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1.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 58: 03, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1536766

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES To evaluate the performance of geneXpert MTB/Rif versus conventional methods (bacilloscopy and culture) in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in a Central Public Health Laboratory (LACEN, Tocantins), Northern Brazil. METHODS Retrospective study, with information from 1,973 suspected cases of tuberculosis from patients treated from January 2015 to December 2020. RESULTS From the culture (reference standard), the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of the geneXpert MTB/Rif were 100%, 97%, 74%, 100%, and 97%, respectively, against 85%, 98%, 80%, 98%, and 97% of bacilloscopy. CONCLUSIONS The geneXpert MTB/Rif performed similarly to culture and better than bacilloscopy. Although positive cases with negative culture should be evaluated with caution, its routine use is important for the early detection of tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tuberculosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Mycobacterium tuberculosis
3.
Med. infant ; 30(2): 172-180, Junio 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1443724

ABSTRACT

Los intervalos de referencia (IR) dependen de la población y de las características metrológicas del procedimiento de medida utilizado. A pesar de las recomendaciones internacionales, son pocos los laboratorios que establecen sus propios IR para cada magnitud por la dificultad para conseguir voluntarios de referencia y el elevado costo económico asociado. La International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) acepta la adopción de IR bibliográficos o su cálculo por métodos indirectos dado su bajo costo y fácil obtención. Existen varias fuentes confiables de IR bibliográficos para el hemograma. No obstante, para el recuento plaquetario, es una práctica común de los laboratorios emplear el rango de valores de 150-450.109 /L independiente de la metodología utilizada y grupo etario. El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar los IR bibliográficos disponibles para el recuento plaquetario y estimarlo empleando el método indirecto de Hoffmann a partir de nuestra población. Los métodos indirectos se basan en aplicar criterios de exclusión y cálculos matemáticos sobre los resultados de una base de datos de laboratorio. Nuestros IR para el recuento plaquetario se comparan con los bibliográficos, que han sido establecidos por técnicas de muestreo directo. Por este motivo y dado que no existen estudios poblacionales que lo avalen, sería apropiado reemplazar el rango de 150-450.109 / L. Estos límites podrían seguir empleándose como puntos de corte o niveles de decisión médica para definir, según la clínica y otros resultados de laboratorio, los pacientes que ameritan un seguimiento posterior (AU)


Reference ranges (RR) depend on the population and the metrological characteristics of the measurement procedure used. Despite international recommendations, few laboratories establish their own RRs for each magnitude because of the difficulty in obtaining reference volunteers and the associated high economic cost. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) accepts the use of literaturebased RRs or RRs calculated by indirect methods because of their low cost and easy collection. There are several reliable sources of literature-based RRs for the Cell Blood Count. However, for platelet count, it is common laboratory practice to use the range of 150-450,109 /L regardless of the methodology used and age group. The aim of this study was to review the available literature regarding RRs for platelet count and to establish it using the indirect Hoffmann method in our population. Indirect methods are based on applying exclusion criteria and mathematical calculations on the results of a laboratory database. Our RRs for platelet counts are compared with those in the literature, which have been established by direct sampling techniques. Therefore, and given that there are no population studies to support these findings, it would be appropriate to replace the 150-450,109 /L range. These limits may continue to be used as cut-off points or medical decision levels to define, according to clinical manifestations and other laboratory results, patients who warrant further follow-up (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Platelet Count/methods , Reference Standards , Reference Values , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Laboratories, Hospital
4.
Med. infant ; 30(2): 162-167, Junio 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1443681

ABSTRACT

La realización de pruebas de laboratorio en el lugar de atención del paciente (POCT) de equipos de gases en sangre representa un desafío continuo tanto para los usuarios como para el laboratorio. La vulnerabilidad al error y la amenaza del riesgo que rodea esta forma de trabajo obliga a establecer un sistema de trabajo robusto para la obtención de un "resultado confiable" cerca del paciente crítico. La formación de un grupo interdisciplinario, la capacitación de usuarios externos al laboratorio, el aseguramiento de la calidad analítica y la conectividad, son los cuatro pilares sobre los cuales se sostiene el éxito de esta nueva era de laboratorio clínico. Además es necesaria la reinvención de la imagen bioquímica, asumiendo un rol de líder, comunicador, asesor e integrado al sistema de salud (AU)


Point of care laboratory testing (POCT) with blood gas equipment is an ongoing challenge for both the users and the laboratory. The vulnerability to error and the threat of risk that surrounds this way of working necessitates the establishment of a robust working system to obtain "reliable results" for the critically ill patient. The creation of an interdisciplinary group, the training of external users, analytical quality assurance, and connectivity are the four pillars on which the success of this new era of clinical laboratories is based. It is also necessary to reinvent the biochemical image, assuming the role of leader, communicator, and advisor integrated into the health system (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Quality of Health Care , Blood Gas Analysis/instrumentation , Laboratories, Hospital/trends , Point-of-Care Systems/trends , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/trends , Critical Care , Point-of-Care Testing/standards , Inservice Training
5.
Med. infant ; 30(2): 217-222, Junio 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1444540

ABSTRACT

El monóxido de carbono es un gas altamente tóxico que se origina principalmente por la combustión incompleta de combustibles fósiles. La intoxicación presenta síntomas inespecíficos que solapan otras patologías y por lo tanto es indispensable la confirmación mediante la medición de la carboxihemoglobina en sangre. El laboratorio incorporó la determinación en el informe del estado ácido base a partir de octubre del 2018, debido a que previamente el médico debía solicitarla frente a la sospecha de una intoxicación. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar si esta medida implementada por el laboratorio contribuyó a mejorar el diagnóstico de intoxicación por CO, analizar las características de los pacientes con COHb mayor o igual a 5% y definir un valor de reporte inmediato para la COHb. El 46% de los casos con COHb mayor o igual a 5% no se relacionaban con una intoxicación y/o exposición a CO. De los casos de intoxicación se encontró que el 77% fueron diagnosticados a partir de la sospecha médica y un 23% por hallazgo del laboratorio. Se concluyó que es de mucha utilidad el rol del laboratorio en detectar aquellos casos que no fueron evidentes clínicamente. Existen ciertas patologías como las oncológicas o la enfermedad de Wilson donde se vieron valores elevados de COHb sin presentar intoxicación y se definió finalmente, como valor de reporte inmediato 7% para la COHb. (AU)


Carbon monoxide is a highly toxic gas that originates mainly from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. Intoxication causes nonspecific symptoms that overlap with other conditions and, therefore, confirmation by measuring blood carboxyhemoglobin is essential. The laboratory incorporated the measurement in the acid-base status report as of October 2018, as it was previously required to be requested by the physician in case of suspected intoxication. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether this measure implemented by the laboratory contributed to the improvement of the diagnosis of CO intoxication, to analyze the characteristics of patients with COHb greater than or equal to 5% and to define an immediate reporting value for COHb. Overall, 46% of the cases with COHb greater than or equal to 5% were not related to CO poisoning and/or exposure. Of the cases of intoxication, 77% were diagnosed based on medical suspicion and 23% on laboratory findings. It was concluded that the laboratory has a useful role in detecting cases that were not clinically evident. There are certain diseases including different types of cancer or Wilson's disease where elevated COHb values were seen without intoxication and finally, 7% for COHb was defined as the immediate reporting value (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Carboxyhemoglobin/analysis , Carbon Monoxide Poisoning/diagnosis , Carbon Monoxide Poisoning/blood , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Inhalation Exposure/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Diagnosis, Differential
8.
San Salvador; MINSAL; jun. 19, 2023. 83 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1438494

ABSTRACT

El presente manual de procesos y procedimientos documenta las principales actividades de atención integral que se ofrecen al usuario interno y externo para el análisis clínico de muestras biológicas, como parte del proceso de atención en salud integral e integrada a la persona en el curso de vida, describe el sistema de operación de los servicios ofrecidos para el análisis clínico de estas muestras en los establecimientos de salud, mediante el enfoque por procesos, fomentando el desarrollo organizacional y el mejoramiento continuo para el cumplimiento de la misión institucional


This manual of processes and procedures documents the main comprehensive care activities offered to the internal and external user for the clinical analysis of biological samples, as part of the process of comprehensive and integrated health care for the person in the course of life, describes the system of operation of the services offered for the clinical analysis of these samples in health establishments, through the process approach, fostering organizational development and continuous improvement for the fulfilment of the institutional misión


Subject(s)
Humans , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Biological Specimen Banks , El Salvador
9.
ABCS health sci ; 48: e023207, 14 fev. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414627

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The pathological status of obesity can influence COVID-19 from its initial clinical presentation, therefore, the identification of clinical and laboratory parameters most affected in the presence of obesity can contribute to improving the treatment of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical, laboratory, and tomographic characteristics associated with obesity and BMI at t hospital admission in adult patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional observational study with a total of 315 participants with COVID-19 confirmed by rt-PCR. The participants were divided into non-Obese (n=203) and Obese (n=112). Physical examinations, laboratory tests, and computed tomography of the chest were performed during the first 2 days of hospitalization. RESULTS: Patients with obesity were younger, and they had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, higher frequency of alcoholism, fever, cough, and headache, higher ALT, LDH, and red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin, hematocrit, and percentage of lymphocytes. Also, they presented a lower value of leukocyte count and Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio (RNL). The parameters positively correlated with BMI were alcoholism, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fever, cough, sore throat, number of symptoms, ALT in men, LDH, magnesium, RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and percentage of lymphocytes. The parameters negatively correlated with the BMI were: age and RNL. CONCLUSION: Several parameters were associated with obesity at hospital admission, revealing better than expected results. However, these results should be interpreted with great caution, as there may be some influence of a phenomenon called the Obesity Paradox that can distort the severity and prognosis of the patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Patient Admission , Tomography , Biomarkers , Body Mass Index , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , COVID-19 , Obesity , Cross-Sectional Studies
10.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 57(1): 1-2, ene. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1441065

ABSTRACT

Los valores de corte de diagnóstico para las pruebas de laboratorio generalmente se han establecido en función de un rango de referencia obtenido de una población "sana". Sin embargo, puede haber circunstancias en las que se requiera modificar estos valores de corte para patologías específicas. Es el caso de la diabetes mellitus (DM), donde el riesgo de su desarrollo es un continuo que puede comenzar desde glucemias consideradas "normales". Si bien la interpretación de una prueba con resultados binarios es sencilla, la interpretación de una prueba con resultados continuos no es tan simple. Resulta difícil establecer un gold standard para el diagnóstico de condiciones como, por ejemplo, la hipertensión arterial y la hipercolesterolemia, que han cambiado constantemente en función de la evidencia concreta del beneficio de reducir sus valores en mayor o menor magnitud según la condición del paciente. Más difícil aún ha sido establecer un gold standard para el diagnóstico de la DM.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Diagnosis
11.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(3): 1164-1172, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425449

ABSTRACT

O Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico (LES) é uma patologia crônica, de origem autoimune e inflamatória. As diversas manifestações clínicas existentes em pacientes acometidos pelo LES, sejam elas sistêmicas ou órgãos-alvo, possibilitam variados diagnósticos diferenciais. Dentre as manifestações clínicas que possibilitam estes diagnósticos está o acometimento cutâneo, com vasta variabilidade de apresentação. Da mesma forma, a sífilis também possui apresentação cutânea, tornando possível o diferencial de diagnóstico com outras patologias, inclusive o próprio LES. O presente estudo tem como objetivo relatar um caso de sífilis mimetizando lúpus eritematoso sistêmico, descrever o quadro clínico apresentado pelo paciente, bem como as ferramentas utilizadas para diagnóstico, e a posterior abordagem terapêutica. O caso relatado refere-se a um paciente de 29 anos, do sexo masculino, procedente de Campos Novos (SC), que apresentou um quadro clínico e laboratorial de lúpus-like induzido por uma infecção aguda de sífilis. A resolução completa de critérios inflamatórios de LES ocorreu após tratamento correto da doença infecciosa, com total melhora clínica e sorológica.


Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease. The various clinical manifestations in SLE patients, both systemic and in target organs, allow for various differential diagnoses. Among the clinical manifestations that aid in diagnosis are the cutaneous injuries, which have a wide range of presentations. Syphilis also has cutaneous manifestations, which aid in the differential diagnosis from other pathologies, including SLE. The present study aims to report a case of syphilis mimicking SLE, describe the clinical condition presented by the patient, the tools used for diagnosis, and the therapeutic approach. The case reported refers to a 29- year-old male patient from Campos Novos (SC), who showed a clinical and laboratory lupus-like condition induced by an acute syphilis infection. The full resolution of SLE inflammatory criteria occurred following appropriate treatment for the infectious disease, with complete clinical and serological improvement.


El lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES) es una enfermedad inflamatoria autoinmune crónica. Las diversas manifestaciones clínicas de los pacientes con LES, tanto sistémicas como en órganos diana, permiten realizar varios diagnósticos diferenciales. Entre las manifestaciones clínicas que ayudan al diagnóstico se encuentran las lesiones cutáneas, que tienen una amplia gama de presentaciones. La sífilis también tiene manifestaciones cutáneas, que ayudan al diagnóstico diferencial con otras patologías, incluido el LES. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo comunicar un caso de sífilis que simula un LES, describir el cuadro clínico presentado por la paciente, las herramientas utilizadas para el diagnóstico y el abordaje terapéutico. El caso relatado se refiere a un paciente masculino de 29 años, natural de Campos Novos (SC), que presentó un cuadro clínico y de laboratorio semejante al lupus, inducido por una infección aguda por sífilis. La resolución completa de los criterios inflamatorios del LES ocurrió tras el tratamiento adecuado de la enfermedad infecciosa, con mejoría clínica y serológica completa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/pathology , Syphilis/therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/pathology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/therapy , Skin Manifestations , Adaptation, Biological , Communicable Diseases/pathology , Communicable Diseases/therapy , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Case Reports as Topic , Infections/diagnosis
12.
Afr. health sci. (Online) ; 23(4): 35-41, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1532774

ABSTRACT

Background: Antiretroviral hair drug levels are currently being used to monitor adherence to HIV treatment. There is currently a dearth of literature on the preferred technique(s) of hair harvest for medical testing in the context of African multicultural settings. Objective: To explore the preferred techniques(s) of hair harvest for medical testing among TB patients. Methods: We used a descriptive phenomenological approach to conduct interviews for 15 TB patients from the 06th through the 24th of June 2022. Data was organized by N-VIVO version 10 and analysed step by step using a thematic analytical approach. Results: Participants aged <30 years were more knowledgeable, positively perceived, and experienced about the salon-based hair cutting technique compared to those aged≥30 years old. Participants aged ≥30 had experience, flexibility to use, and were knowledgeable in all three techniques, Overall, for all age categories (<30,30-40 and >40 years), majority of the respondents were knowledgeable, flexible and experienced in using all the three techniques. Conclusion: The majority of TB patients were knowledgeable, experienced and flexible about the hair cutting techniques however, efforts are needed to educate the youth that hair for medical testing can be cut by any of the three techniques without changing their cosmetic look.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , HIV Infections , Hair , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Diagnosis
13.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1526791

ABSTRACT

A hantavirose é uma zoonose de distribuição mundial que utiliza como vetores roedores, musaranhos, toupeiras e morcegos. Os sintomas da infecção pelo hantavírus assemelham-se aos de diversas doenças, por isso o diagnóstico laboratorial é crucial para o tratamento precoce. Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão da literatura sobre as características e diagnóstico laboratorial da hantavirose. Métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura com base no modelo PRISMA, com seleção de estudos nas bases de dados Portal de Periódicos da Capes, PubMed/Medline, SciELO, ScienceDirect e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS). Foram empregados os descritores: hantavírus, diagnóstico laboratorial, exames e zoonose, em português e inglês, no período de 2015 a 2022, sendo selecionados 19 artigos científicos em atendimento aos critérios de inclusão. Resultados e Discussão: Diversas técnicas diagnósticas podem ser empregadas em casos de hantavirose, sendo a biologia molecular a mais empregada, conjuntamente com a imunologia. Há outros recursos utilizados para monitoramento e evolução da doença, como a bioquímica, a hematologia e a imagenologia. Para a ocorrência de hantavirose é necessário um ambiente propício, clima específico e contato com hospedeiro suscetível, podendo evoluir para quadros assintomáticos ou sintomáticos com complicações graves. Conclusão: O diagnóstico dessa doença é desafiador e requer investigação detalhada que inclua a sintomatologia do paciente, o histórico de exposição a animais reservatórios e os resultados de exames laboratoriais. Como desfechos negativos da hantavirose incluem-se a febre hemorrágica com síndrome renal, a síndrome pulmonar por hantavírus e o óbito


Hantavirus is a worldwide distributed zoonosis that uses rodents, shrews, moles and bats as vectors. The symptoms of hantavirus infection resemble those of many diseases, so laboratory diagnosis is crucial for early treatment. Objective: The present study aimed to conduct a literature review on the characteristics and laboratory diagnosis of hantavirus. Methods: This is an integrative literature review based on the PRISMA model, with a selection of studies in the Capes Portal de Periódicos, PubMed/Medline, SciELO, ScienceDirect and Virtual Health Library databases, using the descriptors: hantavirus, laboratory diagnosis, exams, and zoonosis, in portuguese and english, from 2015 to 2022, and nineteen scientific articles that met the inclusion criteria were selected. Results and Discussion: Several techniques can be used in cases of hantavirus, with molecular biology being the most evidenced along with immunology. There are other parameters that are used for monitoring and evolution of the disease, such as biochemistry, hematology, and imaging. For the hantavirus disease, an adequate environment, specific climate and contact with a susceptible host are necessary, which may lead to asymptomatic conditions or symptoms with more serious complications. Conclusion: The diagnosis of this disease is challenging and requires detailed investigation that includes the patient's symptoms, the history of exposure to reservoir animals and the results of laboratory tests. Negative outcomes of hantavirus infection include hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, and death


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hantavirus Infections/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Argentina , Switzerland , Turkey , United States , Belgium , Bolivia , Brazil , Canada , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Chile , China , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Kazakhstan , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome
14.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 466-470, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986154

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis type E virus (HEV) infection is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis in China, and its etiological diagnosis relies on laboratory detection. Therefore, this article introduces the HEV RNA, HEV antigen, anti-HEV IgM, and IgG detection methods and their diagnostic application value. In addition, it also discusses the current international diagnostic standard and HEV infection presentation.


Subject(s)
Humans , RNA, Viral , Hepatitis Antibodies , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Hepatitis E virus , Immunoglobulin M , Hepatitis
15.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 1-7, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969835

ABSTRACT

The laboratory diagnostic strategy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a process to accurately detect HIV patients through a combination of available HIV tests. Laboratory tests for HIV infection are mainly serological antibody and antigen testing and HIV RNA testing. With the update of testing reagents, the sensitivity and specificity have improved substantially and the window period of detection has shortened, but there is a risk of false positives. Various guidelines have recommended different diagnostic strategies for different target populations and different prevalence regions to guide patients to confirm the diagnosis and receive standardized antiretroviral therapy as early as possible. How to refer to the diagnostic strategies, reduce false positives and shorten the window period while increasing the detection rate is an urgent issue for laboratories to address. This article describes the characteristics and advantages and disadvantages of testing methods related to HIV infection from the perspective of laboratory diagnostic strategies, as well as the impact of the development of treatments on diagnostic strategies, in order to provide theoretical support for the practical application of HIV diagnostic strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Quality Control
16.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 769-780, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981822

ABSTRACT

21 hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD), the most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, is caused by defects in CYP21A2 gene, which encodes the cytochrome P450 oxidase (P450C21) involved in glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid synthesis. The diagnosis of 21-OHD is based on the comprehensive evaluation of clinical manifestation, biochemical alteration and molecular genetics results. Due to the complex structure of CYP21A2, special techniques are required to perform delicate analysis to avoid the interference of its pseudogene. Recently, the state-of-the-art diagnostic methods were applied to the clinic gradually, including the steroid hormone profiling and third generation sequencing. To standardize the laboratory diagnosis of 21-OHD, this consensus was drafted on the basis of the extensive knowledge, the updated progress and the published consensuses and guidelines worldwide by expert discussion organized by Rare Diseases Group of Pediatric Branch of Chinese Medical Association, Medical Genetics Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, Birth Defect Prevention and Molecular Genetics Branch of China Maternal and Child Health Association. and Molecular Diagnosis Branch of Shanghai Medical Association.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , Steroid 21-Hydroxylase/genetics , Consensus , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Mutation
17.
Med. lab ; 27(2): 95-96, 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1435394

ABSTRACT

Los trastornos de la coagulación manifiestos con hemorragia, han sido una preocupación natural para el hombre a través del tiempo, quien instintivamente ve en el sangrado un signo de alarma que evoca una situación de enfermedad grave, e incluso que anticipa la muerte [1]. Paralelamente, la medicina se ha mostrado interesada en entender los fenómenos hemostáticos en busca de clasificar y tratar las condiciones de hemorragia (coagulopatía) y de trombosis (trombofilia). Así, los avances desde finales del siglo XIX a la fecha, nos han llevado a dilucidar un sistema de coagulación muy complejo [2], que se relaciona de formas diversas con otras funciones fisiológicas como la respuesta inmune, los procesos de reparación tisular y la reproducción. Es positivo que el laboratorio clínico especializado en hemostasia se vaya equipando con pruebas con enfoque tanto cualitativo como cuantitativo para la evaluación de la hemostasia. Algunas de estas dan una visión general (con limitaciones) de la coagulación, y otras son tan precisas que dan cuenta del reemplazo de incluso un solo nucleótido en extensas secuencias de genes de proteínas relacionadas con este sistema. Paradójicamente, cuando tenemos tantas pruebas para analizar diversas variables de un fenómeno complejo y dinámico, nos enfrentamos a un reto de selección como clínicos, en el cual debemos hacer el mayor esfuerzo por elegir pruebas de alto valor diagnóstico, evitando los falsos positivos, falsos negativos o peor aún, la irrelevancia y futilidad de exámenes que demandan una logística y costo importantes


Subject(s)
Hemostasis , Blood Coagulation Disorders , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Clinical Reasoning
18.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(6): 1219-1226, dic. 2022. tab., ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1427360

ABSTRACT

Una de las principales consecuencias de la infección por Toxoplasma gondii en mujeres embarazadas es la transmisión vertical al feto. Aunque es poco frecuente, la toxoplasmosis congénita puede causar enfermedades neurológicas u oculares graves. La infección primaria por T. gondii durante el embarazo puede tener consecuencias peligrosas, como retinocoroiditis, hidrocefalia, calcificaciones cerebrales, encefalitis, esplenomegalia, pérdida de audición, ceguera y muerte. La atención prenatal debe incluir educación sobre la prevención de la toxoplasmosis. Se trata de un estudio observacional, analítico y transversal. Se evaluaron 209 mujeres gestantes e igual número de recién nacidos; 136 de las mujeres embarazadas resultaron con infección aguda positiva a IgM. De estas 51,20% y 64,71% resultaron primoinfectadas según la determinación de IgA e IgG avidez, respectivamente. 20 de los 35 neonatos provenientes de madres primoinfectadas, adquirieron la infección congénita en el tercer trimestre de la gestación. La conciencia sobre la prevención y el control de la toxoplasmosis es baja entre las poblaciones de alto riesgo. Es necesario fortalecer la educación en salud relacionada con la prevención y el control de la toxoplasmosis en las mujeres en edad reproductiva para prevenir la transmisión vertical a sus productos de gestación y evitar los efectos negativos y hasta mortales de la inefcción por el parásito(AU)


One of the main consequences of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women is vertical transmission to the fetus. Although rare, congenital toxoplasmosis can cause serious neurological or ocular disease. Primary T. gondii infection during pregnancy can have dangerous consequences, including retinochoroiditis, hydrocephalus, cerebral calcifications, encephalitis, splenomegaly, hearing loss, blindness, and death. Prenatal care should include education on the prevention of toxoplasmosis. This is an observational, analytical and cross-sectional study. 209 pregnant women and the same number of newborns were evaluated; 136 of the pregnant women were acutely infected with IgM. Of these, 51.20% and 64.71% were primary infected according to the determination of IgA and IgG avidity, respectively. 20 of the 35 neonates from mothers with primary infection acquired the congenital infection in the third trimester of pregnancy. Awareness of toxoplasmosis prevention and control is low among high-risk populations. It is necessary to strengthen health education related to the prevention and control of toxoplasmosis in women of reproductive age to prevent vertical transmission to their gestational products and avoid the negative and even fatal effects of infection by the parasite(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Young Adult , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/diagnosis , Gestational Age , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Pregnant Women
19.
Med. infant ; 29(4): 292-295, dic 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1416018

ABSTRACT

En noviembre del año 2015 nos incorporamos al Laboratorio de Micología del Servicio de Microbiología del Hospital Garrahan. En este breve resumen queremos compartir los avances logrados a través de nuestra experiencia durante siete años de trabajo profesional. Debido a los diagnósticos realizados y su complejidad, consideramos que el Hospital Garrahan, sus pacientes y la comunidad toda necesitan contar con un laboratorio de Micología que responda a sus necesidades. Creemos haber iniciado un camino que esperamos continúe y culmine con la creación de la Unidad de Micología (AU)


In November 2015 we joined the Mycology Laboratory of the Microbiology Service of the Hospital Garrahan. In this brief summary we want to share the advances achieved through our experience during seven years of professional work. Due to the diagnosis made and their complexity, we believe that the Hospital Garrahan, its patients and the entire community, need to have a Mycology laboratory that responds to their requirements. We believe we have started a path that we hope will continue and culminate with the creation of the Mycology Unit (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Laboratories, Hospital/trends , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Hospitals, Pediatric , Mycology/instrumentation , Mycoses/diagnosis
20.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 37(2): 15-22, dic. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1427715

ABSTRACT

Alcoholic Hepatitis (HA) represent to one of the pathological entities in the context of liver damage associated with excessive and prolonged alcohol consumption. Despite its high mortality, making the early diagnosis is still a challenge for physicians. The local information of this pathology is limited, so this work consists of conducting a retrospective study on the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients diagnosed with HA at the Regional Hospital of Talca (HRT); in order to make available to the treating doctors, the greatest amount of data contributing to decision-making for the benefit of patients. Methods: The clinical records of all patients discharged from the HRT with a diagnosis of HA during the period between January 2017 and August 2022 were reviewed. Background information such as: chief complaint, main symptoms, comorbidities, laboratory tests, treatment, evolution and survival, etc., was collected for analysis and to obtain the conclusions presented. Results: A total of 16 patients were studied; 93.75 % were male and 6.24 % female; with a mean age of 52. Of the patients, 87.5 % had a history of DHC. All had alcohol abuse for more than 5 years and 93.75% had active alcoholism. The most frequent laboratory findings included hyperbilirubinaemia (93.75 %), GOT/GPT ratio >2 (50 %) and leukocytosis (56.25 %). Of the total patients studied, 68.75% had a survival of more than 1 year after the event, while 12.5% died during hospitalisation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Hepatitis, Alcoholic/diagnosis , Hepatitis, Alcoholic/blood , Comorbidity , Retrospective Studies , Reactive Oxygen Species/blood , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Hepatitis, Alcoholic/therapy , Hepatitis, Alcoholic/epidemiology
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