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1.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 15(1): 270-277, Mar. 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1088099

ABSTRACT

Noninvasive ventilatory support (NIVS) combined with mechanical cough assist (MI-E) is an effective tool to treat patients with acute ventilatory failure due to neuromuscular disorders (NMD). Airway respiratory infection could be lethal or with risk of endotraqueal intubation, especially when vital capacity (VC) is less than 15 ml/k. We report 2 obese adolescents, aged 11 and 14 years old, with myasthenic crisis (MC) and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The last one with a severe cifoescoliosis treated with nocturnal noninvasive ventilation at home. MC girl has been treated with pyridostigmine, prednisolone and mycophenolate. They were admitted for thymectomy and spinal surgery arthrodesis respectively. After admission they developed airway respiratory infection triggering by Methaneumovirus and were treated with oxygen therapy, non-invasive ventilation with low-pressure support and EV immunoglobulin for the MC girl. After 48 h both patients developed severe respiratory failure, Sa/FiO2 < 200, atelectasis of lower lobes and difficulty to swallow, a peak cough flow (PFT)


El soporte ventilatorio no invasivo (SVNI) y la rehabilitación respiratoria con apilamiento de aire más tos asistida manual o mecánica, son efectivas para tratar la insuficiencia ventilatoria aguda en pacientes con enfermedades neuromusculares (ENM) y deterioro progresivo de la bomba respiratoria. Las agudizaciones gatilladas por infecciones respiratorias causan insuficiencia ventilatoria aguda potencialmente mortal y con alto riesgo de intubación, en especial cuando la capacidad vital (CV) es < de 15ml/k. Se reportan 2 adolescentes obesos con ENM de 11 y 14 años con miastenia gravis y distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD) con asistencia ventilatoria no invasiva nocturna con baja presión de soporte (AVNI), ingresados para timectomía y artrodesis de columna respectivamente. Una vez ingresados evolucionan con insuficiencia ventilatoria aguda secundaria a una infección respiratoria por Metaneumovirus. Inicialmente fueron manejados con oxigenoterapia, AVNI y gamaglobulina endovenosa en el caso de la paciente con crisis miasténica (CM). A las 48h presentan dificultad respiratoria severa, Sa/FiO2 < 200, atelectasias bibasales y disfagia, CV de 800ml (11ml/k) en el paciente con CM y de 200 ml (2,5ml/k) en el paciente con DMD y un pico flujo tosido (PFT) < 100 l/m. Se cambia a SVNI con equipo Trilogy® y BipapA40®, en modalidad S/T (espontáneo/tiempo) y AVAPS (volumen promedio asegurado en presión de soporte) con altos parámetros ventilatorios; suspendiendo rápidamente la oxigenoterapia, al combinar tos mecánicamente asistida con in-exsufflator (MI-E) en forma intensiva. Ambos pacientes presentan mejoría clínica sostenida, de la CV, PFT y pico flujo exuflado máximo con MI-E (PFE-MI-E). El SVNI más la aplicación sistemática del MI-E hasta lograr SaO2 de al menos 95% con oxígeno ambiental evita la intubación endotraqueal en ENM, a diferencia del agravamiento producido por AVNI y oxigenoterapia con criterios clásicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Clinical Evolution , Neuromuscular Diseases/complications , Obesity/complications
2.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 13(2): 48-54, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1095230

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los nódulos tiroideos son una consulta muy prevalente en Endocrinología. Las guías de la Asociación Americana de Tiroides (2015) animaban a realizar estudios a largo plazo. El objetivo de este estudio fue revisar las características, el seguimiento y la evolución de los nódulos de tiroides seguidos en nuestras consultas hasta 2015. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo de pacientes con al menos dos ecografías o cirugía. Los datos clínicos, ecográficos y de punción, así como la evolución y los resultados histológicos de aquellos operados, se analizaron con métodos descriptivos, bivariados y de regresión. RESULTADOS: 1.420 pacientes seguidos en Endocrinología a largo plazo fueron incluidos. 20 se excluyeron por tener una sola ecografía. El 71,2% presentaban normofunción, 9,6% hipertiroidismo subclínico, 9,5% hipotiroidismo subclínico, 5,7% hipotiroidismo clínico y 4% hipertiroidismo clínico. Del total de nódulos seguidos (n= 1400), 64,1%, 15,6% y 20,3% permanecieron estables, aumentaron y disminuyeron respectivamente. Los que crecieron no tuvieron más características sospechosas en las ecografías. De los intervenidos (457 casos (32,6% del total), 207 fueron malignos (45,2%). 57% de ellos fueron diagnosticados e intervenidos durante el primer año, en la primera evaluación. La aparición de nódulos malignos en el resto de pacientes fue de 89 casos (6,3% de todos los nódulos seguidos, 38,3% de ellos, incidentalomas). La ecografía y la citología empleadas antes de la homogenización de los criterios diagnósticos tuvieron una baja sensibilidad y especificidad en nuestro medio. CONCLUSIONES: Más de la mitad de los cánceres de tiroides fueron diagnosticados en la evaluación inicial del nódulo tiroideo. Más de la mitad de los nódulos no operados en el primer año mantienen el mismo tamaño a largo plazo. No encontramos predictores clínicos del aumento de tamaño. El valor diagnóstico de la ecografía y PAAF sin unos criterios estandarizados homogéneos es bajo.


INTRODUCTION: Thyroid nodules are a very prevalent consultation in endocrinology. Guidelines from the American Thyroid Association (2015) encouraged to conduct follow-up studies in the long term. This study object was to review the clinical characteristics, follow-up and evolution of thyroid nodules visited in our consultations till 2015. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study of patients that had at least two thyroid ultrasounds or had been operated. Clinical, ultrasound and FNA (fine needle aspiration) data as well as the evolution and histology results of those operated, were analyzed with descriptive, bivariated and regression analyses. RESULTS: 1.420 patients followed in Endocrinology in the long term were included. 20 were excluded for having only one ecography. 71,2% had normal function, 9,6% subclinical hyperthyroidism, 9,5% subclinical hypothyroidism, 5,7% clinical hypothyroidism and 4% clinical hyperthyroidism. Of all the nodules followed (n=1400), 64,1%, 15,6% and 20,3% remained the same size, grew and decreased respectively. Nodules that grew didn´t have more suspicious sonographic characteristics. Of the operated nodules (457 cases (32,6% of all), 207 were cáncer (45,2%). 57% of them were diagnosed and intervened during the first year, in the first evaluation. Malignant nodules were detected in the rest of patients in 89 cases (6,3% of all the followed nodules, 38,3% of them were incidental cases). The ultrasound and citology diagnoses used before the homogenization of diagnoses criteria had a low senitivity and specificity in our clinical environment. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of the thyroid cancers were diagnosed in the initial evaluation of the thyroid nodule. More than half of nodules non operated in the first year remained the same size long term. We could not find clinical predictors of growth. The diagnostic value of the ultrasound and FNA is low without standardized and homogenous criteria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Clinical Evolution , Multivariate Analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Ultrasonography , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle
3.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 53: e03505, Jan.-Dez. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1020375

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a evolução clínica e sobrevida de pacientes neurocríticos em Unidades Hospitalares. Método Coorte com pacientes acompanhados no período de setembro de 2012 a junho de 2016, internados em hospitais públicos e privados. Os dados foram analisados inicialmente a partir da estatística descritiva e inferencial. Como forma de análise da sobrevida, foi aplicado o indicador de Kaplan-Meier. O modelo de regressão para riscos proporcionais de Cox foi empregado para a análise dos fatores prognósticos, calculando-se a razão de risco. Resultados Participaram do estudo 1.289 pacientes. Os que possuíam Escala de Coma de Glasgow com maior valor apresentaram maior sobrevida, e o incremento de um ponto no escore dessa Escala correspondeu a uma melhora de 42% em sua sobrevida. Na análise de sobrevida, o sexo e o uso de drogas vasoativas mostraram diferença significativa. Conclusão Pacientes do sexo feminino, que possuem melhor escore da Escala de Coma de Glasgow e em uso de drogas vasoativas apresentaram maior sobrevida.


RESUMEN Objetivo Evolución clínica y supervivencia de pacientes neurocríticos en Unidades Hospitalarias. Método Cohorte con pacientes seguidos en el período de septiembre de 2012 a junio de 2016, en estancia en hospitales públicos y privados. Los datos fueron analizados inicialmente mediante la estadística descriptiva e inferencial. Como modo de análisis de la supervivencia, se aplicó el indicador de Kaplan-Meier. El modelo de regresión para riesgos proporcionales de Cox fue empleado para el análisis de los factores pronósticos, calculándose la razón de riesgo. Resultados Participaron en el estudio 1.289 pacientes. Los que tenían Escala de Coma de Glasgow con mayor valor presentaron mayor supervivencia, y el incremento de un punto en el score de dicha Escala correspondió a un mejora del 42% en su supervivencia. En el análisis de supervivencia, el sexo y el uso de drogas vasoactivas mostraron diferencia significativa. Conclusión Pacientes del sexo femenino que tienen mejor score de la Escala de Coma de Glasgow y en uso de drogas vasoactivas presentaron mayor supervivencia.


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the clinical evolution and survival of neurocritical patients in Hospital Units. Method Cohort with hospitalized patients in follow-up treatment in public and private hospitals between September 2012 and June 2016. Data were initially analyzed from descriptive and inferential statistics. The Kaplan-Meier indicator was applied as a form of survival analysis. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to analyze the prognostic factors by calculating the hazard ratio. Results Participation of 1,289 patients in the study. Patients with a higher score on the Glasgow Coma Scale presented greater survival, and the one-point increase in the scale score corresponded to 42% improvement in their survival. In the analysis of survival, sex and the use of vasoactive drugs showed a significant difference. Conclusion Female patients with a better score on the Glasgow Coma Scale and using vasoactive drugs had higher survival rates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glasgow Coma Scale , Clinical Evolution , Critical Care , Cohort Studies , Critical Care Nursing
4.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 34(4): 468-476, oct.-dec. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1047904

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A lipoaspiração corporal e abdominoplastia são cirurgias muitas vezes realizadas em conjunto para obter melhores resultados na modelagem corporal. Cirurgias associadas sempre aumentam a espoliação, por isto conhecer o comportamento da hemoglobina (Hb) no pós-operatório e a recuperação do paciente submetido a estas cirurgias combinadas é importante para sua segurança. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a queda da Hb e a recuperação clínica e laboratorial dos pacientes submetidos à cirurgia combinada de lipoaspiração corporal e lipoabdominoplastia. Métodos: Realizou-se um estudo prospectivo em pacientes submetidos à lipoaspiração corporal e lipoabdominoplastia, coletando-se hemogramas antes da indução anestésica, ao final da cirurgia, antes da alta hospitalar, após a 1ª, 2ª e 4ª semanas de pós-operatórios e também acompanhando suas evoluções clínicas. Resultados: A média da Hb ao final da cirurgia e na alta hospitalar foi de 10,4g/dl (desvio padrão (DP) 0,76) e 8,92g/dl (DP 0,86), respectivamente. A recuperação em média da Hb após 1ª, 2ª e 4ª semanas foi de 2,4% (DP 18,07), 41,6% (DP 18,4) e 74% (DP 15,2), respectivamente, em relação a redução que ocorreu entre a Hb inicial e a da alta hospitalar. Queixas de fraqueza e lipotimia foram frequentes até o segundo dia. Conclusão: A melhora clínica ocorreu até o segundo dia de pós-operatório (DPO) e a hemoglobina levou aproximadamente 1 mês para normalizar na maioria dos pacientes tratados apenas com reposição oral de ferro, sem necessidade de hemotransfusão.


Introduction: Body liposuction and abdominoplasty are surgeries often performed together to obtain superior results in body modeling. Since associated surgeries often increase spoliation, being aware of the evolution of hemoglobin (Hb) in the postoperative period and during the recovery of the patients undergoing these associated surgeries is important for their safety. This study aimed to analyze the decrease in Hb and the clinical and laboratory results throughout the recovery of patients undergoing body liposuction associated with lipoabdominoplasty. Methods: A prospective study was conducted with patients undergoing body liposuction and lipoabdominoplasty. CBCs were collected before anesthetic induction, at the end of the surgery, before hospital discharge, after the 1st, 2nd, and 4th postoperative weeks, and during their clinical follow-up period. Results: The average Hb values at the end of surgery and hospital discharge were 10.4 g/dL (standard deviation (SD) 0.76) and 8.92 g/dL (SD 0.86), respectively. The average values during the recovery of Hb after the 1st, 2nd, and 4th weeks were 2.4% (SD 18.07), 41.6% (SD 18.4), and 74% (SD 15.2), respectively. This is in relation to the reduction between the initial Hb and at hospital discharge. Complaints of weakness and lipothymia were frequent until the second day. Conclusion: Clinical improvement was observed until the second postoperative day (PO day). Hemoglobin required approximately 1 month to normalize in most patients. These patients were treated only with oral iron replacement and did not require blood transfusions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , History, 21st Century , Patients , Postoperative Complications , Research , Surgery, Plastic , Lipectomy , Clinical Evolution , Prospective Studies , Abdomen , Body Contouring , Anemia , Postoperative Complications/blood , Research/standards , Surgery, Plastic/methods , Lipectomy/adverse effects , Lipectomy/methods , Clinical Evolution/methods , Body Contouring/adverse effects , Body Contouring/methods , Abdomen/surgery , Anemia/complications
5.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 35(4): 304-307, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1092711

ABSTRACT

La fibrosis pulmonar idiopática (FPI) se ha clasificado en enfermedad leve o temprana-moderada-severa o Avanzada, sin puntos de corte en parámetros clínicos, funcionales o imagenológicos. No existe aún consenso en cual es el principal parámetro que se debe medir. Si bien las variables funcionales como la capacidad vital forzada (CVF), capacidad de difusión de monóxido de carbono (DLCO) y test de caminata de 6 minutos se han utilizado de forma rutinaria en la practica clínica y en los principales estudios clínicos de tratamiento muchas veces no son representativos de la evolución clínica. Por lo anterior se han desarrollado, índices o puntajes compuestos como la escala GAP (Gender-Age-Physiology) que podrían ser útiles en el seguimiento de los pacientes.


Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has been classified as mild or early - moderate - severe or advanced disease, with no cut-off points in clinical, functional or imaging parameters. There is no consensus yet on which is the main parameter to be measured although the functional variables such as forced vital capacity (FVC), carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO) and 6-minute walk test, have been routinely used in clinical practice and in the main clinical studies of treatment, are often not representative of the clinical evolution. Therefore, composite indices or scores such as the GAP (Gender-Age-Physiology) scale have been developed that could be useful in the follow-up of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnosis , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/physiopathology , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Clinical Evolution , Risk Assessment , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology
6.
Mundo saúde (Impr.) ; 43(2): [344-359], abr., 2019. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1054513

ABSTRACT

Clinical outcomes of hospitalized elderly provide subsidies to prevent complications that interfere with quality of life.The goal was to verify the sociodemographic characteristics and to analyze the associations between the diseasesdiagnosed at admission, age, hospitalization time and clinical outcome of elderly hospitalized in SUS and private care.Descriptive and quantitative cross-sectional survey of 14,892 medical records of elderly patients hospitalized in theyear 2014. The statistical tests used were chi-squared and analysis of variance. The results were: 93.5% white, 80.2%catholic, 68% had a primary education, 62.9% had partners, 53.8% males, 33.1% homemakers and the average agewas 72.1 years ± 8.6 years. The mean duration of hospitalization was 5.9 days ± 8.8 days, cardiovascular diseaseswere the most frequent, with a clinical outcome of 93.4% of hospital discharges and 6.6% of deaths, and 100% ofhematological diseases were discharged. There was a significant association rate between diseases and death frominfections (n=817; 60.0%). The association of diseases with the type of SUS care was statistically significant. Moreover,the occurrence of pain, nephro-urological diseases, orthopedic diseases, hematological and gynecological diseasesand other diseases showed a statistically significant association with private care or health plan. The associationbetween the diseases and the clinical outcome showed a greater incidence of death in patients affected by infections.The association of diseases was statistically significant with the type of care, highlighting the SUS care


Os desfechos clínicos de idosos internados proporcionam subsídios para prevenir complicações que interferem naqualidade de vida. O objetivo no estudo foi verificar as características sociodemográficas e analisar as associaçõesentre as doenças diagnosticadas na admissão, idade, tempo de internação e desfecho clínico de idosos internadosno SUS e convênio. Pesquisa transversal, descritiva e quantitativa, nos prontuários eletrônicos de 14.892 idososhospitalizados no ano de 2014. Os testes realizados foram Qui-quadrado e análise de variância. Constatou-se que93,5% eram brancos, 80,2% católicos, 68% possuíam ensino fundamental, 62,9% tinham companheiros, 53,8%homens, 33,1% do lar e a média de idade foram de 72,1 anos ± 8,6 anos. A média de tempo de internação foide 5,9 dias ± 8,8 dias, as doenças cardiovasculares foram as de maior ocorrência, tendo como desfecho clínico93,4% de altas hospitalares e 6,6% de óbitos e doenças hematológicas 100% de alta. Houve taxa significativa naassociação entre doenças e óbito por infecções (n=817; 60,0%). Foi estatisticamente significante a associação dasdoenças com o tipo de atendimento pelo SUS. Já a ocorrência de dor, doenças nefrourológicas, doenças ortopédicas,doenças hematológicas e ginecológicas e outras doenças apresentaram associação estatisticamente significativa com oatendimento particular ou convênio. A associação entre as doenças e o desfecho clínico demonstrou maior incidênciade óbito em pacientes acometidos por infecções. Foi estatisticamente significante a associação das doenças com o tipode atendimento destacando-se o atendimento pelo SUS


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Aged , Nursing , Clinical Evolution , Hospitalization , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hematologic Diseases , Unified Health System , Length of Stay
7.
Rev. homeopatia (Säo Paulo) ; 82(3/4): 38-41, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1049903

ABSTRACT

Os autores realizaram um estudo piloto de investigação clínica, no ambulatório da Associação Paulista de Homeopatia, para verificar os efeitos de placebo e de medicamentos homeopáticos, escolhidos por totalidade sintomática característica individual, com um grupo de pacientes portadores de hipertensão arterial. Foi enfocada a capacidade de atuação do placebo e de dinamizações sucessivas de medicamento único, 6C, 12C, 30C e 200C, em doses repetidas, 2 vezes ao dia, na referida totalidade sintomatológica, considerando-se seu desaparecimento ou melhoria. Placebo e homeopatia foram fornecidos em frascos idênticos, a cada 4 semanas, começando pelo placebo, até atingir a 200C. Consultas de controle a cada 2 semanas. Concluise pela significância do medicamento homeopático, que não produziu praticamente agravações ou patogenesias, em doses repetidas. A partir da experiência, os autores sugeres condições melhores para feitura de trabalhos semelhantes, para uma melhor avaliação estatística. (AU)


Nineteen patients with idiopathic high blood pressure were subjected to treatment with placebo and homeopathic medicines. Their effects on the characteristic symptoms used to select the individual medication of each patients were analyzed. Statistically significant effect was found for the homeopathic drugs. No aggravation of pathogenetic symptoms practically occurred with doses taken twice daily. Based on their experience, the authors suggest how to improve studies in this field. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Placebos/therapeutic use , Clinical Evolution , Homeopathic Therapeutics , Hypertension/therapy
8.
Rev. chil. dermatol ; 35(3): 90-94, 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1116406

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La eritrodermia es un síndrome inflamatorio cutáneo infrecuente caracterizado por compromiso eritematoso generalizado y descamación, de más del 90% de superficie cutánea total. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar clínica e histopatológicamente a los pacientes con eritrodermia en un hospital universitario chileno. METODOLOGÍA: Estudio retrospectivo, realizado en el Hospital Clínico Universidad de Chile, basado en revisión de fichas clínicas e informes histopatológicos de pacientes con eritrodermia, entre 2005 y 2018. Se evaluó edad, sexo y variables clínicas (co-morbilidades, síntomas, días de evolución, ingreso hospitalario, informe histopatológico, diagnóstico y evolución). RESULTADOS: Total de 28 pacientes, 18 hombres (64%), edad promedio 59 años. Causa más frecuente de eritrodermia fue dermatosis pre-exis-tentes, con 15 casos (54%), que incluyen: psoriasis 9 (32%), dermatitis de contacto 3 (11%), PRP 2 (7%), dermatitis atópica 1 (4%). A estas le siguen: reacción adversa medicamentosa 6 (21%), idiopática 6 (21%) y Síndrome de Sezary 1 (4%). CONCLUSIÓN: El presente estudio corresponde a la primera serie de eritrodermias realizada en Chile. Destacan las dermatosis preexistentes como la principal causa, lo que se correlaciona con la literatura.


INTRODUCTION: Erythroderma is an infrequent cutaneous inflammatory disorder characterized by generalized erythematous compromise and desquamation, of more than 90% of total cutaneous surface. OBJECTIVE: Clinical and histopathological cha-racterization of patients with erythroderma in a Chilean university hospital. METHODOLOGY: Retrospective study, performed at the University of Chile Clinical Hospital, based on review of clinical records and histopatho-logical reports of patients with erythroderma, between 2005 and 2018. Age, sex and clinical variables were evaluated (co-morbidities, symp-toms, days of evolution, hospital admission, histopathological report, diagnosis and evolu-tion). RESULTS: A total of 28 patients, 18 were men (64%), average age 59 years. Most frequent cause of erythroderma was pre-existing dermatosis, with 13 cases (52%), which included: psoriasis 9 (32%), contact dermatitis 3 (11%), PRP 2 (7%), atopic dermatitis 1 (4%). These are followed by adverse drug eruption 6 (21%), idiopathic 6 (21%) and Sezary syndrome 1 (4%). CONCLUSION: The present study corresponds to the first series of erythrodermas performed in Chile. The pre-existing dermatoses were the main cause of erythroderma, which coincides with other reports.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Dermatitis, Exfoliative/etiology , Dermatitis, Exfoliative/pathology , Dermatitis, Exfoliative/epidemiology , Psoriasis/complications , Psoriasis/epidemiology , Clinical Evolution , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Drug Eruptions/complications , Drug Eruptions/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Atopic/complications , Dermatitis, Atopic/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Contact/complications , Dermatitis, Contact/epidemiology
9.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 24: e2047, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-989409

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A Síndrome de Treacher Collins ou Disostose Mandibulofacial é decorrente de mutações genéticas e caracterizada por malformações craniofaciais. Crianças com essa síndrome podem apresentar dificuldades cognitivas, linguísticas e psicomotoras. São raras as publicações que discorrem sobre a complexidade de seus aspectos terapêuticos, especialmente, voltados à evolução clínica vinculada à linguagem. O presente estudo objetiva analisar o processo terapêutico voltado à oralidade de um menino com essa síndrome, considerando a natureza dialógica da linguagem. Trata-se de um estudo de caso longitudinal e prospectivo, realizado em uma clínica-escola de uma Universidade, situada no sul do Brasil, durante quatro anos, desde 2012 até 2016. Os dados foram coletados a partir de gravações semanais do paciente em interação com os seus terapeutas, sendo, também, considerados os registros arquivados em seu prontuário. Os resultados indicam que a criança apresentou evolução no que se refere à apropriação da linguagem oral. Apesar das dificuldades na produção vocal e na articulação de fonemas, decorrentes de alterações craniofaciais próprias da síndrome em questão, as atividades dialógicas estabelecidas entre o menino, seus terapeutas e sua família, propiciaram mudanças gradativas no seu posicionamento em relação ao outro e à linguagem. Inicialmente, ele fazia uso de gestos, mímicas faciais, apontamentos, os quais eram compreendidos apenas pelas pessoas que faziam parte do seu cotidiano. Atualmente, além dos recursos gestuais, ele passou a usar a oralidade para participar de práticas interativas, indicando mais autonomia para interagir com seus interlocutores.


ABSTRACT The Treacher Collins Syndrome or Mandibulofacial dysostosis is due to genetic mutations and characterized by craniofacial malformations. Children with this syndrome may present cognitive, linguistic and psychomotor difficulties. There are few publications that discuss the complexity of its therapeutic aspects, especially those focused on language clinical evolution. The present study aims to analyze a speech - language clinical work on oral language of a boy who has this syndrome, considering the dialogical nature of language. This is a longitudinal and prospective case study, carried out in a university clinic located in the south of Brazil, during four years, from 2012 to 2016. Data were collected from weekly recordings of the patient interacting with his therapists, and also from his record files. The results indicate that this child presented oral language appropriation evolution. Despite his vocal production and phonemes articulation´s difficulties, due to his craniofacial alterations that characterize this syndrome, the dialogical activities established between the child, his therapists and his family, caused gradual changes in his language use. Initially, he used gestures, facial mimics, pointing, which were understood only by people who were part of his daily life. Nowadays, he still uses gestures, but he also began to use oral language to participate in interactive practices, which indicates his autonomy to interact with other people.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Speech Intelligibility , Clinical Evolution , Mandibulofacial Dysostosis/therapy , Micrognathism , Physician-Patient Relations , Professional-Family Relations , Brazil , Child Language , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
10.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 22(4): 348-357, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-975613

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Surface electromyographic activity may not be symmetric, even in subjects with no facial paralysis history. Objective To evaluate the contribution of the index of electromyographic (IEMG) activity in the identification of the two extremes of the facial paralysis course. Methods Thirty-four subjects with unilateral peripheral facial paralysis were selected. A control group was composed of volunteers without a history of facial paralysis. The electromyographic assessment of the facial muscle was performed by placing surface electrodes during movements of the forehead, eyes and lips using MIOTEC equipment, such as the MIOTOOL (Miotec, Porto Alegre, Brazil) software. The electromyographic activity was also recorded in other channels during the primary activity to identify the presence of synkinesis. The statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences for Macintosh (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA). The IEMG activity was obtained from the division of the electromyographic activity root mean square (RMS) values on both sides. Results There was a statistically significant difference among the groups in all the analyzed indexes. The ocular-oral synkinesis in all patients must be correctly identified (with 100% sensitivity and specificity) using an IEMG activity of 1.62 as a cutoff point. The oral-ocular synkinesis must be correctly identified (93.3% sensitivity and 95.9% specificity) using the IEMG activity of 1.79 as a cutoff point. Conclusion The IEMG activity is below the normal scores in patients in the flaccid stage, whereas patients in the sequelae stage can either show normal values or values above or below the normal scores. The IEMG activity was shown to have high sensitivity and specificity in the identification of synkinesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Electromyography , Facial Paralysis/diagnosis , Facial Paralysis/physiopathology , Body Surface Area , Clinical Evolution , Synkinesis/diagnosis , Facial Muscles/physiopathology , Facial Paralysis/complications , Muscle Hypotonia/physiopathology
11.
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 59(3): 117-126, dic. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1095715

ABSTRACT

El abordaje de Smith Petersen modificado (SPM), permite la reducción de fracturas del cuello femoral desde anterior, manteniendo la fijación a través de un abordaje lateral. Realizar la reducción bajo visión directa mejoraría la calidad de la reducción y los resultados en fracturas complejas de cuello femoral. MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo de ocho pacientes con fracturas de cuello femoral Pauwels III/Garden IV secundarias a un accidente de alta energía operadas con abordaje SPM. Registramos el tiempo de evolución desde el accidente hasta la cirugía. Se realizó radiografía y tomografía axial computada postoperatoria. Seguimos los pacientes con radiografías mensuales hasta evidenciar consolidación de la fractura y casos de necrosis avascular. RESULTADOS: En promedio, los pacientes fueron operados 2,1 días tras el accidente y fueron seguidos con una mediana de 24,5 meses tras su cirugía. Siete de los ocho pacientes consolidaron. Sólo un caso presentó una no-unión que requirió de una prótesis total de cadera. No hubo casos de necrosis avascular. CONCLUSIÓN: Las fracturas de cuello femoral de alta energía en pacientes jóvenes son lesiones poco frecuentes. Aunque esta serie es pequeña, llama la atención que tratándose de lesiones desplazadas y con rasgos verticales no observamos casos de necrosis avascular, a pesar de algunos casos con prolongado tiempo de evolución desde el accidente hasta la cirugía. Creemos que esas fracturas deben operarse lo antes posible, pero que es más importante lograr una reducción anatómica en vez de retrasar algunas horas la cirugía. En nuestra experiencia, el abordaje de SPM facilita la reducción adecuada en fracturas complejas de cuello femoral.


Modified Smith Petersen Approach (MSP) allows an anterior reduction for femoral neck fractures, keeping the fixation through a lateral approach to the hip. Performing the reduction under direct visualization would improve the quality of the reduction and the outcomes in complex fractures of femoral neck. METHODS: Retrospective study including eight patients with femoral neck fracture classified as Pauwels III / Garden IV, in which MSP was performed. We kept record of the time from the accident until the final surgery. Post-operative studies included plain radiograph and CT scan. Monthly radiographic controls were obtained until fracture healing was achieved or radiological signs of avascular necrosis were found. RESULTS: Surgery was performed in an average of 2.1 days after the accident. Postoperative follow-up was an average of 24.5 month. Consolidation was achieved in seven of the eight patients, only one patient evolved into a nonunion of femoral neck which required a total hip arthroplasty. CONCLUSION: High energy femoral neck fractures in young patients are infrequent injuries. Even though this is a small series of patients it comes to our attention that being displaced fractures with vertical fracture lines we didn't find any case of avascular necrosis despite some of the cases the prolonged timing since the accident to surgery. We believe that this type of fracture should be treated as soon as possible but is more important to achieve an anatomical reduction than pass over the 12 hours threshold. In our experience MSP approach facilitates the achievement of an adequate reduction and complex femoral neck fractures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Femoral Neck Fractures/surgery , Fracture Fixation/methods , Clinical Evolution , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Fracture Healing/physiology , Orthopedic Procedures/methods
12.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 34(2): 102-110, ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-959414

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: En 2009 la Influenza A H1N1pdm09 provocó en Chile 12.258 casos y 155 muertes. Objetivo: Analizar en adultos egresados de Clínica Dávila con influenza, en 2009, 2010, 2012 y 2014, soporte ventilatorio, costo de hospitalización, Grupos Relacionados por el Diagnóstico (GRD) y letalidad. Material y Método: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo usando la ficha médica electrónica. Resultados: Egresaron 115.673 adultos, 338 (0,29%) con diagnóstico de Influenza, edad 56,5 ± 22 años, 59% mujeres, letalidad 4%. Hubo 3 grupos, Grupo 1: sin ningún soporte ventilatorio, 295 pacientes, edad 63 ± 20, estadía 6,6 ± 6,9 días, costo promedio de hospitalización $2.885.261, mediana peso GRD 0,41 (p25 = 0,38 y p75 = 0,62), letalidad 1,01% (3 pacientes). Grupo 2: Ventilación mecánica no invasiva (VMNI), 23 casos, edad 77,1 ± 13, letalidad 22% (5 casos), estadía 16,8 ± 12,4, costo $9.245.242, GRD 0,79 (p25 = 0,62 y p75=1,03). Grupo 3: Intubación y ventilación mecánica invasiva (VMI), 20 pacientes, edad 56,4 ± 15, estadía 36,9 ± 41,4, costo $38.681.099, GRD 5,86 (p25 = 5,82 y p75 = 5,86) y letalidad 30% (6 pacientes). Los GRD grupo VMI versus grupo VMNI y ningún soporte fueron diferentes (p < 0,0001 y p < 0,0001 respectivamente). La letalidad por influenza el 2014 fue de 8,5%, mientras que en los años 2012, 2010 y 2009 fue 1,5%, 3% y 2,5% respectivamente. La mediana de edad el año 2009 fue 37,5 años, menor que la de los otros años (p < 0,0001). Conclusiones: En 2009 los pacientes fueron más jóvenes, la necesidad de soporte ventilatorio provocó un peso GRD, estadía, costo y letalidad mayores que aquellos que no lo requirieron.


Introduction: In 2009 Influenza A H1N1pdm09 caused in Chile 12,258 cases and 155 deaths. Objective: To analyze ventilatory support, cost of hospitalization, Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) and lethality in adults patients with influenza discharged from our institution, during 2009, 2010, 2012 and 2014. Patients and Method: Retrospective descriptive study using electronic medical records. Results: 115,673 adults were discharged, 338 (0.29%) with diagnosis of Influenza, age 56.5 ± 22 yr.o., 59% women, lethality 4%. There were 3 groups, Group 1: without any ventilatory support, 295 patients, age 63 ± 20, stay 6.6 ± 6.9 days, average cost of hospitalization 2,885,261 clp, medium weight DRG 0.41 (p25 = 0.38) andp75 = 0.62), lethality 1.01% (3 patients). Group 2: Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV), 23 cases, age 77.1 ± 13, lethality 22% (5 cases), stay 16.8 ± 12.4, cost 9,245,242 clp, DRG 0.79 (p25 = 0.62 and p75 = 1.03). Group 3: Intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), 20 patients, age 56.4 ± 15, stay 36.9 ± 41.4, cost 38.681.099 clp, DRG 5.86 (p25 = 5.82 and p75 = 5,86) and lethality 30% (6 patients). The DRG group VMI versus group VMNI and no support were different (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001 respectively). The lethality for influenza in 2014 was 8.5%, while in 2012, 2010 and 2009 it was 1.5%, 3% and 2.5% respectively. The median age in 2009 was 37.5 yr.o significantly minor, than the other years (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: In 2009 the patients were younger, the need for ventilatory support led to a higher DRG weight, stay, cost and lethality than those who did not require it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Diagnosis-Related Groups , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/virology , Respiration, Artificial/instrumentation , Clinical Evolution , Chile/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Costs/statistics & numerical data , Influenza, Human/mortality , Electronic Health Records , Noninvasive Ventilation , Hospitalization
13.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 17(3): 396-407, mayo.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-978539

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La isquemia cerebral es la de mayor incidencia y prevalencia entre las enfermedades cerebrovasculares y con frecuencia se asocia a la presencia del síndrome metabólico, pues muchos de sus factores de riesgo conforman este síndrome. Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre la evolución del paciente con Enfermedad Cerebrovascular Isquémica aguda y la presencia de Síndrome Metabólico. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio analítico prospectivo con una muestra de 100 pacientes. Se conformaron 2 grupos, uno con pacientes con Síndrome Metabólico(SM), según criterios del NCEP/ATPIII (III Panel de Tratamiento del Adulto del Programa Nacional de Educación en Colesterol) (grupo A), y otro sin Síndrome Metabólico (grupo B) .En ambos grupos se aplicó la escala de NIHSS para evaluar la severidad y evolución de la enfermedad cerebrovascular. Resultados: En el grupo con SM prevalecieron los del sexo masculino (60 por ciento), el color de piel blanca (52 por ciento) y la media de edad fue de 61,2 años. Los principales antecedentes patológicos personales fueron Hipertensión Arterial, Cardiopatías y Tabaquismo. La severidad de la enfermedad cerebrovascular al ingreso fue peor en el grupo A (media 13,2), los que tuvieron mayor número de complicaciones neurológicas: hipertensión endocraneana y convulsiones (12 por ciento), y no neurológicas: bronconeumonía (40 por ciento) y úlceras de decúbito (28 por ciento), con un riesgo superior: OR: 6,2. Al egreso, 36 por ciento de los pacientes con SM empeoraron, según escala de NIHSS. Conclusiones: El Síndrome metabólico constituye un factor que incrementa en la Enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica el riesgo de complicaciones, y empeora su evolución y pronóstico(AU)


Introduction: Cerebrovascular ischemia represents the highest incidence and prevalence among cerebrovascular diseases. It is frequently associated with Metabolic Syndrome because many risk factors for cerebrovascular ischemia correspond to this entity. Objective: To determine the relationship between the evolution of the patient with Acute Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease (AICVD) and the presence of Metabolic Syndrome (MS). Material and Methods: An analytical prospective study was conducted with a sample of 100 patients, which were divided into two groups: group A, that was composed of patients with Metabolic Syndrome (MS) according to NCEP/ATPIII criteria (The Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education), and group B that was composed of patients without Metabolic Syndrome. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was applied in both groups to evaluate the severity and evolution of cerebrovascular disease. Results: The Male sex (60 percent), and white people (52 percent) prevailed in the group with MS, and the mean age was 61,2 years. The main personal pathological antecedents were Arterial hypertension, cardiopathies, and smoking habit. The severity of cerebrovascular disease on admission was worse in group A (mean: 13,2). These patients presented a greater number of neurological complications such as: intracranial hypertension and convulsions (12 percent); they also presented non-neurological complications such as: bronchopneumonia (40 percent), and ulcers resulting from time spent on supine position (28 percent) with a higher risk (OR: 6,2). After discharge from hospital, 36 percent of patients with MS got worse, according to Scale NIHSS. Conclusions: The metabolic syndrome is a risk factor that increases the risk of complications in Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease and worsens its evolution and prognosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Stroke/complications , Stroke/etiology , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Clinical Evolution/methods , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
14.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 89(3): 158-164, jun. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-950135

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la enfermedad de Hirschsprung es una patología que puede ser de diagnóstico y tratamiento complejo. Requiere un manejo multidisciplinario y una importante experiencia para minimizar la morbilidad aguda y a largo plazo. Objetivos: Estudiar las características de los pacientes operados por enfermedad de Hirschsprung en el Hospital Pediátrico del Hospital Pereira Rossell en los últimos 10 años (2006-2016), identificar sus complicaciones y su resultado a largo plazo. Material y método: se revisaron las historias clínicas entre enero de 2006 y julio de 2016. Se estudiaron distintas variables y se comparó la evolución según las diferentes técnicas quirúrgicas. Se utilizaron como métodos estadísticos el test exacto de Fisher y test de Chi cuadrado. Resultados: se analizaron las historias de 30 pacientes en el período comprendido, de los cuales 22 eran de sexo masculino y 8 femenino. En 16 pacientes se realizó el diagnóstico mediante biopsia por aspiración, en 11 se realizó por medio de una biopsia quirúrgica y en 1 caso se llegó al diagnóstico mediante manometría anorrectal. 24 pacientes se diagnosticaron antes del primer año de vida, y 19 se operaron antes del 1er año. En 23 pacientes la enfermedad era de extensión rectosigmoidea. Se realizó la técnica De La Torre Mondragón en 14 casos y en 9 la técnica de Soave o su variante Soave/Boley. Conclusión: la técnica endoanal es la más utilizada para la patología de extensión rectosigmoidea, se evidencia una clara predilección por este abordaje en los últimos años. Si bien no hemos podido evaluar en su totalidad los pacientes intervenidos por la técnica de De La Torre creemos que posee grandes ventajas al evitar el abordaje abdominal. Hemos identificado claros puntos a mejorar como la importancia en el diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz, la necesidad de redes bien establecidas y el control a largo plazo en este tipo de patología. Valoramos la versatilidad de equipo quirúrgico en cuanto a la utilización de diferentes técnicas adecuadas a las necesidades de cada paciente.


Introduction: Hirschsprung's disease could involve a complex diagnosis and treatment. It requires long-term multidisciplinary management practices and vast experience in order to minimize acute morbidity. Goals: Study the epidemiology of patients with Hirschsprung's disease at the Pereira Rossell Pediatric Hospital during 10 years (2006-2016) and identify their complications and long-term outcomes. Materials and methods: we reviewed the medical records between January 2006 and July 2016. We studied different variables and compared the evolution after performing the different surgical techniques. We used Fisher's exact test and Chi square test as statistical methods. Results: we analyzed 30 medical records in this period, 22 males and 8 females. 16 patients had been diagnosed through aspiration biopsy, 11 through surgical biopsy and in one case the diagnosis was reached through anorectal manometry. 24 patients were diagnosed before the first year of life, and 19 received surgery before the first year of life. In the case of 23 patients, the disease involved rectosigmoid extension. The La Torre Mondragón technique was performed in 14 cases and the Soave technique or its Soave/Boley variant was performed in 9 cases. Conclusion: endoanal is the most used technique for the rectosigmoid extension pathology and it seems to be the technique of choice in the last years. Although we have not been able to fully assess patients operated using the De La Torre technique, we believe that it has many advantages in avoiding the abdominal approach. We have identified clear areas for improvement, such as the importance of diagnosis and early treatment, the need for well-established networks and long-term control for this type of pathology. We value the surgical team's versatility when using different techniques customized to the patients' needs.


Introdução: a doença de Hirschsprung é uma patologia que pode exigir um diagnóstico e tratamento complexos. Requer manejo multidisciplinar de longo prazo e vasta experiência para minimizar a morbidade aguda. Objetivos: estudar as características dos pacientes operados pela doença de Hirschsprung no Hospital Pediátrico Pereira Rossell durante 10 anos (2006-2016), e poder identificar suas complicações e os resultados no longo prazo. Material e métodos: Estudamos diferentes variáveis nas histórias clínicas entre janeiro de 2006 e julho de 2016 e comparamos a evolução de acordo com as diferentes técnicas cirúrgicas utilizadas. Utilizamos o teste exato de Fisher e o teste qui-quadrado como métodos estatísticos. Resultados: analisamos as histórias clínicas de 30 pacientes no período mencionado, 22 do sexo feminino e 8 do sexo masculino. Em 16 pacientes o diagnóstico foi feito através duma biópsia aspirativa, em 11 através duma biópsia cirúrgica e em um caso o diagnóstico foi realizado através duma manometria anorretal. 24 pacientes foram diagnosticados antes do primeiro ano de vida, e 19 foram operados antes do primeiro ano. Em 23 pacientes, a doença foi do tipo extensão retossigmóide. Utilizamos a técnica da Torre de Mondragón em 14 casos e a técnica Soave ou sua variante Soave/Boley em 9 casos. Conclusão: a técnica endoanal tem sido a mais utilizada e a preferida para o tratamento da patologia da extensão retossigmóide nos últimos anos. Embora não tenhamos conseguido avaliar totalmente os pacientes submetidos à técnica de De La Torre, acreditamos que ela tenha grandes vantagens na hora de evitar a abordagem abdominal. Identificamos áreas para o melhoramento no diagnóstico e tratamento precoce, a necessidade de redes bem estabelecidas e o controle de longo prazo nesse tipo de patologia. Valorizamos a versatilidade da equipe cirúrgica no uso das diferentes técnicas adaptadas às necessidades de cada paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Surgical Procedures, Operative/adverse effects , Hirschsprung Disease/surgery , Clinical Evolution , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Sex Distribution , Observational Study , Hirschsprung Disease/diagnosis
15.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 89(2): 99-107, abr. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-950128

ABSTRACT

La dermatomiositis juvenil (DMJ) es una miopatía inflamatoria adquirida de base inmunológica acompañada por alteraciones cutáneas características. El objetivo de este artículo es describir las características clínicas y exámenes complementarios de un grupo de 17 pacientes con diagnóstico de DMJ, su evolución y tratamiento. Material y método: se estudiaron los pacientes que se asistieron en la Policlínica de enfermedades de tejido conectivo del Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell (CHPR) en el período del 1 de octubre de 2003 al 1 de abril de 2017. Resultados: los rasgos clínicos más frecuentes de presentación fueron las manifestaciones cutáneas características, debilidad muscular, síntomas constitucionales, manifestaciones gastrointestinales y respiratorias. Las enzimas musculares estuvieron aumentadas en todos los casos. La resonancia nuclear magnética, electromiograma y la biopsia muscular fueron patológicos en todos los casos realizados. El tratamiento se realizó fundamentalmente en base a corticoides y fármacos inmunosupresores, siendo el metotrexate la droga de elección. En los casos graves o refractarios se asoció gamaglobulina, ciclofosfamida o ciclosporina. La duración del tratamiento tuvo una mediana de 3 años 10 meses. Se logró remisión en 47% de los pacientes. La evolución fue monofásica en 15,4%, de los casos, polifásica en 8% y crónica en 77%. No hubo fallecimientos registrados, ni enfermedad maligna asociada. Conclusiones: la DMJ es una enfermedad de baja incidencia. La mayoría de los pacientes tuvieron una evolución crónica. Esto determina la necesidad de un tratamiento inmunosupresor prolongado con los efectos adversos de la misma. Se logró la remisión en 47% de los pacientes. No se registraron fallecimientos en la serie estudiada.


Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is an acquired inflammatory myopathy with an immunologic basis and characteristic cutaneous rash. The aim of this article is to describe clinical features and most important exams of a group of 17 patients with JDM their evolution and treatment. Methods: children with JDM recruited from Connective tissue Diseases Office of Pereira Rossell Hospital from 1/10/2003 through 1/4/2017 were studied. Results: the most frequent features were: characteristic cutaneous rash, muscle weakness, systemic symptoms, gastrointestinal and respiratory manifestations. The diagnostic investigations showed an increase serum muscle enzymes in all patients. The nuclear magnetic resonance, electromyogram and muscle biopsy resulted abnormal in all the investigated cases. Treatment was based on corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs being methotrexate the preferred drug. In severe or refractory cases cyclophosphamide, human gammaglobulin or cyclosporine were associated. Median treatment length was 3 years 10 months Remission was achieved in 47 percent. The evolution was monophasic in 15.4 percent, polyphasic in 7.7 and chronic in 77 percent. No deaths were registered neither malignant associated diseases Conclusions: JDM is an infrequent illness. Most of the patients had chronic evolution. This obliges to prolonged immunosuppression with its adverse effects. Remission was achieved in 47% of the cases. No deaths were registered in this population.


A dermatomiosite juvenil (DMJ) é uma miopatia inflamatória imunológica adquirida acompanhada de alterações cutâneas características. O objetivo deste artigo é descrever as características clínicas e os exames complementares de um grupo de 17 pacientes diagnosticados com DMJ, sua evolução e tratamento. Materiais e métodos: foram estudados os pacientes que compareceram à Policlínica das Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo no Centro Hospitalar Pereira Rossell (CHPR) no período de 01/10/2003 a 04/01/2017. Resultados: as características clínicas mais frequentes foram manifestações cutâneas características, fraqueza muscular, sintomas constitucionais, manifestações gastrointestinais e respiratórias. As enzimas musculares estiveram aumentadas em todos os casos. A Ressonância nuclear magnética, o eletromiograma e a biópsia muscular foram patológicos em todos os casos. O tratamento foi baseado principalmente em corticosteroides e drogas imunossupressoras, e o metotrexato foi a droga de escolha. Em casos graves ou refratários, também se administrou gamaglobulina, ciclofosfamida ou ciclosporina. A duração do tratamento teve uma mediana de 3 anos e 10 meses. A remissão foi alcançada em 47% dos pacientes. A evolução foi monofásica em 15,4% dos casos, polifásica em 8% e crônica em 77%. Não houve mortes registradas, nem doença maligna associada. Conclusões: a DMJ é uma doença de baixa incidência. A maioria dos pacientes teve evolução crônica. Isso determina a necessidade de um tratamento imunossupressor prolongado com os seus conseguintes efeitos adversos. A remissão foi alcançada em 47% dos pacientes. Nenhuma morte foi registrada na série estudada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Clinical Evolution , Dermatomyositis , Dermatomyositis/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Observational Study , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
16.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 78(1): 36-42, mar. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-902812

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La otomicosis en pacientes inmunosuprimidos esta caracterizada por ser bilateral y ser causada por candida. Pocos estudios comparan las características micológicas encontradas en la microscopía directa y el cultivo. Objetivo: Identificar las características clínicas y micológicas de la otomicosis en pacientes diabéticos. Material y método: Estudio transversal en centro hospitalario de segundo nivel. Criterios de inclusión: pacientes diabéticos con diagnóstico clínico de otomicosis. Intervención: la muestra se examinó directamente bajo el microscopio y se cultivó. Resultados: Se incluyeron 17 pacientes, 10 mujeres y 7 hombres con una edad media de 47,5 años. Los síntomas predominantes fueron hipoacusia en 91,4% (n =16), prurito en 82,4% (n =14), otorrea en 76,5% (n=13)y otalgia en 70,6% (n =12). Afección bilateral se encontró en 47,1% (n =8). Estudio directo al microscopio mostró levaduras en 94,1% (n =16) y 5,9% mostró aspergillus (n =1). Cándida fue el género más comúnmente encontrado en los cultivos y en el examen directo microscópico con 94,1% (n =16) y Candida albicans la especie más común con 88,2% (n =15). Conclusión: Candida albicans es el agente etiológico más común en pacientes diabéticos con otomicosis. Su presentación clínica más frecuente es hipoacusia, prurito y otorrea. El examen directo identificó adecuadamente a los géneros fúngicos.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Otomycosis in immunocompromised patients is characterize by its bilateral course and the predominant etiologic agent is Candida. Few studies compare the mycological features between microscopic direct exam and culture. Aim: To identify the clinical and mycological characteristics of otomycosis in diabetic patients. Material and method: Transversal study. Secondary care center. Inclusion criteria: diabetic patients with clinical diagnosis of otomycosis. Intervention: Direct examination under a microscope of the ear sample and culture. Results: We included 17 patients, 10 women, 7 men with a mean age of 47.5 years. Symptoms were hearing loss 94.1% (n = 16), pruritus 82.4% (n =14) otorrhoea 76.5% (n =13) and otalgia 70.6% (n =12). Bilateral involvement was found in 47.1% (n =8). Direct microscopic study found 94.1% of yeast (n =16) and 5.9% of Aspergillus (n =1). Candida was the most common fungal genus in culture and microscopic exam with 94.1% (n =16) of cases and Candida albicans was the most common species in 88.2% (n =15) cases. Conclusion: Candida albicans is the most common etiologic agent in diabetic patients with otomycosis. Main symptoms were hearing loss, itching and otorrhea. Direct exam correctly identified the fungal genus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Diabetes Complications/microbiology , Otomycosis/microbiology , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Seasons , Time Factors , Opportunistic Infections , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Clinical Evolution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Candida glabrata/isolation & purification , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Otomycosis/epidemiology
17.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 17(1): 91-102, ene.-feb. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), CUMED | ID: biblio-901802

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La peritonitis postoperatoria es una de las complicaciones más frecuentes que se presenta tras procederes laparoscópicos. Objetivo: Caracterizar la evolución de los pacientes complicados con peritonitis después de un proceder laparoscópico. Material y método: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de los pacientes con peritonitis ingresados en la terapia intensiva, del Centro Nacional de Cirugía de Mínimo Acceso, desde septiembre de 2010 hasta diciembre de 2015. Se analizaron algunas variables demográficas, procederes laparoscópicos que se complicaron con este diagnóstico, complicaciones clínicas, antibioticoterapia utilizada, tipo de nutrición y la escala de evaluación fisiológica APACHE II como predictor de pronóstico. La información se obtuvo de las historias clínicas. Las variables cualitativas se resumieron utilizando frecuencias absolutas y porcentajes. Para las cuantitativas se utilizó la media y la desviación estándar. Resultados: Se complicaron con peritonitis 26 de 298 pacientes ingresados en el período (8,7 ), la edad media fue de 60 años, predominó el sexo femenino (57,7 por ciento). Se complicaron más con este diagnóstico los pacientes perforados postcolonoscopia (50 por ciento). El disbalance hidroelectrolítico (73,1 por ciento) fue la complicación asociada más frecuente. Se usó precozmente la nutrición enteral en 57,7 por ciento y los antibióticos más utilizados fueron ceftriaxone, amikacina y metronidazol. Predominó la evolución favorable a pesar que el score APACHE II se mantuvo en valores elevados. Conclusiones: Las perforaciones intestinales después de una colonoscopía tienen un alto riesgo de sufrir peritonitis secundaria, pero si se realiza un diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz su evolución es favorable(AU)


Introduction: Endoscopic dilatation is the first therapeutic option to eliminate benign esophageal stenosis and improve the symptoms and the quality of life of those patients who suffer from it. Objective:To describe the results of endoscopic dilatation in patients with benign esophageal stenosis treated in the National Center for Endoscopic Surgery from January 2015 to December 2016. Material and Methods:A case series longitudinal observational study was conducted in 59 patients with benign esophageal stenosis. Dilatations were done with Savary-Gilliard bougie and balloons. Results:The mean age was 52,5 years, and the condition predominated in 37 male patients (62,7 percent). Post-surgical, peptic, and caustic were the most frequent etiologies with 25, 14, and 6 cases, respectively. Short stenosis predominated in 51 cases. Bougies were used in 48 patients for a total of 149 dilatations, corresponding to a mean of 3,1 dilatations/ patients. Correction of the stenosis was made in 1-3 sessions in 47 percent of patients; 11 cases were dilated with balloon, corresponding to a mean of 1- 3 dilatations/ patients. Four patients from the group that were dilated with Savary-Gilliard bougies showed refractoriness. A perforation, and two bleedings occurred. After the dilatations, dysphagia improved or disappeared in 93,2 percent of patients. Conclusions:Endoscopic therapy through dilatation of benign esophageal stenosis indicated to be a good alternative method in achieving corrections in a few dilatation sessions, with a low number of complications, and an improvement of the dysphagia(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Peritonitis/surgery , Peritonitis/diagnosis , Peritonitis/prevention & control , Early Diagnosis , Clinical Evolution/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Laparoscopy/methods , Critical Care/methods , Observational Study
18.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 89(1): 31-35, feb. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-887810

ABSTRACT

Resumen: El retorno venoso pulmonar anómalo total se caracteriza por la falla de conexión entre la aurícula primitiva y el retorno venoso pulmonar, este último se conecta al retorno venoso sistémico a través de la persistencia de conexiones embrionarias. En esta patología, el ventrículo izquierdo suele tener un tamaño en el límite inferior de la normalidad, con una aurícula izquierda pequeña y atrófica. En el período posoperatorio las cavidades izquierdas deben manejar todo el retorno venoso pulmonar, lo que podría determinar sobrecarga de estas cavidades. Presentamos dos casos de posoperatorio de retorno venoso pulmonar anómalo total, evaluando la relación entre el tamaño auricular izquierdo y los niveles de péptido natriurético. Se plantea como hipótesis una disfunción en el llenado de cavidades izquierdas como sustrato causal de este fenómeno, teniendo como consecuencia modificaciones adaptativas anatómicas y funcionales. La determinación de los niveles de péptido natriurético podría ser útil en la monitorización de este proceso adaptativo.


Summary: Total anomalous pulmonary venous return is a congenital heart disease characterized by failure of connection between the primitive left atrium and the pulmonary venous return, the latter drains to the systemic venous return trough persistent embryologic connections. In this pathology there is a normal size, but rather small, left ventricle with a small and undeveloped left atrium. In the postoperative period, the left chambers must handle all the pulmonary venous return, which could mean an increased wall stress. The study presents two cases of Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return, and the behavior of left atrial size and natriuretic peptide level after surgery. We set a hypothesis by which a dysfunction in the filling of the left chambers could explain this phenomenon and how this triggers compensatory modifications. Analyzing the level of natriuretic peptide might help monitor this process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Scimitar Syndrome/surgery , Clinical Evolution , Postoperative Period , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/analysis
19.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 34(4): 236-248, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-990842

ABSTRACT

Resumen La neumonía adquirida en la comunidad (NAC) es una enfermedad infecciosa común y potencialmente grave que ocasiona elevada morbilidad y mortalidad. La terapia con corticosteroides (CS) sistémicos se ha propuesto para el manejo de pacientes adultos hospitalizados por neumonía adquirida en la comunidad. Objetivos: Evaluar la eficacia y seguridad del tratamiento con corticosteroides sistémicos en pacientes con NAC grave. Métodos: Se buscó la información actualizada en cinco bases de datos: PubMed, Scielo, Epistemonikos, Lilacs y Cochrane Library. Se evaluaron los ensayos clínicos controlados aleatorizados que examinaron la eficacia y seguridad de los corticosteroides en adultos hospitalizados con NAC grave. Resultados: Se incluyeron diez revisiones sistemáticas y quince estudios primarios que reclutaron pacientes hospitalizados con NAC grave. La terapia con corticosteroides redujo significativamente la mortalidad por todas las causas (cociente de riesgo [RR]: 0,58; IC95%: 0,40 a 0,84), fracaso clínico precoz (RR: 0,32; IC95%: 0,15 a 0,7), riesgo de síndrome de dificultad respiratoria del adulto (RR: 0,23; IC95%: 0,07 a 0,80), necesidad de ventilación mecánica (RR: 0,40; IC95%: 0,20 a 0,77) y se acortó la estancia hospitalaria (diferencia media: −2.91 días; IC95%: − 4,92 a −0,89). La terapia esteroidal aumentó el riesgo de hiperglicemia (RR: 1,72; IC95%: 1,38 a 2,14) pero no la frecuencia de hemorragia gastrointestinal (RR: 0,91; IC95%: 0,40 a 2,05). Conclusión: La terapia con corticosteroides sistémicos disminuye significativamente la mortalidad, riesgo de complicaciones y acorta la estancia hospitalaria en pacientes con NAC grave. Estos resultados deben ser confirmados por estudios controlados aleatorizados de mayor potencia.


Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common and serious infectious disease accompanied with high morbidity and mortality. Corticosteroids (CS) therapy has been proposed for community-acquired pneumonia hospitalized adult patients. However, the effectiveness of adjunctive corticosteroids on relevant clinical outcomes of CAP remains inconsistent. Objectives: We assessed the efficacy and safety of adjunctive corticosteroids therapy in severe CAP patients. Methods: Five databases: PubMed, Scielo, Epistemonikos, Lilacs and Cochrane Library were searched for related studies published up to June, 2018. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of corticosteroids in hospitalized adults with severe CAP were included. Results: We assessed ten systematic reviews and fifteen primary studies enrolling severe CAP hospitalized patients. Corticosteroids therapy significantly reduced all-cause mortality (risk ratio (RR): 0.58; 95%CI: 0.40 to 0.84), early clinical failure (RR: 0.32; 95%CI: 0.15 to 0.7), risk of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (RR: 0.23; 95%CI: 0.07 to 0.80), need for mechanical ventilation (RR: 0.40; 95%CI: 0.20 to 0.77) and decreased hospital length of stay (mean difference: −2.91 days; 95%CI: −4.92 to −0.89). Corticosteroids therapy increased hyperglycemia risk (RR: 1.72; 95%CI: 1.38 to 2.14) but not gastrointestinal hemorrhage frequency (RR: 0.91; 95%CI: 0.40 to 2.05). Conclusions: Adjuvant therapy with systemic corticosteroids decreases mortality, risk of hospital complications and shortens hospital length of stay in patients with severe CAP. These results should be confirmed by adequately powered studies in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia/mortality , Prognosis , Clinical Evolution , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Length of Stay
20.
Rev. chil. cir ; 70(3): 233-240, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-959376

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción La hemorroidectomía es el tratamiento de elección para las hemorroides sintomáticas, reservado para pacientes con hemorroides grado III o IV o sin respuesta a tratamiento conservador. Existen diversas técnicas quirúrgicas, cuyo grado de resolución de síntomas y satisfacción por parte del paciente posee resultados variados. Objetivos Evaluar al corto plazo la sintomatología y grado de satisfacción de los pacientes operados de hemorroidectomía convencional en el Complejo Asistencial Dr. Sótero del Río. Materiales y Métodos Se realizó una encuesta telefónica retrospectiva a pacientes operados de hemorroidectomía convencional durante junio de 2015 a enero de 2016. Se preguntó por síntomas en el preoperatorio, al mes y a los 6 o más meses posoperados. Se evaluó sangrado, prurito, dolor, sensación de prolapso e incontinencia. El análisis estadístico consideró los resultados según los 5 síntomas evaluados y luego dicotomizados según relevancia clínica. Se consideró un valor p significativo < 0,01. Resultados Cuarenta y tres pacientes respondieron la encuesta, con una mediana de edad de 55 años (17-80). La mediana de evaluación fue de 8 meses (6-12). Considerando los síntomas: sangrado, prurito, dolor y prolapso, 35 pacientes (79%) presentaban 3 o más síntomas preoperatorios considerados significativos. La persistencia al seguimiento varía entre un 9 a un 28%. En el análisis estadístico con síntomas dicotomizados, existe una disminución estadísticamente significativa al mes y a los 6 o más meses posoperados. Discusión La hemorroidectomía convencional es bien evaluada por los pacientes en relación a una resolución significativa de síntomas de la enfermedad hemorroidal.


Background Hemorrhoidectomy is the treatment of choice for symptomatic hemorrhoids, reserved for patients with grade III or IV hemorrhoids or no response to conservative treatment. There are several surgical techniques, whose degree of resolution of symptoms and patient satisfaction has varied results. Objectives To evaluate in the short term the symptomatology and degree of satisfaction of patients undergoing conventional hemorrhoidectomy in Complejo Asistencial Dr. Sótero del Río. Material and Methods A retrospective telephone survey was applied to patients undergoing conventional hemorrhoidectomy from June 2015 to January 2016. The survey includes questions about symptoms in the pre-operative, at the month and at 6 or more months post-operated. Bleeding, pruritus, pain, prolapsed sensation and incontinence were evaluated. The statistical analysis considered the results according to the 5 symptoms evaluated in the survey and then dichotomized according to clinical relevance. A significant p value < 0.01 was considered. Results 43 patients answered the survey, with a median age of 55 years (17-80). The median evaluation was 8 months (6-12). Considering the symptoms: bleeding, pruritus, pain and prolapse, 35 patients (79%) had 3 or more preoperative symptoms considered significant. Persistent follow-up ranges from 9 to 28%. In the statistical analysis with dichotomized symptoms, there is a statistically significant decrease at one month and at 6 or more months post-surgery. Conclusion Conventional hemorrhoidectomy is well evaluated by patients in relation to a significant resolution of hemorrhoidal disease symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Patient Satisfaction , Hemorrhoidectomy/psychology , Hemorrhoids/surgery , Signs and Symptoms , Clinical Evolution , Surveys and Questionnaires
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