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ABCS health sci ; 48: e023207, 14 fev. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414627


INTRODUCTION: The pathological status of obesity can influence COVID-19 from its initial clinical presentation, therefore, the identification of clinical and laboratory parameters most affected in the presence of obesity can contribute to improving the treatment of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical, laboratory, and tomographic characteristics associated with obesity and BMI at t hospital admission in adult patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional observational study with a total of 315 participants with COVID-19 confirmed by rt-PCR. The participants were divided into non-Obese (n=203) and Obese (n=112). Physical examinations, laboratory tests, and computed tomography of the chest were performed during the first 2 days of hospitalization. RESULTS: Patients with obesity were younger, and they had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, higher frequency of alcoholism, fever, cough, and headache, higher ALT, LDH, and red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin, hematocrit, and percentage of lymphocytes. Also, they presented a lower value of leukocyte count and Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio (RNL). The parameters positively correlated with BMI were alcoholism, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fever, cough, sore throat, number of symptoms, ALT in men, LDH, magnesium, RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and percentage of lymphocytes. The parameters negatively correlated with the BMI were: age and RNL. CONCLUSION: Several parameters were associated with obesity at hospital admission, revealing better than expected results. However, these results should be interpreted with great caution, as there may be some influence of a phenomenon called the Obesity Paradox that can distort the severity and prognosis of the patient.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Patient Admission , Tomography , Biomarkers , Body Mass Index , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , COVID-19 , Obesity , Cross-Sectional Studies
Rev. méd. Maule ; 37(2): 15-22, dic. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1427715


Alcoholic Hepatitis (HA) represent to one of the pathological entities in the context of liver damage associated with excessive and prolonged alcohol consumption. Despite its high mortality, making the early diagnosis is still a challenge for physicians. The local information of this pathology is limited, so this work consists of conducting a retrospective study on the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients diagnosed with HA at the Regional Hospital of Talca (HRT); in order to make available to the treating doctors, the greatest amount of data contributing to decision-making for the benefit of patients. Methods: The clinical records of all patients discharged from the HRT with a diagnosis of HA during the period between January 2017 and August 2022 were reviewed. Background information such as: chief complaint, main symptoms, comorbidities, laboratory tests, treatment, evolution and survival, etc., was collected for analysis and to obtain the conclusions presented. Results: A total of 16 patients were studied; 93.75 % were male and 6.24 % female; with a mean age of 52. Of the patients, 87.5 % had a history of DHC. All had alcohol abuse for more than 5 years and 93.75% had active alcoholism. The most frequent laboratory findings included hyperbilirubinaemia (93.75 %), GOT/GPT ratio >2 (50 %) and leukocytosis (56.25 %). Of the total patients studied, 68.75% had a survival of more than 1 year after the event, while 12.5% died during hospitalisation.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Hepatitis, Alcoholic/diagnosis , Hepatitis, Alcoholic/blood , Comorbidity , Retrospective Studies , Reactive Oxygen Species/blood , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Hepatitis, Alcoholic/therapy , Hepatitis, Alcoholic/epidemiology
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 11(3): 346, dic. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1416449


Evaluar el efecto a corto plazo del tratamiento con insulina, sobre los índices hematimétricos en sujetos adultos diabéticos tipo 2. Metodología: Estudio retrospectivo, donde se registraron los índices hematimétricos y la glicemia de 44 pacientes hospitalizados (24 masculinos),de 58,7 ± 4,4 años de edad, diabéticos tipo 2, antes y después de 6 ± 2 horas del tratamiento con insulina. Resultados: No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los índices hematimétricos antes y después del tratamiento y tampoco entre los sexos. La glicemia basal se correlacionó con el contaje de glóbulos rojos (r = 0,417; p = 0,03), el volumen corpuscular medio (r = 0,424; p= 0,04), la hemoglobina (r =0,626; p = 0,001), el hematocrito (r = 0,574; p = 0,005) y la hemoglobina corpuscular media (r = 0,537; p = 0,01). Al dividir a la muestra en dos grupos (G1 y G2), tomando en cuenta el valor de la mediana de la diferencia de la glicemia antes y después del tratamiento (G1:<139 mg/dL y G2 ≥ 139 mg/dL), se encontró diferencia estadísticamente significativa en el volumen corpuscular medio del G2 antes y después del tratamiento; en la hemoglobina entre G1 y G2, tanto antes como después del tratamiento y en el volumen corpuscular medio entre G1 y G2,después del tratamiento (p < 0,05). Conclusión: La insulina pareciera provocar a corto plazo, un aumento del volumen corpuscular medio en sujetos que disminuyen significativamente su glicemia(AU)

To evaluate the short-term effect of insulintreatment on hematimetric indices in type 2 diabetic adultsubjects. Methodology: It was a retrospective study, wherehematimetric indices and glycemia of 44 hospitalized patients(24 male), 58.7 ± 4.4 years old, type 2 diabetics, were recordedbefore and ather 6 ± 2 hours of insulin treatment. Results:no statistically significant differences were found between thehematimetric indices before and aer treatment and neitherbetween the sexes. Basal glycemia correlated with red blood cellcount (r = 0,417; . = 0,03), mean corpuscular volume (r =0,424; . = 0,04), hemoglobin (r = 0,626; . = 0,001), hematocrit(r = 0,574; . = 0,005), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin(r=0,537; .=0,01). When dividing the sample into two groups,taking into account the median value of the difference inglycemia before and aer treatment (G1: < 139 mg/dL and G2 ≥ 139 mg/dL), a statistically significant difference was found inthe mean corpuscular volume of G2 before and after treatment;in hemoglobin between G1 and G2, both before and aertreatment and in mean corpuscular volume between G1 and G2,after treatment (. <0.05). Conclusion: Insulin seems to cause,in the short term, an increase in mean corpuscular volume insubjects who significantly lower their glycemia(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Insulin , Blood Glucose , Hemoglobins , Erythrocytes , Hematocrit
Med. infant ; 29(4): 292-295, dic 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1416018


En noviembre del año 2015 nos incorporamos al Laboratorio de Micología del Servicio de Microbiología del Hospital Garrahan. En este breve resumen queremos compartir los avances logrados a través de nuestra experiencia durante siete años de trabajo profesional. Debido a los diagnósticos realizados y su complejidad, consideramos que el Hospital Garrahan, sus pacientes y la comunidad toda necesitan contar con un laboratorio de Micología que responda a sus necesidades. Creemos haber iniciado un camino que esperamos continúe y culmine con la creación de la Unidad de Micología (AU)

In November 2015 we joined the Mycology Laboratory of the Microbiology Service of the Hospital Garrahan. In this brief summary we want to share the advances achieved through our experience during seven years of professional work. Due to the diagnosis made and their complexity, we believe that the Hospital Garrahan, its patients and the entire community, need to have a Mycology laboratory that responds to their requirements. We believe we have started a path that we hope will continue and culminate with the creation of the Mycology Unit (AU)

Humans , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Laboratories, Hospital/trends , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Hospitals, Pediatric , Mycology/instrumentation , Mycoses/diagnosis
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(5): 336-339, oct. 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1391180


Frenar la propagación de la enfermedad por el coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19, por su sigla en inglés) es fundamental, y se puede realizar mediante técnicas de detección rápidas y efectivas. El objetivo fue comparar la precisión diagnóstica de un test rápido de antígeno (TRAg,) con la reacción en cadena de polimerasa con retrotranscripción (RT-qPCR, por su sigla en inglés) y describir los umbrales de amplificación (Ct, por su sigla en inglés). Participaron niños de 1 mes a 11 años que tuvieran menos de 7 días de síntomas, sin resultado detectable en los últimos 90 días, e inmunocompetentes. Se incluyeron 1855 pacientes con una prevalencia de COVID-19 del 4,7 %. La sensibilidad global del TRAg fue del 60,2 % y su especificidad, del 99,8 %; en niños mayores de 5 años los valores fueron de 69,8 % y 99,8 %, respectivamente. Los valores de Ct de las muestras discordantes fueron más altos. En conclusión, la precisión diagnóstica muestra que TRAg tiene una especificidad similar a la RT-qPCR, pero una sensibilidad considerablemente menor, sobre todo en niños de menos de 5 años.

Stopping the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is critical and can be achieved through rapid and effective detection techniques. Our objective was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of rapid antigen tests (RAgT) and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and to describe amplification cycle thresholds (Cts). Participants were children aged 1 month to 11 years with symptoms for less than 7 days, who did not have a detectable result in the past 90 days, and were immunocompetent. A total of 1855 patients were included; the prevalence of COVID-19 was 4.7%. For the RAgT, overall sensitivity was 60.2% and specificity, 99.8%; in children older than 5 years, values were 69.8% and 99.8%, respectively. Ct values for discordant samples were higher. To conclude, the diagnostic accuracy indicated that the specificity of RAgT is similar to that of RT-qPCR, but its sensitivity is notably lower,especially in children younger than 5 years.

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , COVID-19 Testing
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 12(3): 119-125, jul.-set. 2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425694


Background and objectives: bacteremia is defined from the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. Its clinical importance is associated with the high morbidity and mortality rate in the world. In severe cases, it can culminate in sepsis, with a constant increase in cases in Brazil. Therefore, this study aims to assess the main bacterial isolates in blood cultures and a possible change in their sensitivity profiles in a clinical analysis laboratory in Fortaleza, Ceará. Methods: an epidemiological, descriptive, retrospective study was carried out, with a quantitative approach of positive blood cultures, seeking to assess the main isolated microorganisms and their sensitivity profiles. The data used were obtained from the laboratory system through the EpiCenter→ software, from January 2019 to December 2020. Statistical analysis was performed using the Graphpad 7.0 software. Results: 840 microorganisms were identified from blood cultures, and the main ones were E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. epidermidis, S. aureus and S. haemolyticus. Some isolates show a change in the sensitivity profile, such as K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa, showing an increase in sensitivity to carbapenems and cephalosporins, while S. epidermidis showed a decrease in sensitivity to minocycline in the comparison between years 2019 and 2020.Conclusion: clinical isolates from blood cultures showed a change in the sensitivity profile between 2019 and 2020, taking into account that, for K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, this change resulted in an increase in sensitivity, with an increase in resistance in S. epidermidis isolates.(AU)

Justificativa e objetivos: bacteremia é definida a partir da presença de bactérias na corrente sanguínea. Sua importância clínica está associada à alta taxa de morbidade e mortalidade no mundo. Nos casos graves, pode culminar em sepse, com constante aumento dos casos no Brasil. Portanto, o presente estudo tem como objetivo avaliar os principais isolados bacterianos em hemoculturas e uma possível alteração nos seus perfis de sensibilidade em um laboratório de análises clínicas de Fortaleza, Ceará. Métodos: foi realizado um estudo epidemiológico, descritivo, retrospectivo, com abordagem quantitativa de hemoculturas positivas, buscando avaliar os principais microrganismos isolados e seus perfis de sensibilidades. Os dados utilizados foram obtidos a partir do sistema laboratorial através do software EpiCenter→, referente ao período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2020. A análise estatística foi realizada pelo software Graphpad 7.0. Resultados: foram identificados 840 microrganismos a partir das hemoculturas, sendo os principais E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. epidermidis, S. aureus e S. haemolyticus. Alguns isolados apresentam uma alteração no perfil de sensibilidade, como K. pneumoniae e P. aeruginosa, apresentando um aumento na sensibilidade frente aos carbapenêmicos e as cefalosporinas, enquanto o S. epidermidis apresentou uma diminuição na sensibilidade frente à minociclina na comparação entre os anos de 2019 e 2020. Conclusão: os isolados clínicos de hemocultura apresentaram uma alteração no perfil de sensibilidade entre 2019 e 2020, levando em consideração que, para K. pneumoniae e P. aeruginosa, essa alteração resultou no aumento na sensibilidade, com aumento na resistência nos isolados de S. epidermidis.(AU)

Justificación y objetivos: la bacteriemia se define por la presencia de bacterias en el torrente sanguíneo. Su importancia clínica está asociada con la alta tasa de morbimortalidad en el mundo. En casos severos, puede culminar en sepsis, con un aumento constante de casos en Brasil. Por tanto, este estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar los principales aislados bacterianos en hemocultivos y un posible cambio en sus perfiles de sensibilidad en un laboratorio de análisis clínicos en Fortaleza, Ceará. Métodos: se realizó un estudio epidemiológico, descriptivo, retrospectivo, con abordaje cuantitativo de hemocultivos positivos, buscando evaluar los principales microorganismos aislados y sus perfiles de sensibilidad. Los datos utilizados se obtuvieron del sistema de laboratorio a través del software EpiCenter→, para el período de enero de 2019 a diciembre de 2020. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante el software Graphpad 7.0. Resultados: se identificaron 840 microorganismos a partir de hemocultivos, siendo los principales E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. epidermidis, S. aureus y S. haemolyticus. Algunos aislados muestran un cambio en el perfil de sensibilidad, como K.pneumoniae y P. aeruginosa, mostrando un aumento en la sensibilidad a los carbapenémicos y cefalosporinas, mientras que S. epidermidis mostró una disminución en la sensibilidad a la minociclina, en la comparación entre los años de 2019 y 2020. Conclusiones: los aislados clínicos de hemocultivos mostraron un cambio en el perfil de sensibilidad entre 2019 y 2020, teniendo en cuenta que para K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, este cambio resultó en un aumento de la sensibilidad, con un aumento de la resistencia en los aislados de S. epidermidis

Humans , Bacteremia , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Blood Culture , Sensitivity and Specificity , Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Rev. méd. hondur ; 90(1): 36-43, ene.-jun. 2022. ilus, tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1393213


Antecedentes: No conocemos datos sobre evaluación de pruebas inmunológicas para mejorar el diagnóstico de Giardia duodenalis y Cryptosporidium spp., agentes etiológicos de diarrea de importancia mundial, en Honduras. Objetivos: Comparar dos pruebas inmunológicas para el diagnóstico de Giardia y Cryptosporidium spp. con microscopía de rutina y determinar su aplicabilidad local. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal. En 2013, 134 muestras de heces recibidas en el Servicio de Parasitología del Hospital Escuela (HE) y 67 muestras del Centro de Salud Alonso Suazo (CSAS) se analizaron con una Prueba Rápida Inmunocromatográfica (PDR). En 2019-2020, 60 muestras de heces del HE se analizaron con una prueba inmunoenzimática ELISA. El protocolo de rutina incluyó examen directo en solución salina y solución de Lugol, coloración tricrómica y coloración ácido resistente modificada (ARM) (HE) y examen directo en solución salina y solución de Lugol (CSAS). Resultados: Cada prueba inmunológica mostró mayor positividad que la microscopía: en 134 muestras del HE para Giardia (6.7% vs 4.5%) y Cryptosporidium (3.7% vs 0.7%), similar en 67 muestras del CSAS (14.9% vs 7.5% para Giardia; 0.7% para Cryptosporidium con la prueba inmunológica). De 60 muestras analizadas por ELISA en HE, 31.7% fue positiva por Giardia vs 18.3% en examen directo y 23.3% en coloración tricrómica; 6.7% positiva por Cryptosporidium spp. vs 3.3% por coloración ARM. Discusión: Pruebas inmunológicas aumentaron significativamente el diagnóstico de ambas parasitosis; sin embargo, publicaciones sobre pruebas similares ofrecieron resultados no concluyentes. Por costo elevado podrían reservarse para pacientes pediátricos, pacientes inmunocomprometidos en hospitales, complementando microscopía. Los laboratorios de salud deben fortalecer capacidad diagnóstica...(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Immunologic Tests/methods , Giardia lamblia/parasitology , Cryptosporidium/parasitology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Diarrhea/complications
Rev. méd. Maule ; 37(1): 24-34, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395911


Amyloidosis is a low-frequency disease that can cause compromise of different systems. We report a case of heart failure in an 81-year-old woman secondary to amyloidosis, in which the echocardiogram was a valuable diagnostic tool.

Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Pericardial Effusion/diagnosis , Pericardial Effusion/therapy , Amyloidosis , Radiography, Thoracic , Immunoglobulin Light Chains , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Electrocardiography , Computed Tomography Angiography , Heart Failure/etiology
Medicina (Ribeirao Preto, Online) ; 55(1)maio 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1402666


Background: Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP) is a serious and frequent complication among cirrhotic patients with ascites and can be diagnosed by cytological analysis of the ascitic fluid. The microbiological culture of ascitic fluid, however, is positive in less than 40% of SBP cases, which often results in inappropriate antimicrobial therapy. Empirical therapy may be suboptimal, increasing patient's risk of aggravation, or overestimated, unnecessarily boosting bacterial resistance. Objective: This experimental laboratory study aimed to standardize and verify the technical feasibility of ascitic fluid vacuum filtration, as a way to optimize the etiological diagnosis of SBP, compared to the automated method. Method: The method evaluated and standardized in this study was ascitic fluid vacuum filtration. Its principle is the concentration of bacteria on a filter membrane. Results: This study included 36 cirrhotic patients treated at a public university hospital between 11.13.2017 and 06.30.2019. Among them, 47.2% (17/36) presented cytology test results compatible with SBP. For these patients, culture sensitivity using the automated method was 35.3% (6/17), against 11.8% (2/17) with the vacuum filtration method. Conclusion: In conclusion, vacuum filtration does not improve the microbiological diagnosis of SBP in this population compared to the automated method (AU)

Contexto: A Peritonite Bacteriana Espontânea (PBE) é uma complicação grave e frequente entre pacientes cirróticos com ascite, diagnosticada por meio da análise citológica do líquido ascítico. A cultura microbiológica do líquido ascítico, por sua vez, é positiva em menos de 40% dos casos de PBE, o que resulta frequentemente na instituição de terapia antimicrobiana inapropriada. A terapia empírica pode ser subótima, aumentando o risco de agravamento do paciente, ou superestimada, impulsionando desnecessariamente a resistência bacteriana. Objetivo: Estudo experimental laboratorial, propôs padronizar e verificar a viabilidade técnica da filtração a vácuo do líquido ascítico, como forma de otimizar o diagnóstico etiológico na PBE, comparativamente ao sistema automatizado de culturas de sangue. Método: O método avaliado e padronizado neste estudo foi a da filtragem a vácuo do líquido ascítico. Esse tem como princípio a concentração da bactéria em uma membrana filtrante. Resultados: Nesse estudo, foram incluídos 36 pacientes cirróticos atendidos em um hospital público universitário, entre 13.11.2017 e 30.06.2019. Entre eles, 47,2% (17/36) apresentaram citologia compatível com PBE. Nesses, a sensibilidade da cultura pelo método semi-automatizado foi de 35,3% (6/17) e da cultura pelo método da filtragem a vácuo foi de 11,8% (2/17). Conclusão: Em conclusão, a filtragem a vácuo não melhora o diagnóstico microbiológico da PBE em relação ao método automatizado (AU)

Humans , Peritonitis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Liver Cirrhosis , Microbiology
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 56(2): 187-193, abr. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1402956


Resumen El objetivo del estudio fue comparar la extracción de ADN de quistes de Acanthamoeba sp. con un método disponible comercialmente y cuatro no comerciales utilizando tratamiento térmico y ultrasonido para la amplificación por una reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) convencional, reduciendo tiempos de preparación y extracción de las muestras, como una herramienta para el diagnóstico en el laboratorio clínico. Se utilizó una cepa de Acanthamoeba, genotipo T4, cultivada en agar no nutritivo. Los quistes para analizar, en tres períodos de enquistamiento, se almacenaron a temperatura ambiente. Se extrajo ADN mediante cinco métodos: pretratamiento térmico, ultrasonido y combinaciones de ellos. La PCR se llevó a cabo utilizando cebadores específicos JDP1/JDP2. La concentración y pureza del ADN extraído con los protocolos evaluados revelaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p<0,0001). El método E (comercial), el A (térmico) y el B (ultrasonido) lograron los mejores rendimientos en la amplificación del fragmento específico de Acanthamoeba sp. por la PCR convencional.

Abstract The objective of the study was to compare the DNA extraction of Acanthamoeba sp. cysts with a commercially available method and four non-commercial ones, with heat and ultrasound treatment that allows amplification by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reducing sample preparation and extraction times, such as a tool for diagnosis in the clinical laboratory. To this aim, a strain of Acanthamoeba T4 grown on non-nutrient agar was used. Plates with cysts at three different encystation times were stored at room temperature until the study was carried out. DNA was extracted with five methods that included pretreatments (thermal and ultrasound) or combinations of them. PCR was performed using specific primers JDP1/JDP2. Concentration and purity of DNA revealed statistically significant differences (p<0.0001) between methods. Method E (commercial), method A (thermal) and B (ultrasound) got the best yields in amplifying the specific fragment of Acanthamoeba sp. by conventional PCR.

Resumo O objetivo do estudo foi comparar a extração de DNA de cistos de Acanthamoeba sp. com um método comercialmente disponível e quatro não comerciais utilizando tratamento térmico e ultrassom para amplificação por reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) convencional, reduzindo os tempos de preparo e extração das amostras, como ferramenta para o diagnóstico no laboratório clínico. Foi utilizada uma cepa de Acanthamoeba, genótipo T4, cultivada em ágar não nutritivo. Os cistos para analisar foram armazenados em temperatura ambiente, correspondendo a três períodos de encistamento. O DNA foi extraído por cinco métodos: pré-tratamento térmico, ultrassom e combinações deles. A PCR foi realizada usando iniciadores específicos JDP1/JDP2. A concentração e a pureza do DNA extraído com os protocolos avaliados revelaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas (p<0,0001). Os métodos E (comercial), A (térmico) e B (ultrassom) alcançaram os melhores rendimentos na amplificação do fragmento específico de Acanthamoeba sp. por PCR convencional.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , DNA , Acanthamoeba , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Parasitology , Temperature , Ultrasonics , Thermic Treatment , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Cysts , Agar , Laboratories, Clinical , Hot Temperature , Laboratories , Methods
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 54(1)20220330.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395655


Com a ampliação e a frequência das campanhas de desparasitação contra os geo-helmintos Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, ancilostomídeos e Strongyloides stercoralis, ocorreu, como esperado, a redução da prevalência e da morbidade associada a estas parasitoses. Entretanto, alterações no perfil parasitológico das populações com redução dos helmintos e aumento significativo das protozooses intestinais se tornaram evidentes em todo o mundo. Além disso, a redução de carga parasitária tem dificultado o diagnóstico de rotina por meio de técnicas microscópicas de baixa sensibilidade. Neste artigo trazemos atualizações sobre algumas técnicas diagnósticas, como a Técnica de Sedimentação Espontânea em Tubo (SSTT), FLOTAC/Mini-FLOTAC e a otimização do método de Kato-Katz, além de alternativas viáveis para aumentar a sensibilidade dos métodos e tornar o diagnóstico das parasitoses intestinais mais preciso.

With the expansion and increased frequency of deworming against soil-transmitted helminths Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis, there was, as expected, a reduction in the prevalence and morbidity associated with these diseases. However, changes in the parasitological profile of populations, with a reduction in helminths and a significant increase in intestinal protozoa, became evident worldwide. In addition, the reduction in the parasitic burden has made routine diagnosis difficult through low-sensitivity microscopic techniques. In this article we bring updates on diagnostic techniques, such as spontaneous sedimentation technique in tube (SSTT), FLOTAC/Mini-FLOTAC and optimization of Kato-Katz technique, as well as viable alternatives to increase the sensitivity of methods and make the diagnosis of intestinal parasites more accurate.

Feces/parasitology , Helminthiasis , Chemoprevention , Clinical Laboratory Techniques
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 54(1): 26-30, 20220330. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395385


A estrita relação entre doenças cardiovasculares e dislipidemias exige o monitoramento periódico do perfil lipídico através de dosagens séricas de colesterol total, triglicérides, colesterol da lipoproteína de baixa densidade (c-LDL) e colesterol da lipoproteína de alta densidade (c-HDL). Contudo, esses testes laboratoriais estão sujeitos à interferência medicamentosa in vivo e in vitro. O objetivo desta revisão da literatura foi disponibilizar os principais medicamentos que podem interferir nos exames de avaliação do perfil lipídico, com seus respectivos mecanismos de interferência in vivo ou in vitro. Alguns fármacos podem causar como reação adversa o aumento dos níveis de c-LDL e triglicérides, ou a redução dos níveis de c-HDL, o que está associado a um maior risco de eventos cardiovasculares. Por outro lado, outros fármacos podem reduzir os níveis de c-LDL e triglicérides, ou aumentar os níveis de c-HDL. Alguns medicamentos ainda podem interferir in vitro na dosagem dos biomarcadores de avaliação do perfil lipídico. O monitoramento e diagnóstico das dislipidemias devem levar em consideração estas interferências medicamentosas, já que a interpretação equivocada dos exames laboratoriais pode resultar em tratamento desnecessário ou falta de tratamento farmacológico, gastos desnecessários e prejuízo na qualidade de vida do paciente.

The strict relationship between cardiovascular disease and dyslipidemia requires periodic monitoring of the lipid profile through serum measurements of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). However, these laboratory tests are subject to drug interference in vivo and in vitro. The purpose of this literature review was to make available the main drugs that can interfere with lipid profile assessment tests, with their respective in vivo or in vitro interference mechanisms. Some drugs can cause as adverse reaction the increase of LDL-c and triglycerides levels, or the reduction of HDL-c levels, which is associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular events. On the other hand, other drugs can reduce LDL-c and triglycerides levels, or increase HDL-c levels. Some medications can still interfere in vitro in the dosage of biomarkers to assess the lipid profile. The monitoring and diagnosis of dyslipidemia should take into account these drug interferences, since the misinterpretation of laboratory tests may result in unnecessary treatment or lack of pharmacological treatment, unnecessary expenses and damage to the patient's quality of life.

Cardiovascular Diseases , Dyslipidemias , Triglycerides , Cholesterol , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 54(1)20220330. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395381


As análises clínicas laboratoriais possuem papel fundamental na saúde, pois é através de seus resultados que 70% dos diagnósticos são concluídos pelos médicos, e desta forma é necessário que se preze pela emissão de resultados confiáveis. Entretanto, uma das fases do processo de realização dos exames laboratoriais tem se destacado como a fase que concentra o maior percentual de erros no âmbito laboratorial até os dias atuais. Trata-se da fase pré-analítica, que se inicia com a solicitação do exame e finaliza quando se inicia a análise. Os erros pré-analíticos podem ser responsáveis por até 75% dos erros laboratoriais, o que mostra a vulnerabilidade desta fase. Portanto, este trabalho tem como objetivo identificar os principais erros que estão vinculados à fase pré-analítica, assim como os impactos que esses erros podem causar. Os tipos de erros pré-analíticos foram revisados na literatura entre os anos de 2011 a 2020. Os resultados apontaram que os principais erros pré-analíticos estão associados ao momento da coleta de amostras biológicas. Isto mostra a necessidade de gerar melhorias nos setores de coleta, através da realização de treinamentos voltados para as equipes de flebotomia, com o intuito de aperfeiçoar este processo e diminuir as taxas dos erros provocados nesta fase.

The clinical laboratory analyses have a fundamental role in health, because it is through their results that 70% of the diagnoses are concluded by the doctors, therefore, it is necessary to give priority to the issuance of reliable and safe results. However, one of the phases of the process of performing laboratory tests has been highlighted as the phase that concentrates the highest percentage of errors in the laboratory environment until the present day.It is the pre-analytical phase, which begins with the request of the exam and ends when the analysis begins.The pre-analytical errors can be responsible for up to 75% of laboratory errors, which shows the vulnerability of this phase. Therefore, this work aims to identify the main errors that are linked to the pre-analytical phase, as well as the impacts that these errors may cause. The types of pre-analytical errors were reviewed in the literature between 2011 and 2020. The results showed that the main pre-analytical errors are associated with the time of collection of biological samples. This shows the need to generate improvements in the collection sectors, through training for phlebotomy teams, in order to improve this process and decrease the rates of errors caused in this phase.

Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Pre-Analytical Phase , Pathology, Clinical , Diagnosis
Rev. ciênc. méd., (Campinas) ; 31: e225379, 17 fev. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1410398


O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar e reunir os principais achados disponíveis no começo da pandemia, acerca das alterações laboratoriais de pacientes internados com COVID-19 e discutir a predominância dessas alterações na gravidade do curso da doença. Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática de literatura, restringida a publicações até abril de 2020, utilizando as bases de dados Lilacs e Pubmed. Um total de 381 publicações foram encontradas nas bases de dados consultadas e destas, 17 publicações foram elegíveis para análise conforme os critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Parâmetros laboratoriais como a redução de linfócitos e elevação de D-dímeros, lactato desidrogenase e proteína C reativa parecem estar ligados à infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2 e podem servir como indicadores prognósticos da doença. A linfocitopenia e o aumento de D-dímeros são marcadores relacionados ao agravamento da doença e a desfechos desfavoráveis como óbito.

The objective of this study was to identify and gather the main findings available at the beginning of the pandemic, regarding laboratory alterations of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and to discuss the predominance of these alterations in the severity of the course of the disease. This is a systematic literature review, restricted to publications until April 2020, using the Lilacs and Pubmed databases. A total of 381 publications were found in the consulted databases and of these, 17 publications were eligible for analysis according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Laboratory parameters such as the reduction of lymphocytes and the elevation of D-dimers, lactate dehydrogenase and C-reactive protein appear to be linked to SARS-CoV-2 infection and may serve as prognostic indicators of the disease. Lymphocytopenia and increased D-dimers are markers related to disease worsening and unfavorable outcomes such as death.

Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Systematic Reviews as Topic , COVID-19 , Reference Standards , Biomarkers
Prensa méd. argent ; 108(4): 223-227, 20220600. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1381891


Dado que el SARS-CoV-2 causa alteraciones en los parámetros hematológicos, muchos estudios se han concentrado en esta área y los han correlacionado con la gravedad de la enfermedad. Se revisó en un estudio retrospectivo de casos graves de COVID-19, en el cual se contabilizaron y documentaron los datos de hemoglobina (Hb) y glóbulos blancos (WBC) de pacientes reclutados en el período de marzo a julio de 2021. Retrospectivamente, los datos extraídos fueron sobre el nivel de Hb y los recuentos de glóbulos blancos de los informes de laboratorio tanto al ingreso como cuando alta de los pacientes. Se calcularon las frecuencias de anemia o eritrocitopenia (Hb <12 g/dL) y leucocitosis (WBC >11×103/µL) en la población estudiada. De 3637 casos de SARS-COV-2, 250 pacientes con condiciones graves de COVID-19 según la definición de la OMS, ingresaron en la UCI o fallecieron, De 250, 80 (32%) ingresaron a UCI, y el resto 170 casos (68%) fallecieron. Mientras que la edad media de los pacientes fue de 55,46±17,49 años, los pacientes con la condición grave tuvieron significativamente mayor edad que aquellos con la condición leve-moderada (edad media de 50,68 frente a 68,59; P: <0,01). El número medio de glóbulos blancos (WBC) fue de 8,88±7,29 x109/L en todos los pacientes con SARS-COV-2, que es significativamente mayor en los casos graves en comparación con aquellos con enfermedad leve-moderada (10,56 frente a 8,95; P: <0,01). El nivel de Hb (<12 g/dL) fue más bajo en el COVID-19 grave que en otros grupos; sin embargo, no fue estadísticamente significativo. El aumento del número de glóbulos blancos y la disminución de la Hb durante la hospitalización de pacientes con SARS-COV-2, puede predecir un mal resultado. Llegamos a la conclusión de que no sólo el número medio de glóbulos blancos era significativamente mayor en los casos severos también la leucocitosis fue un hallazgo común; lo que indica que un mayor número de glóbulos blancos probablemente puede predecir un mal resultado. Asimismo, el nivel de La Hb fue mayor en el grupo leve-moderado; sin embargo, no fue estadísticamente significativo.

SARS-CoV-2 cause alterations in the hematological parameters and many studies have concentrated on this area and correlated these with severity of disease. A retrospective study of severe cases of COVID-19 were reviewed. The data of hemoglobin (Hb) and white blood cells (WBCs) were accounted and documented. Patients recruited at period from March to July, 2021. Retrospectively, data extracted on the Hb level and WBC counts from Lab reports both at admission and when patients discharge. The frequencies of anemia or erythrocytopenia (Hb <12 g/dL) and leukocytosis (WBC >11×103/µL) was calculated in the studied population. Of 3637 SARS-COV-2 cases, 250 patients with severe conditions of COVID-19 as de ne by WHO, which were either admitted to ICU or died. Of 250, 80(32%) were entered to ICU, and the rest 170 cases (68%) who died. While the mean age of the patients was 55.46±17.49 years, patients with the severe condition were signi cantly older than those with the mildmoderate condition (mean age of 50.68 vs. 68.59; P: <0.01). The mean number of white blood cells (WBC) was 8.88±7.29 x109/L in all SARS-COV-2 patients, which is signi cantly higher in the severe cases compared to those with the mild-moderate disease (10.56 vs. 8.95; P: <0.01). The Hb level (<12 g/ dL) was lower in the severe COVID-19 than other groups; however, it was not statistically signi cant. Increased number of WBCs and dropped Hb level during hospitalization of SARS-COV-2 patients may predict a poor outcome. We concluded that not only the mean number of WBCs was signi cantly higher in the severe cases also leukocytosis was a common nding; indicating that an increased number of WBCs may probably predict a poor outcome. Also, the level of Hb was higher in the mild-moderate group; however, it was not statistically signi cant.

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Hemoglobins/analysis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Leukocytes
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 42: e232410, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1356591


Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar os fundamentos teóricos da implantação de uma clínica de atendimento psicanalítico a crianças autistas em uma Universidade Federal. Aqui, apresentamos como se fundamenta essa clínica, como ela se iniciou, seu funcionamento, sua práxis na instituição e como se dá o tratamento da criança autista no Serviço de Psicologia Aplicada de uma Universidade Federal. O método implica uma discussão sobre o "estado da arte" nesse campo a fim de discutir as bases teóricas e a implementação recente (em 2019) de um serviço de psicanálise pela Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei para crianças autistas, realizado por meio da prática entre vários, método que agrega todas as intervenções realizadas por todos que trabalham com as crianças autistas na instituição. Ressaltamos neste artigo a importância da fundamentação teórica de todo e qualquer trabalho clínico, uma vez que é a partir dela que poderemos orientar os tratamentos disponibilizados para a população em geral, principalmente em tempos em que a saúde pública tem sido precarizada. Concluímos reiterando a necessidade dessa especialidade de trabalho realizado pela psicanálise, em especial a clínica psicanalítica dos autismos, em tempos de massificação do tratamento, que pretende retirar a psicanálise do campo de práticas possíveis de atendimento em políticas públicas de saúde mental.(AU)

This article presents the theoretical foundations of the implementation of a psychoanalytic clinic for autistic children inside a Federal University. We will present what this clinic is based on, how it started, its operation, its praxis in the institution and how the treatment of the autistic child is performed at the Applied Psychology Service at a Federal University. The method involves a discussion of the "state of art" in this field with the aim of discussing the theoretical bases and the recent implementation (2019) of a psychoanalysis service by the Federal University of São João del-Rei for autistic children by means of the practice among several, as the method that aggregates all the interventions performed by all the people who work with autistic children at the institution. We emphasize in this article the importance of the theoretical basis of any clinical work since it guides the treatments available to the general population, especially in times when public health has been precarious. We conclude by reiterating the necessity of this specialty of work done by psychoanalysis, especially the psychoanalytic clinic of autism in times of mass treatment, which aims to remove psychoanalysis from the field of possible practices of care in public mental health policies.(AU)

Este artículo tiene el propósito de presentar los fundamentos teóricos de la implementación de una clínica de asistencia psicoanalítica para niños autistas en el interior de una Universidad Federal. Seguiremos con el objetivo de presentar como se fundamenta esa clínica, como se ha dado su inicio, su operación, su praxis en la institución y, de esa manera, como se da el tratamiento del niño autista en el Servicio de Psicología Aplicada en una Universidad Federal. El método implica una discusión acerca del «estado del arte¼ en este campo con el objetivo de discutir las bases teóricas y la implementación reciente (2019) de un servicio de psicoanálisis de la Universidad Federal de São João del-Rei para niños autistas a través de la «práctica entre varios¼, como «método que agrega todas las intervenciones realizadas por todas las personas¼ que trabajan en la institución para niños autistas. Subrayamos en este artículo la importancia de la fundamentación teórica de todo y cualquier trabajo clínico desde lo cual podremos orientar los tratamientos ofrecidos a la población general, principalmente en tiempos en que la salud pública ha sido precarizada. Concluimos reiterando esa especialidad de trabajo realizado por el psicoanálisis, en especial la clínica psicoanalítica de los autismos en tiempos de masificación del tratamiento, que pretende quitar el psicoanálisis del campo de prácticas posibles de asistencia en políticas públicas de salud mental.(AU)

Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Child , Psychoanalysis , Autistic Disorder , Universities , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Psychology , Specialization , Therapeutics , Mental Health , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Health Policy
Afr. j. lab. med. (Print) ; 11(1): 1-6, 2022. tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1378850


Background: A national proficiency test (PT) programme is not currently implemented in most low-income countries. However, participation in such PT programmes assists improves test performance and result accuracy.Objective: This study assessed how well 11 government hospital laboratories performed 18 basic clinical chemistry tests and identified areas needing improvement.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out by the Division of Laboratories of the Ministry of Health of Togo from 01 July 2016 to 31 December 2016. The test performance was evaluated using panels provided by One World Accuracy, Canada (Vancouver). The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments criteria were used in evaluating the laboratories, and their success rates were compared with the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa's target of 80%.Results: The overall rate of acceptable results at the laboratories was over 80% for glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase and triglycerides tests. The laboratories using fully automated spectrophotometers had an acceptable results rate of 89% (p = 0.001). The overall performance of the laboratories by cycles varied from 71% to 82%.Conclusion: This national PT programme identified the tests, which laboratories must improve their performance (urea, creatinine, uric acid, bilirubin, cholesterol, total protein, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus). It demonstrated the need for the use of routine appropriate internal quality control in all laboratories. The proficiency test programme should be extended to all clinical laboratories and target all biology disciplines

Male , Female , Quality Control , Clinical Chemistry Tests , Biochemistry , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Engineering , Academic Performance
Afr. j. lab. med. (Print) ; 11(1): 1-7, 2022. tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1378853


Background: Early diagnosis and confirmation of HIV infection in newborns is crucial for expedited initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Confirmatory testing must be done for all children with a reactive HIV PCR result. There is no comprehensive data on confirmatory testing and HIV PCR test request rejections at National Health Laboratory Service laboratories in South Africa.Objective: This study assessed the metrics of routine infant HIV PCR testing at the Tygerberg Hospital Virology Laboratory, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa, including the proportion of rejected test requests, turn-around time (TAT), and rate of confirmatory testing.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed laboratory-based data on all HIV PCR tests performed on children ≤ 24 months old (n = 43346) and data on rejected HIV PCR requests (n = 1479) at the Tygerberg virology laboratory over two years (2017­2019). Data from sample collection to release of results were analysed to assess the TAT and follow-up patterns.Results: The proportion of rejected HIV PCR requests was 3.3%; 83.9% of these were rejected for various pre-analytical reasons. Most of the test results (89.2%) met the required 96-h TAT. Of the reactive initial test results, 53.5% had a follow-up sample tested, of which 93.1% were positive. Of the initial indeterminate results, 74.7% were negative on follow-up testing.Conclusion: A high proportion of HIV PCR requests were rejected for pre-analytical reasons. The high number of initial reactive tests without evidence of follow-up suggests that a shorter TAT is required to allow confirmatory testing before children are discharged.

Early Diagnosis , Infant , Polymerase Chain Reaction , HIV , Aftercare , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
S. Afr. med. j ; 112(11): 879-881, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1399384


The anatomical pathology autopsy serves several purposes, notably as a quality management tool for evaluation of accuracy in clinical diagnosis. Despite its value, for various reasons there has been an international decline in autopsies conducted. In the modern medical era, with all its advances in technology, diagnostic techniques and interventions, there is still a high discrepancy between clinical diagnoses and postmortem findings.Objectives. To establish the discrepancies between clinical diagnoses and postmortem findings in anatomical pathology autopsies.Methods. A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted over the 4-year-period 2014 - 2017. The clinical diagnoses and postmortem findings of cases referred to the Department of Anatomical Pathology at the University of Pretoria, South Africa, were evaluated and compared using the modified Goldman criteria.Results. A total of 288 cases qualified for the study and were evaluated. The gender distribution was 155 (53.8%) male and 133 (48.2%) female, with the majority of cases in the age group 19 - 60 years (mean 36.4). The majority of the cases were referred by internal medicine, followed by paediatrics. The most common cause of death in major missed diagnoses was pulmonary conditions. Of the cases, 115 (39.3%) had a major discrepancy and 62 (21.5%) a minor discrepancy.Conclusion. This study showed that there is still a high discrepancy between clinical diagnoses and postmortem findings, similar to studies conducted globally. The current COVID-19 pandemic may be a driver for revival of the anatomical pathology autopsy, and future studies are recommended to evaluate whether the decline can be reversed

Humans , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Pathology , Autopsy , Comparative Study