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1.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(3): 298-304, May-Jun. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285695

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The antiinflammatory effects of macrolides, especially clarithromycin, have been described in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without polyps and also other chronic inflammatory airway diseases. There is no consensus in the literature regarding the effectiveness of clarithromycin in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with sinonasal polyposis and the national literature does not report any prospective studies on the efficacy of clarithromycin in chronic rhinosinusitis in our population. Objective To evaluate the effect of clarithromycin in the adjunctive treatment of recurrent chronic rhinosinusitis with sinonasal polyposis refractory to clinical and surgical treatment. Methods Open prospective study with 52 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and recurrent sinonasal polyposis. All subjects received nasal lavage with 20 mL 0.9% SS and fluticasone nasal spray, 200 mcg / day, 12/12 h for 12 weeks; and clarithromycin 250 mg 8/8 h for 2 weeks and, thereafter, 12/12 h for 10 weeks. The patients were assessed by SNOT 20, NOSE and Lund-Kennedy scales before, immediately after treatment and 12 weeks after treatment. The patients were also evaluated before treatment with paranasal cavity computed tomography (Lund-Mackay) and serum IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE and eosinophil levels. The outcomes evaluated were: SNOT-20, NOSE and Lund-Kennedy. Results Most patients were women, aged 47 (15) years (median / interquartile range), and 61.5% (32/52) had asthma. All patients completed the follow-up after 12 weeks and 42.3% (22/52) after 24 weeks. Treatment resulted in a quantitative decrease in the SNOT-20 [2.3 (1.6) vs. 1.4 (1.6); Δ = −0.9 (1.1); p < 0.01]; NOSE [65 (64) vs. 20 (63); Δ = −28 (38), p < 0.01] and Lund-Kennedy [11 (05) vs. 07 (05); Δ = −2 (05); p < 0.01] scores. SNOT-20 showed a qualitative improvement (>0.8) in 54% (28/52, p < 0.04) of patients, a group that showed lower IgE level [108 (147) vs. 289 (355), p < 0.01]. The group of patients who completed follow-up 12 weeks after the end of treatment (n = 22) showed no worsening of outcomes. Conclusion Long-term adjuvant use of low-dose clarithromycin for chronic rhinosinusitis patients with recurrent sinonasal polyposis refractory to clinical and surgical treatment has resulted in improved quality of life and nasal endoscopy findings, especially in patients with normal IgE levels. This improvement persisted in the patient group evaluated 12 weeks after the end of the treatment.


Resumo Introdução Os efeitos anti-inflamatórios dos macrolídeos são reconhecidos, principalmente da claritromicina para os pacientes com rinossinusite crônica sem pólipos e outras doenças inflamatórias crônicas das vias aéreas em outras populações. Não existe consenso na literatura quanto a sua prescrição para os pacientes de rinossinusite crônica com polipose nasossinusal e a literatura nacional não dispõe de estudos prospectivos sobre a eficácia da claritromicina na rinossinusite crônica em nossa população. Objetivo Avaliar o efeito da claritromicina no tratamento adjuvante da rinossinusite crônica recorrente com polipose nasossinusal refratária ao tratamento clínico e cirúrgico. Método Estudo prospectivo aberto, com 52 pacientes, portadores de rinossinusite crônica com polipose nasossinusal recorrente. Todos os indivíduos receberam lavagem nasal com SF 0,9% 20 mL e fluticasona spray nasal, 200 mcg/dia, 12/12 horas por 12 semanas; e claritromicina 250 mg, de 8/8 horas, por 2 semanas e posteriormente 12/12 horas, por 10 semanas. Os pacientes foram avaliados através do SNOT 20, do NOSE e Lund-Kennedy antes, pós-tratamento imediato e 12 semanas após o tratamento. Os pacientes também foram avaliados antes do tratamento por tomografia computadorizada das cavidades paranasais (Lund-Mackay) e dosagem sérica de IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE e eosinófilos. Os desfechos avaliados foram: SNOT-20, NOSE e Lund-Kennedy. Resultados A maioria dos pacientes era mulher, idade de 47 (15) anos (mediana/intervalo interquartílico) e 61,5% (32/52) portadores de asma. Todos os pacientes completaram o seguimento após 12 semanas e 42,3% (22/52) após 24 semanas. O tratamento resultou em uma diminuição quantitativa do SNOT-20 [2,3 (1,6) vs. 1,4 (1,6); Δ = -0,9 (1,1); p< 0,01]; do NOSE [65 (64) vs. 20 (63); Δ = -28 (38), p< 0,01] e do Lund-Kennedy [11 (05) vs. 07 (05); Δ = -2 (05); p< 0,01]. O SNOT-20 mostrou uma melhoria qualitativa (> 0,8) em 54% (28/52, p< 0,04) dos pacientes, grupo que evidenciou menor nível de IgE [108 (147) vs. 289 (355), p< 0,01]. O grupo de pacientes que completou o seguimento 12 semanas após o término do tratamento (n = 22) não mostrou uma pioria dos desfechos. Conclusão O uso prolongado adjuvante da claritromicina em baixas doses para pacientes com rinossinusite crônica com polipose nasossinusal recorrente refratária ao tratamento clínico e cirúrgico resultou em melhoria na qualidade de vida e endoscopia nasal, principalmente em pacientes com níveis de IgE normal. Essa melhoria se sustentou no grupo de pacientes avaliado 12 semanas após o término do tratamento.


Subject(s)
Rhinitis/drug therapy , Nasal Polyps/complications , Nasal Polyps/drug therapy , Quality of Life , Chronic Disease , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Clarithromycin , Endoscopy
2.
Vive (El Alto) ; 3(9): 139-149, dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252333

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: uno de los principales factores que influyen en el tratamiento para la erradicación de Helicobacter pylori es la resistencia a antibióticos, la cual difiere entre países e incluso regiones de un país. Entre los antibióticos más usados para el tratamiento de la infección se encuentra la claritromicina, se ha demostrado que el gen 23S ARNr está involucrado en la resistencia a este antibiótico, como resultado de mutaciones puntuales. OBJETIVO: detectar las mutaciones presentes en el gen 23S ARNr que codifican la resistencia a la claritromicina en Helicobacter pylori a través de un método no invasivo y rápido. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: a partir de muestras de heces de 76 pacientes con síntomas gastrointestinales asociados a la bacteria, se aisló y purificó el ADN bacteriano, se identificó el gen 23S ARNr mediante seminested PCR. Para la detección de mutaciones puntuales en el gen se realizó la RFLP, utilizando las enzimas HhaI que detecta la mutación T2717C y MboII que identifica la mutación A2142C/G. RESULTADOS: un total de 45 pacientes resultaron positivos a Helicobacter pylori lo cual corresponde al 59,2%. La mutación T2717C analizada con la enzima HhaI se presentó en el 2,2% de la muestra de estudio, no se obtuvo resultados positivos para la enzima MboII. CONCLUSIONES: a través de la Seminested PCR se identificó al gen 23S ARNr de Helicobacter pylori, PCR-RFLP es un método fiable para detectar la presencia de mutaciones causantes de resistencias a antibióticos, útil antes de elegir el tratamiento erradicador contra las infecciones por Helicobacter pylori.


INTRODUCTION: one of the main factors that influence the treatment for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori is resistance to antibiotics, which differs between countries and even regions of a country. Clarithromycin is among the most widely used antibiotics for the treatment of infection. The 23S rRNA gene has been shown to be involved in resistance to this antibiotic, as a result of point mutations. OBJECTIVE: to detect the mutations present in the 23S rRNA gene that encode resistance to clarithromycin in Helicobacter pylori through a non-invasive and rapid method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: from stool samples of 76 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms associated with the bacteria, bacterial DNA was isolated and purified, the 23S rRNA gene was identified by seminested PCR. For the detection of point mutations in the gene, RFLP was performed, using the enzymes HhaI that detects the T2717C mutation and MboII that identifies the A2142C / G mutation. RESULTS: a total of 45 patients were positive for Helicobacter pylori, which corresponds to 59.2%. The T2717C mutation analyzed with the HhaI enzyme was present in 2.2% of the study sample, no positive results were obtained for the MboII enzyme. CONCLUSIONS: the 23S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori was identified through Seminested PCR, PCR-RFLP is a reliable method to detect the presence of mutations causing resistance to antibiotics, useful before choosing the eradication treatment against Helicobacter pylori infections.


INTRODUÇÃO: um dos principais fatores que influenciam no tratamento para erradicação do Helicobacter pylori é a resistência aos antibióticos, que difere entre países e até mesmo regiões de um país. A claritromicina está entre os antibióticos mais amplamente utilizados para o tratamento de infecções.O gene 23S rRNA demonstrou estar envolvido na resistência a esse antibiótico, como resultado de mutações pontuais. OBJETIVO: detectar as mutações presentes no gene 23S rRNA que codificam resistência à claritromicina no Helicobacter pylori, por meio de um método não invasivo e rápido. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: a partir de amostras de fezes de 76 pacientes com sintomas gastrointestinais associados à bactéria, o DNA bacteriano foi isolado e purificado, o gene 23S rRNA foi identificado por PCR seminestado. Para a detecção de mutações pontuais no gene, foi realizado RFLP, utilizando as enzimas HhaI que detecta a mutação T2717C e MboII que identifica a mutação A2142C / G. RESULTADOS: um total de 45 pacientes foram positivos para Helicobacter pylori, o que corresponde a 59,2%. A mutação T2717C analisada com a enzima HhaI estava presente em 2,2% da amostra do estudo, nenhum resultado positivo foi obtido para a enzima MboII. CONCLUSÕES: por meio da PCR seminestada, foi identificado o gene rRNA 23S do Helicobacter pylori, o PCR-RFLP é um método confiável para detectar a presença de mutações que causam resistência a antibióticos, útil antes de escolher o tratamento de erradicação contra infecções por Helicobacter pylori.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Helicobacter pylori , Clarithromycin , Mutation , Patients , Enzymes , Feces
3.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(3): 351-361, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138793

ABSTRACT

Resumen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) es un bacilo gramnegativo microaerófilo, capaz de colonizar la mucosa gástrica. Este microorganismo infecta a más de la mitad de la población mundial, por lo que se ha convertido en la infección bacteriana más común. La prevalencia de la infección y de las enfermedades asociadas a ella es alta, sobre todo en países en vías de desarrollo. El tratamiento recomendado para la erradicación es la triple terapia; sin embargo, su eficacia ha disminuido por el desconocimiento del patrón de susceptibilidad bacteriano por parte del personal médico y dada la aparición de cepas resistentes. La resistencia en H. pylori se asocia con la capacidad de adaptación de la bacteria a ambientes hostiles y al uso de los antibióticos. En Colombia, existen reportes acerca de que H. pylori presenta resistencia a amoxicilina, metronidazol, claritromicina, furazolidona, levofloxacina y tetraciclina. Los estudios del patrón de susceptibilidad determinaron que la frecuencia de resistencia de H. pylori es variable y demuestran la falta de datos en la mayoría del territorio del país. Sobre la base de lo anterior, el objetivo de esta revisión es describir los porcentajes de resistencia de H. pylori a los antibióticos amoxicilina, metronidazol, claritromicina, furazolidona, levofloxacina y tetraciclina, usados en el tratamiento de la infección en los estudios realizados en Colombia.


Abstract Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a microaerophilic gram-negative bacillus that colonizes the gastric mucosa. It infects more than half the world's population, making it the most common bacterial infection. The prevalence of infection and associated diseases is high in developing countries. The recommended treatment for its eradication is triple therapy; however, its efficacy has decreased due to the lack of knowledge of the bacterial susceptibility pattern among the medical staff and the emergence of resistant strains. H. pylori susceptibility is associated with the bacteria's ability to adapt to hostile environments and the use of antibiotics. In Colombia, it has been reported that H. pylori is resistant to amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarithromycin, furazolidone, levofloxacin, and tetracycline. Studies on the susceptibility pattern have determined that the frequency of H. pylori susceptibility is variable and demonstrate the lack of data in most of the Colombian territory. With this in mind, the objective of this review is to describe the percentage of resistance to amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarithromycin, furazolidone, levofloxacin and tetracycline, which are used for the treatment of H. pylori infection, according to studies conducted in Colombia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tetracycline , Efficacy , Helicobacter pylori , Clarithromycin , Levofloxacin , Furazolidone , Amoxicillin , Metronidazole , Prevalence , Disease Susceptibility , Disease Eradication
4.
Acta méd. colomb ; 45(2): 1-5, Jan.-June 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1130684

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction and objectives: macrolides are widely used antibiotics for which a greater frequency of cardiovascular events related to increased arrhythmias has been reported. This study seeks to describe some cardiovascular complications of the use of macrolides in ICU patients. Materials and methods: this was a descriptive cross-sectional study which included adult patients admitted to the Medical Intensive Care Unit at the Fundación Cardioinfantil who received antibiotic treatment with clarithromycin in 2013 and 2015. Results: the collected sample was 38 patients. The median age was 64 years, and clarithromycin was most frequently used for treating community-acquired infections, with pneumonia being the most common diagnosis. The frequency of atrial fibrillation or flutter was 7.89%, and ventricular tachycardia 2.63%. The most frequently used concomitant medication was quetiapine at 28.95%. The main cause of death was respiratory failure. Conclusions: the frequency of arrhythmias was high in our study, although the most frequent cause of death was respiratory failure. (Acta Med Colomb 2020; 45. DOI:https://doi.org/10.36104/amc.2020.1336).


Resumen Introducción y objetivos: los macrólidos son antibióticos ampliamente utilizados con los cuales se ha reportado una mayor frecuencia de eventos cardiovasculares relacionados con aumento de arritmias. Mediante este estudio, se busca describir algunas complicaciones cardiovasculares con el uso de macrólidos en pacientes en UCI. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en el que se incluyeron pacientes adultos que ingresaron a la unidad de cuidado intensivo médico de la Fundación Cardioinfantil y que recibieron tratamiento antibiótico con claritromicina durante los años 2013 y 2015. Resultados: la muestra recolectada fue de 38 pacientes, la mediana de edad fue de 64 años y la claritromicina se usó más frecuentemente en el tratamiento de infecciones adquiridas en la comunidad, siendo la neumonía el diagnóstico más común. La frecuencia de arritmias tipo fibrilación o flutter auricular fue de 7.89% y de taquicardia ventricular 2.63%. El medicamento concomitante más frecuentemente usado fue la quetiapina con 28.95%. La principal causa de muerte fue falla respiratoria. Conclusiones: la frecuencia de arritmias fue alta en nuestro, aunque la causa de muerte más frecuente fue falla respiratoria.(Acta Med Colomb 2020; 45. DOI:https://doi.org/10.36104/amc.2020.1336).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Macrolides , Pneumonia , Clarithromycin , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Intensive Care Units
5.
Brasília; s.n; 20 maio 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1097388

ABSTRACT

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referente ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 16 artigos e 7 protocolos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Disease Progression , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , Sulbactam/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Clarithromycin/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Ampicillin/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use
6.
Brasília; s.n; 27 abr. 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1097410

ABSTRACT

Essa é uma produção do Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia (Decit) da Secretaria de Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovação e Insumos Estratégicos em Saúde (SCTIE) do Ministério da Saúde (Decit/SCTIE/MS), que tem como missão promover a ciência e tecnologia e o uso de evidências científicas para a tomada de decisão do SUS, tendo como principal atribuição o incentivo ao desenvolvimento de pesquisas em saúde no Brasil, de modo a direcionar os investimentos realizados em pesquisa pelo Governo Federal às necessidades de saúde pública. Informar sobre as principais evidências científicas descritas na literatura internacional sobre tratamento farmacológico para a COVID-19. Além de resumir cada estudo identificado, o informe apresenta também uma avaliação da qualidade metodológica e a quantidade de artigos publicados, de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, entre outros). Foram encontrados 9 artigos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/therapeutic use , Interleukin-1/therapeutic use , Clarithromycin/therapeutic use , Obesity Management/organization & administration , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use
7.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(2): 111-116, abr. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125050

ABSTRACT

La resistencia bacteriana a ciertos antibióticos condiciona el éxito del tratamiento erradicador de la infección gástrica por Helicobacter pylori y es motivo de creciente preocupación a nivel mundial. Dada la escasa evidencia publicada en Argentina sobre este tema, nuestro objetivo fue investigar factores asociados a la persistencia de H. pylori post-tratamiento antibiótico. Se determinó la frecuencia de fracaso terapéutico en 81 pacientes con gastritis por H. pylori tratados en nuestro Servicio y sometidos al estudio de urea en aire espirado para confirmar la erradicación de la infección. La edad promedio fue 58±12 y 43.2% eran hombres. La frecuencia de fracaso terapéutico fue 17.3%. De los dos esquemas más utilizados, la frecuencia de fracaso fue mayor con claritromicina + amoxicilina que con levofloxacina + amoxicilina (25% vs. 6.6%, p=0.04). Como factores de riesgo investigamos las siguientes variables: edad, género, síntomas, tabaquismo, consumo de anti-inflamatorios, diabetes, obesidad, tipo y duración de tratamiento. En el análisis univariado, el uso de esquemas con claritromicina y el género masculino se asociaron significativamente a persistencia de la infección [OR 4.2 (1.1-15.6) y 5.2 (1.1-26.4)]. En el análisis multivariado, el uso de esquema con claritromicina permaneció asociado al fracaso terapéutico [OR 5.38 (1.1-29.5)]. Concluimos que la inclusión de claritromicina en el esquema terapéutico para la gastritis por H. pylori se asoció a mayor fracaso terapéutico. Este fracaso es atribuible a alta prevalencia de resistencia de H. pylori a ese antibiótico en la población atendida en nuestro hospital y cuestiona las prácticas habituales de tratamiento en nuestro medio.


Antibiotic resistance may hinder the efficacy of eradication therapy against Helicobacter pylori infection and it has become a major concern worldwide. Due to the relatively scarce evidence published in Argentina on this topic, our aim was to describe factors associated with H. pylori persistence after antibiotic treatment. The therapeutic failure rate was described among 81 patients with H. pylori gastritis treated in our Hospital with a post-treatment urea breath test to determine successful eradication. Mean age was 58 ± 12 and 43.2% were male subjects. H. pylori persistence was observed in 17.3% of subjects. Therapeutic failure was more common among patients receiving clarithromycin + amoxicillin therapy that among those receiving levofloxacin + amoxicillin (25% vs. 6.6%, p = 0.04). The following variables were assessed: age, gender, referral symptoms, smoking, anti-inflammatory use, diabetes, obesity, treatment type and duration. Clarithromycin-based therapy and male gender were associated with infection persistence on univariate analysis [OR 4.2 (1.1-15.6) and 5.2 (1.1-26.4)]. On multivariate analysis, clarithromycin-based was associated with infection persistence [5.38 (1.1-29.5)]. We conclude that clarithromycin-based therapy is significantly associated with treatment failure. This failure may be due to an elevated prevalence of H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin in the population under study and raises the question on the utility of such therapeutic alternative.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Helicobacter Infections/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gastritis/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Argentina , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter Infections/microbiology , Treatment Failure , Clarithromycin/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Gastritis/microbiology , Amoxicillin/therapeutic use
8.
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(1): 124-126, Jan.-Mar. 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098346

ABSTRACT

Abstract Urinary tract infection is a serious public health issue that predominantly affects women. In men, it is more often associated with prostatic hyperplasia and bladder catheterization. Urogenital tuberculosis presents with nonspecific with nonspecific symptoms and the diagnosis can be made in the presence of sterile leukocyturia and recurrent infection with acid urine. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria or other non-tuberculosis mycobacteria are opportunistic pathogens that inhabit the soil, water or environment surfaces, and usually cause diseases in immunocompromised individuals. Mycobacterium abscessus is an agent that causes lung, skin and soft tissue hospital infections. Urinary tract infections by this pathogen are rare.


Resumo Infecção do trato urinário é um sério problema de saúde pública que acomete predominantemente as mulheres. Em homens, está mais relacionada com hiperplasia prostática e cateterismo vesical. A tuberculose urogenital cursa com sintomas inespecíficos e o diagnóstico pode ser aventado na presença de leucocitúria estéril, e infecção recorrente com urina ácida. Micobactérias não tuberculosas ou mycobacteria other than tuberculosis são patógenos oportunistas que habitam o solo, a água ou superfícies do meio ambiente, e geralmente causam doenças em imunodeprimidos. Mycobacterium abscessus é um agente que causa infecções nosocomiais, pulmonares, de pele e de tecidos moles. Infecção urinária decorrente desse patógeno é considerada rara.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Mycobacterium abscessus/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Amikacin/administration & dosage , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Clarithromycin/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/microbiology , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/drug therapy
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827543

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the clinical efficacy of clarithromycin (CLM) in the adjuvant treatment of chronic periodontitis systematically, obtain reasonable conclusions through evidence-based medicine, and provide guidance for clinical rational drug use.@*METHODS@#Literature about CLM in the adjuvant treatment of chronic periodontitis was searched in CNKI, VIP, Wanfang, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Embase databases from inception to February 2019 using a computer. Meta-analysis was performed on the homogeneous study using RevMan 5.3 software after two independent reviewers screened the literature, evaluated the quality of the study, extracted the data, and evaluated the risk of bias in the included studies.@*RESULTS@#Six randomized controlled trials were included in 316 subjects. The meta-analysis showed that compared with the scaling and root planning (SRP) group, the probing depth (PD) was reduced in patients with CLM and SRP [MD=-1.00, 95%CI (-1.55, -0.45), P=0.000 04]. Clinical attachment loss was obtained [MD=-0.03, 95%CI (0.43, 0.65), P<0.000 01], and the difference between the groups was statistically significant. The modified sulcus bleeding index (mSBI) was reduced [MD=-0.01, 95%CI (-0.14, 0.19), P=0.66]. No significant difference was observed between the groups, but the decrease in mSBI was more significant in CLM combined with SRP group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#CLM combined with subgingival SRP can achieve remarkable results in treating chronic periodontitist.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Chronic Periodontitis , Drug Therapy , Clarithromycin , Dental Scaling , Humans , Periodontal Index , Root Planing , Treatment Outcome
10.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(4): 361-366, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055160

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection in Chile remains as a public and private health-care system's challenge, with a prevalence of the infection over 70%. Nowadays, antibiotic treatment of the infection is mandatory to prevent the arising of severe associated diseases but failures in the eradication therapy mainly due to clarithromycin resistance has been observed worldwide and first line eradication therapy seems to be not effective anymore in several geographical areas. Thus, health-care systems are committed to maintain an epidemiological surveillance upon the evolution of the antibiotic resistance of this priority 2 pathogen. OBJECTIVE: This work reports a 10 years surveillance of the primary antibiotic resistance of H. pylori clinical isolates at the Biobío region-Chile, and the evolution of resistance toward amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, metronidazole, and tetracycline among the species. METHODS: H. pylori strains were investigated during the periods 2005-2007 (1435 patients analysed) and 2015-2017 (220 patients analysed) by inoculating a saline homogenate biopsy onto the surface of Columbia agar (Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK) - supplemented with 7% horse red blood cells plus DENT inhibitor (Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK) - following by incubation at 37ºC under 10% CO2 atmosphere for five days. Antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates was assessed using the disk diffusion test in Müeller-Hinton agar supplemented with 7% horse red blood cells followed by incubation for further three days under 10% CO2 atmosphere. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS v22 software and P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 41% of 1435 patients were detected to be infected with H. pylori by bacteriological culture in 2005-2007 period, meanwhile 32.7% from 220 patients were also infected in 2015-2017 period. The clinical isolates of H. pylori are mostly susceptible to amoxicillin and tetracycline (both over 98% of strains), but less susceptible to levofloxacin in both periods analysed (over 79% of the strains). On the other hand, metronidazole continuous showing the highest score of resistant isolates (over 40% of resistant strains), although an 18% fewer resistant strains were observed in 2015-2017 period. Clarithromycin, the key antibiotic in eradication therapies, has an increased frequency of resistant strain isolated in the decade (22.5% in 2005-2007 and 29.2% in 2015-2017). Multidrug resistant strains (two, three and four antibiotics) were also detected in both periods with the highest scores for simultaneous resistance to clarithromycin-metronidazole (18%) and clarithromycin-metronidazole-levofloxacin (12.5%) resistant strains. According to gender, the isolates resistant to amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole were more frequent in female, with a specific increment in amoxicillin and clarithromycin resistance. CONCLUSION: The frequency of clarithromycin resistance (29.2%) detected in 2015-2017 suggests that conventional triple therapy is no longer effective in this region.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A infecção por Helicobacter pylori no Chile permanece como um desafio do sistema de saúde público e privado, com prevalência da infecção acima de 70%. Hoje em dia, o tratamento antibiótico da infecção é obrigatório para prevenir o surgimento de graves doenças associadas, mas falhas na terapia de erradicação, principalmente devido à resistência à claritromicina, têm sido observadas em todo o mundo, e a terapia de erradicação de primeira linha parece não ser mais eficaz em várias áreas geográficas. Assim, os sistemas de saúde estão comprometidos em manter uma vigilância epidemiológica sobre a evolução da resistência aos antibióticos deste patógeno prioritário tipo 2. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho relata uma vigilância de 10 anos da resistência antibiótica primária de isolados clínicos de H. pylori na região do Biobío-Chile, e a evolução da resistência em relação à amoxicilina, claritromicina, levofloxacina, metronidazol e tetraciclina entre as espécies. MÉTODOS: As cepas de H. pylori foram investigadas durante os períodos 2005-2007 (1435 pacientes analisados) e 2015-2017 (220 pacientes analisados) inoculando uma biópsia de homogeneizado fisiológico na superfície do agar Columbia (Oxoid, Basingstoke, Reino Unido) - suplementado com 7% de glóbulos vermelhos do cavalo mais o inibidor de DENTE (Oxoid, Basingstoke, Reino Unido) - seguindo pela incubação em 37ºC a atmosfera de 10% de CO2 por cinco dias. O padrão de resistência aos antibióticos dos isolados foi avaliado utilizando-se o teste de difusão em disco em agar Müeller-Hinton suplementado com 7% de glóbulos vermelhos de cavalo seguidos de incubação por mais três dias a atmosfera de 10% de CO2. A análise estatística foi realizada utilizando-se o software SPSS V22 e os valores de P<0,5 foram considerados estatisticamente significantes. RESULTADOS: Um total de 41% dos 1435 pacientes foram detectados como contaminados por H. pylori pela cultura bacteriológica no período 2005-2007, ao mesmo tempo 32,7% de 220 pacientes foram contaminados igualmente no período 2015-2017. Os isolados clínicos de H. pylori são principalmente suscetíveis à amoxicilina e tetraciclina (tanto mais de 98% das cepas), mas menos suscetíveis à levofloxacina em ambos os períodos analisados (mais de 79% das cepas). Por outro lado, o metronidazol permaneceu mostrando a maior pontuação de resistentes isolados (mais de 40% de cepas resistentes), embora tenham sido observados 18% menos cepas resistentes no período de 2015-2017. A claritromicina, o antibiótico-chave em terapias de erradicação, tem uma frequência aumentada de cepa resistente isolada na década (22,5% em 2005-2007 e 29,2% em 2015-2017). Cepas multirresistentes (dois, três e quatro antibióticos) também foram detectadas em ambos os períodos com os maiores escores de resistência simultânea à claritromicina-metronidazol (18%) e claritromicina-metronidazol-levofloxacina (12,5%) cepas resistentes. De acordo com o sexo, os isolados resistentes à amoxicilina, claritromicina e metronidazol foram mais frequentes no sexo feminino, com incremento específico em amoxicilina e resistência à claritromicina. CONCLUSÃO: A frequência de resistência à claritromicina (29,2%) detectada em 2015-2017 sugere que a terapia tripla convencional não é mais efetiva nesta região.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Tetracycline/pharmacology , Population Surveillance , Helicobacter Infections/microbiology , Clarithromycin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Levofloxacin , Amoxicillin/pharmacology , Metronidazole/pharmacology , Middle Aged
11.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(4): 979-992, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094102

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La infección por helicobacter pylori afecta aproximadamente al 50% de la población mundial, es causante de gastritis crónica, úlcera péptica, cáncer gástrico y linfoma del tejido linfoide asociado a la mucosa. Desde su descubrimiento, la erradicación ha sido uno de los más importantes retos en Gastroenterología. En muchos países se desconoce la prevalencia de resistencia primaria del microorganismo a los diferentes antibióticos que empíricamente se utilizan, y por no realizar pruebas de rutina que verifican su erradicación en la práctica diaria, se ignora la efectividad de los esquemas prescritos. El incremento progresivo de la resistencia a la claritromicina y metronidazol, unido a una ausencia de antibioticoterapia alternativa, desafía la capacidad para eliminar de manera efectiva a ésta bacteria. El subcitrato de bismuto ha resurgido y su adición en la terapia ha permitido aumentar las tasas de curación por encima del 90%. Actualmente se invoca que para mejorar la eficacia en el tratamiento se debe combinar una supresión potente del ácido gástrico en tratamientos combinados cuádruples con una duración de 14 días, para la mayoría de los casos. La adherencia al tratamiento es crucial para obtener buenos resultados terapéuticos.


ABSTRACT The infection for helicobacter pylori affects approximately to the world population's 50%, it is causing of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric cancer and linfoma associated to the mucous one. From their discovery, the eradication has been one of the most important challenges in Gastroenterología. In many countries the prevalencia of primary resistance is ignored from the microorganism to the different antibiotics that empirically they are used, and for not carrying out routine tests that verify its eradication in the daily practice, the effectiveness of the prescribed outlines it is ignored. The progressive increment of the resistance to the claritromicina and metronidazol, together to an absence of alternative antibioticotherapy, challenges the capacity to eliminate from an effective way to this bacteria. The bismuth subcitrato has resurged and its addition in the therapy has allowed to increase the cure rates above 90%. At the moment it is invoked that to improve the effectiveness in the treatment, that is should combine a potent suppression of the gastric acid in combined quadruple treatments with a duration of 14 days, for most of the cases. The adherence to the treatment is crucial to obtain therapeutic good results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Risk Factors , Helicobacter Infections/etiology , Helicobacter Infections/drug therapy , Helicobacter Infections/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Drug Therapy, Combination , Disease Eradication , Peptic Ulcer/diagnosis , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnosis , Tetracycline/therapeutic use , Bismuth/therapeutic use , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Clarithromycin , Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone/diagnosis , Acidity Regulator , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Gastritis/diagnosis , Gastroenterology , Metronidazole , Metronidazole/therapeutic use
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741867

ABSTRACT

Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) is the most common causative agent of community-acquired pneumonia in school-aged children. An 8-year-old boy who had been diagnosed with autism looked severely ill when he presented to our hospital due to dyspnea and lethargy. He had fever and cough 7 days prior to hospitalization. He had signs and symptoms of severe respiratory distress. The percutaneous oxygen saturation was 88% at high oxygen supply. Chest radiography showed diffusely increased opacity with moderate pleural effusion. He was intubated immediately and admitted to the intensive care unit. Under the clinical impression of mycoplasmal pneumonia, intravenous clarithromycin was started. Laboratory findings showed leukocytosis, hepatitis, decreased renal function, and presence of serum MP immunoglobulin (Ig) M (+) IgG (+) and sputum MP polymerase chain reaction (+). On hospital day 2, the patient developed multiple organ failure with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was performed with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and was weaned successfully. This is the first reported case of an ARDS due to MP infection complicated by multiple organ failure that was successfully treated with ECMO and CRRT in South Korea.


Subject(s)
Autistic Disorder , Child , Clarithromycin , Cough , Dyspnea , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Fever , Hepatitis , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Intensive Care Units , Korea , Lethargy , Leukocytosis , Male , Multiple Organ Failure , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Mycoplasma , Oxygen , Pleural Effusion , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Radiography , Renal Replacement Therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Sputum , Thorax
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786626

ABSTRACT

Addressing the increasing antibiotic resistance, including clarithromycin resistance, which affects Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy, is a challenge for clinicians. Antibiotic resistance is the main reason for H. pylori eradication failure and the resistance rate for clarithromycin may drastically increase, up to 38.5%, due to 23S ribosomal RNA point mutations. Therefore, the standard triple regimen is no longer suitable as the first-line treatment in most regions. However, there is a growing interest in personalized care for patients. Increased eradication rates of tailored therapy based on antibiotic susceptibility have been reported using nucleic acid-based techniques for clarithromycin resistance with a focus on the first-line eradication therapy of H. pylori infection. Herein, we discuss the eradication therapy for H. pylori, with a diagnostic test and appropriate treatment for clarithromycin resistance.


Subject(s)
Clarithromycin , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Point Mutation , RNA, Ribosomal, 23S
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication rate of standard triple therapy is unsatisfactory in Korea, and sequential therapy (SQT) has been suggested to be a practical first-line alternative regimen. The aim of this prospective study was to document changes in annual eradication rates of SQT. METHODS: A total of 983 H. pylori-positive subjects were enrolled from 2010 to 2018 and their data were subjected to intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analysis. All subjects received 10-day sequential therapy consisting of 40 mg esomeprazole and 1 g amoxicillin b.i.d for 5 days followed by 40 mg esomeprazole b.i.d, 500 mg clarithromycin b.i.d and 500 mg metronidazole t.i.d for 5 days. The 13C-urea breath test, rapid urease test (CLO test®), and histology were used to confirm eradication. Compliance and side effects were also investigated. RESULTS: ITT and PP eradication rates of SQT were 69.9% (687 of 983) and 87.1% (657 of 754), respectively. The annual eradication rate of ITT remained consistent over the 8-year study period (p for trend=0.167), whereas PP analysis showed the eradication rate increased (p for trend=0.042). The overall adverse event rate for SQT was 41.7% (410 subjects). CONCLUSIONS: Despite high antibiotic resistance rates in Korea, the eradication rate of SQT did not decrease over the 8-year study period.


Subject(s)
Amoxicillin , Breath Tests , Clarithromycin , Compliance , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Esomeprazole , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Intention to Treat Analysis , Korea , Metronidazole , Prospective Studies , Urease
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773995

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of amoxicillin-clarithromycin-containing bismuth quadruple regimen as a primary therapy for Helicobacter pylori (Hp) eradication.Methods A total of 102 Hp-infected outpatients diagnosed by C-or C-urea breath test from December 2015 to June 2017 were enrolled and received 14-day bismuth quadruple therapy (esomeprazole 20 mg bid,bismuth potassium citrate 220 mg bid,amoxicillin 1000 mg bid,and clarithromycin 500 mg bid for 14 days). Hp status was assessed by C-or C-urea breath test 4 weeks,8 weeks,6 months,and 12 months after the treatment. The primary outcome was Hp eradication rate,which was analyzed by intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses. The second outcomes were Hp infection recurrence,symptomatic benefit from Hp eradication,and safety. Results A total of 101 patients,of which 65 patients had dyspeptic symptoms before eradication,completed the study. Hp eradication rates by ITT analysis and by PP analysis were 88.2% and 89.1%,respectively. Only in two of 84 patients,who were followed for 8 weeks after eradication,Hp became positive. No Hp recurrence happened at the 6-month and 12-month follow-up and the annual recurrence rate was 2.4%. The symptomatic relief rates at the 4-week,8-week,6-month and 12-month follow-up were 81.5%,75.4%,71.2%,and 70.2% respectively. Eleven of 101 patients had mild and similar side-effects,which were well tolerated.Conclusion Amoxicillin-clarithromycin-containing bismuth quadruple regimen can be used as the standard therapy for Hp eradication.


Subject(s)
Amoxicillin , Therapeutic Uses , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bismuth , Clarithromycin , Therapeutic Uses , Drug Therapy, Combination , Helicobacter Infections , Drug Therapy , Helicobacter pylori , Humans , Treatment Outcome
16.
Gut and Liver ; : 483-497, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763878

ABSTRACT

Antibiotic resistance is the most important factor leading to the failure of eradication regimens. This review focuses on the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori primary and secondary resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, levofloxacin, tetracycline, and multidrug in Vietnam. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Vietnamese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Vietnamese Biomedical databases from January 2000 to December 2016. The search terms included the following: H. pylori infection, antibiotic (including clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, levofloxacin, tetracycline, and multidrug) resistance in Vietnam. The data were summarized in an extraction table and analyzed manually. Finally, Excel 2007 software was used to create charts. Ten studies (three studies in English and seven in Vietnamese) were included in this review. A total of 308, 412, 523, 408, 399, and 268 H. pylori strains were included in this review to evaluate the prevalence of H. pylori primary resistance to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, tetracycline, and multidrug resistance, respectively. Overall, the primary resistance rates of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, tetracycline, and multidrug resistance were 15.0%, 34.1%, 69.4%, 27.9%, 17.9% and 48.8%, respectively. Secondary resistance rates of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, tetracycline, and multidrug resistance were 9.5%, 74.9%, 61.5%, 45.7%, 23.5% and 62.3%, respectively. In Vietnam, primary and secondary resistance to H. pylori is increasing over time and affects the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication.


Subject(s)
Amoxicillin , Asians , Bismuth , Clarithromycin , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Levofloxacin , Metronidazole , Prevalence , Tetracycline , Vietnam
17.
Gut and Liver ; : 531-540, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763873

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This nationwide, multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of 10-day concomitant therapy (CT) and 10-day sequential therapy (ST) with 7-day clarithromycin-containing triple therapy (TT) as first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection in the Korean population. METHODS: Patients with H. pylori infection were assigned randomly to 7d-TT (lansoprazole 30 mg, amoxicillin 1 g, and clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily for 7 days), 10d-ST (lansoprazole 30 mg and amoxicillin 1 g twice daily for the first 5 days, followed by lansoprazole 30 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg, and metronidazole 500 mg twice daily for the remaining 5 days), or 10d-CT (lansoprazole 30 mg, amoxicillin 1 g, clarithromycin 500 mg, and metronidazole 500 mg twice daily for 10 days). The primary endpoint was eradication rate by intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses. RESULTS: A total of 1,141 patients were included. The 10d-CT protocol achieved a markedly higher eradication rate than the 7d-TT protocol in both the ITT (81.2% vs 63.9%) and PP analyses (90.6% vs 71.4%). The eradication rate of the 10d-ST protocol was superior to that of the 7d-TT protocol (76.3% vs 63.9%, ITT analysis; 85.0% vs 71.4%, PP analysis). No significant differences in adherence or serious side effects were found among the three treatment arms. CONCLUSIONS: The 10d-CT and 10d-ST regimens were superior to the 7d-TT regimen as standard first-line treatment in Korea.


Subject(s)
Amoxicillin , Arm , Clarithromycin , Disease Eradication , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Korea , Lansoprazole , Metronidazole , Prospective Studies
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190039, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041600

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The growing incidence of post-surgical atypical mycobacteriosis (PSAM) may be related to the increased use of low- and medium-complexity video-assisted surgery. METHODS: Between April 2007 and June 2009, 125 patients were referred from the State Health Department of Rio de Janeiro for the treatment of confirmed, probable, or suspected PSAM. RESULTS: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was the most frequent surgical procedure (48.8%) among patients. Clarithromycin, ethambutol, and terizidone were used to treat 113 patients for a mean duration of 226 days. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the need for multidrug therapy and long treatment duration, most included patients adhered to treatment and experienced cure without relapse.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Surgical Wound Infection/etiology , Video-Assisted Surgery/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Clarithromycin/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Ethambutol/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous
19.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 30(supl.1): S18-S25, 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116305

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram negative bacteria that survives in the gastric acid environment. The infection is acquired mainly during childhood. Fifty to 70% of adult population has the infection. However, in the last 10 year, a decrease in the prevalence of this infection has been observed in all age groups, in particular in pediatric population and elderly patients over 60 years old. The evolution of the infection depends on bacterial factors (virulence and toxins) and host immune response. People infected mainly develop gastrointestinal diseases such as gastritis, peptic ulcer and MALT lymphoma. H. pylori infection is the main risk factor of gastric cancer and for that reason, the eradication is recommended if H. pylori has been detected through invasive or non-invasive tests. Among children, eradication is not recommended unless there is a clinical manifestation that merits. H. pylori eradication is recommended in symptomatic adults and there is a controversy about massive eradication in asymptomatic population due to the risk of development of antibiotic resistance. Treatment is based on the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) associated to antibiotics, that should be chosen taking into account the increasing antibiotic resistance, and local availability. Clarithromycin (CLA) and levofloxacin resistance is increasingly high, and CLA-free quadruple therapy schemes are currently recommended for first-line therapy. H. pylori eradication must be confirmed with invasive or non-invasive tests. Second-line therapy based on antibiotics not previously used, PPI high doses and bismuth is recommended.


Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) es una bacteria gramnegativa que sobrevive en el medio ácido gástrico. La infección se adquiere principalmente en la niñez. Un 50 a 70% de la población adulta es portadora, pero en los últimos 10 años, se ha observado una disminución en la prevalencia de infección en todos los grupos etarios, en particular en población pediátrica y mayores de 60 años. La evolución de la infección depende de factores propios de la bacteria (virulencia, toxinas) y de la respuesta inmune del huésped. Los individuos infectados desarrollan principalmente patologías gastrointestinales como gastritis, úlcera péptica y linfoma MALT. La infección por H. pylori es el principal factor de riesgo del cáncer gástrico por lo que se recomienda su erradicación en caso de haberse detectado mediante test invasivo o no invasivo. En niños, no es recomendable la erradicación a menos que exista una manifestación clínica que lo amerite. Se recomienda su erradicación en adultos sintomáticos y existe controversia respecto a la erradicación masiva en población asintomática debido al riesgo de desarrollar resistencia antibiótica. El tratamiento se basa en el uso de inhibidores de la bomba de protones asociado a antibióticos, los cuales deben ser escogidos teniendo en cuenta la tasa de resistencia antimicrobiana y disponibilidad local. La resistencia a claritromicina (CLA) y levofloxacino es creciente, por lo que se recomienda el uso de esquemas de cuadriterapia libre de CLA en esquemas de primera línea. Se recomienda confirmar su erradicación con test no invasivos y retratar con esquema de segunda línea con antibióticos no utilizados previamente, asociado a dosis altas de inhibidores de bomba de protones y sales de bismuto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Helicobacter Infections/drug therapy , Remission Induction , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Helicobacter pylori/pathogenicity , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Helicobacter Infections/physiopathology , Age Factors , Clarithromycin/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use
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