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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 693-702, May-June 2021. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278362

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of purebred Bos taurus taurus bovine breeds raised in Brazil in association with climatic, physical and socioeconomic variables. The breeds Aberdeen Angus, Ayrshire, Braford, Brangus, Charolais, Devon, Flemish, Hereford, Pinzgauer, Shorthorn and Simental were classified according to their aptitude (milk, meat or dual-purpose). They were spatialized according to their aptitude using state and municipal information. The milk breeds were found in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, while the dual-purpose breeds were found in Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul states and the beef breeds were concentrated in the southern region. Only the Aberdeen Angus meat breed showed higher dispersion in other regions. Meat and dual-purpose breeds tended to be raised in regions with lower maximum temperature, average temperature, thermal amplitude and temperature-humidity index. Dual-purpose breeds were found in municipalities with high humidity and altitude, but with a low gross domestic product, little technical guidance received from cooperatives and the government, low control of diseases and parasites, as well as low use of pasture rotation systems. The spatial distribution of Brazilian bovine taurine breeds, regardless of aptitude, was related to climatic, physical and socioeconomic factors.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a distribuição espacial de raças bovinas puras Bos taurus taurus criadas no Brasil, associadas a variáveis climáticas, físicas e socioeconômicas. As raças Aberdeen Angus, Ayrshire, Braford, Brangus, Charolês, Devon, Flamenga, Hereford, Pinzgauer, Shorthorn e Simental foram classificadas de acordo com sua aptidão (leite, carne ou duplo-propósito). Elas foram espacializadas de acordo com sua aptidão a partir de informações estaduais e municipais. As raças leiteiras foram encontradas nos estados do Rio Grande do Sul e de Santa Catarina, enquanto as raças de duplo-propósito foram encontradas nos estados de Minas Gerais e Rio Grande do Sul, e as raças de carne concentraram-se na região Sul. Apenas a raça de carne Aberdeen Angus apresentou maior dispersão nas demais regiões. As raças de carne e de duplo-propósito tendem a ser criadas em regiões com menores temperatura máxima, temperatura média, amplitude térmica e índice de temperatura e umidade. As raças de duplo-propósito foram encontradas em municípios com alta umidade e altitude, mas com baixo produto interno bruto, pouca orientação técnica recebida de cooperativas e do governo, baixo controle de doenças e de parasitas e baixo uso de sistema de rotação de pastagens. A distribuição espacial das raças taurinas bovinas brasileiras, independentemente da aptidão, foi relacionada a fatores climáticos, físicos e socioeconômicos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Adaptation, Biological , Socioeconomic Analysis , Climate , Animal Distribution , Animal Husbandry/methods , Brazil
2.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 13: 1-8, 5/02/2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1348620

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Varicella is a vaccine-preventable disease with marked seasonality. Few studies incorporate climatic variables to understand the epidemiological characteristics of this disease. The aim was to evaluate the relationship between varicella incidence and climatic variables in Tucumán (a province with temperate subtropical climate) during 2005-2019. METHODS: The relationship in pre- (2005-2014) and post-vaccination (2015-2019) periods was analyzed, identifying the associated climatic variables and the cut-off point where the risk of transmission increased. An observational ecological study was carried out with secondary data sources. R software was used. The information was split into three time series: 2005-2009, 2010-2014 and 2015-2019. For each period, a description of the time series was performed and generalized additive models (GAMs) were built using a negative binomial distribution. RESULTS: A seasonal behavior was observed, with peak incidence during spring in all periods. In the post-vaccination period, the peak occurred later (epidemiological week [EW] 46) than in the pre-vaccination periods (EW 43 and 42). Maximum temperature and relative humidity were associated during the first two periods, while minimum temperature, wind and thermal amplitude were associated in the third one. DISCUSSION: This study helped establish the relationship between climatic variables and varicella in Tucumán.


Subject(s)
Argentina , Chickenpox , Epidemiology , Climate
3.
Cienc. Salud (St. Domingo) ; 5(2): [ 57-67], Ene-Abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358711

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Aedes spp. y la dinámica del virus del dengue está altamente influenciada por factores ambientales. Una relación detallada entre el clima y la enfermedad en los períodos inter e intra-epidémicos podrían beneficiar la vigilancia del dengue para optimizar la preparación y las políticas adecuadas de control de vectores. Métodos: se analizaron los informes de casos de dengue y las variables climáticas en Santo Domingo, República Dominicana, para determinar la correlación del período 2012- 2018 y los diferentes tiempos de retraso. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de regresión de dichas variables para comprender mejor las relaciones entre las tasas de incidencia del dengue y los cambios climáticos. Resultados: durante los brotes epidémicos, la temperatura (r = 0.73, p <0.001) y la humedad relativa (r = -0.2, p = 0.009) se correlacionan significativamente con la incidencia del dengue con un retraso de 9 semanas, el análisis de regresión muestra que la temperatura media (b = 62.401, p < 0.001), precipitación (b = 2.810, p <0.001) y humedad relativa (b = -5.462, p = 0.025) fueron predictores significativos. Durante los períodos inter-epidémico, la temperatura (r = 0.23, p <0.001) tuvo una correlación significativa con la incidencia del dengue con un retraso de 7 semanas, la humedad relativa (b = 1.454, p <0.05) y la temperatura media (b = 5.14, p <0.01) son predictores significativos de la cantidad de casos de dengue. La precipitación no se correlacionó significativamente con la incidencia del dengue. Conclusiones: existe una relación no lineal entre los factores climáticos y la incidencia del dengue. La infección por dengue depende del clima, y la temperatura parece jugar un papel importante en los factores climáticos.


Introduction: Aedes spp. and Dengue Virus dynamics are highly influenced by environmental factors. A detailed relationship between climate and disease in inter and intra-epidemic periods may benefit dengue surveillance, preparedness, and adequate vector control policies. Methods: Dengue case reports and climatic variables in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, were analyzed for climate variables correlation from the period 2012-2018 and varying lag times. Regression analysis of climatic variables was carried out to better understand significant correlations between dengue incidence rates and changes in climate. Results: During epidemic outbreaks, temperature (r = 0.73, p < 0.001) and relative humidity (r = -0.22, p = 0.009) demonstrated a significant correlation with dengue incidence. Our regression analysis demonstrates an increase 62.4 cases for each degree Celsius increased with a 9-week-lag. Regression analysis also demonstrated mean temperature (b= 62.401, p < 0.001), precipitation (b = 2.810, p < 0.001), and relative humidity (b = -5.462, p = 0.025) to be significant predictors. During inter-epidemic periods, temperature (r = 0.23, p < 0.001) had a significant correlation with dengue incidence with a 7-week-lag, which demonstrates that relative humidity (b = 1.454, p < 0.05), and mean temperature (b = 5.14, p < 0.01) are significant predictors of the quantity of dengue cases. Precipitation did not significantly correlate with dengue incidence. Conclusions: A non-linear relationship between climatic factors and dengue incidence exists in the Dominican Republic. Dengue infection is climate-dependent and temperature seems to play a significant role in climatic factors


Subject(s)
Disease Transmission, Infectious , Dengue Virus , Climate , Dominican Republic
4.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200110, 2021. mapas, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279404

ABSTRACT

Background: Although scorpionism is recorded worldwide, some regions such as Iran present a higher incidence. Due to the great prevalence of scorpion stings in Khuzestan province, southwestern Iran, the present study examined the relationship between different climate parameters and the scorpion sting rate in this area from April 2010 to March 2015. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study, we considered all scorpion sting cases recorded in the Department of Infectious Diseases, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. Data were analyzed using statistics, frequency distribution and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: A total of 104,197 cases of scorpion stings was recorded from 2010 to 2015. The cumulative incidence of scorpion sting was 2.23%. The spatial distribution of scorpion stings showed that most cases occurred in the Dehdez district (4,504 scorpion stings/100,000 inhabitants) and the Masjed Soleyman county (4,069 scorpion stings/100,000 inhabitants). A significant association was found between climate factors (temperature, evaporation rate, sunshine duration, humidity, and precipitation) and the scorpion sting rate. An increase in rainfall and humidity coincided with a reduction in scorpion stings whereas an increase in temperature, evaporation, and sunshine duration was accompanied by a growth of scorpion stings. No significant correlation was found between wind velocity/direction and the incidence rate of stings. Moreover, the seasonal peak incidence of scorpion stings was recorded in summer (an average of 8,838 cases) and the lowest incidence was recorded during winter (an average of 1,286 cases). The annual trend of scorpion sting cases decreased during the period from 2010 to 2015. Conclusion: Climate variables can be a good index for predicting the incidence of scorpion stings in endemic regions. Since they occur mostly in the hot season, designing preventive measures in the counties and districts with a high incidence of scorpion stings such as Dehdez and Masjed Soleyman can minimize mortality and other burdens.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Seasons , Bites and Stings , Climate , Scorpion Stings
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888137

ABSTRACT

This paper explored the ecologically suitable areas for growing Scutellaria baicalensis using Geographic Information System for Global Medicinal Plants(GMPGIS), to figure out the resource distribution of S. baicalensis worldwide and provide a scientific basis for its scientific introduction. A total of 349 S. baicalensis sampling sites were selected all over the world for GMPGIS-based analy-sis of the ecologically suitable areas with six ecological factors including annual average temperature, average temperature during the coldest season, average temperature during the warmest season, average annual precipitation, average annual relative humidity, and annual average illumination and soil type as the ecological indexes. The results demonstrated that the ecologically suitable areas for growing S. baicalensis were mostly located in the Northern hemisphere, and the suitable areas in the United States, China, and Russia accounted for 19.25%, 18.66%, and 13.15% of the total area worldwide, respectively. In China, the Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang province, and Yunnan province occupied the largest proportions of the total area, namely 14.28%, 8.72%, and 6.18%, respectively. As revealed by ecological factors of each sampling site, S. baicalensis was resistant to low temperature but not to high temperature. The adaptive range of average annual precipitation is narrower than that of average annual air humidity. The suitable soils were mainly inceptisol, alfisol, and fluvisol. High temperature and rainy climate or excessively high soil bulk density was not conducive to the growth of S. baicalensis. The adoption of GMPGIS enabled to obtain areas with the greatest ecological similarity for S. baicalensis, which were reliable data supporting the exploration of resource distribution and reasonable introduction of S. baicalensis.


Subject(s)
China , Climate , Plants, Medicinal , Scutellaria baicalensis , Soil
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#For the reason that many studies have been inconclusive on the effect of humidity on respiratory disease, we examined the association between absolute humidity and respiratory disease mortality and quantified the mortality burden due to non-optimal absolute humidity in Guangzhou, China.@*METHODS@#Daily respiratory disease mortality including total 42,440 deaths from 1 February 2013 to 31 December 2018 and meteorological data of the same period in Guangzhou City were collected. The distributed lag non-linear model was used to determine the optimal absolute humidity of death and discuss their non-linear lagged effects. Attributable fraction and population attributable mortality were calculated based on the optimal absolute humidity, defined as the minimum mortality absolute humidity.@*RESULTS@#The association between absolute humidity and total respiratory disease mortality showed an M-shaped non-linear curve. In total, 21.57% (95% CI 14.20 ~ 27.75%) of respiratory disease mortality (9154 deaths) was attributable to non-optimum absolute humidity. The attributable fractions due to high absolute humidity were 13.49% (95% CI 9.56 ~ 16.98%), while mortality burden of low absolute humidity were 8.08% (95% CI 0.89 ~ 13.93%), respectively. Extreme dry and moist absolute humidity accounted for total respiratory disease mortality fraction of 0.87% (95% CI - 0.09 ~ 1.58%) and 0.91% (95% CI 0.25 ~ 1.39%), respectively. There was no significant gender and age difference in the burden of attributable risk due to absolute humidity.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our study showed that both high and low absolute humidity are responsible for considerable respiratory disease mortality burden, the component attributed to the high absolute humidity effect is greater. Our results may have important implications for the development of public health measures to reduce respiratory disease mortality.


Subject(s)
China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Climate , Humans , Humidity/adverse effects , Models, Theoretical , Nonlinear Dynamics , Respiratory Tract Diseases/mortality , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 8(1): 67-81, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1352959

ABSTRACT

Este documento presenta un análisis comparativo de los resultados de un modelo de simulación de clima, datos de reanálisis regionales y datos locales de precipitación y temperatura estacional de veintitrés estaciones me-teorológicas de Guatemala, para detectar señales de la habilidad del modelo a reproducir el clima estacional en un periodo de 3 años (1998-2000). La simulación se realizó con un modelo climático regional (MCR), para su reducción de escala dinámica, las condiciones de frontera se obtuvieron de los datos de reanálisis ERA-Interim. El modelo utilizado fue RegCM, versión 4, y se comparó con los datos de precipitación y temperatura de la Base de datos CRU a nivel regional centroamericano y a nivel nacional con tres instituciones que generan datos globales (CRU, TRMM y GPCP) y los datos locales. Los esquemas convectivos utilizados fueron el esquema de Grell sobre tierra y Emanuel sobre el océano, con 50 km de resolución espacial. Los ajustes realizados a las parametrizaciones generaron buen desempeño a nivel regional Centroamericano y a nivel Guatemala a pesar de perder habilidad en algunas regiones y meses. El modelo reproduce adecuadamente el comportamiento de la precipitación estacional en la mayor parte de la temporada lluviosa. Subestima la temperatura a nivel regional, pero a nivel Guatemala muestra buen ajuste. La comparación con los datos locales observados muestra que el modelo se ajusta para el periodo en estudio; pero, es necesario realizar más experimentos con distintas resoluciones espaciales y temporales y evaluar la persistencia del modelo.


This document presents the results of an analysis on the comparison of the results of a climate simulation model, regional reanalysis data and local data on precipitation and seasonal temperature from twenty-three meteoro-logical stations in Guatemala, to detect signs of the ability of the model to reproduce the seasonal climate over a period of 3 years (1998-2000). The simulation was performed with a regional climate model (RCM), for its dynamic scale reduction, the boundary conditions were obtained from the ERA-Interim reanalysis data. The model used was RegCM, version 4, and it was compared with the precipitation and temperature data from the CRU Database at the Central American regional level and at the national level with three institutions that generate global data (CRU, TRMM and GPCP) and local data. The convective schemes used were the scheme of Grell on land and Emanuel on the ocean, with 50 km of spatial resolution. The adjustments made to the settings generated good performance at the Central American regional level and at the Guatemala level, despite losing skill in some regions and months. The model adequately reproduces the behavior of seasonal precipitation in most of the rainy season. It underestimates the temperature at the regional level but at the Guatemala level it shows a good fit. The comparison with the observed local data shows that the model fits for the period under study, but it is necessary to carry out more experiments with different spatial and temporal resolutions and to evaluate the persistence of the model.


Subject(s)
Seasons , Temperature , Simulation Technique , Rain , Climate , Rainy Season
8.
Psicol. esc. educ ; 25: e221999, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1155166

ABSTRACT

El presente trabajo analiza el Clima Áulico en instituciones educativas de nivel secundario de la ciudad de Mar del Plata. La muestra estuvo conformada por 40 grupos Áulicos de nivel secundario básico de cuatro instituciones educativas de la ciudad de Mar del Plata (998 estudiantes, 37 docentes y 39 preceptores). Para evaluar el Clima Áulico se utilizó la Escala de Clima Social Escolar (Classroom Environment Scale, CES) desarrollada por Moos y Tricket. Los resultados señalan un Clima Áulico medianamente favorable. Se presentan las fortalezas y debilidades, así también como las diferencias entre docentes, preceptores y estudiantes. Se resalta la importancia del rol de los preceptores en las instituciones educativas. Se espera que los resultados posibiliten futuras líneas de investigación en el diseño de programas de intervención educativa que favorezcan un Clima Áulico positivo.


O presente estudo analisa o Clima Áulico em instituições educativas de nível secundário da cidade de Mar del Plata. A mostra foi formada por 40 grupos Áulicos de nível secundário básico de quatro instituições educativas da cidade de Mar del Plata (998 estudantes, 37 docentes e 39 preceptores). Para avaliar o Clima Áulico utilizou-se a Escala de Clima Social Escolar (Classroom Environment Scale, CES) desenvolvida por Moos e Tricket. Os resultados mostram um Clima Áulico medianamente favorável. Apresentam-se os pontos fortes e os pontos fracos, assim também como as diferenças entre docentes, preceptores e estudantes. Ressalta-se a importância do rol dos preceptores nas instituições educativas. Espera-se que os resultados possibilitem futuras linhas de pesquisa no desenho de programas de intervenção educativa que favoreçam um Clima Áulico positivo.


The present study analyzes the Classroom Climate in educational institutions of secondary school of the city of Mar del Plata. The sample consisted of 40 classes of basic secondary level of four educational institutions of the city of Mar del Plata (998 students, 37 teachers and 39 preceptors.) To evaluate the Classroom Climate was used the Classroom Environment Scale (CES) developed by Moos and Tricket. The results indicate a moderately favorable Classroom Climate. The strengths and weaknesses are presented, as well as the differences between teachers, preceptors and students. The importance of the role of preceptors in educational institutions is highlighted. The results are expected to enable future lines of research in the design of educational intervention programs that favor a positive Classroom Climate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Students , Mentors , Marine Environment , Climate , Faculty
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(10): e11035, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285659

ABSTRACT

In this eight-year retrospective study, we evaluated the associations between climatic variations and the biological rhythms in plasma lipids and lipoproteins in a large population of Campinas, São Paulo state, Brazil, as well as temporal changes of outcomes of cardiovascular hospitalizations. Climatic variables were obtained at the Center for Meteorological and Climatic Research Applied to Agriculture (University of Campinas - Unicamp, Brazil). The plasma lipid databases surveyed were from 27,543 individuals who had their lipid profiles assessed at the state university referral hospital in Campinas (Unicamp). The frequency of hospitalizations was obtained from the Brazilian Public Health database (DATASUS). Temporal statistical analyses were performed using the methods Cosinor or Friedman (ARIMA) and the temporal series were compared by cross-correlation functions. In normolipidemic cases (n=11,892), significantly different rhythmicity was observed in low-density lipoprotein (LDL)- and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (C) both higher in winter and lower in summer. Dyslipidemia (n=15,651) increased the number and amplitude of lipid rhythms: LDL-C and HDL-C were higher in winter and lower in summer, and the opposite occurred with triglycerides. The number of hospitalizations showed maximum and minimum frequencies in winter and in summer, respectively. A coincident rhythmicity was observed of lower temperature and humidity rates with higher plasma LDL-C, and their temporal series were inversely cross-correlated. This study shows for the first time that variations of temperature, humidity, and daylight length were strongly associated with LDL-C and HDL-C seasonality, but moderately to lowly associated with rhythmicity of atherosclerotic outcomes. It also indicates unfavorable cardiovascular-related changes during wintertime.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Climate , Lipids/blood , Lipoproteins/blood , Periodicity , Seasons , Triglycerides/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Cholesterol, HDL/blood
10.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(6): 554-560, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1145129

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Dengue is an arbovirus that has caused serious problem in Brazil, putting the public health system under severe stress. Understanding its incidence and spatial distribution is essential for disease control and prevention. OBJECTIVE: To perform an analysis on dengue incidence and spatial distribution in a medium-sized, cool-climate and high-altitude city. DESIGN AND SETTING: Ecological study carried out in a public institution in the city of Garanhuns, Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: Secondary data provided by specific agencies in each area were used for spatial analysis and elaboration of kernel maps, incidence calculations, correlations and percentages of dengue occurrence. The Geocentric Reference System for the Americas (Sistema de Referência Geocêntrico para as Américas, SIRGAS), 2000, was the software of choice. RESULTS: The incidence rates were calculated per 100,000 inhabitants. Between 2010 and 2019, there were 6,504 cases and the incidence was 474.92. From 2010 to 2014, the incidence was 161.46 for a total of 1,069 cases. The highest incidence occurred in the period from 2015 to 2019: out of a total of 5,435 cases, the incidence was 748.65, representing an increase of 485.97%. Population density and the interaction between two climatic factors, i.e. atypical temperature above 31 °C and relative humidity above 31.4%, contributed to the peak incidence of dengue, although these variables were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The dengue incidence levels and spatial distribution reflected virus and vector adjustment to the local climate. However, there was no correlation between climatic factors and occurrences of dengue in this city.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dengue/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Cities/epidemiology , Climate , Spatial Analysis
11.
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 28(2): 65-75, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128219

ABSTRACT

o transporte ativo pode ser uma oportunidade para desenvolver comportamentos mais saudáveis na vida das crianças e jovens. O presente estudo busca identificar barreiras e facilitadores desse comportamento, bem como suas interfaces com a saúde dos escolares por meio de revisão de literatura. Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa de literatura realizada nas bases eletrônicas BVS, Scielo e periódico Capes, utilizando os descritores mobilidade, transporte, deslocamento, ativo, sustentável, estudantes, escolares e trajeto escolar em português, inglês e espanhol. Foram incluídos estudos realizados nas Américas e publicados nos últimos cinco anos. Os 16 artigos selecionados foram desenvolvidos no Brasil, Canadá, México e Estados Unidos, sendo que a maioria deriva de pesquisas mais amplas. Os resultados indicam que a prevalência de transporte ativo no trajeto escolar variou entre 10% nos Estados Unidos e 76% no Brasil. Alguns facilitadores desse comportamento foram: pais que utilizam transporte ativo; expectativa dos pais; percepção dos pais sobre boa estrutura e segurança; crianças mais velhas, sem veículos, de grandes cidades, com menor satisfação familiar, com maior número de dias fisicamente ativos; ser homem; presença de adulto e clima. Algumas barreiras foram: distâncias; maior idade, nível de escolaridade da mãe e classe econômica; maior tempo de trabalho dos pais; posse de veículo; zona urbana; bullying; muita coisa para carregar, ausência de árvore, criminalidade; presença de animais vadios e ter etnia latina. A interface do transporte ativo no trajeto escolar com a saúde foi reportada com o nível de atividade física, obesidade/sobrepeso (saúde individual) e barreiras e facilitadores a esse tipo de deslocamento (saúde ambiental). Considerando que atitudes cultivadas na infância têm grandes chances de permanecer na vida adulta, o transporte ativo no trajeto escolar pode ser uma estratégia na criação de hábitos saudáveis e sustentáveis que contribuam para melhor qualidade de vida, desde que se considerem seus determinantes e condicionantes...(AU)


the active transport can be an opportunity to develop healthier beh av iors in t h e lives of children and young people. The present study seeks to identify barriers and facilitators of this behavior, as well as their interfaces with the students' health through a literature review. It is an integrative literature review carried out on the electronic databases BVS, Scielo and Capes periodical, using the descriptors of mobility, transport, displacement, active, sustainable, students, school and schoo l p ath in Po rtuguese, English and Spanish. Studies carried out in the Americas and published in the last five years were included. The 16 selected papers were developed in Brazil, Canada, Mexico and the United States, with most of them deriving from broader researches. The results obtained reveal t he p revalence of active transport in school path varied between 10% in the United States and 76% in Brazil. Some facilitators of this behavior were: parents or adults who use active transport; parental expectation; parents' perception of good structure and safety; older children, without vehicles, large cities, with less family satisfaction, with more days of physical activities; be a man; adult presence and climate. Some barriers were: dist an ces; older age, mother's education level and economic class; longer working time for parents; vehicle ownership; urban area; bullying; a lot to carry, few trees, crime; presence of stray anim als and having Latin ethnicity. The interface between active transport in the school path and health was rep o rted as the level of hysical activity, obesity/overweight (individual health) and barriers and facilitators to this type of displacement (environmental health). Considering that attitudes cultivated in childhood are very likely to remain in adulthood, active transportation on the school path can be a strategy in creating h ealthy and sustainable habits that contribute to a better quality of life, as long as its determinants and condit ions are considered...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Safety , Students , Trees , Biological Transport, Active , Exercise , Ethnic Groups , Family , Student Health , Climate , Urban Area , Crime , Minors , Education , Educational Status , Bullying , Habits , Literature , Mothers , Healthy Lifestyle
12.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 8(1): 1-5, 01/01/2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102845

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the correlation between weather, population size and cases of COVID-19 in the capitals of Brazil. Methods: All confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection, from the first confirmed case from February 26 until May 01, 2020 were included. For weather variables, average temperature (°C), dew point (°C), average humidity (%) and wind speed (m s-1) were extracted from the Instituto de Meteorologia database. The population size of each capital was used as a control variable, with data obtained from Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Spearman rank correlation tests were utilized to examine the correlation between variables. Results: The analysis showed a significant and strong positive correlation between the total cases of COVID-19 and the population size (p<0,01). There was a significant positive correlation with the average humidity of the air and cumulative cases (p<0,05). There was no significant correlation with other climate variables. Conclusion: Our results confront some expectations commented around the world about a possible seasonality of COVID-19 during periods of low humidity and can assist government and health authorities in decision making to control the pandemic. Studies in other regions are important to strengthen the findings.


Objetivo: Analisar a correlação entre clima, tamanho da população e casos de COVID-19 nas capitais do Brasil. Métodos: Foram incluídos todos os casos confirmados de infecção por COVID-19, do primeiro caso confirmado de 26 de fevereiro a 01 de maio de 2020. Para variáveis meteorológicas, temperatura média (° C), ponto de orvalho (° C), umidade média (%) e velocidade do vento (m s-1) foram extraídos da base de dados do Instituto de Meteorologia. O tamanho da população de cada capital foi utilizado como variável de controle, com dados obtidos no Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Correlação de Spearman foi utilizado para verificar a correlação entre variáveis. Resultados: A análise mostrou uma correlação positiva significativa e forte entre o total de casos de COVID-19 e o tamanho da população (p <0,01). Houve correlação positiva significativa com a umidade média do ar e os casos acumulados (p <0,05). Não houve correlação significativa com outras variáveis climáticas. Conclusão: Os resultados confrontam algumas expectativas comentadas em todo o mundo sobre uma possível sazonalidade do COVID-19 durante períodos de baixa umidade e podem auxiliar autoridades governamentais e de saúde na tomada de decisões para controlar a pandemia. Estudos em outras regiões são importantes para fortalecer os resultados.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Population , Temperature , Climate , Betacoronavirus , Humidity
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The weather has well-documented effects on infectious disease and reports suggest that summer peaks in the incidences of gram-negative bacterial infections among hospitalized patients. We evaluated how season and temperature changes affect bloodstream infection (BSI) incidences of major pathogens to understand BSI trends with an emphasis on acquisition sites.METHODS: Incidence rates of BSIs by Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were retrospectively analyzed from blood cultures during 2008–2016 at a university hospital in Seoul, Korea according to the acquisition sites. Warm months (June–September) had an average temperature of ≥20℃ and cold months (December–February) had an average temperature of ≤5℃.RESULTS: We analyzed 18,047 cases, where 43% were with community-onset BSI. E. coli (N = 5,365) was the most common pathogen, followed by Enterococcus spp. (N = 3,980), S. aureus (N = 3,075), K. pneumoniae (N = 3,043), Acinetobacter spp. (N = 1,657), and P. aeruginosa (N = 927). The incidence of hospital-acquired BSI by Enterococcus spp. was weakly correlated with temperature, and the median incidence was higher during cold months. The incidence of community-onset BSI by E. coli was higher in warm months and was weakly correlated with temperature.CONCLUSION: We found seasonal or temperature-associated variation in some species-associated BSIs. This could be a useful information for enhancing infection control and public health policies by taking season or climate into consideration.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter , Climate , Climate Change , Communicable Diseases , Enterococcus , Escherichia coli , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Korea , Pneumonia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Public Health , Retrospective Studies , Seasons , Seoul , Staphylococcus aureus , Tertiary Care Centers , Weather
14.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 11-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785454

ABSTRACT

Air pollution, climate change, and reduced biodiversity are major threats to human health with detrimental effects on a variety of chronic noncommunicable diseases in particular respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The extent of air pollution both outdoor and indoor air pollution and climate change including global warming is increasing-to alarming proportions particularly in the developing world especially rapidly industrializing countries worldwide. In recent years, Asia has experienced rapid economic growth and a deteriorating environment and increase in allergic diseases to epidemic proportions. Air pollutant levels in many Asian countries especially in China and India are substantially higher than are those in developed countries. Moreover, industrial, traffic-related, and household biomass combustion, indoor pollutants from chemicals and tobacco are major sources of air pollutants, with increasing burden on respiratory allergies. Here we highlight the major components of outdoor and indoor air pollutants and their impacts on respiratory allergies associated with asthma and allergic rhinitis in the Asia-Pacific region. With Asia-Pacific comprising more than half of the world's population there is an urgent need to increase public awareness, highlight targets for interventions, public advocacy and a call to action to policy makers to implement policy changes towards reducing air pollution with interventions at a population-based level.


Subject(s)
Administrative Personnel , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Air Pollution, Indoor , Allergy and Immunology , Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Asthma , Biodiversity , Biomass , Cardiovascular Diseases , China , Climate Change , Climate , Consumer Advocacy , Developed Countries , Economic Development , Family Characteristics , Global Warming , Humans , Hypersensitivity , India , Rhinitis, Allergic , Tobacco
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785342

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The pollen calendar is the simplest forecasting method for pollen concentrations. As pollen concentrations are liable to seasonal variations due to alterations in climate and land-use, it is necessary to update the pollen calendar using recent data. To attenuate the impact of considerable temporal and spatial variability in pollen concentrations on the pollen calendar, it is essential to employ a new methodology for its creation.METHODS: A pollen calendar was produced in Korea using data from recent observations, and a new method for creating the calendar was proposed, considering both risk levels and temporal resolution of pollen concentrations. A probability distribution was used for smoothing concentrations and determining risk levels. Airborne pollen grains were collected between 2007 and 2017 at 8 stations; 13 allergenic pollens, including those of alder, Japanese cedar, birch, hazelnut, oak, elm, pine, ginkgo, chestnut, grasses, ragweed, mugwort and Japanese hop, were identified from the collected grains.RESULTS: The concentrations of each pollen depend on locations and seasons due to large variability in species distribution and their environmental condition. In the descending order of concentration, pine, oak and Japanese hop pollens were found to be the most common in Korea. The pollen concentrations were high in spring and autumn, and those of oak and Japanese hop were probably the most common cause of allergy symptoms in spring and autumn, respectively. High Japanese cedar pollen counts were observed in Jeju, while moderate concentrations were in Jeonju, Gwangju and Busan.CONCLUSIONS: A new methodology for the creation of a pollen calendar was developed to attenuate the impact of large temporal and spatial variability in pollen concentrations. This revised calendar should be available to the public and allergic patients to prevent aggravation of pollen allergy.


Subject(s)
Alnus , Ambrosia , Artemisia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Betula , Climate , Corylus , Cryptomeria , Forecasting , Ginkgo biloba , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Korea , Methods , Poaceae , Pollen , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal , Seasons
16.
São Paulo; s.n; 2020. 204 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050462

ABSTRACT

A partir das interações entre clima, infraestrutura verde, centros urbanos e serviços ecossistêmicos, e dentro de uma perspectiva interdisciplinar, a tese apresenta e discute resultados de um estudo que buscou integrar e estabelecer relações entre dois níveis de análise. No nível de análise global, a tese privilegiou uma revisão de experimentações que se baseiam na manutenção e ampliação da infraestrutura verde local como parte integrante do planejamento urbano e territorial. As áreas verdes urbanas, com praças, parques, florestas, hortas e arborização viária, como a tese evidencia, cumprem importante papel também na promoção de qualidade de vida e bem-estar dos indivíduos, como minimização do sedentarismo e da obesidade, combate à depressão e ansiedade, além de minimizarem os efeitos das ilhas de calor e dos extremos climáticos. No nível local, a tese apresenta resultados de estudo empírico sobre os benefícios do terceiro maior fragmento florestal da megacidade de São Paulo - o Parque Estadual Fontes do Ipiranga (PEFI) - na minimização dos efeitos climáticos locais e das sensações térmicas dos seus visitantes. Os resultados trazem evidências de diferenças de temperaturas do ar e de superfície, umidade relativa do ar e irradiação incidente entre áreas com cobertura vegetal densa, áreas abertas com cobertura vegetal e áreas impermeabilizadas. Os efeitos benéficos desse parque urbano são ainda mais perceptíveis quando comparados com outras áreas mais adensadas e com menor índice de vegetação na cidade, que apresentam temperaturas do ar e de superficiais maiores. Os dados apresentados e discutidos neste trabalho confirmam, à luz da literatura consultada, a importância desse parque urbano na redução da temperatura do ar e atenuação da radiação incidente, e na intensificação das sensações de conforto térmico. Mostram, assim, a necessidade da megacidade de São Paulo, marcada pelo adensamento de edificações e ocupação do solo com grande limitação de áreas verdes, em conservar e ampliar sua infraestrutura verde, como é o caso do PEFI, para amenizar as adversidades do clima urbano e propiciar benefícios ambientais, sociais e econômicos, com efeitos positivos para a qualidade de vida e bem-estar dos indivíduos.


From interactions among climate, green infrastructure, urban centers and ecosystem services, and within an interdisciplinary perspective, the thesis presents and discusses results of a study that intended to integrate and establish relationships between two levels of analysis. At the global level of analysis, the thesis focused on a review of experiments that are based on the maintenance and expansion of local green infrastructure as an integral part of urban and territorial planning. Urban green areas, provided with squares, parks, forests, vegetable gardens and road afforestation, as the present thesis points out, also play an important role in promoting the quality of life and well-being of individuals, such as minimizing sedentary lifestyle and obesity, fighting depression. and anxiety, and minimize the effects of heat islands and climate extremes. At the local level, the thesis presents results from an empirical study on the benefits of the third largest forest fragment of the São Paulo megacity - Fontes do Ipiranga State Park (PEFI) - in minimizing the local climate effects and the thermal sensations of its visitors. The results provide evidence of differences in air and surface temperatures, relative humidity and incident irradiation among areas with dense vegetation cover, open areas with vegetation cover and waterproofed areas. The beneficial effects of this urban park are even more noticeable when compared to other denser and lower vegetation areas in the city, which have higher air and surface temperatures. In the light of the consulted literature, the data presented and discussed in this work confirm the importance of this urban park of reducing air temperature and attenuation of incident radiation, and in intensifying the sensations of thermal comfort. Thus, they indicate the need for the megacity of São Paulo, marked by the densification of buildings and land occupation with great limitation of green areas, to preserve and expand its green infrastructure, as it is the case of PEFI, to soften the adversities of urban climate and to provide environmental, social and economic benefits, with positive effects on the quality of life and well-being of individuals.


Subject(s)
Forests , Climate , Ecosystem , Environment , Global Health
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190185, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092198

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus are vector species responsible for the transmission of important arboviruses. METHODS: Adult mosquitoes were collected in the urban areas of four municipalities in Mato Grosso within 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 19,110 mosquitoes were collected. Among them, 16,578 (86,8%) were C. quinquefasciatus (44% female and 56% male); 2,483 (13%), A. (Stegomyia) aegypti (54% female and 46% male); and 49 (0,30%), from the genus Psorophora, Anopheles, Coquilettidia, and Sabethes. A significant correlation was observed between the number of mosquitoes from all species and dew point (female mosquitoes, p = 0.001; male mosquitoes, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study may be used as environmental indicators of mosquito populations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Climate , Aedes/physiology , Culex/physiology , Mosquito Vectors/physiology , Urban Population , Brazil
18.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 6(2): 158-170, jul dic 2019. ^c27 cmilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095879

ABSTRACT

This study analyses time series of dengue occurrence in the southern region of Guatemala. Temporal patterns of epidemic outbreaks in the department of Escuintla were investigated using the official reports from 2001 to 2013. In order to identify underlying associations with climate behavior, the epidemiological data were compared with historical reports available for temperature, rainfall and humidity. Preliminary results reveal that waves of dengue outbreaks exhibit a periodic pattern modulated by climatic conditions. A hierarchical cluster analysis allowed to indirectly estimate the degree of association of each climatic variable with dengue occurrences, showing the dominance of rainfall in dengue outbreaks patterns in three different localities. A further prospective analysis was performed to check whether epidemic trends driven by rainfall are hold in the subsequent years. Results presented here give support to predictive models for dengue incidence driven by climate.


Este estudio analiza series de tiempo de incidencia de dengue en la región sur de Guatemala. Los patrones temporales de los brotes epidémicos observados en el departamento de Escuintla se investigaron utilizando los informes oficiales de 2001 a 2013. Con el fin de identificar posibles asociaciones subyacentes con el comportamiento climático, los datos epidemiológicos se compararon con los informes históricos disponibles para temperatura, lluvia y humedad. Los resultados preliminares revelan que las olas de brotes de dengue exhiben un patrón periódico modulado por las condiciones climáticas. Un análisis de conglomerados jerárquicos permitió estimar indirectamente el grado de asociación de cada variable climática con las incidencias del dengue, mostrando el papel dominante de la lluvia en los patrones de brotes de dengue en tres localidades diferentes. Se realizó un análisis prospectivo adicional para verificar si las tendencias epidémicas causadas por las precipitaciones se mantienen en los años subsiguientes. Los resultados presentados aquí dan soporte a los modelos predictivos epidemiológicos con forzamiento estacional.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Dengue/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Climate , Aedes , Guatemala/epidemiology
19.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(8): 2959-2970, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011863

ABSTRACT

Resumo A morbimortalidade por doenças diarreicas infecciosas ainda representa um grave problema de saúde no Brasil e está altamente relacionada a fatores como condições climáticas, ambientais e de vida da população. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a associação das taxas de internações por doenças diarreicas infecciosas na população do município de Rio Branco/AC com a precipitação, o nível do rio, a umidade e a temperatura, entre os anos de 2000 e 2013. Os dados foram extraídos do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do SUS, do Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e da Agência Nacional das Águas. Foram ajustados modelos múltiplos de regressão de Poisson e binomial negativa. Os resultados mostram que existe uma associação positiva entre as internações por doenças diarreicas infecciosas e o nível do Rio Acre (RT:1,07; IC95%:1,04 a 1,1); houve um decréscimo de 14% nestas taxas de internações entre os anos de 2000 e 2013 (RT:0,86; IC95%:0,85 a 0,87); o grupo mais vulnerável pertence à faixa etária de menores de 1 ano de vida. Este estudo mostrou a vulnerabilidade de uma cidade na Amazônia quanto à variabilidade climática e a respectiva influência epidemiológica na incidência de internações por doenças diarreicas infecciosas.


Abstract Morbimortality due to infectious diarrheal diseases still is a serious health issue in Brazil and is highly related to factors such as weather, environment, and people's life conditions. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between hospitalization rates due to infectious diarrheal diseases among the population of the municipality of Rio Branco (AC), Brazil and precipitation, river level, humidity and temperature between 2000 and 2013. Data were retrieved from the Hospital Information System of the SUS (Unified Health System), the National Institute of Meteorology and the National Water Agency. Multiple Poisson and negative binomial regression models were adjusted. Results showed that there is a positive association between hospitalization due to infectious diarrheal diseases and the level of the Acre river (RR: 1.07; CI 95%: 1.04 to 1.1); these hospitalization rates fell 14% between 2000 and 2013 (RR: 0.86; CI 95%: 0.85 to 0.87). The most vulnerable group was the age group of less than 1 year of age. This study showed the vulnerability of an Amazonian city to climate variability and its respective epidemiological influence on the incidence of hospitalizations due to infectious diarrheal diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Climate , Dysentery/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Temperature , Weather , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Cities , Rivers , Humidity , Middle Aged , National Health Programs
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