrados quando os peixes foram alimentados com dieta T12 em comparação com peixes alimentados com dieta controle (T1). Da mesma forma, valores ótimos de digestibilidade de nutrientes, como proteína bruta (77%), gordura bruta (84%) e energia bruta (70%) foram anotados no mesmo nível. Concluiu-se que 50% da farinha de canola pode substituir de forma ideal a farinha de peixe quando suplementada com fitase e ácido cítrico nos níveis de 750 FTU kg-1 e 2,5%, respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Animals , 6-Phytase , Nutrients , Chickens , Citric Acid , Dietary Supplements , Diet/veterinary , Digestion , Animal Feed/analysis , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
2.
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(4): 1-9, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1337584

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study attempted to investigate the effect of enamel deproteinization using citric acid, PEG 400 and NaOCL on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to enamel using nano-silver modified resin for the prevention of white spot lesions. Material and Methods: 68 premolars were used in the study; nano-silver modified adhesive resin was used to bond orthodontic brackets to the enamel. Specimens were divided into 4 groups according to the applied surface treatment before bonding. Group I (control): acid etching with 37% phosphoric acid. Group II: deproteinization using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) before acid etching. Group III:deproteinization using 10% citric acid before acid etching. Group IV:deproteinization using 5% polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) before acid etching. The specimens were then thermo- cycled for 6000 cycles. They were examined for surface roughness, shear bond strength and using electron microscope. Results: In both surface roughness and shear bond strength tests, Group III (citric acid) showed the highest values, followed by Group II (sodium hypochlorite); (p < 0.001). The least values were shown for Groups I (control) and IV (PEG 400), with no statistically significant difference between them (p = 0.948). SEM revealed etching pattern type 1 and 2 in the citric acid group while PEG 400 showed shallower micro- porosities. Conclusions: Deproteinization of enamel using either NaOCl or citric acid increased the bond strength of nano-sliver modified resin to enamel, with citric acid showing greater increase in bond strength. Deproteinization using PEG 400 did not increase the bond strength. (AU)


Objetivo: Este estudo buscou investigar o efeito da desproteinização do esmalte utilizando ácido cítrico, PEG 400 e NaOCl na resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes ortodônticos ao esmalte usando resina modificada com nanoprata para a prevenção de lesões de manchas brancas. Material e Métodos: 68 pré-molares foram usados no estudo; resina adesiva modificada com nanoprata foi usada para colar os braquetes ortodônticos ao esmalte. Os corpos-de-prova foram divididos em 4 grupos de acordo com o tratamento de superfície aplicado antes da colagem. Grupo I (controle): condicionamento ácido com ácido fosfórico a 37%. Grupo II: desproteinização com hipoclorito de sódio a 5,25% (NaOCl) antes do condicionamento ácido. Grupo III: desproteinização com ácido cítrico a 10% antes do condicionamento ácido. Grupo IV: desproteinização com polietilenoglicol 5% (PEG 400) antes do condicionamento ácido. As amostras foram então termocicladas por 6.000 ciclos. Eles foram examinados quanto à rugosidade da superfície, resistência ao cisalhamento e usando microscópio eletrônico. Resultados: Nos testes de rugosidade superficial e resistência ao cisalhamento, o Grupo III (ácido cítrico) apresentou os maiores valores, seguido do Grupo II (hipoclorito de sódio); (p <0,001). Os menores valores foram apresentados para os Grupos I (controle) e IV (PEG 400), sem diferença estatisticamente significativa entre eles (p = 0,948). A microscopia eletrônica revelou padrão de ataque tipo 1 e 2 no grupo de ácido cítrico, enquanto PEG 400 mostrou microporosidades mais rasas. Conclusões: A desproteinização do esmalte com NaOCl ou ácido cítrico aumentou a força de união da resina modificada com nanoprata ao esmalte, com o ácido cítrico apresentando maior aumento na força de união. A desproteinização usando PEG 400 não aumentou a resistência de união. (AU)


Subject(s)
Sodium Hypochlorite , Citric Acid , Dental Cements , Dental Enamel
3.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(4): 436-446, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156326

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: el cáncer colorrectal es un problema de salud pública; sin embargo, la detección temprana reduce su morbimortalidad. La colonoscopia es el procedimiento de elección para detectar lesiones premalignas y el éxito depende de una limpieza adecuada. El objetivo es evaluar el desempeño de dos preparaciones de bajo volumen empleados en un hospital de alto nivel. Materiales y métodos: estudio prospectivo en adultos que asistieran a colonoscopia en la Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá, Colombia. Las preparaciones se evaluaron con la escala de Boston, con puntaje ≥ 6 puntos para una limpieza adecuada. Se realizó un análisis de regresión logística para establecer la efectividad de los medicamentos con un cálculo de no inferioridad del 3 %-5 %. Resultados: 598 pacientes fueron evaluados. El 49 % (293) fue expuesto al picosulfato de sodio/citrato de magnesio y el 51 % (305) fue expuesto al sulfato de sodio/potasio/magnesio. Con un promedio de Boston de 6,98 ± 1,86 (78 % con puntaje de Boston ≥ 6) y 7,39 ± 1,83 (83 %), respectivamente (p = 0,649). Según el análisis de la presencia y frecuencia de síntomas no deseados, el picosulfato fue mejor tolerado (p < 0,001). Conclusiones: los estudios de preparación intestinal en pacientes de un escenario real son muy escasos. Los medicamentos de bajo volumen obtuvieron una efectividad global y por segmento de colon similar, confirmando la no-inferioridad; el picosulfato de sodio/citrato de magnesio fue mejor tolerado. Un estudio de costo-efectividad podría definir esto según las necesidades de la población de estudio.


Abstract Introduction: Colorectal cancer is a public health problem; however, early detection reduces morbidity and mortality. Colonoscopy is the procedure of choice for detecting precancerous lesions, and success depends on proper bowel cleansing. Objective: To evaluate the performance of two low-volume agents used in a high-level hospital. Materials and methods: Prospective study in adults who underwent colonoscopy at the Fundación Santa Fe in Bogotá, Colombia. Preparations were evaluated using the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale. A score ≥6 points indicated adequate preparation. A logistic regression analysis was carried out to establish the effectiveness of the medicines with a non-inferiority ratio of 3-5%. Results: 598 patients were evaluated. 49% (293) received sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate and 51% (305) received sodium sulfate/potassium/magnesium, with an average Boston score of 6.98±1.86 (78% Boston ≥6) and 7.39±1.83 (83%), respectively (p=0.649). According to the analysis of the presence and frequency of unwanted symptoms, picosulfate was better tolerated (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Bowel preparation studies in patients from a real-life scenario are scarce. Low-volume agents had similar overall and segmental effectiveness in the colon, confirming non-inferiority; sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate was better tolerated. A cost-effectiveness study could establish the best option according to the needs of the study population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Patients , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Colorectal Neoplasms , Prospective Studies , Colonoscopy , Potassium , Sodium , Effectiveness , Citric Acid , Costs and Cost Analysis , Disaster Preparedness , Magnesium
4.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 26(2): 166-171, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1150026

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Sodium fluoroacetate, known as compound 1080, was discovered in Germany during the Second World War. It is usually used as a rodenticide, it is an odorless and tasteless substance, with a lethal dose in humans of 2 mg / kg that is why it was withdrawn from the market in some countries, including Colombia; however, it is obtained illegally. This substance has biochemical and physiological effects at the cellular level that alter the transport of citrate at the mitochondrial level, generating accumulation of lactic acid and alteration of the glucose use. The clinical manifestations are nonspecific since there is no any cardinal symptom. Therefore, its diagnosis is made due to high clinical suspicion associated with establishment of exposure to the compound in view of the difficulty to obtain paraclinical confirmation in a timely manner. Methods: We present a case report of intentional ingestion of sodium fluoroacetate in an adolescent that is associated with an infection added to the bloodstream by methicillin- sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). The patient developed multiple complications that lead to support in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with a satisfactory outcome. In view of the lack of a specific antidote, she was treated with ethanol in order to increase the level of acetate; thus, offering an alternative substrate to the Krebs cycle. It is suggested that the ethanol offers benefits in the acute treatment of these patients. Results: The patient with sodium fluoroacetate poisoning and kidney failure received renal replacement therapy with a favorable evolution and survival at discharge from the intensive care unit of a third-level hospital in the city of Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia. Conclusions: Sodium fluoroacetate poisoning is relatively rare and can cause acute kidney injury and multi-organ failure with a high rate of complications and death. A case of self-inflicted poisoning that received a timely manner continuous renal replacement therapy with a favorable outcome in terms of ICU survival was presented.


Resumen Introducción: El fluoroacetato de sodio ⎯conocido como compuesto 1080⎯, fue descubierto en Alemania durante la segunda guerra mundial, suele ser utilizado como raticida y se caracteriza por ser una sustancia inodora e insabora. En humanos, una dosis de 2 a mg/kg es letal; debido a su toxicidad fue retirado del mercado en algunos países, incluyendo Colombia, no obstante, se consigue de forma ilegal. Esta sustancia tiene efectos bioquímicos y fisiológicos a nivel celular que altera el transporte del citrato a nivel mitocondrial, generando acumulación de ácido láctico y alteración en la utilización de la glucosa. Las manifestaciones clínicas son inespecíficas y no existe un síntoma cardinal. Por ende, su diagnóstico se realiza por alta sospecha clínica, asociado al establecimiento de la exposición al compuesto, ya que la confirmación paraclínica es difícil de realizar oportunamente. Métodos: Se presenta un reporte de caso de ingestión intencional en un adolescente, asociado con infección agregada al torrente sanguíneo por Estafilococos Aureos Meticilino Sensible (EAMS). El paciente desarrolló múltiples complicaciones y requirió asistencia en Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) con desenlace satisfactorio. Ya que no se cuenta con antídoto específico , se le dio tratamiento con etanol para aumentar el nivel de acetato, ofreciendo así un sustrato alterno al ciclo de Krebm. Se estima que el etanol puede ofrecer beneficios en el tratamiento agudo de estos pacientes. Resultados: Paciente con intoxicación por fluoroacetato de sodio e insuficiencia renal, recibe terapia de reemplazo renal con un evolución favorable y supervivencia al alta de la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos de un hospital de tercer nivel en la ciudad de Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia. Conclusiones: La intoxicación por fluoroacetato de sodio es relativamente poco frecuente y puede causar injuria renal aguda y falla multiorgánica con alta tasa de complicaciones y muerte. Se presentó un caso de intoxicación autoinfligida que recibió terapia de reemplazo renal continua temprana con un desenlace favorable en términos de supervivencia en la UCI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Staphylococcus aureus , Toxicity , Fluoroacetates , Methicillin , Acetates , Rodenticides , Citric Acid Cycle , Citric Acid , Lactic Acid , Diagnosis , Ethanol , Eating , Acute Kidney Injury , Hoarding , Survivorship , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Glucose , Hospitals , Intensive Care Units , Lead
5.
Revista Naval de Odontologia ; 47(1): [7-13], 12/06/2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359694

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the ex vivo effectiveness of different final irrigation protocols in smear layer removal and intraradicular dentine erosion. Thirty five extracted human canines were instrumented and randomly divided, according to final rinse techniques used, into 7 groups: 1 (ED3M) and 3 (ED3US), 17% EDTA for 3 minutes with manual and ultrasonic agitation, respectively; 2 (CA30M) and 4 (CA30US), 10% citric acid for 30 seconds with manual and ultrasonic agitation, respectively; 5 (CA3M) and 6 (CA3US), 10% citric acid for 3 minutes with manual and ultrasonic agitation, respectively; and, 7 (Na3), 5.25% NaOCl for 3 minutes without agitation (control). All specimens then were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl, split lengthwise, and examined under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in apical, middle and coronal thirds. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. The effectiveness of 17% EDTA and 10% citric acid in removing smear layer was significantly greater than 5.25% NaOCl (control). There were no significant differences among final irrigation protocols in smear layer removal or erosive effects. However, when comparing the thirds in groups 1 (ED3M) and 2 (CA30M), the least smear layer removal and erosion was seen in the apical third, but the group 4 procedure (CA30US) was more effective than 1 (ED3M) (p=0.0004), 2 (CA30M) (p=0.0018) or 3 (ED3US) (p=0.0003) in smear layer removal for the apical third. It was concluded that protocols used in this study were similar in smear layer removal and erosive effects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tooth Erosion , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Edetic Acid , Citric Acid
6.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(6): 1113-1121, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056346

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To establish whether the citrate concentration in the seminal fluid ([CITRATE]) measured by means of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HNMRS) is superior to the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration in detecting of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) in men with persistently elevated PSA. Materials and Methods: The group of patients consisted of 31 consecutively seen men with histological diagnosis of clinically localized csPCa. The control group consisted of 28 men under long-term follow-up (mean of 8.7 ± 3.0 years) for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), with persistently elevated PSA (above 4 ng/mL) and several prostate biopsies negative for cancer (mean of 2.7 ± 1.3 biopsies per control). Samples of blood and seminal fluid (by masturbation) for measurement of PSA and citrate concentration, respectively, were collected from patients and controls. Citrate concentration in the seminal fluid ([CITRATE]) was determined by means of 1HNMRS. The capacities of PSA and [CITRATE] to predict csPCa were compared by means of univariate analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: Median [CITRATE] was significantly lower among patients with csPCa compared to controls (3.93 mM/l vs. 15.53 mM/l). There was no significant difference in mean PSA between patients and controls (9.42 ng/mL vs. 8.57 ng/mL). The accuracy of [CITRATE] for detecting csPCa was significantly superior compared to PSA (74.8% vs. 54.8%). Conclusion: Measurement of [CITRATE] by means of 1HNMRS is superior to PSA for early detection of csPCa in men with elevated PSA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Semen/chemistry , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Citric Acid/analysis , Prostatic Hyperplasia/diagnosis , Prostatic Hyperplasia/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Biopsy , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Middle Aged
7.
Rev. ADM ; 76(5): 278-281, sept.-oct. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053117

ABSTRACT

La instrumentación mecánica durante el tratamiento periodontal trae consigo la formación de escombros microcristalinos que inhiben la adhesión tisular a la superfi cie radicular y favorece la proliferación bacteriana, lo cual perjudica los resultados del tratamiento periodontal a corto y largo plazo. Hoy en día el acondicionamiento radicular con el uso de biomodifi cadores es una opción de tratamiento adicional en el tratamiento de la periodontitis y el tratamiento de cobertura radicular. El objetivo del presente estudio es realizar una revisión de la literatura acerca de las aplicaciones y del acondicionamiento radicular con ácido cítrico, tetraciclina, EDTA y láser en el tratamiento periodontal no quirúrgico y quirúrgico (AU)


Mechanical instrumentation during periodontal treatment brings the formation of microcrystalline debris that inhibits tissue adhesion to the root surface and favors bacterial proliferation, which harms the results of the short and long term periodontal treatment. Nowadays, root conditioning with the use of biomodifi cators is an additional treatment option in the treatment of periodontitis and root coverage therapy. The aim of the present study is to conduct a literature review about the applications and the root conditioning with citric acid, tetracycline, EDTA and laser in the non surgical and surgical periodontal treatment (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Periodontal Diseases/surgery , Periodontal Diseases/therapy , Tooth Root/drug effects , Tetracyclines , Dental Scaling , Root Planing , Edetic Acid , Citric Acid , Laser Therapy
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764406

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Erosion is a gradual process that occurs fairly quickly, and the full extent of the erosive effects of acidic beverages is not yet clear. The present study aimed to determine the differences in the erosive potentials among four naturally acidic fruit nectars within the same range of titratable acidity and to determine the influence of the components of organic acids on tooth erosion. METHODS: Diluted fruit nectars (mandarin 1:1.1, orange 1:1.7, lemon 1:15, grapefruit 1:20) with the same range of titratable acidity (7.9 ml) and their corresponding organic acids (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% citric acid, malic acid, and a citric and malic acid mixture [pH 2.8], respectively) were used. Specimens were placed in conical tubes with 50 ml of each of the test solutions for 1 hour. A microhardness test and scanning electron microscopy were used to measure enamel erosion. Acid separation was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography to analyze the composition of each test solution. RESULTS: Similar decreases in the Vickers hardness number (VHN) were observed among the groups treated with the following diluted fruit nectars: diluted mandarin nectar (75.9 ΔVHN), diluted lemon nectar (89.1 ΔVHN), diluted grapefruit nectar (91.7 ΔVHN), and diluted orange nectar (92.5 ΔVHN). No statistically significant differences were found in the enamel surface hardness after erosion (p>0.05). Citric and malic acids were the major organic acids in the test fruits. The lemon and orange groups had the highest malic acid concentrations, and the mandarin group had the lowest malic acid concentration. CONCLUSION: The titratable acidity and the citric and malic acid contents of the fruits could be crucial factors responsible for enamel erosion. Therefore, fruit-based drinks should be regarded as potentially erosive.


Subject(s)
Beverages , Chromatography, Liquid , Citric Acid , Citrus paradisi , Citrus sinensis , Dental Enamel , Fruit , Hardness , In Vitro Techniques , Microscopy , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Plant Nectar , Tooth Erosion
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760099

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature for application of intranasal sodium citrate in the patients with olfactory dysfunction to help determine the sodium citrate treatments for this condition. Two authors independently searched the data base (Medline, Scopus, and the Cochrane database) for relevant studies from inception to January 2018. Included studies were randomized controlled studies published in English comparing topical sodium citrate application (treatment group) with saline (control group) in patients who had olfactory dysfunction. Outcomes of interest included the change of olfactory identification and threshold during 2 hours post-treatment. Three studies were enrolled in the meta-analysis. Compared with control group, treatment group did not increase posttreatment score of olfactory identification [standardized mean difference (SMD)=-0.03; 95% confidence interval (CI)=-0.29-0.24; I²=0%] and olfactory threshold (SMD=0.18; 95% CI=-0.09-0.45; I²=0%) significantly. In the degree of pre-post improvement of two outcomes, although treatment group statistically showed the significant improvement in olfactory threshold (SMD=0.30; 95% CI=0.05-0.55; I²=17%), the clinical significance of this outcome was meaningless. Similarly, there was no significant difference in olfactory identification between two groups (SMD=0.17; 95% CI=-0.11-0.45; I²=22%). Unlike the recent favorable results, our summated results presented the uselessness for the local application of sodium citrate in improving patient's olfactory function. However, we also had some limitation such as small sample size and inconsistent application methods. Therefore, larger trials and standardized methodology are needed to reach more stronger and exact results.


Subject(s)
Citric Acid , Humans , Sample Size , Sodium
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776711

ABSTRACT

Aluminum (Al) is the most abundant metal element in the earth's crust. On acid soils, at pH 5.5 or lower, part of insoluble Al-containing minerals become solubilized into soil solution, with resultant highly toxic effects on plant growth and development. Nevertheless, some plants have developed Al-tolerance mechanisms that enable them to counteract this Al toxicity. One such well-documented mechanism is the Al-induced secretion of organic acid anions, including citrate, malate, and oxalate, from plant roots. Once secreted, these anions chelate external Al ions, thus protecting the secreting plant from Al toxicity. Genes encoding the citrate and malate transporters responsible for secretion have been identified and characterized, and accumulating evidence indicates that regulation of the expression of these transporter genes is critical for plant Al tolerance. In this review, we outline the recent history of research into plant Al-tolerance mechanisms, with special emphasis on the physiology of Al-induced secretion of organic acid anions from plant roots. In particular, we summarize the identification of genes encoding organic acid transporters and review current understanding of genes regulating organic acid secretion. We also discuss the possible signaling pathways regulating the expression of organic acid transporter genes.


Subject(s)
Aluminum , Toxicity , Anions , Biological Transport , Citric Acid , Metabolism , Malates , Metabolism , Oxalic Acid , Metabolism , Plant Roots , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Physiology
11.
Intestinal Research ; : 413-418, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study compared the efficacy, compliance, and safety of bowel preparation between sodium picosulfate with magnesium citrate (SPMC) and oral sulfate solution (OSS). METHODS: A prospective randomized multicenter study was performed. Split preparation methods were performed in both groups; the SPMC group, 2 sachets on the day before, and 1 sachet on the day of the procedure, the OSS group, half of the OSS with 1 L of water on both the day before and the day of the procedure. The adenoma detection rate (ADR), adequacy of bowel preparation using the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS) score, patient satisfaction on a visual analog scale (VAS), and safety were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: This study analyzed 229 patients (121 in the SPMC group and 108 in the OSS group). ADR showed no differences between 2 groups (51.7% vs. 41.7%, P>0.05). The mean total BBPS score (7.95 vs. 8.11, P>0.05) and adequate bowel preparation rate (94.9% vs. 96.3%, P>0.05) were similar between the 2 groups. The mean VAS score for taste (7.62 vs. 6.87, P=0.006) was significantly higher in the SPMC group than in the OSS group. There were no significant differences in any other safety variables between the 2 groups except nausea symptom (36.1% vs. 20.3%, P=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Bowel preparation for colonoscopy using low volume OSS and SPMC yielded similar ADRs and levels of efficacy. SPMC had higher levels of satisfaction for taste and feeling than did OSS.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Citric Acid , Colonoscopy , Compliance , Humans , Magnesium , Nausea , Patient Satisfaction , Prospective Studies , Sodium , Visual Analog Scale , Water
12.
Gut and Liver ; : 479-480, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763880

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Asians , Breath Tests , Citric Acid , Humans , Meals
13.
Gut and Liver ; : 506-514, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763876

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The validity of ¹³C-urea breath test (¹³C-UBT) for Helicobacter pylori detection is influenced by atrophic gastritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of citric acid on the accuracy of ¹³C-Urea breath test after H. pylori eradication therapy in a region where atrophic gastritis is common. METHODS: In this prospective study, H. pylori-positive patients received ¹³C-UBT after H. pylori eradication regimen. They were classified into citric acid group and control group. To determine diagnostic accuracy of ¹³C-UBT, patients were offered invasive methods. RESULTS: A total of 1,207 who successfully took H. pylori-eradication regimen received UBT. They were assigned into the citric acid group (n=562) and the control group (n=645). The mean ¹³C-UBT value of the citric acid group was 10.3±26.4‰, which was significantly (p<0.001) higher than that of that control group (5.1‰±12.6‰). Of these patients 122 patients were evaluated by endoscopic biopsy methods. Based on invasive tests, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of ¹³C-UBT for the citric acid group were 83.3%, 91.7%, 81.3%, 55.0%, and 97.5%, respectively. Those of the control group were 87.7%, 90.9%, 88.2%, 62.5%, and 97.8%, respectively. They were not significantly different between the two groups. Although the presence of gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia (IM) decreased the accuracy, the decrease was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a country with high prevalence of atrophic gastritis or IM, false positivity remained common despite the use of citric acid in ¹³C-UBT.


Subject(s)
Atrophy , Biopsy , Breath Tests , Citric Acid , Diagnosis , Gastritis, Atrophic , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Metaplasia , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758970

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare the impact of citrate dialysate (CD) and standard acetate dialysate (AD) in hemodialysis by central delivery system (CDS) on heparin demand, and clinical parameters. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 75 patients on maintenance hemodialysis with CDS. Patients underwent hemodialysis with AD over a six-month period (AD period), followed by another six-month period using CD (CD period). Various parameters including mean heparin dosage, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), calcium-phosphate product (CaxP), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), and urea reduction ratio (URR) were collated at the end of each period. RESULTS: Patients were 60.5 ± 14.7 years old, of whom 62.7% were male. Patients required less heparin when receiving CD (AD period: 1,129 ± 1,033 IU/session vs. CD period: 787 ± 755 IU/session, P < 0.001). After the CD period (Δ(CD)), pre-dialysis total CO₂ increased to 1.21 ± 2.80 mmol/L, compared to −2.44 ± 2.96 mmol/L (P < 0.001) after the AD period (Δ(AD)). After the CD period, concentrations of iPTH (Δ(AD): 73.04 ± 216.34 pg/mL vs. Δ(CD): −106.66 ± 251.79 pg/mL, P < 0.001) and CaxP (Δ(AD): 4.32 ± 16.63 mg²/dL² vs. Δ(CD): −4.67 ± 15.27 mg²/dL², P = 0.015) decreased. While hsCRP levels decreased after the CD period (Δ(AD): 0.07 ± 4.09 mg/L vs. Δ(CD): −0.75 ± 4.56 mg/L, P = 0.705), the change was statistically insignificant. URR remained above clinical guideline of 65% after both periods (Δ(AD): 72.33 ± 6.92% vs. Δ(CD) period: 69.20 ± 4.49%, P = 0.046). CONCLUSION: Our study confirmed that the use of CD in CDS required lower heparin doses compared to the use of AD. The use of CD also provided a more stable acid-base status.


Subject(s)
Acetates , C-Reactive Protein , Citric Acid , Heparin , Humans , Male , Parathyroid Hormone , Renal Dialysis , Retrospective Studies , Urea
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761799

ABSTRACT

Although atopic dermatitis (AD) is known to be a representative skin disorder, it also affects the systemic immune response. In a recent study, myoblasts were shown to be involved in the immune regulation, but the roles of muscle cells in AD are poorly understood. We aimed to identify the relationship between mitochondria and atopy by genome-wide analysis of skeletal muscles in mice. We induced AD-like symptoms using house dust mite (HDM) extract in NC/Nga mice. The transcriptional profiles of the untreated group and HDM-induced AD-like group were analyzed and compared using microarray, differentially expressed gene and functional pathway analyses, and protein interaction network construction. Our microarray analysis demonstrated that immune response-, calcium handling-, and mitochondrial metabolism-related genes were differentially expressed. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology pathway analyses, immune response pathways involved in cytokine interaction, nuclear factor-kappa B, and T-cell receptor signaling, calcium handling pathways, and mitochondria metabolism pathways involved in the citrate cycle were significantly upregulated. In protein interaction network analysis, chemokine family-, muscle contraction process-, and immune response-related genes were identified as hub genes with many interactions. In addition, mitochondrial pathways involved in calcium signaling, cardiac muscle contraction, tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidation-reduction process, and calcium-mediated signaling were significantly stimulated in KEGG and Gene Ontology analyses. Our results provide a comprehensive understanding of the genome-wide transcriptional changes of HDM-induced AD-like symptoms and the indicated genes that could be used as AD clinical biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biomarkers , Calcium , Calcium Signaling , Citric Acid , Citric Acid Cycle , Cytokines , Dermatitis, Atopic , Gene Ontology , Genome , Metabolism , Mice , Microarray Analysis , Mitochondria , Muscle Cells , Muscle Contraction , Muscle, Skeletal , Myoblasts , Myocardium , Oxidation-Reduction , Protein Interaction Maps , Pyroglyphidae , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , Skin
17.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180107, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975878

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to compare two in vitro erosion protocols, in which one simulates in vivo conditions experienced by patients with gastroesophageal disorders or bulimia (HCl-pepsin protocol), and the other simulates the diet of an individual who consumes a high volume of erosive beverages (citric acid protocol). In addition, the mechanical properties and surface gloss of eroded human dentin were compared with those of sound human dentin. Materials and Methods Blocks of cervical dentin were used: sound human dentin (n=10), human dentin with erosive lesions (n=10), and bovine dentin (n=30). Twenty bovine blocks were subjected to either of two erosion protocols (n=10/protocol). In the first protocol, samples were demineralized using HCl-pepsin solution, then treated with trypsin solution. In the second protocol, samples were demineralized with 2% citric acid. Toothbrushing was performed in both protocols using a toothbrushing machine (15 s with a 150 g load). Ten bovine dentin blocks were not subjected to any erosive treatment. All samples of bovine and human dentin were analyzed to obtain Martens hardness values (MH), elastic modulus (Eit*) and surface gloss. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's test were performed to analyze the data (α=0.05). Results Sound human and eroded human dentin groups showed similar MH and Eit* values (p>0.05); however, sound human dentin showed a higher surface gloss value when compared to eroded human dentin (p<0.05). Sound bovine dentin and HCl-pepsin-treated bovine dentin treatments resulted in similar values for both MH and Eit* (p>0.05), but HCl-pepsin-treated bovine dentin and citric acid-treated bovine dentin resulted in lower surface gloss than sound bovine dentin (p<0.05). Conclusions The HCl-pepsin protocol modified bovine dentin properties that could be similar to those that occur on human dentin surfaces with erosive lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Dentin/drug effects , Reference Values , Surface Properties/drug effects , Tooth Erosion/etiology , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Pepsin A/chemistry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Citric Acid/chemistry , Dentin/chemistry , Elastic Modulus , Hardness Tests
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719402

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Information on biochemical changes following rapid transfusion of blood mixtures in liver transplantation patients is limited. METHODS: A blood mixture composed of red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, and 0.9% saline was prepared in a ratio of 1 unit:1 unit:250 ml. During massive hemorrhage, 300 ml of the blood mixture was repeatedly transfused. A blood mixture sample as well as pre- and post-transfusion arterial blood samples were collected at the first, third, fifth, and seventh bolus transfusions. Changes in pH, hematocrit, electrolytes, and glucose were measured with a point-of-care analyzer. The biochemical changes were described, and the factors driving the changes were sought through linear mixed effects analysis. RESULTS: A total of 120 blood samples from 10 recipients were examined. Potassium and sodium levels became normalized during preservation. Biochemical changes in the blood mixture were significantly related to the duration of blood bank storage and reservoir preservation (average R2 = 0.41). Acute acidosis and hypocalcemia requiring immediate correction occurred with each transfusion. Both the pre-transfusion value of the patient and the blood mixture value were significant predictors of post-transfusion changes in the body (average R2 = 0.87); however, the former was more crucial. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid infusion of blood mixture is relatively safe because favorable biochemical changes occur during storage in the reservoir, and the composition of the blood mixture has little effect on the body during rapid transfusion in liver recipients. However, acute hypocalcemia and acidosis requiring immediate correction occurred frequently due to limited citrate metabolism in the liver recipients.


Subject(s)
Acidosis , Blood Banks , Blood Safety , Blood Transfusion , Citric Acid , Electrolytes , Erythrocytes , Glucose , Hematocrit , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hypocalcemia , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Metabolism , Plasma , Point-of-Care Systems , Potassium , Sodium
19.
Odontología (Ecuad.) ; 20(1): 50-60, 20180608.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-988041

ABSTRACT

La microfiltración apical es uno de los causantes del fracaso en los tratamientos de endodoncia, misma que es debida a la adaptación deficiente de los materiales, a la solubilidad del cemento sellador, o a la contracción del relleno radicular. Ob-jetivo: Determinar la microfiltración apical en conductos obturados sin y con pretratamiento dentinario de EDTA y ácido cítrico. Materiales y métodos: 30 dientes premolares uniradiculares recientemente extraídos fueron instrumentados y divididos aleatoriamente en 3 grupos de 10 piezas cada uno, siendo: G1= dientes sin pretratamiento dentinario (grupo con-trol), G2= dientes con pretratamiento dentinario de EDTA al 17%, G3= dientes con pretratamiento de ácido cítrico al 10%. A continuación todos los grupos fueron irrigados con NaOCl al 5.25%, seguido por suero fisiológico y finalmente obtura-dos con cemento resinoso TopSeal (Dentsply De Trey, Konstanz, Germany). Previa diafanización de los dientes se realizó la observación en un estereomicroscopio óptico y se midió la microfiltración lineal con un calibrador digital. Los datos fueron procesados y analizados a través del test de ANOVA y test de Tukey con nivel de significancia del 5%. Resultados: Las medias fueron 1.61, 0.54, 0.12 para G1, G2 y G3 respectivamente. Existió diferencia significativa entre los grupos que recibieron pretratamiento dentinario con el grupo control (p<0.001). No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los grupos que recibieron pretratamiento dentinario (p<0.364). Conclusión: Los dos tipos de pretratamiento dentinario disminuyeron de manera eficiente la microfiltración apical sin existir diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre ambos.


The apical microfiltration is one of the causes of the failure in the endodontic treatments, which is due to the poor adapta-tion of the materials, to the solubility of the cement sealer, or to the contraction of the root filling. Objective: To determine apical microfiltration in sealed ducts without and with EDTA and citric acid pretreatment. Materials and methods: 30 recently extracted uniradicular premolar teeth were instrumented and randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 pieces each, being: G1= teeth without dentin pretreatment (control group), G2= teeth with 17% EDTA dentin pretreatment, G3= teeth with 10% citric acid pretreatment. All the groups were then irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl, followed by physiological saline and finally sealed with TopSeal resinous cement (Dentsply De Trey, Konstanz, Germany). After diaphanization of the teeth, observation was made in an optical stereomicroscope and the linear microfiltration was measured with a digital calibrator. The data were processed and analyzed through the ANOVA test and the Tukey test with a level of significance of 5%. Results: The means were 1.61, 0.54, 0.12 for G1, G2 and G3 respectively. There was a significant difference between the groups that received pretreatment dentin with the control group (p <0.001). No significant differences were found between the groups that received dentin pretreatment (p<0.364). Conclusion: The two types of dentin pretreatment efficiently decreased apical microfiltration without a statistically significant difference between the two.


A microfiltração apical é uma das causas da falha em endodontia, mesmo é devido à má adaptação dos materiais, a solubilidade do cimento de cimentação, o encolhimento ou o enchimento da raiz. Objetivo: Determinar a microfiltração apical em ductos selados sem e com pré-tratamento de dentina de EDTA e ácido cítrico. Materiais e métodos: 30 pré-molares recentemente uniradiculares extraídos foram instrumentados e aleatoriamente divididos em três grupos de 10 unidades cada, em que: G1 = dentes dentinários sem pré-tratamento de dentina (grupo controle), G2 = dentes con pré-tratamento de dentina 17% de EDTA , G3 = dentes com pré-tratamento de dentina con 10% de ácido cítrico. Todos os grupos foram então irrigados com NaOCl a 5,25%, seguido de soro fisiológico e finalmente selados com cimento resinoso TopSeal (Dentsply De Trey, Konstanz, Alemanha). Após a diafanização dos dentes, a observação foi feita em estereomicroscópio óptico e a microfiltração linear foi medida com um calibrador digital. Os dados foram processados e analisados através do teste ANOVA e do teste de Tukey, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: As médias foram 1,61, 0,54, 0,12 para G1, G2 e G3, respectivamente. Houve diferença significativa entre os grupos que receberam pré-tratamento de dentina com o grupo controle (p <0,001). Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os grupos que receberam pré-tratamento com dentina (p <0,364). Conclusão: Os dois tipos de pré-tratamento com dentina diminuíram eficientemente a microfiltração apical, sem diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os dois.


Subject(s)
Root Canal Filling Materials , Root Canal Therapy , Analysis of Variance , Edetic Acid , Citric Acid , Endodontics , Specimen Handling , Bicuspid , Microstraining , Chelating Agents , Disinfection , Smear Layer
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742049

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of abrasive toothbrushing on the surface properties of monolithic computer-assisted design and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) materials stored in food-simulating liquids (FSLs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourty-eight disk-shaped test specimens of each material (Paradigm MZ100/PMZ, Lava Ultimate/LU, Vita Enamic/VE, and Vita Mark II/VMII) with a diameter of 10.0 mm and a thickness of 3.0 ± 0.05 mm were prepared. Specimens were divided into 4 subgroups (n=12) and stored in air, distilled water, 0.02 M citric acid, or 75% ethanol/water solution for 7 days at 36.5℃. Then, the specimens were brushed in a multi-station brushing machine under a vertical load of 2.0 N for 3 hours. Surface gloss (GU), roughness (Ra), and hardness (Vickers [VHN]) were measured after storage and brushing simulation. The data sets were statistically analyzed with 2 and 3-way ANOVAs followed by the Tukey's post-hoc comparisons (α=.05). RESULTS: Statistically significant difference was found among the materials concerning the results of surface properties. VMII showed the highest VHN, while PMZ produced the lowest. Storage in FSLs significantly affected the VHN of PMZ and LU. VMII showed the lowest Ra and highest GU irrespective of FSLs and of abrasive toothbrushing. VE, LU, and PMZ produced significant decrease in GU and increase in Ra after toothbrushing. CONCLUSION: Surface properties of monolithic CAD/CAM restorative materials were differently affected by the storage media and abrasive toothbrushing.


Subject(s)
Citric Acid , Computer-Aided Design , Dataset , Hardness , In Vitro Techniques , Surface Properties , Toothbrushing , Water
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