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Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(1): 15-23, ene.-mar. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389924


RESUMEN Objetivo. Evaluar in silico y a nivel serológico el potencial antigénico del dominio extracelular recombinante de la proteína de ensamblaje de lipopolisacáridos - D (LptD) de Bartonella bacilliformis (dexr_LptD). Materiales y métodos. Mediante el análisis in silico se realizó la selección de una proteína de B. bacilliformis con potencial antigénico e inmunogénico. El gen de la proteína seleccionada se clonó en Escherichia coli TOP10 y se expresó en Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. La proteína recombinante fue expresada usando isopropil-β-D-1-tiogalactopiranósido (IPTG) y se optimizaron las condiciones de inducción. Por último, se purificó con resina Ni-IDA (His60 Ni Superflow) y se realizó un ensayo de Western Blot. Resultados. In silico, la proteína seleccionada fue LptD por estar localizada en la membrana externa y ser antigénica e inmunogénica. Las condiciones optimizadas para la inducción del dexr_LptD fueron 0,5 mM IPTG, 16 h, medio TB (Terrific Broth), etanol al 3% (v/v), 28 ºC, OD600: 1-1,5 y 200 r.p.m. La purificación se realizó en condiciones denaturantes a pequeña escala y se obtuvo 2,6 µg/mL de dexr_LptD parcialmente purificada. El ensayo de Western Blot mostró una reacción positiva entre los sueros provenientes de pacientes con la enfermedad de Carrión y dexr_LptD, ello evidencia la antigenicidad del dexr_LptD. Conclusiones. El dexr_LptD muestra antigenicidad in silico y a nivel serológico, estos resultados son base para posteriores estudios sobre candidatos vacunales contra la enfermedad de Carrión.

ABSTRACT Objective. To evaluate in silico and at the serological level the antigenic potential of the recombinant extracellular domain of the lipopolysaccharide assembly protein - D (LptD) of Bartonella bacilliformis (dexr_LptD). Materials and Methods. Through in silico analysis, we selected a B. bacilliformis protein with antigenic and immunogenic potential. The selected protein gene was cloned into Escherichia coli TOP10 and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. Recombinant protein was expressed using isopropyl-β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) and induction conditions were optimized. Finally, it was purified with Ni-IDA resin (His60 Ni Superflow) and a Western Blot assay was conducted. Results. In silico, the selected protein was LptD because it is located in the outer membrane and is antigenic and immunogenic. Optimized conditions for dexr_LptD induction were 0.5 mM IPTG, 16 hours, TB (Terrific Broth) medium, 3% (v/v) ethanol, 28 ºC, OD600: 1-1.5 and 200 rpm. Purification was carried out under denaturating conditions on a small scale and we obtained 2.6 μg/mL of partially purified dexr_LptD. The Western Blot assay showed a positive reaction between the sera from patients with Carrión's Disease and dexr_LptD, which shows the antigenicity of dexr_LptD. Conclusions. The dexr_LptD shows antigenicity both in silico and at the serological level, these results are the basis for further studies on vaccine candidates against Carrion's Disease.

Recombinant Proteins , Cloning, Organism , Bartonella bacilliformis , Bartonella Infections , Computational Biology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 137 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1416399


A maioria das respostas alérgicas a alimentos é mediada por IgE, que pode ser detectada para fins de diagnóstico da alergia alimentar. No entanto, para isso é necessário que alérgenos purificados estejam disponíveis para a elaboração dos diferentes formatos de ensaio, inclusive por microarray, que se constitui em uma ferramenta bastante útil para análise simultânea, e também para a identificação de reatividade cruzada. A esse respeito, é imprescindível ampliar a plataforma de alérgenos que possam ser empregados para a confecção de microarrays. Atualmente, alguns alimentos que constituem objeto de interesse na clínica em função do número de casos de alergia, e sobre os quais as informações a respeito dos alérgenos são escassas, são: abacaxi, mamão, mandioca e manga. Assim, o objetivo desse trabalho foi clonar, expressar e purificar proteínas potencialmente alergênicas de alimentos de importância regional. Após confirmadas por ensaios imunológicos, essas proteínas foram utilizadas na construção e validação de um microarray através de ensaios com os soros de pacientes alérgicos aos alimentos selecionados. Para atingir esse objetivo, foram selecionadas proteínas potencialmente alergênicas coincidentes, apontadas tanto pela similaridade com espécies taxonomicamente mais próximas, quanto pela técnica 2D Western Blotting acoplada à espectrometria de massas. Dezenove proteínas, sendo 4 de abacaxi, 5 de mamão, 6 de mandioca e 4 de manga, foram expressas em Pichia pastoris, purificadas e impressas em um microarray. Após incubar essas proteínas com os soros dos pacientes alérgicos aos alimentos estudados, 18 proteínas mostraram-se potencialmente alergênicas. Além disso, foi observada reatividade cruzada entre proteínas dos alimentos estudados e também em relação ao látex e outros frutos

The majority of allergic reactions to foods is IgE-mediated, which can be detected for the diagnosis of food allergy. However, purified allergens are necessary to produce different kinds of allergy tests, including microarray, which is a useful tool for simultaneous analysis, as well as for the identification of cross-reactivity. In this respect, it is essential to expand the platform of allergens to include them on microarrays. Nowadays, some foods that are object of interest in the clinical area in Brazil and it is necessary a further evaluation about their potential allergens, since there is a limited information about them, are: pineapple, papaya, cassava and mango. Therefore, the aim of this study was cloning, expressing and purifying potentially allergenic proteins of important Brazilian foods. After confirmed by immunological tests, these proteins were used in microarray production and validation by assays with sera from allergic patients to the selected foods. Achieving this goal, matching potentially allergenic proteins were selected, which were identified by comparison among taxonomically closer species (in silico) and 2D Western Blotting coupled with Mass Spectrometry. Nineteen proteins: 4 from pineapple, 5 from papaya, 6 from cassava and 4 from mango were expressed in Pichia pastoris, purified and printed on a microarray. After incubating those proteins with sera from allergic patients to the selected foods, 18 proteins were detected as potentially allergenic. In addition, cross-reactivity was observed among the proteins from the studied foods, and also regarding to the latex and other fruits

Humans , Male , Female , Allergens/analysis , Cloning, Organism/instrumentation , Microarray Analysis/classification , Food , Food Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Blotting, Western/methods , Validation Study , Fruit/adverse effects , Hypersensitivity/complications
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 263 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1416822


In the first chapter, studies on substrate recognition and enzymatic activity of GGDEF domains are presented. Many proteins containing GGDEF domains are diguanylate cyclases (DGCs, EC, enzymes that catalyze the conversion of 2 GTP molecules into the second messenger c-di-GMP in prokaryotes. This molecule is primarily implicated in the transition between motile and sessile lifestyles, as well several other phenotypes. Redundancy and diversity of GGDEF domain sequences in many bacterial genomes raises the possibility that other enzymatic functions may yet be discovered. To test this hypothesis, i) the effect of point mutations on the structure and enzymatic activity of GGDEF domains is analyzed, ii) the enzymatic specificity of wild-type GGDEF domains from different proteins is also tested, and iii) when non-canonical products are detected, enzymatic models are studied to understand its preferential production. The principal results obtained from these studies are as follows. Seven mutants of the DGC PleD (a GGDEF containing-protein from Caulobacter crescentus) were constructed and the crystallographic structure of two of them was solved, showing that they are unlikely to bind the guanine moiety in its active site. Additionally, five mutants of XAC0610, another DGC from Xanthomonas citr, were constructed and their substrate specificities were evaluated. None of those mutants were able to use ATP as a substrate. Finally, seven different GGDEF domain-containing DGCs from different sources were expressed and purified and their enzymatic specificities were tested with several nucleotide triphosphates. One enzyme, GSU1658 from Geobacter sulfurreducens was particularly promiscuous and shown to produce c-di-GMP, c-di-AMP, c-di-IMP, c-di-2´dGMP, cGAMP, c-GIMP, and c-AIMP. Interestingly, XAC0610 was able to recognize 2´dGTP as substrate. Analysis of enzyme kinetics of XAC0610 in presence of 2´dGTP and/or GTP showed the preferential formation of the hybrid linear product pppGp2´dG. The second chapter present studies on cyanide metabolism in Bacillus with focus on the cyanide dihydratase of Bacillus safensis. Cyanide is widely used in industries due to its high affinity for metals. This same ability confers potent toxicity to this compound. Thus, industries must reduce the cyanide concentration from wastewater before its final disposal. Physical, chemical, and biological methods have been developed to achieve this goal, but knowledge about metabolic pathways and the biology of enzymes involved in cyanide degradation is still scarce. Here, the isolation of a Bacillus safensis strain from mine tailings in Peru is described. Classification of this strain was done through a comparative analysis of 132 core genomes of strains from the Bacillus pumilus group. Sequence analysis determined that a cyanide dihydratase (CynD, EC encoded in the genome of the isolated strain was likely the enzyme responsible for cyanide degradation. Confirmation of the cyanide degrading activity of CynD from this strain was achieved by cloning, expression and purification of the enzyme and its enzymatic characterization. CynD from this strain was active up to pH 9 and oligomerization patterns analyzed by SEC-MALS and electron microscopy showed that the enzyme forms large helical structures at pH 8 and smaller structures at higher pHs. Finally, we show that CynD expression is strongly induced in the presence of cyanide. The last two years of graduate studies were carried out in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Thanks to the large amount of publicly available genomic data, we were able to carry out studies on the worldwide dynamics of the spread of SARS-CoV-2 mutants forms. In the first year of the pandemic, genomic classification of 171,461 genomes showed the presence of five major haplotypes based on nine mutations. The worldwide distribution and the temporal evolution of frequency of these haplotypes was carefully analyzed. All the haplotypes were identified in the six regions analyzed (South America, North America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Oceania); however, the frequency of each of them was different in each of these regions. As of September 30, 2020, haplotype 3 (or operational taxonomic unit 3, OTU_3) was the most prevalent in four regions (South America, Asia, Africa, and Oceania). OTU_5 was the most prevalent in North America and OTU_2 in Europe. Temporal dynamics of the haplotypes showed that OTU_1 became nearly extinct after 8 months of pandemic (November 2020). Other OTUs are still present in different frequencies all around the world, while currently generating new variants. Based on their temporal dynamics, a classification scheme of 115 SARS-CoV-2 mutations identified from 1,058,020 SARS-COV-2 genomes was also performed. Three types of temporal dynamics of mutations were identified: i) High-Frequency mutations are characterized by a rapid increase in frequency upon its appearance, ii) medium and iii) low-frequency mutations maintain mid or low-frequencies for several months and can be region-specific. Finally, we performed a correlation analysis of the effective reproduction number (Rt) of SARS-CoV-2 harboring the high-frequency mutation N501Y with the level of control measures adopted in specific jurisdictions. We show that Rt is negatively correlated with the level of control measures in eight of the nine countries analyzed. This negative correlation was similar when we analyzed the Rt of SARS-CoV-2 not-harboring N501Y. Thus, the control measures likely diminish the Rt of both SARSCoV-2 wild-type and N501Y

O presente trabalho está dividido em três capítulos sobre linhas de pesquisa diferentes desenvolvidas pelo autor durante o período de doutorado No primeiro capítulo, são apresentados estudos relacionados ao reconhecimento estrutural de substratos e análise enzimática de domínios GGDEF com atividade diguanilato ciclase (EC As proteínas contendo domínios GGDEF estão relacionados à produção enzimática do segundo mensageiro c-di-GMP, a partir de duas moléculas de GTP, em procariotos. Esta molécula está principalmente envolvida na transição entre os estilos de vida móveis e sésseis, bem como vários outros fenótipos. Redundância e diversidade de sequências de domínio GGDEF aumentam a possibilidade de que outras funções enzimáticas ainda possam ser descobertas. Para testar esta hipótese, i) o efeito de mutações pontuais na estrutura e atividade enzimática dos domínios GGDEF é analisado, ii) a especificidade enzimática de domínios GGDEF de enzimas diferentes também é testada e iii) quando produtos não canônicos são detectados, modelos enzimáticos são estudados para entender sua produção preferencial. Como resultados mais importantes, sete mutantes do PleD (uma proteína contendo GGDEF) foram construídos e a estrutura cristalográfica de dois delas foi resolvida, mostrando que é improvável que eles liguem à porção guanina em seu sítio ativo. Além disso, cinco mutantes da proteína XAC0610 de Xanthomonas citri foram construídos e sua capacidade de usar ATP ou GTP como substrato foi avaliada. Nenhum desses mutantes foi capaz de usar ATP como substrato. Finalmente, sete outras proteínas contendo GGDEF foram purificadas e sua especificidade enzimática foi avaliada com vários trifosfatos de nucleotídeos. Uma enzima promíscua chamada GSU1658 mostrou produzir c-di-GMP, c-di-AMP, c-di-IMP, c-di-2´dGMP, c-GAMP, cGIMP e c-AIMP. Curiosamente, o XAC0610 foi capaz de reconhecer 2´dGTP como substrato. A análise da cinética enzimática de XAC0610 na presença de 2´dGTP e GTP mostrou a formação preferencial do produto linear híbrido pppGp2´dG. O segundo capítulo aborda estudos sobre o metabolismo do cianeto em Bacillus com foco na cianeto dihidratase de Bacillus safensis. O cianeto é amplamente utilizado nas indústrias devido à sua alta afinidade com os metais. Esta mesma capacidade confere toxicidade potente a este composto. Assim, as indústrias têm que reduzir a concentração de cianeto das águas residuais antes de sua disposição final. Métodos físicos, químicos e biológicos têm sido desenvolvidos para atingir esse objetivo, mas o conhecimento sobre as vias metabólicas e a biologia das enzimas envolvidas na degradação do cianeto ainda é escasso. Aqui, é descrito o isolamento de uma cepa de Bacillus safensis de rejeitos de minas no Peru. A classificação desta cepa foi feita através de uma análise comparativa de 132 core genomes de cepas do grupo de Bacillus pumilus. Em seguida, determinamos que uma cianeto dihidratase (CynD, EC codificada no genoma da cepa isolada era provavelmente a enzima responsável pela degradação do cianeto. A confirmação da atividade degradante de cianeto de CynD desta cepa foi feita por clonagem, expressão e purificação da enzima e realização de caracterização enzimática. O CynD desta cepa é ativo até pH 9 e os padrões de oligomerização analisados por SEC-MALS mostraram que a enzima forma longas estruturas helicoidais em pH 8 e estruturas menores enquanto o pH aumenta. Finalmente, foi demonstrado que a expressão de CynD é fortemente induzida na presença de cianeto. Os últimos dois anos do doutorado foram realizados no contexto da pandemia COVID- 19. Vários laboratórios se dedicaram a gerar conhecimento para ajudar no combate à pandemia. Nesta situação e graças à grande quantidade de dados genômicos disponíveis publicamente, estudos sobre a dinâmica das mutações do SARS-CoV-2 foram realizados. No primeiro ano da pandemia, a classificação genômica de 171.461 genomas mostrou a presença de cinco haplótipos principais com base em nove mutações. A distribuição mundial e a mudança de frequência desses haplótipos foram analisadas cuidadosamente. Todos os haplótipos foram identificados nas seis regiões analisadas (América do Sul, América do Norte, Europa, Ásia, África e Oceania); no entanto, a frequência de cada um deles foi diferente em cada uma dessas regiões. Em 30 de setembro de 2020, o haplótipo 3 (ou unidade taxonômica operacional 3, OTU_3) era o mais prevalente em quatro regiões (América do Sul, Ásia, África e Oceania). OTU_5 foi o mais prevalente na América do Norte e OTU_2 na Europa. A dinâmica temporal dos haplótipos mostrou que OTU_1 parece perto da extinção após 8 meses de pandemia (novembro de 2020). Outros OTUs ainda estão presentes em diferentes frequências em todo o mundo, mesmo atualmente gerando novas variantes. Com base em sua dinâmica temporal, um esquema de classificação de 115 mutações SARS-CoV-2 identificadas a partir de 1.058.020 genomas SARS-COV-2 também foi feito. Três tipos de dinâmica temporal de mutações foram identificados: i) Mutações de alta frequência, ii) mutações de média frequência e iii) mutações de baixa frequência. Finalmente, foi analisada a correlação do número de reprodução efetiva (Rt) do SARS-CoV-2 que contém a mutação de alta frequência N501Y com o nível de medidas de controle, mostrando que seu Rt está negativamente correlacionado com o nível de medidas de controle em oito dos nove países analisados. Esta correlação negativa foi semelhante quando foi analisado o Rt de SARS-CoV-2 sem a mutação N501Y. Assim, as medidas de controle provavelmente diminuirão o Rt de SARS-CoV-2 tipo selvagem e N501Y

Sequence Analysis , Bacillus pumilus/classification , Patient Isolation , Substrate Specificity , Kinetics , Genome, Bacterial , Caulobacter crescentus/chemistry , Point Mutation , Cloning, Organism/instrumentation , Cyanides/adverse effects , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Life Style
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21210292, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278439


Abstract NADPH-cytochromeP450 reductase (CPR) is one of the most important components of the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. In this study, a gene encoding CPR (named EsCPR) was isolated from Eriocheir sinensis using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed a cDNA full-length of 3717 bp with an open reading frame of 2046 bp, a 5′-untranslated region of 42 bp, and a long 3′-untryganslated region of 1628bp, which encodes a protein of 681 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 30.7 kDa and an estimated pI of 4.82. The mature peptide shares amino acid of E. sinensis identity 82 % - 89 % to the CPR from Penaeus vannamei and Chionoecetes opilio. Tissues and developmental stage-dependent expression of EsCPR mRNA was investigated by real-time quantitative PCR. EsCPR mRNA was markedly expressed in the hepatopancreas and stomach. These results would provide valuable information for further study on the interactions between CPR and cytochrome P450 enzyme systems.

NADPH-Ferrihemoprotein Reductase , Cloning, Organism , Brachyura , Gene Expression , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06814, 2021. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279534


The protozoan Neospora caninum is known worldwide as one of the main causes of abortion in cattle. During infection, rhoptry proteins present in the apical complex of the parasite play important roles in adhesion and parasitophorous vacuole formation. The use of N. caninum ROP2 in experimental vaccines has shown promising protective results. In our study we performed cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of an antigenic portion of N. caninum ROP2. The recombinant protein (rROP2) was obtained in insoluble form, and the purified protein showed a size of approximately 18kDa. Even being a small truncate NcROP2 region, it was possible to conserve the antigenic epitopes which were recognized by bovine serum naturally infected with N. caninum. Vaccination with rROP2 on aluminum hydroxide adjuvant induced high levels of rROP2-specific IgG antibodies capable of recognizing native protein in tachyzoite lysates. In conclusion, our approaches were effective in obtaining the rROP2 protein, which induced specific mouse immune response and was also recognized by sera from N. caninum naturally infected cattle. These results suggest that it is a promising antigen for the development of neosporosis subunit vaccines as well as a suitable antigen for use in immunodiagnosis.(AU)

O protozoário Neospora caninum é conhecido mundialmente como uma das principais causas de aborto em bovinos. Durante a infecção, as proteínas rhoptry presentes no complexo apical do parasita desempenham papel importante na adesão e formação de vacúolos parasitóforos. O uso de ROP2 de N. caninum em vacinas experimentais tem mostrado resultados de proteção promissores. Em nosso estudo, realizamos a clonagem e expressão em Escherichia coli de uma porção antigênica de N. caninum ROP2. A proteína recombinante (rROP2) foi obtida na forma insolúvel, e a proteína purificada apresentou tamanho aproximado de 18kDa. Mesmo sendo uma pequena região truncada de NcROP2, foi possível conservar os epítopos antigênicos que foram reconhecidos pelo soro de bovinos naturalmente infectados com N. caninum. A vacinação com rROP2 adsorvida no adjuvante de hidróxido de alumínio induziu altos níveis de anticorpos IgG anti-rROP2, capazes de reconhecer a proteína nativa em lisados de taquizoítos. Em conclusão, nossas abordagens foram eficazes na obtenção da proteína rROP2, que induziu resposta imune específica em camundongos e também foi reconhecida por soros de bovinos naturalmente infectados com N. caninum. Estes resultados sugerem que rROP2 é um antígeno promissor para o desenvolvimento de vacinas de subunidades de neosporose, bem como um antígeno adequado para uso em imunodiagnóstico.(AU)

Immunologic Tests , Immunoglobulin G , Vaccines , Neospora , Cloning, Organism
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(11): 852-862, Nov. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1155021


Somatic-cell nuclear transfer is a cloning technique that enables the creation of a viable embryo from a donor adult to produce a genetically identical individual. This technique opens numerous potential possibilities for medicine and animal reproduction. However, several reports have documented cloning-related issues. Embryo and fetal losses remain significantly higher than in other techniques, and there is a high incidence of dystocia and hydrops, which decreases efficiency and increases costs. Animals delivered at term often exhibit a syndrome known as macrosomia and experience difficulties in adapting to life outside the uterus, and death is a common outcome. In the present study, 41 cloned calves that died in the neonatal period were subjected to gross and histopathological examination. Most important gross lesions were found in the liver (enlargement, congestion, yellowish color), kidneys (brownish color at surface and cut, and cysts), lungs (atelectasis, parenchymal consolidation, and secretions in bronchi and bronchioles), and heart (concentric and eccentric hypertrophy, hematic cysts, persistence of ductus arteriosus). Primary microscopic findings were seen in the liver, kidneys, and lungs from neonatal calves. In the liver, 85% of the animals exhibited hepatic degeneration. The presence of a brownish pigment within the cortical tubules of the kidneys was found in approximately 90% of the samples; the presence of this pigment has not been previously reported in cloned calves. In the lungs, a large number of animals exhibiting lesions characteristic of pneumonia (55%). These changes were the pivotal causes of death, mainly due to problems in adapting to life outside the uterus and opportunistic infections in the neonatal period. Further investigation focusing on pathological anatomical changes is necessary to map these abnormalities in cloned animals.(AU)

A transferência nuclear de células somáticas ou clonagem é uma técnica que permite produzir um indivíduo geneticamente igual a um outro indivíduo adulto. Esta técnica abre inúmeras possibilidades para a medicina e para a reprodução animal. Porém, existem inúmeros relatos de problemas associados à clonagem. A taxa de perda nos períodos embrionário e fetal ainda é muito alta quando comparada a outras biotécnicas; além disso, há uma maior incidência de hidropsias e distocias, diminuindo a eficiência e aumentando o custo da técnica. Os animais que vem a termo frequentemente apresentam uma síndrome chamada de macrossomia, e apresentam dificuldades de adaptação à vida extrauterina e, por isso, o óbito é um desfecho comum. No presente trabalho realizou-se necropsia e coleta de fragmentos de órgãos para avaliação histopatológica de 41 bezerros com óbito neonatal. As lesões macroscópicas mais importantes foram encontradas no fígado (hepatomegalia, congestão e coloração amarelada), rins (coloração amarronzada na superfície e ao corte, e cistos), pulmões (atelectasia, parênquima consolidado, e secreções nos brônquios e bronquíolos), e coração (hipertrofia concêntrica e excêntrica, cistos hemáticos e persistência de ducto arterioso). As principais alterações microscópicas observadas foram presença de pigmento acastanhado no interior dos túbulos corticais renais (aproximadamente 90% dos animais), degeneração hepática (85% das amostras avaliadas) e lesões características de pneumonia (55% dos animais). A pigmentação acastanhada no interior dos túbulos corticais é uma alteração que ainda não havia sido relatada anteriormente em animais clonados. As alterações observadas nestes órgãos foram determinantes para o óbito, e devem ter ocorrido sobretudo devido a problemas na adaptação ao ambiente extrauterino e em decorrência de infecções adquiridas no período neonatal. Os achados encontrados no presente trabalho denotam a necessidade de investigação anatomopatológica detalhada de animais clonados inviáveis, na tentativa de mapear as anormalidades apresentadas por eles.(AU)

Animals , Infant, Newborn , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Cloning, Organism/veterinary , Perinatal Death/etiology
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 60(1): 30-37, jul 2020. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1509551


El diagnóstico molecular de arbovirus es indispensable para identificar agentes etiológicos, particularmente en zonas endémicas para al menos uno de ellos. Estas deben ser validadas con controles positivos, los cuales están clásicamente representados por virus vivos, cuya obtención puede ser riesgosa, laboriosa y costosa. El objetivo de este estudio fue producir plásmidos recombinantes para su uso como controles positivos en la validación de la técnica RT-PCR para el diagnóstico de los virus Chikungunya (CHIKV) y Zika (ZIKV). A partir de los ARN extraídos de los virus [CHIKV (LARD809-GC) y ZIKV (MR766)] se obtuvieron por RT-PCR fragmentos parciales de ADN correspondientes a secuencias nucleotídicas de los genes E1 y NS5 de los virus Chikungunya y Zika, respectivamente, para serclonados en el plásmido comercial pGEM®-T Easy. La clonación se confirmó mediante PCR de colonias y PCR de ADN plasmídicos extraídos a partir de las colonias recombinantes. Se logró la producción de dos plásmidos recombinantes CHIKV-E1/pGEM®-T Easy y ZIKV-NS5192/pGEM®-T Easy con cada una de las secuencias especificadas, para su uso en la validación y control de las técnicas moleculares descritas en este reporte, para el diagnóstico de agentes virales CHIKV y ZIKV, evitando la manipulación de cultivos celulares y garantizando una fuente confiable de controles positivos(AU)

The use of molecular techniques for the viral diagnosis requires the use of positive controls.Classically, the controls are live viruses, whose manipulation may be risky, laborious and expensive. The objective of this study was produced recombinant plasmids to obtain cloned sequences of Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) virus for their use as controls in the specificdiagnostic by RT-PCR. DNA fragments were obtained fromRNA [CHIKV (LARD809-GC) and ZIKV (MR766)] using specific primers to amplify the nucleotide sequences from fragments of Envelope 1 protein (E1) of CHIKV and Non Structural 5 protein (NS5) of ZIKV genomes. The 548 bp (CHIKV) and 192 bp(ZIKV) bands were purified from agarose gel and ligations were performed with the cloning vector pGEM®-T Easy. The Escherichia coli XL1-Blue MRF` cells were transformed with the ligation mixture, the recombinant colonies were identified by colony PCR using the specific primers to the specific viral agent. One recombinant colony from CHIKV and six recombinant colonies from ZIKV were obtained from which plasmidic DNAs was extracted. The plasmidic DNAs were used as reaction controls in CHIKV and ZIKV RT-PCR, obtaining the characteristic bands. The cloning of the sequences was successful to produce the recombinant plasmids (CHIKV-E1/pGEM®-T Easy y ZIKV-NS5192/pGEM®-T Easy) to use in the validation of RT-PCR techniques(AU)

Animals , Plasmids , DNA, Recombinant , Chikungunya virus , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cloning, Organism/methods , Zika Virus , Vector Control of Diseases
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(7): 485-491, July 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040717


In order for successful extra-uterine adaptation to occur, it is necessary for the neonate to be able to establish its respiratory functions effectively, guaranteeing efficient oxygenation and good vitality. Respiratory disorders are the major cause of death during the neonatal period in cattle, and this mortality is even more significant when it comes to calves originated by in vitro fertilization (FIV) or animal cloning (CA). Blood gas analysis assesses acid-base balance changes effectively, and when associated with the neonate's clinical examination, provides subsidies for accurate diagnosis and early treatment of neonatal maladaptation. The objective of this study was to study neonates born from artificial insemination (IA) and to compare them to calves conceived by FIV and CA, regarding blood gas and clinical examination. For that, 20 AI calves, 15 FIV calves, and 15 cloned calves were evaluated immediately after calving and at 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours of life. At all experimental times, venous blood samples were collected for blood gas and clinical examination was performed. In the postpartum evaluation, Apgar score and column length and respiratory amplitude measurements were used. IVF animals showed no alterations, resembling Group IA calves. The calves from CA showed more pronounced acidosis postpartum than expected physiological acidosis mixed for neonates, with decreasing values of bicarbonate (HCO3-), and base excess (BE) and the increase in carbon dioxide pressure (PCO2) when compared to the other groups. This disorder may have reflected lower mean values of Apgar scores and increased heart and respiratory rates. Intensive follow-up of these neonates is suggested, with monitoring by clinical and hemogasometric examination for early diagnosis of this condition and treatment based on oxygen therapy and bicarbonate replacement.(AU)

Para que ocorra adaptação extra-uterina bem sucedida é necessário que o neonato consiga estabelecer suas funções respiratórias de maneira eficaz, garantindo oxigenação eficiente e boa vitalidade. Distúrbios respiratórios são os maiores causadores de óbito durante o período neonatal em bovinos, e essa mortalidade é ainda mais expressiva quando se trata de bezerros originados por fertilização in vitro (FIV) ou clonagem animal (CA). A hemogasometria avalia alterações do equilíbrio ácido-básico de forma eficaz, e quando associada ao exame clínico do neonato, fornece subsídios para diagnóstico acurado e tratamento precoce da má adaptação neonatal. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar recém-nascidos bovinos originados por inseminação artificial (IA) e compará-los a bezerros concebidos por FIV e CA, no que se refere a hemogasometria e exame clínico. Para isso, foram utilizados 20 bezerros IA, 15 bezerros FIV e 15 bezerros clonados que foram avaliados imediatamente após o parto e com 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas de vida. Em todos os momentos experimentais foram colhidas amostras de sangue venoso para hemogasometria e foi realizado o exame clínico. Na avaliação pós-parto foram utilizados escore Apgar e mensurações de comprimento de coluna e amplitude respiratória. Os animais FIV não demonstraram alterações, assemelhando-se aos bezerros do Grupo IA. Os bezerros provenientes de CA apresentaram acidose pós-parto mais acentuada do que a acidose mista fisiológica esperada para neonatos, evidenciada pela diminuição dos valores de bicarbonato (HCO3-) e excesso de bases (EB) e pelo aumento de pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono (PCO2) quando comparados aos demais grupos. Esse distúrbio pode ter refletido em valores médios menores de escore Apgar e no aumento das frequências cardíaca e respiratória. Sugere-se acompanhamento intensivo desses neonatos, com monitoramento por meio do exame clínico e hemogasométrico para diagnóstico precoce dessa condição e tratamento baseado em oxigenioterapia e reposição de bicarbonato.(AU)

Animals , Cattle , Apgar Score , Acidosis, Respiratory/veterinary , Blood Gas Analysis/veterinary , Maximal Voluntary Ventilation , Animals, Newborn/blood , Insemination, Artificial/veterinary , Fertilization in Vitro/veterinary , Cloning, Organism/veterinary
Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research ; : 124-131, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763368


PURPOSE: Canine influenza virus (CIV), H3N2, carries potentiality for zoonotic transmission and genetic assortment which raises a concern on possible epidemics, and human threats in future. To manage possible threats, the development of rapid and effective methods of CIV vaccine production is required. The plant provides economical, safe, and robust production platform. We investigated whether hemagglutinin (HA) antigen from Korea-originated CIV could be produced in Nicotiana benthamiana and lettuce, Lactuca sativa by a DNA viral vector system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used DNA sequences of the HA gene from Korean CIV strain influenza A/canine/Korea/S3001/2015 (H3N2) for cloning into a geminiviral expression vectors to express recombinant HA (rHA) antigen in the plant. Agrobacterium-mediated infiltration was performed to introduce HA-carrying vector into host plants cells. Laboratory-grown N. benthamiana, and grocery-purchased or hydroponically-grown lettuce plant leaves were used as host plants. RESULTS: CIV rHA antigen was successfully expressed in host plant species both N. benthamiana and L. sativa by geminiviral vector. Both complex-glycosylated and basal-glycosylated form of rHA were produced in lettuce, depending on presence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal. In terms of rHA expression level, canine HA (H3N2) showed preference to the native signal peptide than ER retention signal peptide in the tested geminiviral vector system. CONCLUSION: Grocery-purchased lettuce leaves could serve as an instant host system for the transient expression of influenza antigen at the time of emergency. The geminiviral vector was able to induce expression of complex-glycosylated and basal-glycosylated rHA in lettuce and tobacco.

Humans , Base Sequence , Clone Cells , Cloning, Organism , DNA , Emergencies , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Hemagglutinins , Influenza, Human , Lactuca , Orthomyxoviridae , Plant Leaves , Plants , Protein Sorting Signals , Nicotiana
Korean Journal of Blood Transfusion ; : 124-137, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759593


BACKGROUND: The recent expansion of knowledge about various ABO alleles has led to the need for a comprehensive measure to cover the numerous polymorphisms dispersed in the ABO gene. A few studies have examined the diversity of the O allele compared to A or B subgroup alleles, resulting in antigenic changes. This study investigated the relationship between the serologic and molecular genetic characteristics of the O alleles in the Korean population. METHODS: One hundred and five samples from healthy blood group O subjects were selected randomly. The isoagglutinin titer was measured using a tube agglutination and gel microcolumn assay. The ABO alleles were analyzed by sequencing exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene. When the origin of a heterozygous nucleotide sequence was ambiguous, it was separated into a single allele using mono-allele amplification or cloning. RESULTS: The median IgM isoagglutinin titer was eight. In contrast, the median IgG anti-A and anti-B isoagglutinin titers were 64 and 32, respectively. The IgG isoagglutinin titer showed a significant increase with age (P<0.0001). Six O alleles were observed in 105 blood group O populations by sequencing. The O01 and O02 alleles were common (0.57, 0.36). Three rare O alleles (O04, O05, and O06) and one novel non-deletional O allele were found. CONCLUSION: The distribution of isoagglutinin titers of blood group O and the genetic frequency of O alleles in this study would form the basis of the development and interpretation of ABO genotyping and serologic workup in the Korean population.

Agglutination , Alleles , Base Sequence , Clone Cells , Cloning, Organism , Exons , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Molecular Biology , Sequence Analysis
Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine ; : 1-9, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713307


OBJECTIVE: To determine the localization, expression, and function of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in fallopian tube epithelial cells. METHODS: The localization of TLRs in fallopian tube epithelial cells was investigated by immunostaining. Surprisingly, the intensity of staining was not equal in the secretory and ciliated cells. After primary cell culture of fallopian tube epithelial cells, ring cloning was used to isolate colonies of ciliated epithelial cells, distinct from non-ciliated epithelial cells. The expression of TLRs 1–10 was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and protein localization was confirmed by immunostaining. The function of the TLRs was determined by interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 production in response to TLR2, TLR3, TLR5, TLR7, and TLR9 ligands. RESULTS: Fallopian tube epithelial cells expressed TLRs 1–10 in a cell-type-specific manner. Exposing fallopian tube epithelial cells to TLR2, TLR3, TLR5, TLR7, and TLR9 agonists induced the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-8. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that TLR expression in the fallopian tubes is cell-type-specific. According to our results, ciliated cells may play more effective role than non-ciliated cells in the innate immune defense of the fallopian tubes, and in interactions with gametes and embryos.

Female , Humans , Clone Cells , Cloning, Organism , Cytokines , Embryonic Structures , Epithelial Cells , Fallopian Tubes , Germ Cells , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Interleukins , Ligands , Primary Cell Culture , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Toll-Like Receptors
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 597-602, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742291


Histomonas meleagridis is a facultative anaerobic parasite, which can cause a common poultry disease known as histomoniasis. The species and age of the birds impacts on the susceptibility, with turkey being the most susceptible species. Chickens are less susceptible to H. meleagridis than turkeys and usually serve as reservoir hosts. Here, the diagnosis of an outbreak of histomoniasis in backyard Sanhuang chickens is described. The primary diagnosis was made based on clinical symptoms, general changes at necropsy, histopathology, and the isolation and cultivation of parasites. The pathogen was further confirmed by cloning, PCR identification, and animal inoculation tests. A strain of H. meleagridis, named HM-JSYZ-C, with a higher pathogenicity level in chickens was obtained. The study lays a foundation for further investigations into H. meleagridis and histomoniasis in chickens.

Animals , Birds , Chickens , Clone Cells , Cloning, Organism , Diagnosis , Parasites , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Poultry Diseases , Protozoan Infections , Turkey , Turkeys , Virulence
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 391-396, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742257


Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by E. granulosus is a serious helminthic zoonosis in humans, livestock and wildlife. Xinjiang is one of high endemic province for CE in China. A total of 55 sheep and cattle livers containing echinococcal cysts were collected from slaughterhouses in Changji and Yining City, northern region of Xinjiang. PCR was employed for cloning 2 gene fragments, 12S rRNA and CO1 for analysis of phylogenetic diversity of E. granulosus. The results showed that all the samples collected were identified as G1 genotype of E. granulosus. Interestingly, YL5 and CJ75 strains were the older branches compared to those strains from France, Argentina, Australia. CO1 gene fragment showed 20 new genotype haploids and 5 new genotype haplogroups (H1-H5) by the analysis of Network 5.0 software, and the YLY17 strain was identified as the most ancestral haplotype. The major haplotypes, such as CJ75 and YL5 strains, showed identical to the isolates from Middle East. The international and domestic trade of livestock might contribute to the dispersal of different haplotypes for E. granulosus evolution.

Animals , Cattle , Humans , Abattoirs , Argentina , Australia , China , Clone Cells , Cloning, Organism , Echinococcosis , Echinococcus granulosus , Echinococcus , France , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Haploidy , Haplotypes , Helminths , Liver , Livestock , Middle East , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sheep
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 167-170, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717394


MPL mutation is an important molecular marker in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Although MPL W515 is a hot spot for missense mutations in MPN, MPL S505 mutations have been reported in both familial and non-familial MPN. A 72-year-old male visited the hospital, complaining mainly of dizziness and epistaxis. Leukocytosis, anemia, thrombocytopenia, tear drop cells, nucleated RBCs, and myeloblasts were observed in both complete blood cell counts and peripheral blood smears. Bone marrow aspiration failed due to dilution with peripheral blood. BM biopsy indicated hypercellular marrow, megakaryocytic proliferation with atypia, and grade 3 reticulin fibrosis. Conventional cytogenetics results were as follows: 46,XY,del(13)(q12q22)[19]/46,XY[1]. Molecular studies did not detect JAK2 V617F, BCR/ABL translocation, JAK2 exon 12, and CALR exon 9 mutations. The MPL S505N mutation was verified by colony PCR and Sanger sequencing following gene cloning. Based on the above findings, a diagnosis of overt primary myelofibrosis (PMF) was indicated. Mutation studies of buccal and T cells were not conducted. Further, family members were not subjected to mutation studies. Therefore, we were unable to determine whether this mutation was familial or non-familial. Six months after the first visit to the hospital, the patient died due to pneumonia and sepsis. Thrombotic symptoms or major bleeding events did not develop during the survival period following diagnosis of PMF. To the best of our knowledge, this may be the first reported case of PMF with the MPL S505N mutation in Korea.

Aged , Humans , Male , Anemia , Biopsy , Blood Cell Count , Bone Marrow , Clone Cells , Cloning, Organism , Cytogenetics , Diagnosis , Dizziness , Epistaxis , Exons , Fibrosis , Granulocyte Precursor Cells , Hemorrhage , Korea , Leukocytosis , Mutation, Missense , Pneumonia , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Primary Myelofibrosis , Reticulin , Sepsis , T-Lymphocytes , Tears , Thrombocytopenia
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 318-330, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716973


Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a critical role in the achievement of peak bone mass, affecting the commitment of mesenchymal progenitors to the osteoblast lineage and the anabolic capacity of osteoblasts depositing bone matrix. Recent studies suggest that this evolutionarily-conserved, developmental pathway exerts its anabolic effects in part by coordinating osteoblast activity with intermediary metabolism. These findings are compatible with the cloning of the gene encoding the low-density lipoprotein related receptor-5 (LRP5) Wnt co-receptor from a diabetes-susceptibility locus and the now well-established linkage between Wnt signaling and metabolism. In this article, we provide an overview of the role of Wnt signaling in whole-body metabolism and review the literature regarding the impact of Wnt signaling on the osteoblast's utilization of three different energy sources: fatty acids, glucose, and glutamine. Special attention is devoted to the net effect of nutrient utilization and the mode of regulation by Wnt signaling. Mechanistic studies indicate that the utilization of each substrate is governed by a unique mechanism of control with β-catenin-dependent signaling regulating fatty acid β-oxidation, while glucose and glutamine utilization are β-catenin-independent and downstream of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation, respectively. The emergence of these data has provided a new context for the mechanisms by which Wnt signaling influences bone development.

Anabolic Agents , beta Catenin , Bone Development , Bone Matrix , Clone Cells , Cloning, Organism , Fatty Acids , Glucose , Glutamine , Lipoproteins , Metabolism , Osteoblasts , Sirolimus
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 465-471, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719116


My professional journey to understand the glucose homeostasis began in the 1990s, starting from cloning of the promoter region of glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) gene that led us to establish research foundation of my group. When I was a graduate student, I simply thought that hyperglycemia, a typical clinical manifestation of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), could be caused by a defect in the glucose transport system in the body. Thus, if a molecular mechanism controlling glucose transport system could be understood, treatment of T2DM could be possible. In the early 70s, hyperglycemia was thought to develop primarily due to a defect in the muscle and adipose tissue; thus, muscle/adipose tissue type glucose transporter (GLUT4) became a major research interest in the diabetology. However, glucose utilization occurs not only in muscle/adipose tissue but also in liver and brain. Thus, I was interested in the hepatic glucose transport system, where glucose storage and release are the most actively occurring.

Animals , Humans , Rats , Adipogenesis , Adipose Tissue , Brain , Clone Cells , Cloning, Organism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glucokinase , Gluconeogenesis , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Glucose Transporter Type 2 , Glucose , Glycolysis , Homeostasis , Hyperglycemia , Liver , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Transcription Factors
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 585-591, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758856


Dogs serve human society in various ways by working at tasks that are based on their superior olfactory sensitivity. However, it has been reported that only about half of all trained dogs may qualify as working dogs through conventional breeding management because proper temperament and health are needed in addition to their innate scent detection ability. To overcome this low efficiency of breeding qualified working dogs, and to reduce the enormous costs of maintaining unqualified dogs, somatic cell nuclear transfer has been applied in the propagation of working dogs. Herein, we review the history of cloning working dogs and evaluate the health development, temperaments, and behavioral similarities among the cloned dogs. We also discuss concerns about dog cloning including those related to birth defects, lifespan, and cloning efficiency.

Animals , Dogs , Humans , Breeding , Clone Cells , Cloning, Organism , Congenital Abnormalities , Temperament
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research. 2017; 18 (1): 36-42
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189265


Rabies virus nucleoprotein [N protein] encapsidates genomic RNA of the virus and forms the viral ribonucleoprotein complex. These N proteins represent highly organized structures which activate proliferation of B cells and production antibodies against the N protein. In addition to the B cell, the rabies virus N protein has been shown to induce potent T helper cell responses resulting in a long-lasting and strong humoral immune response. Rabies virus N protein is a molecular target of choice for development of tools to diagnose acute rabies infection. We produced a recombinant immune reactive C-terminal fragment of the rabies virus N protein which contains an antigenic determinant located between positions 360-389. Synthetic gene encoding the N protein was cloned into an expression plasmid to produce the recombinant antigen in Escherichia coli cells BL21 [DE3]. SDS-PAGE showed presence of the product with expected molecular weight [44 kDa]. The recombinant fragment of the N protein efficiently recognized antibodies in sera from mice immunized with an inactivated rabies virus. Thus produced recombinant antigen of the rabies virus N protein can be used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] for diagnosis of the rabies infection

Cloning, Organism , Gene Expression , Nucleoproteins , Escherichia coli , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Antigens
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : e308-2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194442


Phage display technology provides a powerful tool to screen a library for a binding molecule via an enrichment process. It has been adopted as a critical technology in the development of therapeutic antibodies. However, a major drawback of phage display technology is that because the degree of the enrichment cannot be controlled during the bio-panning process, it frequently results in a limited number of clones. In this study, we applied next-generation sequencing (NGS) to screen clones from a library and determine whether a greater number of clones can be identified using NGS than using conventional methods. Three chicken immune single-chain variable fragment (scFv) libraries were subjected to bio-panning on prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Phagemid DNA prepared from the original libraries as well as from the Escherichia coli pool after each round of bio-panning was analyzed using NGS, and the heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 (HCDR3) sequences of the scFv clones were determined. Subsequently, through two-step linker PCR and cloning, the entire scFv gene was retrieved and analyzed for its reactivity to PSA in a phage enzyme immunoassay. After four rounds of bio-panning, the conventional colony screening method was performed for comparison. The scFv clones retrieved from NGS analysis included all clones identified by the conventional colony screening method as well as many additional clones. The enrichment of the HCDR3 sequence throughout the bio-panning process was a positive predictive factor for the selection of PSA-reactive scFv clones.

Antibodies , Bacteriophages , Chickens , Clone Cells , Cloning, Organism , Complementarity Determining Regions , DNA , Escherichia coli , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Mass Screening , Methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Single-Chain Antibodies
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 80-90, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165936


Initial discovery on sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) as an intracellular second messenger was faced unexpectedly with roles of S1P as a first messenger, which subsequently resulted in cloning of its G protein-coupled receptors, S1P₁₋₅. The molecular identification of S1P receptors opened up a new avenue for pathophysiological research on this lipid mediator. Cellular and molecular in vitro studies and in vivo studies on gene deficient mice have elucidated cellular signaling pathways and the pathophysiological meanings of S1P receptors. Another unexpected finding that fingolimod (FTY720) modulates S1P receptors accelerated drug discovery in this field. Fingolimod was approved as a first-in-class, orally active drug for relapsing multiple sclerosis in 2010, and its applications in other disease conditions are currently under clinical trials. In addition, more selective S1P receptor modulators with better pharmacokinetic profiles and fewer side effects are under development. Some of them are being clinically tested in the contexts of multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, such as, psoriasis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, liver failure, renal failure, acute stroke, and transplant rejection. In this review, the authors discuss the state of the art regarding the status of drug discovery efforts targeting S1P receptors and place emphasis on potential clinical applications.

Animals , Mice , Acute Kidney Injury , Clone Cells , Cloning, Organism , Colitis, Ulcerative , Dermatomyositis , Drug Discovery , Fingolimod Hydrochloride , Graft Rejection , In Vitro Techniques , Liver Failure , Multiple Sclerosis , Polymyositis , Psoriasis , Receptors, Lysosphingolipid , Second Messenger Systems , Sphingosine , Stroke