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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253106, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345544

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to develop and evaluate data driven models for prediction of forest yield under different climate change scenarios in the Gallies forest division of district Abbottabad, Pakistan. The Random Forest (RF) and Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) models were developed and evaluated using yield data of two species (Blue pine and Silver fir) as an objective variable and climate data (temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind speed) as predictive variables. Prediction accuracy of both the models were assessed by means of root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), correlation coefficient (r), relative root mean squared error (RRMSE), Legates-McCabe's (LM), Willmott's index (WI) and Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE) metrics. Overall, the RF model outperformed the KRR model due to its higher accuracy in forecasting of forest yield. The study strongly recommends that RF model should be applied in other regions of the country for prediction of forest growth and yield, which may help in the management and future planning of forest productivity in Pakistan.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo desenvolver e avaliar modelos baseados em dados para previsão da produção florestal em diferentes cenários de mudanças climáticas na divisão florestal Gallies do distrito de Abbottabad, Paquistão. Os modelos Random Forest (RF) e Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) foram desenvolvidos e avaliados usando dados de produção de duas espécies (pinheiro-azul e abeto-prateado) como uma variável objetiva e dados climáticos (temperatura, umidade, precipitação e velocidade do vento) como preditivos variáveis. A precisão da previsão de ambos os modelos foi avaliada por meio de erro quadrático médio (RMSE), erro absoluto médio (MAE), coeficiente de correlação (r), erro quadrático médio relativo (RRMSE), Legates-McCabe's (LM), índice de Willmott (WI) e métricas Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE). No geral, o modelo RF superou o modelo KRR devido à sua maior precisão na previsão do rendimento florestal. O estudo recomenda fortemente que o modelo RF seja aplicado em outras regiões do país para previsão do crescimento e produtividade florestal, o que pode ajudar no manejo e planejamento futuro da produtividade florestal no Paquistão.


Subject(s)
Climate Change , Pakistan
2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(1): 273-286, jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356043

ABSTRACT

Resumo A interface entre as Mudanças Climáticas e a Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional (SAN) tem se destacado na agenda de desenvolvimento sustentável desde o início da década de 1990. Desde então, estudos demonstram que as mudanças climáticas possuem efeitos negativos na SAN, potencializados pela pobreza e desigualdade social. O objetivo deste artigo é realizar uma revisão relacionando mudanças climáticas e SAN. A pesquisa foi realizada no PubMed utilizando os descritores "climate change and food security" no título, selecionando somente artigos em português, espanhol e inglês e com relação direta com os temas. Os principais impactos das mudanças climáticas na SAN foram no acesso, produção, qualidade nutricional e volatilidade dos preços dos alimentos. Estratégias de mitigação/adaptação aos efeitos das mudanças climáticas na SAN também foram apontadas nos estudos, além de um panorama geográfico das publicações com domínio de estudos na África e Ásia, continentes marcados por desigualdade social e pobreza. As mudanças climáticas afetam as dimensões da SAN, especialmente em populações mais pobres e em situação de desigualdade social. A relevância dos temas suscita a premência de maior investimento em políticas públicas, estudos e pesquisas acerca da temática no mundo.


Abstract The interface between Climate Changes and Food and Nutrition Security (FNS) has been standing out in the sustainable development agenda since the early 1990's. Since then, studies show that climate changes have negative effects on the FNS, aggravated by poverty and social inequality. The purpose of this paper is to perform a review evidencing the relationships between climate changes and FNS. The research was carried out in PubMed using the descriptors "climate change and food security" on the headline, selecting only papers in Portuguese, Spanish, and English languages, and with a direct relation to the themes. The main impacts of climate changes on the FNS were related to the access, production, nutritional quality, and volatility of food prices. The studies also indicated mitigation/adaptation strategies to the effects of climate changes on the FNS, as well as a geographic panorama of the publications with fields of study in Africa and Asia, continents marked by social inequality and poverty. Climate changes affect the dimensions of FNS, especially in poorer populations in situation of social inequality. The relevance of the themes raises concern on the urgency of higher investments in public policies, studies, and research on the subject around the world.


Subject(s)
Humans , Climate Change , Food Supply , Poverty , Food , Nutritive Value
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240219, 2022. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285585

ABSTRACT

Abstract Snow leopard (Panthera unica) is a felid which lives in the highly rugged areas of alpine regions in different mountain ranges of South and Central Asia. This solitary animal needs large spaces for its ranges but due to climate change and relatively faster rate of global warming in South Asian mountain ranges, its habitat is going to shrink and fragment by tree-line shifts and change in hydrology of the area. Vegetative modification of montane flora and competition with domestic goats will create its prey's population to decline along with a chance of a direct conflict and competition with the common leopard. Common leopard being more adaptable, grouped, and larger in size can be a significant stressor for a smaller and solitary snow leopard. Habitat would shrink, and snow leopard can possibly move upslope or northward to central Asian ranges and their predicted migratory patterns are unknown.


Resumo O leopardo-das-neves (Panthera uncia) é um felídeo que vive nas áreas altamente acidentadas das regiões alpinas, em diferentes cadeias de montanhas do sul e do centro da Ásia. A revisão atual tem o objetivo de abordar a questão da possível perda de hábitat do leopardo da neve em razão da interferência humana nas montanhas do sul e do centro da Ásia. Esse animal solitário precisa de grandes espaços para suas faixas, mas, devido às mudanças climáticas e à taxa relativamente mais rápida de aquecimento global nas cadeias montanhosas do sul da Ásia, seu hábitat vai encolher e fragmentar-se por mudanças nas linhas de árvores e na hidrologia da área. Este artigo teve o objetivo de rever vários estudos sobre os impactos das mudanças climáticas em um futuro próximo e distante sobre os hábitats do leopardo-da-neve. O estudo revelou que a modificação vegetativa da flora da montanha e a competição com cabras domésticas poderiam ocasionar na diminuição da população de suas presas, com a chance de um conflito direto e competição com leopardo comum. Leopardo comum sendo mais adaptável, agrupado e maior em tamanho pode ser um estressor significativo para um leopardo-da-neve menor e solitário. Conclusão: devido ao encolhimento do hábitat, o leopardo-da-neve pode, possivelmente, mover-se para cima ou para o norte, para faixas da Ásia Central com padrões migratórios não previstos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Felidae , Panthera , Asia , Climate Change , Ecosystem , Conservation of Natural Resources
4.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(3): e20201109, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339663

ABSTRACT

Globally, all environmental sectors are threatened by climate change, most especially to the food and agriculture sectors. Pakistan is a developing country that is most vulnerable to extreme and harsh climatic conditions, especially in Southeast Asia. Climate change has often adverse effects on Pakistan because it is often affected by severe weather conditions. Although, some studies have reported on farmers' perceptiveness regarding climate change adaptation and mitigation, there is still insufficient awareness among Pakistanis' farmers. Key knowledge is very important for farmers to overcome the harsh climatic conditions for harvesting and saving crops. To bridge this gap, this research discovered the awareness level of climate change, weather conditions, and related factors among Pakistani farmers. Through a stratified random sampling technique, 500 structured questionnaires were distributed among the farmers in four districts of Punjab Pakistan for study analysis. The probit model was used to analyze the farmer's perception regarding climate change, socio-demographic and economic variables. The findings of this research showed that 75% of farmers are aware of climate change. Perception of climate change between farmers was directly associated with agriculture experience, farmers' age, land ownership status, level of education, information sources, and access to extension. Also, our research showed that farmers' assessment of adaptive behavior showed that farmers are actively implementing crop diversification, irrigation, and other adaptation strategies. Results of this study will help government agencies and policymakers in Pakistan and other regions to develop sustainable adaptation measures in the framework of climate change.


Globalmente, todos os setores ambientais estão ameaçados pelas mudanças climáticas, principalmente para os setores de alimentos e agricultura. O Paquistão é um país em desenvolvimento mais vulnerável a condições climáticas extremas e adversas, especialmente no sudeste da Ásia. As mudanças climáticas costumam ter efeitos adversos no Paquistão, porque muitas vezes é afetado por condições climáticas severas. Embora alguns estudos relatem a percepção dos agricultores em relação à adaptação e mitigação das mudanças climáticas, ainda há consciência insuficiente entre os agricultores paquistaneses. O conhecimento chave é muito importante para os agricultores superarem as duras condições climáticas para a colheita e economia de safras. Para preencher essa lacuna, esta pesquisa pretende descobrir o nível de consciência das mudanças e condições climáticas e fatores relacionados entre os agricultores paquistaneses. Por meio de uma técnica de amostragem aleatória estratificada, 500 questionários estruturados foram distribuídos entre os agricultores em quatro distritos de Punjab Paquistão para análise do estudo. O modelo probit foi usado para analisar a percepção do agricultor em relação às mudanças climáticas, variáveis sócio-demográficas e econômicas. Os resultados desta pesquisa mostram que 75% dos agricultores estão cientes das mudanças climáticas. A percepção da mudança climática entre os agricultores foi diretamente associada à experiência agrícola, idade dos agricultores, situação de propriedade da terra, nível de educação, fontes de informação e acesso à extensão. Além disso, nossa pesquisa mostrou que a avaliação dos agricultores sobre o comportamento adaptativo mostra que eles estão implementando ativamente a diversificação de culturas, irrigação e outras estratégias de adaptação. Os resultados deste estudo ajudarão agências governamentais e formuladores de políticas no Paquistão e em outras regiões a desenvolver medidas de adaptação sustentáveis no contexto das mudanças climáticas.


Subject(s)
Climate Change/economics , Agribusiness/policies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adaptation
5.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 29(4): 734-742, out.-dez. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365506

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo discute os conceitos de Antropoceno e de Gaia, apontados por Bruno Latour como categorias para entender o regime climático que estamos vivendo e servir de base teórica para buscar respostas apropriadas para a crise do clima. Os conceitos buscam superar dois pressupostos da racionalidade moderna: a oposição entre natureza e cultura - questionando o princípio de que os humanos são os únicos atores da realidade e introduzindo todos os seres vivos como agentes conformadores do ambiente - e a visão globalizante do planeta Terra, que impede de ver a terra como solo localizado onde acontecem os ciclos biogeoquímicos de transformação da energia que possibilitam a vida. Conclui-se que a reflexão de Latour fornece bases ontológicas para a discussão sobre a mudança climática e pressupostos para a bioética ambiental.


Abstract This article discusses the concepts of Anthropocene and Gaia, raised by Bruno Latour, as categories to understand the climate regime we are experiencing and serve as a theoretical basis to seek appropriate responses to the climate crisis. These concepts seek to overcome two assumptions of modern rationality: the opposition between nature and culture - questioning the principle that humans are the only actors in reality and introducing all living beings as agents shaping the environment - and the globalizing vision of planet Earth that prevents us from seeing it as localized soil where biogeochemical cycles of energy transformation that make life possible take place. It is concluded that Latour's reflection provides ontological bases for the discussion on climate change and assumptions for environmental bioethics.


Resumen Este artículo discute los conceptos de Antropoceno y Gaia, señalados por Bruno Latour como categorías para entender el régimen climático que estamos viviendo y para servir de base teórica para buscar respuestas adecuadas a la crisis climática. Los conceptos buscan superar dos supuestos de la racionalidad moderna: la oposición entre naturaleza y cultura -cuestionando el principio de que los humanos son los únicos actores de la realidad e introduciendo a todos los seres vivos como agentes conformadores del medio ambiente- y la visión globalizante del planeta Tierra, que impide ver la tierra como un suelo localizado en el que tienen lugar los ciclos biogeoquímicos de transformación de la energía que hacen posible la vida. Se concluye que la reflexión de Latour proporciona bases ontológicas para la discusión sobre el cambio climático y supuestos para la bioética ambiental.


Subject(s)
Climate Change , Bioethics , Ecosystem , Ecology , Biosphere , Geology
6.
San Salvador; MINSAL; dic. 21, 2021. 20 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1354115

ABSTRACT

La Dirección de Salud Ambiental (DISAM) a través de la Unidad Ambiental, formula la presente Política Ambiental Institucional, que contiene las estrategias y acciones a implementar con la finalidad de proteger y conservar el ambiente, englobadas en los componentes de saneamiento ambiental, agua y cambio climático. Estrategias que contribuyan a proteger el ambiente a través de acciones del personal que labora en las diferentes dependencias del MINSAL


The Environmental Health Directorate (DISAM) through the Environmental Unit, formulates this Institutional Environmental Policy, which contains the strategies and actions to be implemented in order to protect and conserve the environment, encompassed in the components of environmental sanitation, water and climate change. Strategies that contribute to protecting the environment through actions of the personnel that work in the different dependencies of the MINSAL


Subject(s)
Sanitation , Environmental Health , Environmental Policy , Climate Change , Water
7.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 22(3): 1-6, 30 de diciembre del 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352457

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La enfermedad de Chagas es una afección parasitaria, transmitida por vectores con características eco epidemiológicas causada por el protozoario Trypanosoma cruzi, del 2013 al 2019 el Ecuador reportó 108 casos agudos de los cuales 7 estuvieron en la provincia de Pichincha. Presentamos el caso por sus características eco-epidemiológicas. Caso clínico: un caso agudo de paciente masculino de 14 años, residente en zona no endémica que inició con signo de Romaña, fiebre de tres semanas de evolución con esplenomegalia leve e hipertrofia concéntrica del ventrículo izquierdo. Evolución: el paciente fue tratado con benznidazol 7mg/kg/día vía oral cada 8 horas por dos meses, medidas de soporte y seguimiento multidisciplinario. Conclusión: La zona de detección fue el noreste del distrito metropolitano de Quito, la cual es parte del distrito de salud 17D01, sin reportes previos hasta el año 2016, cuya aparición se podría relacionar con cambios en el ecosistema local y el impacto en la transmisión de enfermedades vectoriales.


Introduction: Chagas disease is a parasitic disease transmitted by vectors with echo-epidemiological characteristics caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. From 2013 to 2019, Ecuador reported 108 acute cases, of which 7 were in the province of Pichincha. We present the case due to its ecoepidemiological characteristics. Clinical case: An acute case of a 14-year-old male resident in a nonendemic area that began with Romaña's sign, fever of three weeks of evolution with mild splenomegaly and concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle. Evolution: The patient was treated with benznidazole 7 mg/kg/day orally every 8 hours for two months, support measures and multidisciplinary follow-up. Conclusion: The detection zone was the northeast of the metropolitan district of Quito, which is part of health district 17D01, without previous reports until 2016, whose appearance could be related to changes in the local ecosystem and the impact on the transmission of vector diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Case Reports , Chagas Disease , Trypanosoma cruzi , Climate Change , Chagas Cardiomyopathy
8.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(supl.3): 5315-5328, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345736

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo caracteriza a produção científica divulgada em periódicos nacionais sobre as interações que se estabelecem entre os conceitos de mudanças climáticas, mudanças produtivas (incluídas as mudanças no uso do solo) e saúde humana, nos últimos dez anos (de 2008 a 2017), com destaque para as tendências teórico-metodológicas dessa produção. Para tanto, realizou-se uma revisão da literatura a partir de publicações disponibilizadas nas bases Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) e Portal de Periódicos CAPES. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram os avanços experimentados nos últimos dez anos pelas equipes interdisciplinares que se debruçaram sobre o tema ao longo do período analisado, bem como permitem identificar lacunas de pesquisa que podem ser exploradas em investigações futuras. Adicionalmente, foi identificada uma positiva sofisticação e refinamento das ferramentas e instrumentos analíticos que se mostram capazes de reunir informações consistentes sobre uma realidade ampla e complexa, caracterizada pela diversidade dos biomas, cenários climáticos e sistemas produtivos.


Abstract This article reviews the scientific output published in national journals on the interactions that are established between the concepts of climate change, productive changes (including changes in land use) and human health in the last ten years (from 2008 to 2017), highlighting the theoretical-methodological trends of this output. To achieve this, a review of the literature was made from publications made available in the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and the CAPES Journals Portal. The results obtained demonstrate the advances made in the last ten years by the interdisciplinary teams that dealt with the subject over the period analyzed. At the same time, this article identifies the research gaps that can be exploited in future research. In addition, a positive sophistication and refinement of analytical tools and instruments have been identified that are able to gather consistent information about a broad and complex reality characterized by the diversity of biomes, climatic scenarios and productive systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Climate Change , Ecosystem
10.
Rev. ADM ; 78(4): 209-214, jul.-ago. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292705

ABSTRACT

Las Escuelas de Odontología como espacios educativos universitarios son un lugar idóneo para trabajar de manera urgente los procesos de ambientalización curricular que permitan realizar de forma horizontal y vertical temáticas y contenidos para crear y recrear un tipo de cultura y conciencia más amigable con el medio ambiente, y contribuir con conductas y actitudes sustentables en los estudiantes, docentes y trabajadores administrativos hacia una reducción significativa en la contaminación del ambiente local, regional y mundial, colaborando en ello con la solución a la regularización del clima y el control de los desastres ocasionados por el cambio climático. Además de esto, a ser las Escuelas de Odontología instituciones educativas que pueden funcionar bajo el paradigma de la sustentabilidad, se lograría contribuir al aseguramiento de los recursos naturales renovables y no renovables para las nuevas generaciones, además del logro de un importante ahorro económico en el gasto corriente de las escuelas (AU)


The Dental School as university educational spaces are an ideal place to urgently work on the curricular greening processes that allow working horizontally and vertically with themes and contents that allow creating and recreating a type of culture and awareness that is more friendly to the environment and contribute with sustainable behaviors and attitudes in students, teachers and administrative workers a more significant reduction in pollution of the local, regional and global environment, collaborating in this with the solution to the regularization of the climate and the control of disasters caused by change climate. In addition, being the School of Dentistry educational institutions that can function under the paradigm of sustainability, it would be possible to contribute to the assurance of renewable and non-renewable natural resource for the new generations, in addition to achieving significant economic savings in current spending from school (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Schools, Dental/trends , Climate Change , Environmental Health Education , Environmental Pollution/prevention & control , Sustainable Development , United Nations , Curriculum , UNESCO , Mexico
11.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(3): 432-437, jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346481

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores (ETVs) continúan siendo un desafío para los esfuerzos de agencias de salud pública, ya que mantienen o están aumentando su impacto sobre la salud de las comunidades afectadas. La característica común de las ETVs es que la única manera de prevenir exito samente nuevas infecciones es evitar el contacto entre vectores y humanos. No existen vacunas y no existirán en un futuro previsible para las principales ETVs que afectan la salud pública en Argentina. Aunque las epide mias de dengue desde 2009 atrajeron la atención mediática, otras ETVs, tales como Chagas o leishmaniasis, afectan la salud pública en Argentina desde hace décadas. Sobre ellas, y otras que potencialmente podrían instalarse en el territorio nacional (West Nile, Lyme, etc) hay repetidas referencias mediáticas que explican su recrudecimiento por el cambio climático. El argumento se basa en que la "tropicalización" del clima en regiones templadas promueve la instalación de ETVs en áreas previamente no favorables para ellas. Aunque existen muchas evidencias de que el clima está cambiando, son pocas las evidencias de que sea el clima el principal factor que promueve el recrudecimiento de las ETVs en Argentina. En este artículo, se discute la situación de los vectores de enfermedades en Argentina (con énfasis en triatominos), su vinculación con el llamado cambio climático y las actividades de control de vectores implementados por agencias gubernamentales de salud pública.


Abstract Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) continue to pose a challenge to the efforts of public health agencies by increasing their impact on the health of the affected communities. The common feature of VBDs is that the only way of preventing them is by avoid ing the contact between vectors and humans. There are no vaccines, and they will not be available shortly as tools for prevention and control in Argentina. Although dengue outbreaks attracted the attention of mass media from 2009, other VBDs have been affecting public health in Argentina for many decades, as Chagas disease and leishmaniasis. Over these, and others that could potentially settle in the national territory (West Nile, Lyme, etc.), there are repeated mass media claims and political declarations justifying their increase because of climate changes. The argument asserts that the "tropicalization" of the climate in temperate regions promotes the instal lation of VBDs in areas previously unfavorable for them. Although much evidence exists showing that the climate is changing, there is very little evidence that the climate is the main factor promoting the increase of VBDs. In this article, the influence of the so-called climate change on the situation of disease vectors in Argentina (with emphasis on triatomines) and vector control activities implemented by governmental public health agencies are discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Climate Change , Vector Borne Diseases , Argentina/epidemiology , Public Health , Disease Vectors
12.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 13: 1-6, 5/02/2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1348420

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El cambio climático es un determinante estructural de la salud y una amenaza para la salud pública global. Por ello, la Asamblea Mundial de la Salud de 2008 llamó a elaborar planes de acción para minimizar los impactos sanitarios del cambio climático. El objetivo de este trabajo fue sistematizar el proceso de desarrollo de una política sanitaria en la materia, que se plasma en el Plan de Acción Nacional en Salud y Cambio Climático. MÉTODOS: Para el diseño de la política de salud y cambio climático se conformó una Mesa de Trabajo al interior del Ministerio de Salud de la Nación, integrada por diferentes áreas con competencias en la temática. Esta mesa fue la responsable de llevar a cabo un diagnóstico de situación para la priorización de los temas a incluir en un plan de acción que puesto a consideración de otras áreas del Estado Nacional a través del Grupo de Trabajo de Salud al interior del Gabinete Nacional de Cambio Climático y de la sociedad civil. RESULTADOS: La política sanitaria en materia de cambio climático cuenta con tres instrumentos: un programa nacional, una mesa de trabajo y un plan de acción. El plan está organizado en 7 ejes de intervención y 21 medidas. DISCUSIÓN: El Ministerio de Salud ha trabajado en Salud y Cambio Climático desde 2008, pero fue a partir de la conformación de la Mesa de Trabajo que se logró la transversalización de la temática.


Subject(s)
Argentina , Climate Change , Intersectoral Collaboration , Health Policy
13.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 16(4): 157-160, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361914

ABSTRACT

Se describen impactos sobre la salud poblacional debido a la contaminación atmosférica y a la temperatura producto del cambio climático. Se ilustra la situación en Chile respecto de algunos indicadores como son los días de altas temperaturas u olas de calor, y la superficie de terreno afectado por incendios forestales. También se sistematizan los principales resultados de estudios ecológicos multicéntricos en los que se ha incorporado información nacional. Estos tuvieron como finalidad estimar el impacto de la temperatura y la contaminación atmosférica por material particulado, monóxido de carbono y dióxido de nitrógeno mediante un enfoque multicéntrico que abarcó varios continentes, países y localidades.


Impacts on population health due to air pollution and temperature caused by climate change are described. The situation in Chile is illustrated with respect to some indicators such as days of high temperatures or heat waves, and the area of land affected by forest fires. The main results of multicenter ecological studies in which national information has been incorporated are also systematized. These were aimed at estimating the impact of temperature and air pollution by particulate matter, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide through a multicenter approach that spanned several continents, countries, and localities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Climate Change , Environmental Health , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Population Health
14.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 55: 17, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1289988

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Analyze the incorporation of climate change and environmental health courses in the curriculum grids of Medicine, Nursing, Nutrition and Clinical Psychology undergraduate courses in Latin American universities. METHODS: Descriptive and cross-sectional document review. Curriculum grids of the top ten Latin American universities were analyzed according to the rankings of QS Latin American University 2020, Times Higher Education World University 2020 and Academic Ranking of World Universities 2019. The presence of courses related to climate change and environmental health was sought in each curriculum grid. RESULTS: 104 of the 161 universities included in the study offered Medicine courses, 93 Nursing courses, 77 Nutrition courses and 118 Clinical Psychology courses. Most of the curriculum grids incorporated courses in public health and/or epidemiology (more than 70%); however, between 22% and 41% included courses on environmental health, and only one curriculum grid had a course on climate change in Medicine and Nursing (1%). CONCLUSIONS: Courses on climate change and environmental health have been scarcely introduced in the curriculum grids of the health field in Latin American universities. This could weaken the important role that health professionals play in providing health care to the population.


RESUMEN OBJETIVO: Analizar la incorporación de cursos de cambio climático y salud ambiental en las mallas curriculares del grado en Medicina, Enfermería, Nutrición y Psicología clínica en universidades latinoamericanas. MÉTODOS: Revisión documental de tipo descriptiva y transversal. Se analizaron las mallas curriculares de las diez primeras universidades latinoamericanas según los rankings QS Latin American University 2020, Times Higher Education World University 2020 y Academic Ranking of World Universities 2019. En cada malla curricular se buscó la presencia de cursos relacionados al cambio climático y la salud ambiental. RESULTADOS: De las 161 universidades que se incluyeron en el estudio, 104 ofrecían la carrera de Medicina, 93 de Enfermería, 77 de Nutrición y 118 de Psicología clínica. La mayor parte de las mallas curriculares incorporaron cursos de salud pública y/o epidemiología (más del 70%), sin embargo, entre el 22% y el 41% incluyeron cursos de salud ambiental, y solo una malla curricular tuvo un curso en cambio climático en Medicina y Enfermería (1%). CONCLUSIONES: Los cursos de cambio climático y salud ambiental han sido introducidos, de forma escasa, en las mallas curriculares del campo de la salud en universidades latinoamericanas. Esto podría debilitar el importante rol que cumplen los profesionales de la salud en la asistencia sanitaria a la población.


Subject(s)
Humans , Universities , Climate Change , Brazil , Environmental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Latin America
15.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO5472, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154095

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the association between climate changes in the macroregions in the state of São Paulo and testicular torsion treated cases. Methods: The cases were selected in the Brazilian Public Health Data System Database from January 2008 to November 2016. All surgical procedure records were identified by the Hospital Admission Authorization document. Two codes were selected to process the search: testicular torsion (surgical cure code) and acute scrotum (exploratory scrototomy code). The macroregions were grouped in five areas linked to climate characteristics by International Köppen Climate Classification. Results: A total of 2,351 cases of testicular torsion were registered in the period. For the areas B, C and E (testicular torsion n=2,130) there were statistical differences found in association of testicular torsion cases and decreased temperature (p=0.019, p=0.001 and p=0.006, respectively), however, in analyses for the areas A and D statistical differences were not observed (p=0.066 and p=0.494). Conclusion: Decrease in temperature was associated with testicular torsion in three macroregions of São Paulo. The findings support the theory of cold weather like a trigger in occurrence of testicular torsion in a tropical climate region.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar a associação entre mudanças climáticas nas macrorregiões do estado de São Paulo e os casos tratados com torção testicular registrados. Métodos: Os casos foram selecionados no Banco de Dados do Sistema de Dados de Saúde Pública do Brasil de janeiro de 2008 a novembro de 2016. Todos os registros de procedimentos cirúrgicos foram identificados pelo documento de Autorização de Internação Hospitalar. Dois códigos foram selecionados para processar a busca: torção testicular (código de cura cirúrgica) e escroto agudo (código de escrototomia exploratória). As macrorregiões foram agrupadas em cinco áreas ligadas às características climáticas pela Classificação Internacional de Clima Köppen. Resultados: Foram registrados 2.351 casos de torção testicular no período. Para as áreas B, C e E (torção testicular n=2.130), foram encontradas diferenças estatísticas na associação dos casos de torção testicular e diminuição da temperatura (p=0,019, p=0,001 e p=0,006, respectivamente), mas nas análises das áreas A e D não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas (p=0,066 e p=0,494). Conclusão: A diminuição da temperatura foi associada à torção testicular em três macrorregiões de São Paulo. Os resultados apoiam a teoria do clima frio como um gatilho para ocorrência de torção testicular em uma região de clima tropical.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Spermatic Cord Torsion/epidemiology , Climate Change , Scrotum/physiopathology , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
17.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190755, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278449

ABSTRACT

Abstract Blueberry is an important fruit crop, with many health benefits. Despite its importance, much remains to be studied concerning the dormancy dynamics in rabbiteye cultivars growing in a mild winter climate. In this research, the dormancy in blueberry, rabbiteye cultivars 'Bluegem', 'Climax', 'Delite', and 'Powderblue', was studied in a mild winter region. The single-node cuttings biological test and the evaluation of the hydric status were performed in dormant winter reproductive buds. These experiments were performed during fall and winter in one year (2016). Moreover, chilling hours under or equal to 7.2 ºC were measured, and chill units were calculated according to Utah Model [1], Modified Utah Model [2], and Blueberry Model [3]. In conclusion, the four cultivars showed a similar pattern, revealing a dormant state in the initial sampling dates and a released dormancy in the final treatments, showing the decrease of dormancy in June and July. However, Delite was earlier than the other cultivars. Bluegem and Delite required 134.0 chilling hours, 127.0 chill units (Utah Model), 198.5 chill units (Modified Utah Model), and 971.5 chill units (Blueberry Model) for 50% of their green tip buds reach the opened bud stage. Climax required 44.0, -11.0, 56.5, and 440.5, respectively. And Powderblue required 44.0, 5.5, 77.0, and 725.0 respectively. This study can bring some insights into crop management and production of this important fruit crop, especially in a global climate-changing scenario, related to flowering and dormancy control, as well as helping to select suitable cultivars to a region, concerning chilling requirements.


Subject(s)
Climate Change , Vaccinium myrtillus , Plant Dormancy , Ericaceae , Vaccinium
18.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190502, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285558

ABSTRACT

Abstract Climate is considered an important factor in the temporal and spatial distribution of vector-borne diseases. Dengue transmission involves many factors: although it is not yet fully understood, climate is a critical factor as it facilitates risk analysis of epidemics. This study analyzed the effect of seasonal factors and the relationship between climate variables and dengue risk in the municipality of Campo Grande, from 2008 to 2018. Generalized linear models with negative binomial and Poisson distribution were used. The most appropriate model was the one with "minimum temperature" and "precipitation", both lagged by one month, controlled by "year". In this model, a 1°C rise in the minimum temperature of one month led to an increase in dengue cases the following month, while a 10 mm increase in precipitation led to an increase in dengue cases the following month.


Subject(s)
Climate Change , Dengue/epidemiology , Temporal Distribution , Seasons , Binomial Distribution , Linear Models , Poisson Distribution
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Ambient temperature may contribute to seasonality of mortality; in particular, a warming climate is likely to influence the seasonality of mortality. However, few studies have investigated seasonality of mortality under a warming climate.@*METHODS@#Daily mean temperature, daily counts for all-cause, circulatory, and respiratory mortality, and annual data on prefecture-specific characteristics were collected for 47 prefectures in Japan between 1972 and 2015. A quasi-Poisson regression model was used to assess the seasonal variation of mortality with a focus on its amplitude, which was quantified as the ratio of mortality estimates between the peak and trough days (peak-to-trough ratio (PTR)). We quantified the contribution of temperature to seasonality by comparing PTR before and after temperature adjustment. Associations between annual mean temperature and annual estimates of the temperature-unadjusted PTR were examined using multilevel multivariate meta-regression models controlling for prefecture-specific characteristics.@*RESULTS@#The temperature-unadjusted PTRs for all-cause, circulatory, and respiratory mortality were 1.28 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27-1.30), 1.53 (95% CI: 1.50-1.55), and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.44-1.48), respectively; adjusting for temperature reduced these PTRs to 1.08 (95% CI: 1.08-1.10), 1.10 (95% CI: 1.08-1.11), and 1.35 (95% CI: 1.32-1.39), respectively. During the period of rising temperature (1.3 °C on average), decreases in the temperature-unadjusted PTRs were observed for all mortality causes except circulatory mortality. For each 1 °C increase in annual mean temperature, the temperature-unadjusted PTR for all-cause, circulatory, and respiratory mortality decreased by 0.98% (95% CI: 0.54-1.42), 1.39% (95% CI: 0.82-1.97), and 0.13% (95% CI: - 1.24 to 1.48), respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#Seasonality of mortality is driven partly by temperature, and its amplitude may be decreasing under a warming climate.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cause of Death , Climate Change/mortality , Cold Temperature/adverse effects , Hot Temperature/adverse effects , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Mortality/trends , Regression Analysis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/mortality , Seasons , Time
20.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(2): e200128, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279482

ABSTRACT

The coastal basins of southeastern Brazil are influenced by climatic changes that caused sea-level oscillations during the Pleistocene. These marine transgressions and regressions can generate isolation and connection among coastal rivers. In this region, freshwater fishes are excellent models for phylogeographic studies because their distributions may have been affected by geographical and ecological changes resulting from these processes. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Pleistocene sea-level changes on the genetic structure of the loricariid Hisonotus leucofrenatus throughout its area of occurrence. Two genes were sequenced: Cytochrome Oxidase subunit 1 (mitochondrial gene) and rpS7 ribosomal protein gene intron 1 (nuclear gene) from specimens representing 14 river drainages. The genetic data corroborate a divide for freshwater fish by the Serra do Tabuleiro mountain in Santa Catarina State. This divide determines two main genetic groups in H. leucofrenatus: one group to the south and one to the north of this mountain range. The genetic structure observed coincide with the limits of estimated paleodrainage systems for the region, supporting that marine transgressions and regressions during the Pleistocene influenced the biogeographical history of H. leucofrenatus.(AU)


As bacias costeiras do sul do Brasil são influenciadas pelas mudanças climáticas que causaram oscilações no nível do mar durante o Pleistoceno. Essas transgressões e regressões marinhas geraram isolamento e conexão entre os rios. Nessa região, as espécies de peixe são excelentes modelos para estudos filogeográficos, pois suas distribuições podem ter sido afetadas por mudanças históricas e ecológicas decorrentes desses processos. Portanto, o objetivo principal deste estudo foi testar os efeitos das alterações do nível do mar durante o Pleistoceno na estrutura genética das populações do loricarídeo Hisonotus leucofrenatus ao longo de sua área de ocorrência. Dois genes foram sequenciados: Citocromo Oxidase subunidade 1 (gene mitocondrial) e o intron 1 da proteína ribossomal rpS7 (gene nuclear) de espécimes representando 14 bacias de drenagens. A estrutura genética observada corrobora uma divisão para peixes de água doce separada pela Serra do Tabuleiro, em Santa Catarina. Essa divisória determina dois grupos principais genéticos em H. leucofrenatus: um grupo ao sul e outro ao norte desse divisor. A estrutura genética também coincide com os limites dos sistemas de paleodrenagens estimados para a região, sustentando que as transgressões e regressões marinhas durante o Pleistoceno influenciaram a história biogeográfica de H. leucofrenatus.(AU)


Subject(s)
Catfishes/anatomy & histology , Catfishes/genetics , Genetic Structures , Phylogeography , Fishes , Climate Change , Sea Level
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