Abstract Numerous studies have investigated the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils from different Citrus species fruit peel, leaves and flowers. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition, larvicidal and antileishmanial activities of essential oil from Citrus reticulata fruit peel (CR-EO). CR-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. Limonene (85.7%), ɣ-terpinene (6.7%) and myrcene (2.1%) were identified as its major components. CR-EO showed high activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 = 8.23 µg/mL). CR-EO also exhibited high larvicidal activity against third instar Aedes aegypti larvae at a lethal concentration (LC50 = 58.35 µg/mL) and 100% mortality at 150 µg/mL. This study suggests, for the first time, the potential use of CR-EO against this important mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the genus Aedes.
Resumo Numerosos estudos têm investigado a composição química e as atividades biológicas de óleos essenciais extraídos de cascas dos frutos, folhas e flores de diferentes espécies de Citrus. Este trabalho tem como objetivo investigar a composição química e as atividades larvicida e leishmanicida in vitro do óleo essencial das cascas dos frutos de Citrus reticulata (CR-EO). CR-EO foi obtido pela técnica de extração em aparelho Clevenger e sua composição química foi determinada por CG-EM e CG-DIC. Limoneno (85,7%), ɣ-terpineno (6,7%) and mirceno (2,1%) foram identificados como os constituintes majoritários. CR-EO mostrou alta atividade contra as formas promastigota de Leishmania amazonensis (CI50 = 8,23 µg/mL). CR-EO também exibiu alta atividade larvicida contra as larvas do terceiro estágio do Aedes aegypti com concentração letal (CL50 = 58,35 µg/mL) e mortalidade de 100% em 150 µg/mL. Este estudo sugere, pela primeira vez, o uso potencial de CR-EO contra esta importante doença viral transmitida por mosquitos do gênero Aedes.
Subject(s)Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Citrus , Aedes , Insecticides/pharmacology , Fruit , Larva
Nos últimos anos, a obesidade vem aumentando consideravelmente entre adultos e crianças e, segundo a OMS, estima-se que em 2025 o número de obesos ultrapasse a 2,3 milhões em todo o mundo. O indivíduo obeso apresenta maiores riscos de desenvolver doenças crônicas não transmissíveis, como diabetes, doenças cardiovasculares, dislipidemias e ainda alguns tipos de cânceres. O tratamento para a obesidade é variado e inclui mudanças no estilo de vida como: hábitos alimentares e prática de atividade física, tratamento medicamentoso, cirurgia bariátrica e fitoterápicos com o potencial de auxiliar no tratamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma revisão bibliográfica a fim de avaliar os benefícios da utilização de medicamentos fitoterápicos como auxiliar no tratamento da obesidade, seus principais ativos, mecanismos de ação e sua utilização popular. Dentre as plantas pesquisadas e que demonstraram potencial para atuar no tratamento da obesidade encontram-se Camelia sinensis, Citrus aurantium, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Coffea arabica, Ephedra sinica, Zingiber oficinale e Senna alexandrina. Os principais mecanismos de ação envolvidos no potencial anti-obesidade das plantas medicinais são a capacidade de controle do apetite e ingestão de energia, estímulo da termogênese, inibição da lipase pancreática e redução da absorção de gordura, diminuição da lipogênese e aumento da lipólise. Desta forma, conclui-se que as plantas selecionadas neste estudo apresentaram efeitos positivos nos parâmetros bioquímicos e físicos, podendo ser incluídas nos protocolos como coadjuvantes nos tratamentos de emagrecimento.
In recent years, obesity has increased considerably among adults and children and according to the WHO, it is estimated that in 2025 the number of obese people will exceed 2.3 million worldwide. The obese individual is at greater risk of developing non-communicable chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia and even some types of cancer. The treatment for obesity is varied, including changes in lifestyle such as eating habits and physical activity, drug treatment, bariatric surgery and phytotherapy with the potential to aid in the treatment. The objective of this work was to carry out a literature review, evaluating the benefits of using herbal medicines as an aid in the treatment of obesity, their main assets, mechanisms of action and their popular use. Among the plants researched and that have shown potential to act in the treatment of obesity are Camelia sinensis, Citrus aurantium, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Coffea arabica, Ephedra sinica, Zingiber officiale and Senna alexandrina. The main mechanisms of action involved in the antiobesity potential of medicinal plants are the ability to control appetite and energy intake, thermogenesis stimulation, pancreatic lipase inhibition and reduction of fat absorption, lipogenesis decrease and lipolysis increase. Thus, it is concluded that the plants selected in this study showed positive effects on biochemical and physical parameters, and can be included in the protocols as adjuvants in weight loss treatments.
En los últimos años, la obesidad ha aumentado considerablemente entre adultos y niños y, según la OMS, se estima que en 2025 el número de obesos superará los 2,3 millones en todo el mundo. Los individuos obesos tienen un mayor riesgo de desarrollar enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, como la diabetes, las enfermedades cardiovasculares, las dislipidemias e incluso algunos tipos de cáncer. El tratamiento de la obesidad es variado e incluye cambios en el estilo de vida como: hábitos alimenticios y práctica de actividad física, tratamiento farmacológico, cirugía bariátrica y medicamentos a base de hierbas con potencial para ayudar en el tratamiento. El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar una revisión bibliográfica para evaluar los beneficios del uso de las hierbas medicinales como ayuda en el tratamiento de la obesidad, sus principales activos, mecanismos de acción y su uso popular. Entre las plantas investigadas y que mostraron potencial para actuar en el tratamiento de la obesidad están Camelia sinensis, Citrus aurantium, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Coffea arabica, Ephedra sinica, Zingiber oficinale y Senna alexandrina. Los principales mecanismos de acción implicados en el potencial antiobesidad de las plantas medicinales son la capacidad de controlar el apetito y la ingesta de energía, estimular la termogénesis, inhibir la lipasa pancreática y reducir la absorción de grasas, disminuir la lipogénesis y aumentar la lipólisis. Por lo tanto, se concluye que las plantas seleccionadas en este estudio mostraron efectos positivos sobre los parámetros bioquímicos y físicos, y pueden ser incluidas en los protocolos como coadyuvantes en los tratamientos de pérdida de peso.
Subject(s)Phytotherapeutic Drugs , Obesity/therapy , Plants, Medicinal/drug effects , Tea/drug effects , Weight Loss/drug effects , Citrus/drug effects , Ginger/drug effects , Overweight/therapy
Introducción: Algunas mujeres, durante su gestación pueden padecer de sintomatología molesta que interfiere con su cotidianidad, molestias como náuseas, vómitos, dolores lumbares, y fluctuaciones emocionales. Tales molestias podrían manejarse con técnicas como la aromaterapia, propendiendo por ofrecer bienestar sin posibles efectos adversos para el binomio madre e hijo. El objetivo de este artículo es identificar los beneficios que produce la aromaterapia en la gestación mediante una revisión documental. Metodología: Se realizó una búsqueda de artículos científicos en bases de datos como: Science direct, google academic, EBSCO, Pubmed, Gale Power Search, BASE (Bielefeld academic search engine), Proquest; utilizando los DECS Aromatherapy, Pregnancy, Lavandula, Citrus, Jengibre y Rosa en inglés y español, usando el conector booleano AND, de esta búsqueda se obtuvo 50 artículos de investigación que cumplían con el objetivo propuesto. Resultados: se identificó la utilización de la aromaterapia como recurso para las náuseas, vómitos y el dolor, además de lograr mejorar el sueño y disminuir la fatiga. Conclusiones: Se determina entonces que los aceites esenciales usados en los estudios fueron eficaces disminuyendo síntomas molestos en la mayoría de las gestantes participantes de los estudios analizados
Introdução: algumas mulheres, durante a sua gestação podem apresentar sintomas incômodos que interferem com a sua vida diária tais como: náusea, vômitos, dor na lombar e mudanças emocionais. Ditos sintomas podem tratar-se com terapias como a aromaterapia, fornecendo bem-estar, sem efeitos adversos para a mãe e o feto. Objetivo: identificar os benefícios da aromaterapia em mulheres grávidas através de uma revisão documental. Materiais e métodos: procuraram-se artigos científicos em Science direct, Google academic, EBSCO, Pubmed, Gale Power Search, BASE (Bielefeld academic search engine) e Proquest; utilizando os DeCs Aromatherapy, Pregnancy, Lavandula, Citrus, Gengibre e Rosa em inglês e espanhol. Dessa pesquisa surgiram 50 artigos que cumpriam com o objetivo do estudo. Resultados: identificou-se o uso da aromaterapia como recurso para evitar a náusea, o vomito e a dor; melhorando também o sono e a fadiga. Conclusão: determinou-se que os aceites essenciais usados nos estudos foram eficazes porque reduziram os sintomas incômodos na maioria das grávidas dos estudos realizados.
Subject(s)Aromatherapy , Pregnancy , Citrus , Lavandula , Nursing Care
The present study established the spectrum-effect relationship model of flavonoids in Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium(CRP) from 15 batches of Liujunzi Decoction and statistically analyzed the correlation between chemical peaks and efficacy to identify the main effective components. HPLC fingerprints of flavonoids in CRP from 15 batches of Liujunzi Decoction were established. HPLC analysis was carried out on the Venusil XBP C_(18)(L) column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) at 30 ℃ with acetonitrile-water(containing 0.1% formic acid) as mobile phase for gradient elution, a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min~(-1), and detection wavelength of 300 nm to obtain chemical fingerprints. Additionally, the effects of flavonoids from CRP in 15 batches of Liujunzi Decoction on the content of GAS, MTL, and VIP, TFF3 mRNA expression, and percentage of CD3~+ T-cells of model rats with spleen deficiency were determined. The spectrum-effect relationship model was established by gray correlation analysis. The results showed that the main characteristic peaks with great contribution to the regulation of gastrointestinal tract were peak 16(vicenin-2), peak 63(sinensetin), peak 64(isosinensetin), peak 65(nobiletin), peak 67(3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptemthoxyflavone), peak 68(tangeretin), and peak 69(5-desmethylnobiletin). Therefore, there was a linear correlation between flavonoids from CRP in Liujunzi Decoction and the efficacy, and the medicinal effect was achieved by multi-component action. This study is expected to provide a new idea for exploring the material basis of the effect, i.e., regulating qi prior to replenishing qi, of CRP in Liujunzi Decoction.
Subject(s)Animals , Citrus/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Hormones , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Rats , Spleen
Abstract Hepatoprotective effects of many herbal agents have been reported in animal studies and clinical trials. In this study, five hepatoprotective plants with potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects were chosen to prepare a polyherbal compound for managing NAFLD. Sixty patients with NAFLD were randomly divided into treatment and control groups (2:1 ratio). Both group were advised to take healthy diet and exercise. The treatment group also received herbal capsules containing 400 mg of the mixture of Anethum graveolens, Citrus aurantium, Cynara scolymus, Portulaca oleracea, and Silybum marianum (2 capsules, thrice daily, for two months). The liver ultrasound and biochemical markers including the serum lipids, liver enzymes, and glucose were evaluated before starting the study and at the end of the treatment. Thirty patients in the treatment group and sixteen patients in the control group completed the study. The herbal compound significantly decreased the serum level of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and total cholesterol. Treatment with the herbal compound significantly improved the grade of the fatty liver, but no significant change was found in the control group. In conclusion, the formulated herbal compound appeared to be effective in biochemical improvement and decreasing the grade of the fatty liver in the patients with NAFLD.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Liver/abnormalities , Patients , Capsules , Cholesterol/pharmacology , Citrus/metabolism , Anethum graveolens/metabolism , Cynara scolymus/metabolism , Alanine Transaminase/adverse effects , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Diet, Healthy/instrumentation , Antioxidants/classification
Lime sulfur is one of the few products indicated to control Brevipalpus yothersi in Brazilian organic citrus orchards. Other strategies, such as the use of entomopathogenic fungi should be evaluated, and Lecanicillium muscarium is one of the basic choices for pest management. Knowledge of the interactions between lime sulfur and this entomopathogen is critical for developing control strategies. With this goal, it was conducted the toxicological characterization of lime sulfur to B. yothersi and the compatibility evaluation with L. muscarium. Finally, the effects of L. muscarium and lime sulfur mixtures on B. yothersi control were evaluated. Product evaluation for B. yothersi was done through direct and residual contact bioassay, and different concentrations of lime sulfur mixed in potato dextrose agar culture medium were used to evaluate compatibility with L. muscarium. Lime sulfur was effective against adults of B. yothersi and caused eggs unviability of up to 71.0%, at a dose of 80 L per 2,000 L of H2O. The lethal concentration (LC50 and LC99) of lime sulfur estimated for mite adults were 246.62 and 858.5 µg of sulfur per mL of H2O (ppm a.i.). Lime sulfur concentrations of 180 to 560 ppm a.i. showed promise for use in combination with L. muscarium. However, concentrations of 1,000 and 5,600 ppm significantly reduced colony size and the number of spores/colony. The mixture of 100 and 180 ppm a.i. of lime sulfur with L. muscarium (108 conidia·mL1) was not able to reduce the lethal time of entomopathogen on B. yothersi.
Subject(s)Pest Control, Biological/methods , Citrus/parasitology , Cordyceps , Mites , Host Microbial Interactions
This study was designed to predict the Q-markers of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium volatile oil and conduct quantitative analysis by GC-MS. The common components of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium volatile oil were detected by GC-MS. The network pharmacology approaches were utilized for constructing the component-target network and protein-protein interaction(PPI) network, followed by the GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis to clarify the pharmacological effects of common components. Molecular docking was conducted to observe the biological activities of common components, thus identifying the Q-markers of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium volatile oil. The obtained Q-markers were subjected to quantitative analysis by GC-MS. The GC-MS analysis of 19 batches of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium volatile oil revealed three common components, namely, D-limonene, γ-terpinene, and myrcene. The common components were analyzed based on network pharmacology, and the results showed that Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium volatile oil mainly acted on the core targets GABRA1, GABRA6, GABRA5, GABRA3, and GABRA2 through D-limonene and γ-terpinene, with five important pathways such as nicotine addiction and GABAergic synapse involved. The core targets were mainly distributed in olfactory region, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia, hippocampus, and amygdala to exert the pharmacological effects. As revealed by molecular docking, D-limonene and γ-terpinene exhibited good biological activities, so they were identified as the Q-markers of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium volatile oil. The results of quantitative analysis showed that the volume fraction of D-limonene was within the range of 0.77-1.03 μL·mL~(-1), and that of γ-terpinene within the range of 0.04-0.13 μL·mL~(-1). The prediction of D-limonene and γ-terpinene as the Q-markers of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium volatile oil has laid an experimental foundation for the establishment of the quality evaluation standard for Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium volatile oil.
Subject(s)Citrus , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology
The ripe dried fruit of citron(Citrus medica) is one of the important sources of Chinese herb Citri Fructus. At the same time, it is also grown for edible and ornamental uses. There are many species and abundant genetic variation. To clarify the intraspecific variation and resource distribution of citron, this study investigated the variation in 11 citron fruits, basically covering the main species in China, including Xiaoguo citron(C. medica var. ethrog), Goucheng(C. medica var. yunnanensis), Muli citron(C.medica var. muliensis), Dehong citron(C.medica×Citrus spp.), Fuzhou citron(C.medica×C.grandis?), Mawu(C.medica×C.grandis?), Cangyuan citron, Binchuan citron, Sweet citron, Big citron, and Small citron. The natural communities of citron were proved to be mainly distributed in the southwestern and western Yunnan and southeastern Tibet of China, with Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangxi, Chongqing, Hubei, and Zhejiang identified as the main production areas. Citron has also been widely grown in India, the Mediterranean region, and the Caribbean coast countries. The field investigation revealed the large-scale intraspecific variation of citron fruits. Most of the fruits are oval-like or sphere-like in shape. The fruits are green when raw and yellow when ripe, with oil cell dots on the skin, stripe-likes running from top to bottom, and bulge at the top. Usually, in the smaller citron fruits, the pulp and juice vesicles are better developed and the central columella is tighter. By contrast, the juice vesicles and central columella in larger fruits became more vacant, with carpels visible, and the apex segregation and development of the carpels is one of the reasons for variation. These variations should be given top priority in the future variety selection and breeding, and the quality differences of different citron species and their mechanisms should be further studied. In particular, variety selection and classification management according to their medicinal or edible purposes will provide scientific and technological supports for the orderly, safe, and effective production of citron products consumed as food and medicine.
Subject(s)China , Citrus , Fruit , Taste , Tibet
Aurantii Fructus is a commonly used qi-regulating medicinal herb in China. Both traditional Chinese medicine theory and modern experimental research demonstrate that Aurantii Fructus has dryness effect, the material basis of which remains unclear. In recent years, spectrum-effect relationship has been widely employed in the study of active ingredients in Chinese medicinal herbs, the research ideas and methods of which have been constantly improved. Based on the idea of spectrum-effect study, the ultra-high perfor-mance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry(UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) fingerprints of different fractions of Aurantii Fructus extract were established for the identification of total components. Then, the dryness effects of the fractions on normal mice and gastrointestinal motility disorder(GMD) rats were systematically compared. Finally, principal component analysis(PCA), Pearson bivariate correlation analysis and orthogonal partial least squares analysis(OPLS) were integrated to identify the dryness components of Aurantii Fructusextract. The results showed that narirutin, naringin, naringenin, poncirin, oxypeucedanin, and eriodictyol-7-O-glucoside had significant correlations with and contributed to the expression of AQP2 in kidney, AQP3 in colon, and AQP5 in submandibular gland, which were the main dryness components in Aurantii Fructus.
Subject(s)Animals , Aquaporin 2 , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Citrus , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gastrointestinal Motility , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mice , Rats
As a local variety of medicinal material, Citri Trifoliatae Fructus is widely used in many places, whereas its harvest time remains unclear. Therefore, studying its harvest time can make more reasonable use of this medicinal material. In this study, we determined the flavonoids content and compared the color of Citri Trifoliatae Fructus harvested in different time, aiming to guide the harvest of this medicinal material. The fresh fruits of Citrus trifoliata were collected from Xinxiang city, Henan province, graded according to the diameter range, and then dried. The contents of isonaringin, naringen, and poncirin in Citri Trifoliatae Fructus were determined by HPLC, and the color values of the samples were detected by electronic eye. The correlation analysis of the obtained data was carried out to explore the relationships of color and diameter with quality. The results showed that the contents of isonaringin, naringen, and poncirin varied significantly in different harvest time, within the ranges of 0.21-1.20, 2.21-11.59, and 3.73-23.16 mg·g~(-1), respectively. With the delay of harvest time, Citri Trifoliatae Fructus showed the color changing from green to yellow, gradually increased diameter, and gradually decreased contents of isonaringin, naringen, and poncirin. The contents of isonaringin, naringen, and poncirin were negatively correlated with the degree of red and green(a~*) and positively correlated with the degree of yellow and blue(b~*). The contents of naringen and poncirin had significantly negative correlations with the diameter. This study indicates that the quality of Citri Trifoliatae Fructus can be judged by its diameter and skin color, which provides a theoretical basis for the rational harvest of this medicinal material.
Subject(s)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Citrus , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Electronics , Fruit , Technology
BACKGROUND@#Conscious patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) suffer from pain for various reasons, which can affect their recovery process.@*OBJECTIVE@#The present study compared the effects of aromatherapy with Citrus aurantium and lavender essential oils against placebo for reducing pain in conscious intensive care patients.@*DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS@#This study was a parallel randomized placebo-controlled trial. The ICUs of two educational hospitals in Kerman in Southeastern Iran were the study setting. One hundred and fifty conscious intensive care patients were randomly divided into three groups using a stratified block randomization method. Two groups received aromatherapy with essential oils: one with lavender and the other with C. aurantium; these patients received a 30-minute therapy session using their assigned essential oil on the second day of their intensive care stay. The placebo group used 5 drops of normal saline instead of essential oil during their session.@*MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES@#Patient's pain was assessed using a visual analog scale before the aromatherapy intervention, as well as immediately after and one and three hours after intervention.@*RESULTS@#The mean pain score of the lavender group was 40.01 before the aromatherapy intervention and fell to 39.40, 30.60 and 23.68 immediately after the intervention, and at hour one and three post-intervention, respectively. The mean pain score of the C. aurantium group was 45.48 before the intervention and was reduced to 32.34 at three hours after the intervention. The mean pain of the placebo group decreased from 42.80 before the intervention to 35.20 at three hours after the intervention. Pain scores of all groups decreased during the study (P < 0.001). The mean pain of the lavender group was significantly lower than that of the placebo group at three hours after the intervention.@*CONCLUSION@#The results of this study showed that aromatherapy with lavender essential oil reduced pain in conscious ICU patients. Our data could not justify the use of C. aurantium for reducing pain in this population.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#No. IRCT20170116031972N9 (https://en.irct.ir/trial/40827).
Subject(s)Citrus , Critical Care , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Lavandula , Oils, Volatile , Pain/drug therapy , Plant Oils
In ancient times, the original plants of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium had experienced succession and change, including tangerine(Citrus reticulata), pomelo(C. grandis), and Huazhou pomelo(C. grandis 'Tomentosa'), a specific cultivar of C. grandis produced in Huazhou, Guangdong. Before the Qing Dynasty, tangerine was the main original plant, while Huazhou pomelo came to the fore in the Qing Dynasty. In the 1950 s and 1960 s, the producing area of Huazhou pomelo was destroyed, and thus it had to be supplemented with pomelo. From then on, C. grandis 'Tomentosa' and C. grandis were both listed as the original plants of Citri Grandis Exocarpium in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. This paper reviewed the historical evolution of the collection, processing, and efficacy of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium. The research showed that:(1)The harvest time of the original plants of Citri Grandis Exocarpium and Citri Grandis Exocarpium had changed from maturity to immaturity. The collection and processing of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum was first recorded in the Illustrated Classics of Materia Medica in the Song Dynasty. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the mesocarp of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum needed to be removed completely, and Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa' was processed into different specifications such as seven-piece, five-piece, and single piece. Furthermore, processed young fruits of Huazhou pomelo appeared.(2)Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium were processed with carp skin for the first time in the Master Lei's Discourse on Medicinal Processing. It was suggested that carp skin might be helpful for eliminating bones stuck in throat. During the Song, Jin, and Yuan Dynasties, some other processing methods such as ba-king, stir-frying, and salt-processing appeared. Honey, soil, ginger juice, and alum were firstly used as adjuvants for the processing in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Citri Exocarpium Rubrum was mainly prepared with salt in order to improve the effect of lowering Qi, while it was unnecessary for Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa' because of its obvious effect of lowering Qi and eliminating phlegm. The stir-frying and honey-frying methods helped reduce the strong effect of Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa'.(3)According to the application of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium in history, their medicinal use began in Han and Tang Dynasties, developed in Song, Jin, and Yuan Dynasties, and matured in Ming and Qing Dynasties. Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa' was originally applied in Ming and Qing Dynasties, and it still plays an important in role treating COVID-19 nowadays. Moreover, Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis had cold medicinal property, while Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa' had warm medicinal property, and thus they should not be treated the same. At present, Huazhou pomelo has a certain production scale. Therefore, it is recommended that in the next edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, only C. grandis 'Tomentosa' should be included as the original plant of Citri Grandis Exocarpium, and C. grandis should be deleted. The results are conducive to the further development and utilization of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium, and support the rational use of Citri Grandis Exocarpium and its processed products.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Citrus , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Materia Medica , SARS-CoV-2
Twenty batches of Aurantii Fructus Immaturus(AFI) were collected, with their peel and pulp taken as research objects. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography(UPLC) fingerprints of peel and pulp of AFI were established with 17 common peaks in peel and 10 in pulp. Six kinds of flavonoids were identified, i.e., narirutin, naringin, rhoifolin, hesperidin, neohesperidin and nobiletin. The Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of Traditional Chinese Medicine was employed for similarity analysis, which showed that the chromatographic peaks of peel and pulp were basically similar to their respective reference fingerprints, with all similarities greater than 0.90. The similarity between peel and pulp of the same batch of AFI ranged from 0.850 to 0.983. Cluster analysis(CA), principal component analysis(PCA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) were conducted on the common peaks of peel and pulp of AFI with SPSS 17.0 and SIMCA 14.1. Combined with the reference fingerprints, these analyses revealed 12 differential components regarding peel and pulp. Further, the content of the 6 flavonoids and synephrine was determined. The proposed method integrating UPLC fingerprint and multicomponent quantitative analysis is applicable to the quality evaluation of AFI. The results provide a certain basis for the scientific connotation about the appearance characteristic of AFI.
Subject(s)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Citrus , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Synephrine
In ancient times, there were two types of "Juhong" came from the tangerines(Citrus reticulata) and the pomelos(C. grandis and its cultivars), which corresponded to Juhong and Huajuhong recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia respectively. In different periods, Juhong basically came from the same species and the same medicinal parts, but there were also some differences. This article sorted out the ancient and modern literature, under the guidance of "Succession theory of Medicinal materials varieties" and "Change theory of Medicinal materials varieties"(XIE Zong-wan), and combined with field investigation, the evolution and reasons of the original plants and medicinal parts of Juhong were analyzed. In the Han Dynasty and before, the peel of tangerines and pomelos were both used as medicine. In the Southern and Northern Dynasties, the way tangerine peel was used was dried and aged, and then "soaked in hot water and scraped off the mesocarp", which had the essence of only using exocarp as medicine of Juhong already, and its original plant was C. reticalata. In the Song Dynasty, the name of "Juhong" and its medicinal usage were recorded in book on materia medica, and the species and medicinal parts of tangerine were inherited from the previous dynasties. The way tangerine peel was used was only dried and aged without removing the mesocarp. The medicinal material obtained by the way was called Chenpi(dried and aged tangerine peel). The item "Juhong" listing as a separate medicinal material was first recorded in the Collected Discussions from Materia Medica(Bencao Huiyan) in the Ming Dynasty. In the Ming Dynasty, the Dao-di habitat of Juhong was recorded as Guangdong province in most books on materia medica, and the original plants probably were C. reticalata and C. grandis 'Tomentosa'(Huazhou pomelo, a special cultivated species of C. grandis produced in Huazhou, Guangdong, which was recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia as "Huajuhong"), according to the records in the local chronicles. During the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China, the original plants of Juhong were C. reticalata and C. grandis 'Tomentosa'. Of the two, the latter one was considered as the better. As far the medicinal part, it was still the exocarp, while the whole young fruit of C. grandis 'Tomentosa' began to be used as medicine. After the founding of The People's Republic of China, the exocarps of Citrus reticalata, C. grandis and C. grandis 'Tomentosa' were listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia under "Juhong". From the Northern and Southern Dynasties to the Republic of China, C. grandis exocarp was a fake of Juhong. Therefore, it was contradictory to historical records that C. grandis exocarp was listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia as Huajuhong. Juhong had been divided into two types as "Juhong" and "Huajuhong" since 1985. The medicinal part of Huajuhong was only the exocarp of immature and nearly mature fruits, but not the whole young fruit, the actual mainstream medicinal part of Huajuhong. The results are helpful to clarify the historical evolution of species and medicinal parts of Juhong and Huajuhong. It is suggested that in the next edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, only C. grandis 'Tomentosa' should be included as the original plant of Huajuhong, and C. grandis should be deleted, and the young fruit should be added in the medicinal parts besides the exocarp of immature and nearly mature fruit.
Subject(s)China , Citrus , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fruit , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
Introdução: óleos essenciais são muito utilizados para fins terapêuticos e nas últimas décadas esse interesse tem aumentado exponencialmente devido aos avanços nas terapias naturais. Neste contexto, destaca-se o óleo essencial do limão Taiti, um produto com grande potencial terapêutico e farmacológico. Objetivo: este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito carcinogênico e anticarcinogênico do limão Taiti (Citrus latifolia), por meio do teste para detecção de clones de tumores epiteliais em células somáticas de Drosophila melanogaster. Metodologia: larvas de terceiro estágio, do cruzamento entre fêmeas virgens wts/TM3, Sb1 com machos mwh/mwh, foram tratadas cronicamente com diferentes concentrações do óleo essencial do limão Taiti (1,5; 3,0; 6,0 µL) isoladamente e associadas à doxorrubicina (DXR), também foram incluídos dois controles, um negativo (Tween 80 1%) e um positivo (DXR 0,4 mM). Resultados: os resultados revelaram que os indivíduos tratados apenas com as concentrações isoladas do óleo essencial do limão Taiti não apresentaram frequências significativas de tumores quando comparadas ao controle negativo (p>0,05). Contudo, as concentrações associadas apresentaram efeito modulador sobre os danos induzidos pela DXR, pois houve redução significativa (p<0,05) na frequência de tumores, quando comparadas ao controle positivo. Conclusão: o presente trabalho, em condição experimental, atesta que o óleo essencial de limão Taiti (Citrus latifolia) não apresenta ação carcinogênica e sim ação anticarcinogênica em Drosophila melanogaster.
Introduction: essential oils are widely used for therapeutic purposes and in recent decades this interest has increased exponentially due to advances in natural therapies. In this context, the essential oil of lemon Taiti stands out, a product with great therapeutic and pharmacological potential. Objective: this study aimed to evaluate the carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic effect of Tahiti lemon (Citrus latifolia) by testing for clones of epithelial tumors in Drosophila melanogaster somatic cells. Methodology: third stage larvae from crossbreeding wts / TM3, Sb1 virgin females with mwh / mwh males were chronically treated with different concentrations of Taiti lemon essential oil (1.5; 3.0; 6.0 µL) alone and doxorubicin-associated (DXR), two controls were also included, one negative (Tween 80 1%) and one positive (0.4 mM DXR). Results: the results revealed that the individuals treated only with the isolated concentrations of Taiti lemon essential oil did not present significant tumor frequencies when compared to the negative control (p> 0.05). However, the associated concentrations had a modulating effect on DXR-induced damage, since there was a significant reduction (p <0.05) in the frequency of tumors when compared to the positive control. Conclusion: the present work, under experimental condition, attests that Taiti lemon essential oil (Citrus latifolia) did not show carcinogenic action but anticarcinogenic action in Drosophila melanogaster.
Subject(s)Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Oils, Volatile , Citrus , Diptera , Drosophila melanogaster , Larva , Neoplasms , Antioxidants
Abstract Essential oils (EO) from aromatic and medicinal plants generally perform a diverse range of biological activities because they have several active constituents that work in different mechanisms of action. EO from Citrus peel have an impressive range of food and medicinal uses, besides other applications. EO from Citrus reticulata, C. sinensis and C. deliciosa were extracted from fruit peel and analyzed by GC-MS. The major constituent of EO under evaluation was limonene, whose concentrations were 98.54%, 91.65% and 91.27% for C. sinensis, C. reticulata and C. deliciosa, respectively. The highest potential of inhibition of mycelial growth was observed when the oil dose was 300 μL. Citrus oils inhibited fungus growth in 82.91% (C. deliciosa), 65.82% (C. sinensis) and 63.46% (C. reticulata). Anti-Sclerotinia sclerotiorum activity of 90% pure limonene and at different doses (20, 50, 100, 200 and 300 μL) was also investigated. This monoterpene showed to be highly active by inhibiting 100% fungus growth even at 200 and 300 μL doses. This is the first report of the in vitro inhibitory effect of natural products from these three Citrus species and its results show that there is good prospect of using them experimentally to control S. sclerotiorum, in both greenhouse and field conditions.
Resumo Óleos essenciais de plantas aromáticas e medicinais geralmente exibem uma gama diversificada de atividades biológicas, pois possuem vários constituintes ativos que atuam por meio de vários mecanismos de ação. Os óleos essenciais das cascas de Citrus têm uma variedade impressionante de usos em alimentos, medicamentos entre várias outras aplicações. Os óleos essenciais (OE) de Citrus reticulata, C. sinenses e C. deliciosa foram extraídos das cascas dos frutos e analisados por CG-EM. O limoneno foi o constituinte majoritário encontrado nos óleos essenciais avaliados, nas concentrações de 98,54%, 91,65% e 91,27% para C. sinensis, C. reticulata e C. deliciosa, respectivamente. Os maiores potenciais de inibição do crescimento micelial foi observado na dose de 300 µL dos óleos. Os óleos de Citrus inibiram em 82,91% (C. deliciosa), 65,82% (C. sinensis) e 63,46% (C. reticulata) o crescimento do fungo. A atividade anti-Sclerotinia sclerotiorum do limoneno 90% puro e em diferentes doses (20, 50, 100, 200 e 300 µL) foi também investigada e este monoterpeno demonstrou-se altamente ativo inibindo 100% o crescimento do fungo inclusive nas doses de 200 e 300 µL. Este é o primeiro relato sobre o efeito inibitório in vitro dos óleos essenciais destas três espécies de Citrus e os resultados deste estudo mostram que existe uma boa perspectiva de uso destes produtos naturais experimentalmente para controlar o S. sclerotiorum tanto em condições de estufa como em condições de campo.
Subject(s)Ascomycota , Oils, Volatile , Citrus , Plant Oils , Limonene , Fruit
Subject(s)Animals , Coleoptera , Citrus , Brazil , Environment
This study aimed at evaluating the agronomical performance of 'Pineapple' sweet orange grafted on ten rootstocks, in 2011-2017 harvests, so as to recommend the best combinations to be commercially explored in citrus growing regions in Bahia and Sergipe states, Brazil. An experiment wasinstalled to test ten rootstock for 'pineapple' sweet orange: 'Santa Cruz' Rangpur lime, 'Red Rough' Lemon, 'Orlando' Tangelo, 'Sunki Tropical' Mandarin, 'Swingle' citrumelo, the citrandarins 'Indio' and 'Riverside' and the hybrids HTR-051, LVKxLCR-010 and TSKxCTTR-002. The trial was installed in 2008 in the municipalityof Umbauba in Sergipe. The experimental design was complete randomized blocks with four replications and two plants per plot. Plant spacing was 6 x 4 m which corresponds to 416 plants per hectare and the orchard was rainfed and followed conventional management. The following agronomical parameters were evaluated: vegetative growth, drought tolerance, yield and physico-chemical quality of fruits as well as the abundance of phytophagous mites. Both hybrids LVK x LCR 010 and TSKC x CTTR-002 and the 'Santa Cruz' rangpur lime bestowed higher tolerance to the dry period on the 'Pineapple' orange tree, by comparison with higher water deficit susceptibility conferred by the 'Orlando' tangelo and the 'Swingle' citrumelo. Rootstocks HTR-051, 'Riverside' citrandarin, 'Swingle' citrumelo and TSKC x CTTR-02 induced plants to remain small and, thus, showed aptitude for culture densification. Cumulative yield of the 'Pineapple' orange was higher on rootstocks 'Red Rough' lemon and 'Santa Cruz' Rangpur lime, the hybrid LVK x LCR-010 and 'Sunki Tropical'. Yield efficiency was not influenced by the rootstocks. Physico-chemical quality of fruits of 'Pineapple' orange is affected by the rootstocks and meets the requirements of juice industries. Regarding plant resistance, the rootstocks did not influence the population density of mites P. oleivora, E. banksi and T. mexicanus on 'Pineapple' oranges. Results show that both rootstocks 'Red Rough' lemon and 'Santa Cruz' rangpur lime conferred high regularity to 'Pineapple' orange trees in citrus growing regions in Bahia and Sergipe states
O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho agronômico da laranjeira 'Pineapple' em combinação com dez porta-enxertos, nas safras 2011-2017, com vistas à recomendação das melhores combinações para exploração comercial na região citrícola dos estados da Bahia e de Sergipe. O experimento consistiu de laranja doce 'pineapple' enxertado nos porta-enxertos limoeiros 'Cravo Santa Cruz', limoeiro 'Rugoso Vermelho', tangeleiro Orlando, tangerineira 'Sunki' Tropical, citrumelo 'Swingle', citrandarins 'Indio', 'Riverside', além dos híbridos HTR 051 e LVK x LCR 010 e 'TSKC x CTTR 002'. O trabalho foi instalado em 2008, no município de Umbaúba, em Sergipe, no delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, duas plantas por parcela, no espaçamento de 6m x 4m, correspondendo a uma população de 416 plantas· ha-1, com manejo em sistema de produção convencional, sem o uso de irrigação. Os seguintes parâmetros agronômicos foram avaliados: crescimento vegetativo, tolerância à seca, produção e qualidade físico-química de frutos, além da abundância de ácaros fitófagos. Os híbridos LVK x LCR - 010 e TSKC x CTTR - 002, assim como o limoeiro 'Cravo Santa Cruz', conferiram um maior nível de tolerância ao período seco, em contraste com maior suscetibilidade à seca relacionada ao tangelo 'Orlando' e ao citrumelo 'Swingle'. Os porta-enxertos HTR - 051, citrandarin 'Riversidade', citrumelo 'Swingle' e TSKC x CTTR - 002 induziram menor porte às plantas, demonstrando aptidão ao adensamento de plantio. A produção acumulada da laranjeira 'Pineapple' foi maior sobre os porta-enxertos limoeiros 'Rugoso Vermelho' e 'Cravo Santa Cruz', híbrido LVK x LCR - 010 e tangerineira 'Sunki Tropical'. A eficiência produtiva não foi influenciada pelos porta-enxertos. A qualidade física e química de frutos da laranjeira 'Pineapple' foi afetada pelos porta-enxertos e atendeu aos padrões exigidos pela indústria de sucos. Os porta-enxertos estudados não causaram variações nos níveis de populações dos ácaros Phyllocptruta oleivora, Eutetranychus banksi e Tetranychus mexicanus. Com base nos resultados conclui-se que os limoeiros 'Rugoso Vermelho' e 'Cravo Santa Cruz' determinam maior regularidade de produção de frutos à laranjeira 'Pineapple' nas regiões produtoras da Bahia e de Sergipe
Subject(s)Citrus , Mites
Abstract The increased consumption of citrus sweets can contribute to the development of erosive tooth wear (ETW). Objective This in vitro study evaluated the erosive potential of citrus sweets on bovine enamel samples regarding the quantification of wear. Methodology Ninety bovine crowns were prepared and samples were randomly distributed into 6 groups (n=15): 0.1% citric acid solution (pH 2.5); Coca-Cola ® Soft Drink (pH 2.6); Fini ® Diet (lactic and citric acid, pH 3.3); Fini ® Jelly Kisses (lactic and citric acid, pH 3.5); Fini ® Fruit Salad Bubblegum (maleic acid, pH 2.6); Fini ® Regaliz Acid Tubes (maleic and citric acid, pH 3.1). Sweets were dissolved in the proportion of 40 g/250 mL of deionized water. Enamel samples were submitted to erosive challenges for 7 days (4 daily acid immersion cycles for 90 s each). Enamel wear was measured using contact profilometry (μm), and data (median values [interquartile range]) were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn's test (p<0.0001). Results All citrus sweets tested present a high erosive potential, Fini Diet ® (2.4 [1.2]) and Fini Regaliz Tubs ® (2.2 [0.5]) show the highest erosive potential, similar to 0.1% citric acid (2.3 [0.7]); Fini Regaliz Tubs ® is more erosive than Coca-Cola ® (1.4 [0.9]). Conclusion The evaluated citrus sweets have great erosive potential and play a key role in the development of ETW.
Subject(s)Animals , Cattle , Tooth Erosion , Citrus , Tooth Wear , Carbonated Beverages , Dental Enamel , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Abstract The high prevalence of anxiety disorders associated with pharmacotherapy side effects have motivated the search for new pharmacological agents. Species from Citrus genus, such as Citrus limon (sicilian lemon), have been used in folk medicine as a potential therapy to minimize emotional disorders. In order to searching for new effective treatments with fewer side effects, the present study evaluated the anxiolytic mechanism of action and the hypnotic-sedative activity from the Citrus limon fruit's peels essential oil (CLEO). Adults male Swiss mice were submitted to barbiturate-induced sleep test; elevated plus-maze (EPM) and light-dark box (LDB) (evaluation of the mechanism of action); rotarod; and catalepsy tests. CLEO oral treatment decreased latency and increased the sleep total time; moreover it induced in animals an increased the number of entries and percentage of time spent into open arms of the EPM; an increased the number of transitions and the percentage of time into light compartment in the LDB; which were only antagonized by flumazenil pretreatment, with no injury at motor function. Thus, results suggest that CLEO treatment induced an anxiolytic behavior suggestively modulated by the benzodiazepine binding site of the GABAA receptor or by an increase of GABAergic neurotransmission, without cause impairment in the motor coordination.