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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879133

ABSTRACT

Nine secondary metabolites(S)-5-hydroxy-4-methylchroman-2-one(1), 4-methoxynaphthalene-1,5-diol(2), 8-methoxynaphthalene-1,7-diol(3), 1,8-dimethoxynaphthalene(4),(2R,4S)-2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-benzopyran-4,5-diol(5),(2R,4R)-3,4-dihydro-4-methoxy-2-methyl-2H-1-benzopyran-5-ol(6), 7-O-α-D-ribosyl-2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxy-2-methyl-chromen-4-one(7),(R)-3-methoxyl-1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl)-butan-1-one(8) and helicascolide A(9) were isolated from endophytic fungus Cladosporium sp. JJM22 by using column chromatographies of silica gel and ODS, and semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were analyzed on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical data, especially NMR and MS. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities by examining the inhibitory activities on nitric oxide(NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide in mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells in vitro. Compounds 2-4 showed inhibitory activities.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzopyrans , Cladosporium , Fungi , Mice , Molecular Structure , Rhizophoraceae
2.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 24(2): 75-80, maio-ago. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116352

ABSTRACT

Os fungos desempenham vários papéis que impactam a humanidade de diversas maneiras. Suas características metabólicas são importantes na biotecnologia, porém, tais microrganismos podem desencadear alguns problemas de saúde pública e até mesmo serem letais. Objetivo: detectar a presença de fungos no acervo de uma biblioteca no município de São José do Rio Preto. Metodologia: foram coletadas quarenta amostras nas superfícies inanimadas (livros, estantes, documentos, mapas, artigos e revistas) das principais salas da biblioteca com o auxílio de swabs umedecidos em solução salina estéril, posteriormente encaminhados ao laboratório de Biomedicina da Universidade Paulista ­ UNIP. As amostras foram semeadas em meio de cultura ágar Sabouraud Dextrose (SDA), tendo adicionado cloranfenicol e incubadas a 30 °C. Foi realizada a colônia gigante em todas as cepas crescidas em SDA para a realização da técnica de microcultivo para a identificação dos fungos, de acordo com o Manual de Detecção e Identificação dos Fungos de Importância Médica da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. Resultados: Houve positividade em trinta e uma amostras (78%) e em quatro delas foi observado mais de um tipo de colônia (13%). Das vinte e duas superfícies de livros analisadas, foram isolados e identificados: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella sp., Cladosporium sp., Curvularia sp., Mucor sp. e Nigrospora sp. Nas oito superfícies de estantes: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium sp. e Scopulariopsis sp. e, nos dez documentos: Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium sp., Cunninghamella sp. e Trichoderma sp. Conclusão: Os fungos encontrados estão amplamente distribuídos no ambiente como solo e ar e, por diversos fatores, instalam-se em locais como bibliotecas. Em condições favoráveis, podem infectar o homem e causar perdas patrimoniais para os acervos.


Fungi play many roles that impact humankind in different ways. Their metabolic characteristics are important in biotechnology; however, these microorganisms can trigger some public health problems or may even be lethal. Objective: detect the presence of fungi in the collection of a public library in the city of São José do Rio Preto, Brazil. Methods: a total of forty samples were collected from inanimate surfaces (books, shelves, documents, maps, articles and magazines) located in the main rooms of the library with swabs soaked in sterile saline solution and sent to the Universidade Paulista ­ UNIP laboratories. The samples were plated in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) supplemented with chloramphenicol and incubated at 30 °C. The colonies that grew in SDA were isolated in Potato Dextrose Agar for performing the slide culture technique for the identification of the fungi, performed according to the Manual of Detection and Identification of Fungi of Medical Importance from the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). Results: Thirty-one samples (78%) were positive, and in four of them more than one fungus genus was observed (13%). From the twenty-two book surfaces analyzed, the following fungi were isolated and identified: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella sp., Cladosporium sp., Curvularia sp., Mucor sp. and Nigrospora sp. On the eight shelves: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium sp. and Scopulariopsis sp. The ten documents analyzed presented the following fungi: Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium sp., Cunninghamella sp. and Trichoderma sp.. Conclusion: These fungi are widely distributed in the environment such as in the soil and air, and due to several factors, they colonize public places, such as libraries. In favorable conditions, they may infect humans and cause diseases.


Subject(s)
Environmental Monitoring , Library Materials , Fungi , Penicillium , Aspergillus flavus , Aspergillus nidulans , Aspergillus niger , Trichoderma , Biotechnology , Cladosporium , Cunninghamella , Agar , Infections
4.
Mycobiology ; : 448-451, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729730

ABSTRACT

Fungal perylenequinones have photodynamic activity and are promising photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT). Here, we investigated the bactericidal and antitumor activities of phleichrome from the fungal perylenequinone family in vitro. Photodynamic bactericidal activity of phleichrome was analyzed by agar-well diffusion method under dark and illuminated conditions. The photodynamic antitumor activity of phleichrome was analyzed in MCF-7, HeLa, SW480, and HepG2 human cancer cell lines using in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Photodynamic bactericidal activities against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were species-specific. Antitumor activity against all tumor cell lines increased under the illuminated condition. Depending on the results of the analyses, Phleichrome has potential for further drug development related to its antibacterial and antitumor activities.


Subject(s)
Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Cladosporium , Diffusion , Fungi , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Methods , Photochemotherapy , Photosensitizing Agents
5.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 85: 1-8, 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-998434

ABSTRACT

Passion fruit is usually propagated by seeds because of the ease and lower cost in seedling production. However, the seed is the most efficient agent for the spread of pathogens. The damages from seed-borne diseases occur mainly during the germination stages or at the formation of seedlings in nurseries. Considering the need for knowledge on the pathology of sweet passion fruit seeds, the objective was to evaluate the transmission and pathogenicity of the fungi Alternaria sp., Botrytis fabae, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium spp. and Lasiodiplodia theobromae, known as potentially pathogenic to this crop, and isolated from sweet passion fruit seeds. Therefore, tests on seed health, germination and seedling emergence in a sterilized commercial substrate were conducted using seeds from this species, inoculated with those fungal isolates. Leaves, stems and fruit from this plant were also inoculated with the same fungi. Alternaria sp., Fusarium spp. and L. theobromae were identified in seedlings obtained from inoculated seeds, confirming the transmission of these fungi by seeds. L. theobromae was also considered the most harmful fungus to passion fruit crop, as it causes seed rot and other disease symptoms on the leaves, stem and fruit. These findings inferred that healthy seeds of sweet passion fruit are essential for producing seedlings and to prevent the spread of the diseases caused by these fungi to exempt areas.(AU)


O maracujazeiro geralmente é propagado por meio de sementes em virtude da facilidade e do menor custo na produção de mudas. No entanto, a semente é o agente mais eficiente de disseminação de patógenos, sendo que os danos decorrentes das doenças transmitidas por elas ocorrem principalmente durante os estágios de germinação ou na formação de mudas nos viveiros. Considerando a necessidade de informações acerca da patologia de sementes de maracujá-doce nesse contexto, objetivou-se obter informações sobre a transmissão e a patogenicidade dos fungos Alternaria sp., Botrytis fabae, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium spp. e Lasiodiplodia theobromae, isolados de sementes de maracujá-doce e potencialmente patogênicos à cultura. Para tanto, testes de sanidade, germinação e emergência de plântulas em substrato comercial esterilizado foram conduzidos com sementes dessa espécie, inoculadas com esses isolados. Folhas, colo e frutos dessa planta também foram inoculados com os mesmos fungos. Alternaria sp., Fusarium spp. e L. theobromae foram identificados em plântulas obtidas de sementes inoculadas, confirmando a transmissão por sementes. L. theobromae foi considerado o mais agressivo à cultura do maracujá, por ter causado podridão nas sementes, além de maiores lesões nas folhas, no colo da planta e nos frutos. Dessa forma, infere-se que a obtenção de sementes de maracujá-doce sadias é imprescindível para a produção de mudas, evitando-se assim a disseminação desses patógenos em áreas isentas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Seeds , Passiflora , Fungi/pathogenicity , Cladosporium/pathogenicity , Germination , Botrytis/pathogenicity , Alternaria/pathogenicity , Fusarium/pathogenicity
6.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 85: e0972017, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-999051

ABSTRACT

Weeds compete with agricultural crops for water, light, nutrients and space, besides having an extensive seed bank. However, another aspect to be considered relates to few studies pointing out weeds as hosts of phytopathogenic fungi. Many fungi, the main cause of diseases in plants, are known to use seeds as an efficient means of survival and dispersal. The objective of this work was to evaluate the health of weed seeds and the pathogenicity of fungi associated to plants of agricultural importance. The seeds were collected manually in Cerrado areas located in the municipality of Gurupi, Tocatins, Brazil. The blotter test method was used to evaluate seed health. The incidence of fungi was evaluated through an individual analysis of seeds using a stereoscopic and an optical microscope. The pathogenicity of fungi from weed seeds was evaluated by inoculation in plants of agronomic interest and, when pathogenic, we inoculated them in the host plant of the fungus. Weed seeds have been identified in fungi of the genus Alternaria, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Nigrospora, Papularia, Rhizopus and Pythium. The seeds of Acanthospermum australe, Bidens pilosa, Cenchrus echinatus, Digitaria horizontalis, Echinochloa crus-pavonis, Eleusine indica, Ipomoea sp., Pennisetum setosum, Sida rhombifolia, Spermacoce latifolia, Tridax procumbens and Vernonia polyanthes carry and disseminate fungi that, once inoculated, cause infection in plants of agricultural importance, such as Oryza sativa, Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays and Glycine max.(AU)


As plantas daninhas competem com culturas agrícolas por água, luz, nutrientes e espaço, além de possuírem um extenso banco de sementes. Entretanto, outra vertente a ser considerada é quanto aos poucos estudos relacionando plantas daninhas como hospedeiras de fungos fitopatogênicos. É sabido que muitos fungos, principais causadores de doenças em plantas, utilizam as sementes como meio eficiente de sobrevivência e de dispersão. Dessa forma, o trabalho objetivou avaliar a sanidade de sementes de plantas daninhas e a patogenicidade dos fungos associados às plantas de importância agrícola. As sementes foram coletadas manualmente em áreas de cerrado localizadas no município de Gurupi, Tocantins, utilizando o método blotter test para avaliação da sanidade. A incidência dos fungos foi avaliada com auxílio de microscópio estereoscópico e ótico. A patogenicidade dos fungos oriundos das sementes de plantas daninhas foi avaliada por meio da inoculação em plantas de interesse agronômico e, quando patogênico, a inoculação foi na própria planta daninha hospedeira do fungo. Foram identificados os fungos dos gêneros Alternaria, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Nigrospora, Papularia, Rhizopus e Pythium. As sementes de Acanthospermum australe, Bidens pilosa, Cenchrus echinatus, Digitaria horizontalis, Echinochloa crus-pavonis, Eleusine indica, Ipomoea sp., Pennisetum setosum, Sida rhombifolia, Spermacoce latifolia, Tridax procumbens e Vernonia polyanthes transportam e disseminam fungos que, uma vez inoculados, causam infecção em plantas de importância agrícola, como Oryza sativa, Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays e Glycine max.(AU)


Subject(s)
Aspergillus/pathogenicity , Cladosporium/pathogenicity , Alternaria/pathogenicity , Plant Weeds , Fungi/pathogenicity , Plant Diseases , Oryza , Soybeans , Zea mays , Phaseolus , Vigna , Fusarium/pathogenicity
7.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 28: 101-112, July. 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015977

ABSTRACT

Background: The hydrolysis of keratin wastes by microorganisms is considered a biotechnological alternative for recycling and valorization through keratinolytic microorganisms. Despite their resistant structure, keratin wastes can be efficiently degraded by various microorganisms through the secretion of keratinases, which are promising enzymes for several applications, including detergents, fertilizers, and leather and textile industry. In an attempt to isolate keratinolytic microorganisms that can reach commercial exploitation as keratinase producers, the current work assesses the dynamics of keratin biodegradation by several keratinolytic fungal strains isolated from soil. The activity of fungal strains to degrade keratin substrates was evaluated by SEM, FTRIR-ATR spectra and TGA analysis. Results: SEM observations offered relevant information on interactions between microorganism and structural elements of hair strands. FTIR spectra of the bands at 1035­1075 cm-1 assigned to sulfoxide bond appeared because of S­S bond breaking, which demonstrated the initiation of keratin biodegradation. According to TGA, in the second zone of thermal denaturation, where keratin degradation occurs, the highest weight loss of 71.10% was obtained for sample incubated with Fusarium sp. 1A. Conclusions: Among the tested strains, Fusarium sp. 1A was the most active organism in the degradation process with the strongest denaturation of polypeptide chains. Because keratinolytic microorganisms and their enzymes keratinases represent a subject of scientific and economic interest because of their capability to hydrolyze keratin, Fusarium sp. 1A was selected for further studies.


Subject(s)
Fungi/enzymology , Fungi/metabolism , Keratins/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Thermogravimetry , Trichoderma/metabolism , Trichophyton/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Cladosporium/metabolism , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Fusarium/metabolism , Hydrolysis , Keratins/chemistry , Microsporum/metabolism
8.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 32(1): 1-8, jun. 2017. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-868818

ABSTRACT

La apertura de nuevos mercados para los productos hidrobiológicos chilenos ha impuesto el análisis del estatus sanitario de cámaras frigoríficas donde estos productos son almacenados. Para medir el estatus sanitario, la Unión Econó- mica Euroasiática (UEE) exige un recuento total de mohos e identificación de los géneros Cladosporium y Thamnidium en paredes y ambiente de las cámaras frigoríficas. Poco se sabe sobre los niveles de contaminación de mohos en cámaras frigoríficas de productos de exportación en Chile. Aquí, los resultados de 88 análisis de mohos en paredes y aire, realizados a 24 empresas diferentes que poseen cámaras frigoríficas conteniendo productos hidrobiológicos, son mostrados. El recuento total de mohos y el número de colonias de Cladosporium spp. y Thamnidium spp. fueron determinados. Además, los niveles de contaminación por mohos fueron comparados entre plantas procesadoras de alimentos y empresas frigoríficas. Thamnidium spp. no fue encontrado en ninguno de los análisis realizados. Los resultados indican que los niveles de contaminación por mohos son aceptables para la UEE. Este es el primer reporte de niveles de contaminación de mohos en cámaras frigoríficas de productos hidrobiológicos en el sur de Chile.


The opening of new markets for Chilean hydrobiological products had imposed the analysis of the sanitary status of frigorific chambers where those products are kept. To measure the sanitary status, the Euroasiatic Economical Union (EEU) requires a total mould count and identification of Cladosporium and Thamnidium in walls and air of the frigorific chambers. Little is known about contamination levels of moulds in frigorific chambers of export products in Chile. Here, the results of 88 mould analyses in walls and air, performed to 24 different enterprises that possess frigorific chambers containing hydrobiological products, are shown. Total mould count and Cladosporium spp. and Thamnidium spp. colony number were determined. Additionally the levels of moulds contamination were compared between food-processing plants and frigorific enterprises. Thamnidium spp. was not found in any of the analyses performed. The results indicate that levels of moulds contamination are acceptable to the EEU. This is the first report of mould contamination levels in frigorific chambers of hydrobiological products from south of Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Seafood/microbiology , Cladosporium/isolation & purification , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Frozen Foods , Fungi/pathogenicity , Chile , Extraction and Processing Industry , Food Quality
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 69(2): 377-380, mar.-abr. 2017.
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-833834

ABSTRACT

Este relato descreve o caso do Cladosporium cladosporioides isolado de uma lesão periocular de um felino atendido no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, em Cuiabá. A principal queixa do proprietário era uma lesão periocular, com piora no decorrer do tempo, havia aproximadamente quatro meses. Foi descrita a tentativa de tratamento da lesão com anti-inflamatórios e antibióticos, sem sucesso. Na anamnese foi relatado que o animal tinha acesso à rua e a hábitos de caça e que não havia outros animais da casa com lesão semelhante. O animal foi submetido à biópsia e citologia para um diagnóstico mais preciso do caso. Um fragmento foi encaminhado para o Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária e outro para o de Microbiologia Veterinária. Nas análises histopatológicas, houve compatibilidade com carcinoma de células escamosas e, nas lâminas de citologia, foi evidenciado um processo inflamatório agudo. Nas características macroscópicas e microscópicas da colônia, houve compatibilidade com Cladosporium sp. Posteriormente, o DNA foi extraído e sequenciado, confirmando a espécie Cladosporium cladosporioides. O objetivo deste relato foi descrever o isolamento dessa espécie em um felino com carcinoma de células escamosas.(AU)


This report describes a case of Cladosporium cladosporioides isolated from a cat with a periocular lesion at the Veterinary Hospital, Cuiaba- Brazil. Owner described his animal as having a periocular lesion treated unsuccessfully with anti-inflamatories and antibiotics. During anamnesis, it was reported that the animal has access to the street, hunting habits and none of the other animals of the house had a similar injury. The animal underwent biopsy and cytology for more accurate diagnosis of the case. A fragment was referred to the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory and another for Veterinary Microbiology. In the histopathological analysis of biopsy, it was compatible with squamous cell carcinoma and the cytology slides showed an acute inflammatory process. Microbiogical analysis isolated fungus with Cladosporium sp. Subsequently, DNA was extracted and sequenced confirming Cladosporium cladosporioides species. This paper reports the isolation of this species in a feline with squamous cell carcinoma.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/veterinary , Cladosporium/isolation & purification , Phaeohyphomycosis/veterinary
10.
Mycobiology ; : 160-171, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729299

ABSTRACT

Larvae of Bradysia agrestis, an insect vector that transports plant pathogens, were sampled from geographically isolated regions in Korea to identify their cutaneous fungal and bacterial flora. Sampled areas were chosen within the distribution range of B. agrestis; each site was more than 91 km apart to ensure geographical segregation. We isolated 76 microbial (fungi and bacteria) strains (site 1, 29; site 2, 29; site 3, 18 strains) that were identified on the basis of morphological differences. Species identification was molecularly confirmed by determination of universal fungal internal transcribed spacer and bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences in comparison to sequences in the EzTaxon database and the NCBI GenBank database, and their phylogenetic relationships were determined. The fungal isolates belonged to 2 phyla, 5 classes, and 7 genera; bacterial species belonged to 23 genera and 32 species. Microbial diversity differed significantly among the geographical groups with respect to Margalef's richness (3.9, 3.6, and 4.5), Menhinick's index (2.65, 2.46, and 3.30), Simpson's index (0.06, 0.12, and 0.01), and Shannon's index (2.50, 2.17, and 2.58). Although the microbial genera distribution or diversity values clearly varied among geographical groups, common genera were identified in all groups, including the fungal genus Cladosporium, and the bacterial genera Bacillus and Rhodococcus. According to classic principles of co-evolutionary relationship, these genera might have a closer association with their host insect vector B. agrestis than other genera identified. Some cutaneous bacterial genera (e.g., Pseudomonas) displaying weak interdependency with insect vectors may be hazardous to agricultural environments via mechanical transmission via B. agrestis. This study provides comprehensive information regarding the cutaneous microflora of B. agrestis, which can help in the control of such pests for crop management.


Subject(s)
Bacillus , Biodiversity , Cladosporium , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Genes, rRNA , Insect Vectors , Insecta , Korea , Larva , Plants , Rhodococcus
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-213571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: PCR-based reverse blot hybridization assay (PCR-REBA) has high sensitivity and specificity, can be performed directly on nail samples, is relatively cheaper than other molecular biologic methods, and is useful for diagnosing onychomycosis. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare the diagnostic efficacy of fungal culture and REBA Fungus-ID® which is a commercial PCR-REBA-based kit used for onychomycosis diagnosis. METHODS: Fifty nail samples were collected from 50 patients diagnosed with onychomycosis via direct microscopic examination using KOH preparation, and subjected to fungal culture and REBA Fungus-ID® test. RESULTS: The sensitivity of conventional fungal culture and REBA Fungus-ID® was 56% and 100%, respectively. In REBA Fungus-ID®, 43 of 50 samples were found to be infected with Trichophyton rubrum. Four of the remaining 7 samples were identified as infected with Trichophyton spp., one with Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and two revealed a panfungal DNA sequence. In fungal culture, 28 of 50 samples showed growth, of which 18 samples were identified as T. rubrum, 3 as Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, 3 as Cladosporium spp., 1 as Cyphellophora europaea, 1 as Penicillium cvjetkovicii, 1 as Lachnum soppittii, and 1 as non-dermatophytic mold. REBA Fungus-ID® and fungal culture were identical in 20 cases (40%). The non-dermatophytic fungi identified in fungal culture were considered contaminants. CONCLUSION: Nail specimens can be used directly for REBA Fungus-ID®, which has a high sensitivity for onychomycosis diagnosis. Therefore, it can be considered useful for diagnosis and identification of the causative organism in mixed infections like onychomycosis.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Cladosporium , Coinfection , Diagnosis , Fungi , Humans , Onychomycosis , Penicillium , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rhodotorula , Sensitivity and Specificity , Trichophyton
12.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 76(único): 1-8, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-982799

ABSTRACT

Cladosporium spp. is a group of dematiaceous food-relevant fungi which are well dispersed in the environment causing food spoilage and poisoning. Considering the importance of fungalcontamination, natural drugs to control their growth have become important. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of two monoterpenoids, (geraniol and citronellol), against strains of Cladosporium carrioni, C. cladosporioides, and C. oxysporum. Methods: The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Fungicide Concentration (MFC) of the drugs were determined by microdilution. The effects of test drugs on mycelial dry weight, conidia germination, and conidiogenesis of Cladosporium spp. were also investigated using a hemacytometer. Respective MIC and MFC values of citronellol varied from 256 to 512 µg/mL, and from 256 to 2048 µg/mL. The MIC and MFC of geraniol varied similarly to citronellol. Conidia germination, mycelial dry weight, and conidiogenesis of Cladosporium spp. were reduced by the test-drugs at 1/2MIC, MIC and 2xMIC (p<0.05). These measurable cell events are essential for fungal infection and development infoods. The action of citronellol and geraniol against Cladosporium spp. suggest that the drugs may serveas effective agents for controlling fungal contamination and growth in foods.


Cladosporium spp. é um grupo de fungos dematiáceos relevantes para os alimentos, que podem ser dispersos pelo ambiente e causar deterioração e intoxicação alimentar. Considerando a importância da contaminação fúngica, os produtos naturais usados para controlar seu crescimentosão importantes. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos inibitórios de dois monoterpenoides, geraniol e citronelol, contra cepas de Cladosporium carrioni, C. cladosporioides eC. oxysporum. A Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM) e Concentração Fungicida Mínima (CFM) das drogas foram determinadas por microdiluição. Os efeitos das drogas-teste sobre a massa micelialseca, a germinação de conídios e a conidiogênese de Cladosporium spp. também foram investigados utilizando um hemocitômetro. Os valores de CIM e CFM do citronelol variaram de 256 a 512 μg/mLe de 256 a 2048 μg/mL, respectivamente. CIM e CFM de geraniol variaram de forma semelhante. A germinação de conídios, massa micelial seca e conidiogênese de Cladosporium spp. foram inibidaspelas drogas-teste 1/2CIM, CIM e 2xCIM (p<0,05). Esses eventos celulares são essenciais para a infecção e desenvolvimento fúngico em alimentos. A ação de citronelol e geraniol contra Cladosporium spp. sugere que podem servir como agentes eficazes para controlar a contaminação fúngica e o seucrescimento em alimentos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biological Products , Cladosporium , Environmental Pollution , Food Supply , Monoterpenes , Mycotoxicosis
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90245

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Fungi have been known to be important aeroallergens for hundreds of years. Most studies have focused on total fungal concentration; however, the concentration of specific allergenic fungi may be more important on an individual basis. METHODS: Ten fungal allergic patients and 2 non-fungal allergic patients were enrolled. The patients with a decrease in physician or patient global assessment by more than 50% of their personal best were considered to have an exacerbation of allergic symptoms and to be in the active stage. Those who maintained their physician and patient global assessment scores at their personal best for more than 3 months were considered to be in the inactive stage. The concentrations of dominant fungi in the patients' houses and outdoors were measured by direct and viable counts at active and inactive stages. RESULTS: The exacerbation of allergic symptoms was not correlated with total fungal spore concentration or the indoor/outdoor ratio (I/O). Specific fungi, such as Cladosporium oxysporum (C. oxyspurum), C. cladosporioides, and Aspergillus niger (A. niger), were found to be significantly higher concentrations in the active stage than in the inactive stage. Presumed allergenic spore concentration threshold levels were 100 CFU/m3 for C. oxysporum, and 10 CFU/m3 for A. niger, Penicillium brevicompactum and Penicillium oxalicum. CONCLUSIONS: The major factor causing exacerbation of allergic symptoms in established fungal allergic patients may be the spore concentration of specific allergenic fungi rather than the total fungal concentration. These results may be useful in making recommendations as regards environmental control for fungal allergic patients.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus niger , Cladosporium , Colony Count, Microbial , Family Characteristics , Fungi , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Niger , Penicillium , Spores , Spores, Fungal
15.
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(6): 907-908, Nov.-Dec. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769519

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic subcutaneous fungal infection caused by traumatic implantation of dematiaceous fungi in the skin. The clinical presentation is usually a verrucous plaque lesion and the diagnosis is confirmed by the visualization of muriform bodies at direct examination or at the histologic study. This report describes a rare case of tumoral chromoblastomycosis confirmed by histologic study and whose agent was identified by culture and micromorphology.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Chromoblastomycosis/microbiology , Chromoblastomycosis/pathology , Cladosporium/isolation & purification , Biopsy , Photography , Skin/microbiology
16.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 74(3): 266-273, jul.-set. 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-CTDPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: lil-786790

ABSTRACT

Os fungos anemófilos são importantes agentes contaminantes e deteriorantes de alimentos, especialmente frutas e seus produtos. Neste estudo foram identificados os principais gêneros fúngicos presentes na microbiota anemófila de uma indústria de polpas de frutas, localizada no interior da Paraíba, e foi investigada a ação antifúngica de terpenos como possível alternativa de controle do crescimento fúngico. Os fungos foram coletados pela exposição de placas de Petri contendo meio Agar Sabouraud dextrose com cloranfenicol (50 μg/mL). Após a incubação a 28 °C durante sete dias, foram realizadas a contagem das unidades formadoras de colônias e sua descrição. Os fungos foram identificados pela análise morfológica das colônias isoladas. O principal gênero isolado em toda indústria foi o dematiáceo Cladosporium spp. Os ensaios de sensibilidade foram efetuados aplicando-se a técnica de difusão em meio sólido com discos contendo os terpenos: carvacrol, citronelal, citral, linalol, timol, terpinoleno, p-cimeno e β-cariofileno. A efetividade de alguns destes terpenos frente a cepas do Cladosporium spp foi demonstrada, com destaque para o citral e carvacrol. A indústria de polpas de frutas apresenta ar de ambiente vulnerável, especialmente contaminação por Cladosporium spp. Pretende-se impulsionar novos estudos com produtos naturais na perspectiva de diminuir a contaminação fúngica em alimentos.


Airborne fungi are important food contaminants and spoiling agents, especially in fruits and their derivatives. This study aimed at identifying the main fungi in the airborne microbiota in a fruit pulp industry, located in Paraíba State, and to investigate the antifungal action of terpenes as an alternative for controlling fungal growth. The Petri plates containing Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol (50 μg/mL) were exposed for collecting the fungi. The plates were incubated at 28 °C for seven days; then the colony forming unitscounting, and description were performed. The identification of fungi was performed by the morphological analysis of isolated colonies. The main group of fungi isolated throughout the industry was Cladosporium spp. Antifungal tests were performed by diffusion technique in solid medium with discs containing terpenes: carvacrol, citronellal, citral, linalool, thymol, terpinolene, p-cymene and β-caryophyllene. The effectiveness of some of these terpenes against Cladosporium spp. strains was shown, especially citral and carvacrol. Based on these results, the fruit pulp industry shows vulnerable ambient air, notably with high contamination by Cladosporium spp. Thus, it is aimed at promoting further studies with natural drugs in order to reduce the fungal contamination in food.


Subject(s)
Cladosporium , Fungi , Microbiota , Fruit and Vegetable Juices , Terpenes
17.
Mycobiology ; : 231-238, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729640

ABSTRACT

A total of 4 aquatic plants, Eleocharis kuroguwai Ohwi, Hydrocharis dubia Backer, Salvinia natans All., and Zizania latifolia Turcz., were sampled from representative two wetlands of South Korea. A total of 38 endophytic fungal strains were isolated from aquatic plants native to the Daepyeong wetland, and 27 strains were isolated from the Jilnal wetland. The internal transcribed spacer regions of fungal isolates were sequenced and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. In addition, endophytic fungal diversity from each wetland and host plant species was deduced. A total of 25 fungal genera were purely isolated, and 16 fungal genera were isolated from each of the two wetlands. Commonly isolated genera from both wetlands were Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Clonostachys, Fusarium, Leptosphaeria, Penicillium, and Talaromyces. This study revealed that fungal diversity varied with environmental conditions and by host plant in representative two wetlands.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus , Cladosporium , Eleocharis , Fresh Water , Fungi , Fusarium , Korea , Penicillium , Plants , Talaromyces , Wetlands
18.
Mycobiology ; : 258-265, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729638

ABSTRACT

The fungi on Meju are known to play an important role as degrader of macromolecule of soybeans. In order to elucidate the origin of fungi on traditional Meju, mycobiota of the air both inside and outside traditional Meju fermentation rooms was examined. From 11 samples of air collected from inside and outside of 7 Meju fermentation rooms, 37 genera and 90 species of fungi were identified. In outside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp. and Cladosporium cladosporioides were the dominant species, followed by Cladosporium tenuissimum, Eurotium sp., Phoma sp., Sistotrema brinkmannii, Alternaria sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Schizophyllum commune, and Penicillium glabrum. In inside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium chrysogenum, Asp. nidulans, Aspergillus sp., Cla. cladosporioides, Eurotium sp., Penicillium sp., Cla. tenuissimum, Asp. niger, Eur. herbariorum, Asp. sydowii, and Eur. repens were collected with high frequency. The concentrations of the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium were significantly higher in inside air than outside air. From this result and those of previous reports, the origin of fungi present on Meju was inferred. Of the dominant fungal species present on Meju, Lichtheimia ramosa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor racemosus, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis are thought to be originated from outside air, because these species are not or are rarely isolated from rice straw and soybean; however, they were detected outside air of fermentation room and are species commonly found in indoor environments. However, Asp. oryzae, Pen. polonicum, Eur. repens, Pen. solitum, and Eur. chevalieri, which are frequently found on Meju, are common in rice straw and could be transferred from rice straw to Meju. The fungi grow and produce abundant spores during Meju fermentation, and after the spores accumulate in the air of fermentation room, they could influence mycobiota of Meju fermentation in the following year. This could explain why concentrations of the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium are much higher inside than outside of the fermentation rooms.


Subject(s)
Alternaria , Aspergillus , Aspergillus fumigatus , Aspergillus nidulans , Aspergillus oryzae , Cladosporium , Eurotium , Fermentation , Fungi , Mucor , Niger , Oryza , Penicillium , Penicillium chrysogenum , Schizophyllum , Scopulariopsis , Soybeans , Spores , Viperidae
19.
Mycobiology ; : 354-359, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729604

ABSTRACT

Blossom blight in strawberry was first observed in a green house in Nonsan, Damyang, and Geochang areas of Korea, between early January to April of 2012. Disease symptoms started as a grey fungus formed on the stigma, which led to the blossom blight and eventually to black rot and necrosis of the entire flower. We isolated the fungi purely from the infected pistils and maintained them on potato dextrose agar (PDA) slants. To test Koch's postulates, we inoculated the fungi and found that all of the isolates caused disease symptoms in the flower of strawberry cultivars (Seolhyang, Maehyang, and Kumhyang). The isolates on PDA had a velvet-like appearance, and their color ranged between olivaceous-brown and smoky-grey to olive and almost black. The intercalary conidia of the isolates were elliptical to limoniform, with sizes ranging from 5.0~10.5 x 2.5~3.0 microm to 4.0~7.5 x 2.0~3.0 microm, respectively. The secondary ramoconidia of these isolates were 0- or 1-septate, with sizes ranging betweem 10.0~15.0 x 2.5~3.7 microm and 8.7~11.2 x 2.5~3.2 microm, respectively. A combined sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions, partial actin (ACT), and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF) genes revealed that the strawberry isolates belonged to two groups of authentic strains, Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. tenuissimum. Based on these results, we identified the pathogens causing blossom blight in strawberries in Korea as being C. cladosporioides and C. tenuissimum.


Subject(s)
Actins , Agar , Cladosporium , Flowers , Fragaria , Fungi , Glucose , Korea , Necrosis , Olea , Peptide Elongation Factors , Sequence Analysis , Solanum tuberosum , Spores, Fungal
20.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 81(2): 165-172, abr.-jun. 2014. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1005014

ABSTRACT

A imobilização celular representa uma alternativa para a condução de bioprocessos. As células ficam retidas em matrizes e podem ser utilizadas por longos períodos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar uma nova metodologia de imobilização de fungos com custo reduzido, avaliar a viabilidade e segurança dos fungos submetidos ao novo método de encapsulamento e determinar a temperatura ideal para armazenar os fungos imobilizados. Os micélios dos fungos Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides e Penicillium solitum foram misturados com 15 g de arroz triturado e 3 g de alginato de sódio, que gotejava em uma solução de cloreto de cálcio a 0,25 M para a formação dos grânulos. Após a secagem em estufa a 26ºC, os grânulos foram armazenados em temperaturas ambiente, geladeira e freezer. Os plaqueamentos foram realizados a cada 15 dias em meio de cultura. As avaliações do tamanho das colônias e esporulação foram realizadas 7, 14 e 21 dias após o plaqueamento, durante 195 dias para A. niger, 225 dias para C. cladosporioides e 210 dias para P. solitum. A temperatura de armazenamento não afetou o desenvolvimento micelial de A. niger e P. solitum. Porém, a esporulação foi reduzida para os grânulos armazenados no freezer. O desenvolvimento micelial de C. cladosporioides foi influenciado pela temperatura. Os grânulos conservados em temperatura ambiente tiveram menor viabilidade. Na análise de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, observou-se que a imobilização é um método seguro no qual o micélio fúngico permanece no interior do grânulo, facilitando o transporte, o armazenamento e a aplicação de micro-organismos.(AU)


Cellular immobilization represents an alternative for the bioprocess conduction, in which the cells are kept in a matrix and can be used over long periods. The objective of this work was to test a new fungi immobilization methodology with reduced cost to evaluate the viability of these fungi when submitted to the new encapsulation method, and to determine the ideal temperature to store the immobilized fungi. The mycelium of the fungi Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Penicillium solitum were mixed with 15 g of titrated rice and 3 g of sodium alginate, which was dripped in a 0.25 M calcium chloride solution for the formation of pellets. After drying in an oven at 26ºC, the granules were stored at three temperatures: room, refrigerator and freezer. The platings were carried out every 15 days in culture medium. The evaluations of the colony size and sporulation were carried out 7, 14 and 12 days after plating, for 195 days for A. niger, 225 days for C. cladosporioides, and 210 days for P. solitum. Storage temperature did not affect the mycelial development of A. niger and P. solitum. However, sporulation was reduced for the granules stored in the freezer. The mycelial development of C. cladosporioides was influenced by temperature. The granules conserved at room temperature had lower viability than those stored in the refrigerator and freezer. In the Scanning Electronic Microscopy analysis, it was observed that the immobilization is a safe method in which the fungus mycelium remains inside the granule, facilitating transport, storage and application of micro-organisms.(AU)


Subject(s)
Fungi , Immobilization , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Cladosporium , Alginates , Agribusiness
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