Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 191
Filter
1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(1): 29-34, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388329

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La infección por Clostridioides dfficile (ICD) es la principal causa de diarrea nosocomial, generalmente asociada al consumo de antimicrobianos. Esta infección puede causar desde diarrea no complicada hasta colitis pseudomembranosa o megacolon tóxico. Estudios recientes han intentado relacionar el valor el ciclo umbral (Ct) de la RT-PCR con la mortalidad, como un método rápido, sencillo, objetivo y eficaz. OBJETIVO: Evaluar el Ct como predictor de mala evolución en pacientes con y sin criterio clínico de dicha gravedad. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Realizamos un estudio retrospectivo entre enero 2015 y diciembre 2018, incluyendo todos los pacientes del área de referencia del Hospital Universitario de Canarias en Tenerife (396.483 habitantes) en pacientes con criterios clínicos de gravedad (de acuerdo a la Guía para la Práctica Clínica de la enfermedad por C. dfficile de la Sociedad de Epidemiología del Cuidado de la Salud de América (SHEA) y la Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas de Norteamérica (IDSA) y pacientes sin criterios clínicos de gravedad evaluando el Ct como predictor de mala evolución. RESULTADOS: Se diagnosticó un total de 202 episodios de ICD. El 77,7% (n = 157) presentó criterios clínicos de gravedad. La presencia de colitis ulcerosa (p < 0,001), fiebre (p < 0,001), leucocitosis (p < 0,001), neutrofilia (p < 0,001), creatininemia (p = 0,005) se presentaron como factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de ICD grave. El sexo femenino, la institucionalización, el ingreso previo y el exitus se describieron con mayor frecuencia en el grupo con ICD-G, no encontrando diferencias significativas. No encontramos diferencias respecto a los días de estancia previa, o de estancia post-ICD, aunque en este último, la media fue mayor en el caso de los pacientes con ICD-G. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto al Ct en ambos grupos; siendo sólo un punto menor en pacientes con criterio de gravedad (Ct = 26,1) que sin criterios de gravedad (Ct = 27,4) (p = 0,326).


BACKGROUND: Clostridioides dfficile infection (CDI) is the main cause of nosocomial diarrhea, generally associated with the use of antibiotics. This infection can cause uncomplicated diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis or toxic megacolon. Recent studies have attempted to relate the threshold cycle (Ct) value of RT-PCR with mortality, as a fast, simple, objective and efficient method. AIM: To evaluate Ct as a predictor of poor outcome in patients with C. dfficile disease with/without clinical signs of severity. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective study between January 2015 and December 2018, including all patients in the reference area of the Hospital Universitario de Canarias in Tenerife (396,483 inhabitants) in patients with clinical criteria of severity and patients without clinical severity criteria (according to the guide for the clinical practice of CDI of the Society of Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and the Infectious Diseases Society of North America (IDSA). RESULTS: A total of 202 CDI episodes were diagnosed. 77.7% (n = 157) presented clinical severity criteria. The presence of ulcerative colitis (p < 0.001), fever (p < 0.001), leukocytosis (p < 0.001), neutrophilia (p < 0.001), creatininemia (p = 0.005) were presented as risk factors for the development of severe CDI (S-CDI). Female sex, institutionalization, previous admission and death were described more frequently in the group with S-CDI, not finding significant differences. We found no differences with respect to the days of previous stay, or of post-CDI stay, although in the latter, the mean was higher in the case of S-CDI patients. No significant differences were found in terms of Ct in both groups; being only one point lower in patients with severity criteria (Ct = 26.1) than without severity criteria (Ct = 27.4) (p = 0.326). CONCLUSION: Based on the results of our study, it has not been possible to systematically implement the Ct value as a predictor of severity to the clinical report, and it is not possible to extrapolate this predictive variable from S-CDI and standardize the Ct value as a predictor of severity. Conclusion: Basándonos en los resultados de nuestro estudio, no ha sido posible la implementación sistemática del valor Ct como predictor de gravedad al informe clínico, no siendo posible extrapolar esta variable predictora de enfermedad por C difficile-G y estandarizar el valor Ct como factor predictor de gravedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Clostridium Infections , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Diarrhea
2.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 29(1): 59-63, jan./mar. 2022. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1395508

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a prevalência de Clostridioides difficile e suas toxinas (A/B) nas fezes de animais domésticos de um Hospital Veterinário Universitário de Teresina - PI. A detecção de C. difficile e suas toxinas foi realizada por meio de um ensaio imunoenzimático, denominado C. Diff Quik Chek Complete® (TECHLAB), capaz de detectar antígeno Glutamato Desidrogenase (GDH) e as toxinas A/B produzidas pelo bacilo, realizado em amostras fecais de cães (C. lupus) e e gatos (Felis catus) coletadas entre agosto de 2019 a setembro de 2020. Um total de 54 amostras fecais foram analisadas, das quais 16 foram positivas para C. difficile (29,63%). 68,75% (11/16) pertenciam a caninos, enquanto 31,25% (5/16) a felinos. Amostras diarreicas e não diarreicas foram utilizadas para o estudo e uma maior prevalência do bacilo pôde ser identificada em amostras diarreicas (33%). Nenhuma das amostras apresentou toxinas do patógeno. Os achados deste estudo evidenciam que C.difficile está presente no estado do Piauí. Foi possível identificá-lo em todas as espécies e em amostras diarreicas ou não, demonstrando que essa infecção pode se manifestar de formasintomática e assintomática, levantando a possibilidade de infecção cruzada entre o animal e seu tutor.


The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of Clostridioides difficile and its toxins (A/B) in the feces of domestic animals at a University Veterinary Hospital in Teresina - PI. The detection of C. difficile and its toxins was performed by an immunogenic enzyme, called C. Diff Quik Chek Complete® (TECHLAB), capable of detecting antigen glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and A/B toxins produced by this bacillus, performed in fecal samples of dogs (C. lupus) and cats (Felis catus) collected between August 2019 and September 2020.:54 stools were analyzed, of which 16 were positive for C. difficile (29.63%). 68.75% (11/16) belonged to canines, while 3.25% (5/16) to felines. Diarrheal and non-diarrheal diseases are used for the study and a higher prevalence of bacillus can be identified in diarrheal diseases (33%). None of the samples present pathogen toxins. The results of this study show that C. difficile is present in the state of Piauí. It can be identified in all species and in diarrheal or non-diarrheic samples, demonstrating that this infection can be symptomatic and asymptomatic, giving the possibility of cross-infection between the animal and its owner.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Cats/abnormalities , Clostridioides difficile/pathogenicity , Immunoenzyme Techniques/veterinary , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Dogs/abnormalities , Feces/microbiology , Bacterial Zoonoses/diagnosis
3.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 113-115, ene.-feb. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279084

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Clostridioides difficile causa diarrea y colitis pseudomembranosa. Su diagnóstico se realiza con la detección de glutamato-deshidrogenasa (GDH) o las toxinas A y B y se confirma con pruebas de amplificación de ácidos nucleicos. Objetivo: Definir si la determinación de GDH es redundante a la de las toxinas. Métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo de muestras fecales de pacientes con sospecha de infección por Clostridioides difficile. Las toxinas y GDH se determinaron mediante inmunocromatografía. Se realizó una simulación bayesiana con los cocientes de probabilidad; se consideró significativo un valor de p < 0.05. Resultados: Se analizaron 329 resultados de GDH y toxinas A y B. Se encontró una prevalencia de infección de Clostridioides difficile de 18.2 %. La sensibilidad y especificidad de la prueba de GDH fue de 0.90 y 0.89, respectivamente. El cociente de probabilidad positivo fue de 8.9 y el negativo, de 0.11. Conclusiones: Un resultado negativo de GDH disminuye considerablemente la probabilidad de infección, pero no la descarta. La detección de toxinas de Clostridioides difficile puede ser necesaria en instituciones donde la amplificación de ácidos nucleicos no es económica o accesible.


Abstract Introduction: Clostridioides difficile causes diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Its diagnosis is made with glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) or toxins A and B detection and is confirmed with nucleic acid amplification tests. Objective: To define if GDH determination is redundant to that of toxins. Methods: Retrospective, observational study in diarrheal stools of patients with suspected Clostridioides difficile infection. Toxins and GDH were determined by immunochromatography. Bayesian simulation was performed with likelihood ratios; a p-value < 0.05 was regarded as significant. Results: 329 GDH and toxin A and B results were analyzed. Clostridioides difficile infection prevalence was 18.2 %. Sensitivity and specificity of the GDH test were 0.90 and 0.89, respectively. Positive likelihood ratio was 8.9, and negative was 0.11. Conclusions: A negative GDH result considerably reduces the probability of infection but does not rule it out. Clostridioides difficile toxins detection may be necessary in institutions where nucleic acid amplification is not affordable or accessible.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , Bacterial Toxins/analysis , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections/diagnosis , Enterotoxins/analysis , Feces/chemistry , Biomarkers/analysis , Likelihood Functions , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Bayes Theorem , Sensitivity and Specificity , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Diarrhea/microbiology , Feces/enzymology , Glutamate Dehydrogenase/analysis
4.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(1): 101040, jan., 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249289

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of healthcare-associated infections in Western countries. Risk factors, mortality, and healthcare utilization for CDI in Latin America are poorly understood. This study assessed risk factors and burden associated with nosocomial CDI in four Latin American countries. Methods: This retrospective, case-control study used databases and medical records from 8 hospitals in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico to identify nosocomial CDI cases from 2014 − 2017. Cases were patients aged ≥18 years with diarrhea and a positive CDI test ≥72 h after hospital admission. Two controls (without diarrhea; length of hospital stay [LOS] ≥3 days; admitted ±14 days from case patient; shared same ward) were matched to each case. CDI-associated risk factors were assessed by univariate and multivariable analyses. CDI burden (LOS, in-hospital mortality) was compared between cases and controls. Results: The study included 481 cases and 962 controls. Mean age and sex were similar between cases and controls, but mean Charlson comorbidity index (4.3 vs 3.6; p< 0.001) and recent hospital admission (35.3% vs 18.8%; p< 0.001) were higher among cases. By multivariable analyses, CDI risk was associated with prior hospital admission within 3 months (odds ratio [OR], 2.08; 95% CI: 1.45, 2.97), recent antibiotic use (ie, carbapenem; OR, 2.85; 95% CI: 1.75, 4.64), acid suppressive therapy use (OR, 1.71; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.58), and medical conditions (ie, renal disease; OR, 1.48; 95% CI: 1.19, 1.85). In-hospital mortality rate (18.7% vs 6.9%; p< 0.001) and mean overall LOS (33.5 vs 18.8 days; p< 0.001) were higher and longer, respectively, in cases versus controls. Conclusion: Antibiotic exposure, preexisting medical conditions, and recent hospital admission were major risk factors for CDI in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. CDI was associated with increased in-hospital risk of death and longer LOS. These findings are consistent with published literature in Western countries.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/epidemiology , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Argentina , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Clostridioides , Latin America/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology
5.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200402, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249214

ABSTRACT

Abstract Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common hospital acquired diarrheal disease with its increasing incidence and mortality rate globally. DNA Gyrase B (GyrB) is a key component of DNA replication process across all bacterial genera; thus, this offers a potential target for the treatment of CDI. In the present study, several virtual screening approaches were employed to identify a novel C. difficile GyrB inhibitor. The 139 known metabolites were screened out from the 480 flavonoids in PhytoHub database. Molinspiration and PROTOX II servers were used to calculate the ADME properties and oral toxicity of the metabolites, whereas mutagenicity, tumorigenicity, irritant, and reproductive effect were predicted using DataWarrior program. The binding mode and the binding efficiency of the screened flavonoids against the GyrB were studied using FlexX docking program. From virtual screening of 139 metabolites, we found 25 flavonoids with no mutagenicity, tumorigenicity, irritant, and reproductive effect. Docking study suggested that flavonoids 1030 ((-)-epicatechin 3'-O-sulfate), 1032 ((-)-epicatechin 4'-O-sulfate), 1049 (3'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin 4-O-sulfate), 1051 (3'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin 7-O-sulfate), 1055 (4'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin 7-O-sulfate) and 1317 (quercetin sulfate) have significantly higher binding affinity than the known GyrB inhibitor novobiocin. The results from molecular dynamics simulation and free energy calculations based on solvated interaction energy suggested that (-)-epicatechin 3'-O-sulfate could be a potential drug candidate in the management of CDI.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Clostridium Infections/therapy , DNA Gyrase/therapeutic use , High-Throughput Screening Assays
6.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021337, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345356

ABSTRACT

Sarcina ventriculi is a gram-positive bacterium, able to survive in extreme low pH environment. It's first description dates from 1842, by John Goodsir. Since then, just a few cases have been reported. In veterinary medicine, especially in ruminants, it causes bloating, vomiting, gastric perforation and death of the animal. It is commonly associated with delayed gastric emptying or obstruction to gastric outlet, although it's pathogenicity in humans is not fully understood. We report two cases with identification of the bacteria in gastric specimens stained with hematoxylin-eosin staining, in different clinical settings. The first patient is a young female patient, presenting cardiac arrest and death after gastric perforation and the second patient an adult male presenting with gastric adenocarcinoma, treated with partial gastrectomy followed by adjuvant chemoradiation. In our literature review, we identified forty-five cases reporting Sarcina ventriculi appearance, with a sudden increase since 2010.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Middle Aged , Sarcina/pathogenicity , Clostridium Infections/pathology , Gastroparesis/complications
7.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 434-458, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142338

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an important therapeutic option for recurrent or refractory Clostridioides difficile infection, being a safe and effective method. Initial results suggest that FMT also plays an important role in other conditions whose pathogenesis involves alteration of the intestinal microbiota. However, its systematized use is not widespread, especially in Brazil. In the last decade, multiple reports and several cases emerged using different protocols for FMT, without standardization of methods and with variable response rates. In Brazil, few isolated cases of FMT have been reported without the implantation of a Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Center (FMTC). OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study is to describe the process of implanting a FMTC with a stool bank, in a Brazilian university hospital for treatment of recurrent and refractory C. difficile infection. METHODS: The center was structured within the criteria required by international organizations such as the Food and Drug Administration, the European Fecal Microbiota Transplant Group and in line with national epidemiological and regulatory aspects. RESULTS: A whole platform involved in structuring a transplant center with stool bank was established. The criteria for donor selection, processing and storage of samples, handling of recipients before and after the procedure, routes of administration, short and long-term follow-up of transplant patients were determined. Donor selection was conducted in three stages: pre-screening, clinical evaluation and laboratory screening. Most of the candidates were excluded in the first (75.4%) and second stage (72.7%). The main clinical exclusion criteria were: recent acute diarrhea, overweight (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) and chronic gastrointestinal disorders. Four of the 134 candidates were selected after full screening, with a donor detection rate of 3%. CONCLUSION: The implantation of a transplant center, unprecedented in our country, allows the access of patients with recurrent or refractory C. difficile infection to innovative, safe treatment, with a high success rate and little available in Brazil. Proper selection of qualified donors is vital in the process of implementing a FMTC. The rigorous clinical evaluation of donors allowed the rational use of resources. A transplant center enables treatment on demand, on a larger scale, less personalized, with more security and traceability. This protocol provides subsidies for conducting FMT in emerging countries.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: O Transplante de microbiota fecal (TMF) é uma importante opção terapêutica para a infecção recorrente ou refratária pelo Clostridioides difficile, sendo método seguro e eficaz. Resultados iniciais sugerem que o TMF também desempenha papel relevante em outras afecções cuja patogênese envolve a alteração da microbiota intestinal. No entanto, seu uso sistematizado é pouco difundido, especialmente no Brasil. Na última década, surgiram múltiplos relatos e séries de casos utilizando diferentes protocolos para o TMF, sem padronização de métodos e com taxas de resposta variáveis. No Brasil, poucos casos isolados de TMF foram relatados sem a implantação de um Centro de Transplante de Microbiota Fecal (CTMF). OBJETIVO: O principal objetivo deste estudo foi descrever o processo de implantação de um CTMF com banco de fezes, em hospital universitário brasileiro, para tratamento de infecção recorrente e refratária pelo C. difficile. MÉTODOS: O CTMF foi estruturado dentro dos critérios exigidos e aprovados por organismos internacionais como o Food and Drug Administration, Grupo Europeu de Transplante de Microbiota Fecal e em consonância com os aspectos epidemiológicos e regulatórios nacionais. RESULTADOS: Foi estabelecida toda uma plataforma envolvida na estruturação de um centro de transplante com fezes congeladas. Determinou-se os critérios para seleção de doadores, processamento e armazenamento de amostras, manejo dos receptores antes e após o procedimento, uniformização de vias de administração do substrato fecal e seguimento a curto e longo prazo dos pacientes transplantados. A seleção dos doadores foi conduzida em três etapas: pré-triagem, avaliação clínica e exames laboratoriais. Boa parte dos candidatos foram excluídos na primeira (75,4%) e segunda etapa (72,7%). Os principais critérios clínicos de exclusão foram: diarreia aguda recente, excesso de peso (IMC ≥25 kg/m2) e distúrbios gastrointestinais crônicos. Quatro dos 134 candidatos foram selecionados após a triagem completa, com taxa de detecção de doadores de 3%. CONCLUSÃO: A implantação de um CTMF, inédito no nosso meio, possibilita o acesso de pacientes com infecção recorrente e refratária pelo C. difficile a tratamento inovador, seguro, com elevada taxa de sucesso e pouco disponível no Brasil. A seleção apropriada de doadores qualificados é vital no processo de implantação de um CTMF. A avaliação clínica rigorosa dos doadores permitiu o uso racional de recursos para realização de exames laboratoriais. Um CTMF possibilita tratamento sob demanda, em maior escala, menos personalizados, com mais segurança e rastreabilidade. Este protocolo fornece subsídios para a realização de TMF em países emergentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Brazil , Clostridioides difficile , Treatment Outcome , Clostridium Infections/therapy , Feces
8.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(6): 633-639, dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250285

ABSTRACT

Resumen La infección por Clostridioides difficile (iCD) es la causa más frecuente de diarrea nosocomial. La primera línea terapéutica es la vancomicina asociada o no al metronidazol. En los últimos años se incrementó el número de fracasos terapéuticos con una mayor frecuencia de formas refractarias o recurrentes. El trasplante de microbiota fecal (TMF) ha surgido como una opción terapéutica para estos casos. Se evaluó la seguridad y la tasa de resolución empleando el TMF en un estudio observacional abierto y prospectivo de 21 pacientes con iCD recurrentes o refractarias internados entre los años 2016 y 2019. La edad media fue de 76.5 años (33-92). Diez presentaron una forma recurrente y 11 una refractaria, 18 fueron graves y 3 fulminantes. En 20 casos el TMF se administró por la vía digestiva alta y en uno por presentar íleo se utilizó la vía baja. Se empleó TMF de heces frescas en un caso y el resto recibió muestras congeladas de un banco de microbiota. Veinte pacientes (95.2%) tuvieron respuesta terapéutica favorable sin presentar recurrencias. Un caso recurrente, con osteomielitis y falla multiorgánica, no tuvo resolución tras dos TMF. La respuesta fue similar en las formas recurrentes y refractarias. Siete pacientes (31%) tuvieron efectos adversos leves y autolimitados. El TMF ha demostrado una alta eficacia como tratamiento de rescate de las formas graves de iCD, con escasos y leves efectos adversos. Contar con un banco de microbiota fecal resulta fundamental para disponer de este recurso terapéutico oportunamente.


Abstract Clostridiodes difficile infection (CDi) is the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Vancomycin, associated or not to metronidazol, is the treatment of choice. However, the rate of treatment failure has increased over the last years and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a therapeutic option. To evaluate safety and efficacy of FMT were enrolled 21 hospitalized patients with refractory or recurrent CDi between 2016 and 2019. Fourteen (66%) patients were men and the average age was 76.5 years (range 33-92). Ten had recurrent and 11 refractory CDi, and 18 presented severe and 3 fulminant clinical forms. In 20 cases the FMT was delivered through a nasojejunal tube and in one patient with ileo via enema infusion. Frozen fecal from a stool bank were administered in 20 and in the remaining was used fresh fecal matter. The rate of resolution was observed in 20 patients (95.2%) and none presented recurrence. The response rate was similar in recurrent or refractory forms (9/10 vs 11/11 respectively). One patient with osteomyelitis and multiple organ failure received 2 FMT without response and died. Seven patients (31%) presented mild and self-limited adverse effects. FMT has shown a high efficacy as rescue treatment in cases with refractory or recurrent CDi regardless of severity, with mild side effects. Availability of a stool banks provide reliable, timely and equitable access to FMT for CDi.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections/therapy , Recurrence , Treatment Outcome , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Clostridioides
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(6): 417-425, June 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135641

ABSTRACT

A retrospective study of gastric disorders in autopsied cattle in the Western region of Rio Grande do Sul State, was performed. The exam reports of bovine necropsy of the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory, Unipampa, were analyzed in the period from 2010 to 2018. All cases in which death was primarily caused by disturbance in the gastric chambers were included. During the period evaluated, 141 cattle were necropsied. Of those, 25 had gastric disorders. Of those, 53% had alterations in the rumen, followed by abomasum (17%), involvement of two chambers (13%) and reticulum (9%). Most cases corresponded to beef cattle raised in an extensive system and most them for calf production and fattening with an average age of approximately three years. The cases occurred in farms of four different municipalities. Bullous bloat by excessive Trifolium repens ingestion was the gastric disturbance with the highest number of dead cattle observed in this study, especially in irrigated áreas of livestock farms. Cases such as lactic acidosis, ruminal alkalosis due to excessive urea ingestion and Baccharis coridifolia poisoning were also important gastric disturbances in necropsied cattle, associated especially with poor management and period of scarcity of good quality fodder. Cases of Clostridium perfringens infection were also observed in young cattle suggesting that it is an important infectious agent in the evaluated cattle herds, also showing failures in vaccination of the herds. As observed, gastric disturbances in cattle in the western region of Rio Grande do Sul have several causes. Metabolic/toxic and infectious disturbances were important causes of mortality in the herds, inducing considerable economic losses. Based on this study, it is clear that the majority of outbreaks or isolated cases occurred due to errors in the management of the properties and the vast majority of them could have been avoided with improvements in the technical qualification of the workers and simple adjustments in the farming methods. It is also emphasized the importance of the conclusive diagnosis to control these disorders, once after the orientation to the producers, was observed significant decrease in cattle losses in the farms.(AU)


Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo dos distúrbios gástricos em bovinos necropsiados na região Oeste do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram analisados os relatórios de exame de necropsia de bovinos do Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV) da Universidade Federal do Pampa (Unipampa), Rio Grande do Sul, no período de 2010 a 2018. Foram incluídos todos os casos nos quais a morte foi causada primariamente pelo distúrbio nas câmaras gástricas. De um total de 141 bovinos necropsiados, 25 corresponderam a distúrbios gástricos. Dentre esses, 53% apresentaram alterações no rúmen, seguido de abomaso 17%, acometimento concomitante de duas câmaras 13% e retículo 9%. A maioria dos casos ocorreram em bovinos de corte criados em sistema extensivo e a maioria destinados à produção de bezerros e engorda com média de idade de aproximadamente três anos. Os casos ocorreram em propriedades rurais de quatro municípios da região Oeste do estado. O timpanismo bolhoso por ingestão excessiva de Trifolium repens foi o distúrbio gástrico com maior número de bovinos mortos observados nesse estudo, especialmente em propriedades com criação de animais em áreas de irrigação. Casos como acidose láctica, alcalose ruminal por intoxicação por ureia e intoxicação por Baccharis coridifolia também foram importantes distúrbios gástricos nos bovinos necropsiados e percebeu-se sua associação a falhas no manejo e à época de escassez de forragem de boa qualidade. Foram observados ainda casos de infecção por Clostridium perfringens em bovinos jovens o que sugere também tratar-se de um importante agente infeccioso nos rebanhos bovinos avaliados, demonstrando ainda falhas na vacinação dos rebanhos. Conforme observado, diversos são os distúrbios gástricos em bovinos na região Oeste do Rio Grande do Sul, tendo como importantes causas de mortalidades os distúrbios metabólicos/tóxicos e infecciosos, induzindo consideráveis perdas econômicas. Com base nesse levantamento, percebe-se que a maioria dos surtos ou casos isolados estudados ocorreram por erros no manejo nas propriedades e, na sua grande maioria, poderiam ter sido evitados com especialização da mão de obra e ajustes simples. Ressalta-se ainda a importância do diagnóstico conclusivo para controle desses distúrbios, uma vez que, após a orientação aos produtores, observou-se significativa diminuição das perdas de bovinos nas propriedades.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/pathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/veterinary , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Plant Poisoning/veterinary , Clostridium Infections/veterinary , Diet/veterinary
10.
Autops. Case Rep ; 10(2): e2020164, Apr.-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131820

ABSTRACT

Emphysematous gastritis (EG) is a rare and potentially lethal process caused by invasive, gas-producing bacteria leading to inflammation and gas dissection of the stomach. The most common etiologic agents are Clostridium infections, but other organisms, including enterobacteria, staphylococcus, and fungi have also been identified. We report the first case of EG due to Sarcina ventriculi in a solid organ transplant recipient, who presented with epigastric pain and vomiting. The patient had a history of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) with recurrent episodes of ketoacidosis and systemic diabetic complications, including severe gastroparesis. CT scan studies demonstrated EG with venous air, and endoscopy showed severe gastritis and ulcerations. In the gastric biopsies, abundant Sarcina ventriculi were noted in areas of mucosal/submucosal necrosis. Antibiotic treatment was instituted at admission, and subsequent endoscopy demonstrated the disappearance of Sarcina, with some improvement of the gastric inflammation; however, the patient developed septic shock with multiorgan failure and expired. This case highlights the need to consider other infectious etiologies in transplant patients, in addition to the well-known opportunistic infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Diabetes Complications , Transplant Recipients , Infections/etiology , Autopsy , Opportunistic Infections/etiology , Cholestasis , Clostridium Infections , Liver Failure , Fatal Outcome , Gastroparesis/complications , Renal Insufficiency/complications , Graft Rejection
11.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1292192

ABSTRACT

La infección por Clostridioides difficile (ICD) se considera la principal enfermedad diarreica asociada a pacientes internados en instituciones de salud, generalmente mayores de 61 años y al uso de antimicrobianos de espectro extendido. Es un bacilo grampositivo anaerobio estricto, esporulado. La alteración de la microbiota colónica por el tratamiento antimicrobiano permite la colonización e infección por este microorganismo, cuya manifestación clínica, se basa en la presentación de cuadro diarreico. El objetivo de este estudio fue detectar C. difficile toxigénico a partir de muestras diarreicas por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en pacientes hospitalizados. Estudio descriptivo de corte transverso, prospectivo que utilizó como un instrumento de medición una ficha epidemiológica conteniendo las variables de estudio y consentimiento informado. En 901 muestras diarreicas, se detectaron las toxinas tcdA, tcdB, ctdA, ctdB y tcdC y del gen de especie. La prevalencia de C. difficile toxigénico fue de 19,7% (n=178) de las muestras que dieron positivas para una o ambas toxinas (toxinas A y B); el 98% presentó ambas toxinas. Se observó mayor presentación de ICD en pacientes con una mediana de 68 años, y en el sexo masculino en un 52%. Se evaluó el tratamiento antimicrobiano y el uso de los antimicrobianos, donde, el uso de clindamicina, cefalosporinas, fluoroquinolonas y vancomicina, presentó valores estadísticamente significativos. Los resultados obtenidos permitieron caracterizar epidemiológicamente la infección por este patógeno. Es de gran importancia realizar en forma temprana el diagnóstico y diseñar e implementar estrategias para evitar la emergencia de este patógeno


Clostridioides difficile infection is considered the main diarrheal disease associated with patients hospitalized in health institutions, older than 61 years and the use of extended spectrum antimicrobials. It is a strict anaerobic, sporulated gram-positive bacillus. The alteration of the colonic microbiota by antimicrobial treatment allows colonization and infection by this microorganism, whose clinical manifestation is based on the presentation of the diarrheal syndrome. The objective of this study was to detect toxigenic C. difficile from diarrheal samples by polymerase chain reaction in hospitalized patients. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional, prospective study in which an epidemiological record containing the study variables and informed consent were used. In 901 diarrheal samples, tcdA, tcdB, ctdA, ctdB and tcdC toxins and the species gene were detected. The prevalence of toxigenic C. difficile was 19.7% (n=178) of the samples, positives for one or both toxins (toxins A and B) while 98% presented both toxins. A higher frequency of ICD was observed in male patients (52%) who had a median age of 68 years. Antimicrobial treatment and use of antimicrobials were evaluated, where the use of clindamycin, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and vancomycin had statistically significant values. The results allowed infection by this pathogen to be epidemiologically characterized. It is very important to make early diagnosis and design and implement strategies to prevent the emergence of this pathogen


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Risk Factors , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Diagnosis
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(9): e9877, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132555

ABSTRACT

Clostridium difficile causes intestinal inflammation, which increases adenosine. We compared the expression of adenosine receptors (AR) subtypes A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 in HCT-8, IEC-6 cells, and isolated intestinal epithelial cells, challenged or not with Clostridium difficile toxin A and B (TcdA and TcdB) or infection (CDI). In HCT-8, TcdB induced an early A2BR expression at 6 h and a late A2AR expression at 6 and 24 h. In addition, both TcdA and TcdB increased IL-6 expression at all time-points (peak at 6 h) and PSB603, an A2BR antagonist, decreased IL-6 expression and production. In isolated cecum epithelial cells, TcdA induced an early expression of A2BR at 2s and 6 h, followed by a late expression of A2AR at 6 and 24 h and of A1R at 24 h. In CDI, A2AR and A2BR expressions were increased at day 3, but not at day 7. ARs play a role in regulating inflammation during CDI by inducing an early pro-inflammatory and a late anti-inflammatory response. The timing of interventions with AR antagonist or agonists may be of relevance in treatment of CDI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacterial Toxins , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Receptors, Purinergic P1/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins , Up-Regulation , Interleukin-6 , Disease Models, Animal , Enterotoxins , Infections , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
13.
Rev. argent. cir ; 112(2): 189-192, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125801

ABSTRACT

La diarrea nosocomial, que es la adquirida en el ámbito hospitalario, suele ser producida por Clostridium difficile. Sin embargo, en raras ocasiones puede ocasionar un síndrome de distrés respiratorio. Por ello, el diagnóstico de dicha patología es difícil si no se sospecha. El tratamiento se basa en el uso de antibiótico vía oral. Se expone el caso de una paciente de 66 años con dicha patología tras la realización de pancreatectomía total.


Nosocomial (hospital-acquired) diarrhea is usually caused by Clostridium difficile. On rare occasions it can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Therefore, this condition should be suspected in order to make a diagnosis. Treatment is based on oral antibiotics. We report the case of a 66-year-old female patient with ARDS secondary to Clostridium difficile colitis after total pancreatectomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/surgery , Clostridium Infections/complications , Pancreatectomy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging
16.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 91(3): e829, jul.-set. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093722

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El trasplante de microbiota fecal se basa en la infusión de material fecal de un sujeto sano a otro enfermo por afección específica relacionada con disbiosis de la microbiota intestinal. Entre las indicaciones usadas con resultados promisorios en los últimos 20 años sobresalen infección por Clostridium difficile. Objetivo: Analizar los conocimientos más avanzados y ventajas del trasplante de microbiota fecal en distintas afecciones en el humano, en especial en la infancia. Métodos: Se revisaron las publicaciones sobre esta afección en español e inglés en bases de datos de PubMed, Google Scholar, SciELO y Latindex desde el 2015 hasta el 20 de enero de 2019 Resultados: Se determinan los antecedentes históricos, criterios para indicación del trasplante de microbiota fecal, procedimiento de selección del donante, preparación y conservación de la material fecal, vías de administración, riesgos y efectos adversos, y resultados alcanzados en los últimos años a nivel mundial. Se ha descrito 90 por ciento de resolución de los síntomas en la infección recurrente por Clostridium difficile. Consideraciones finales: El trasplante de microbiota fecal es un tratamiento eficaz y seguro, de fácil realización y buena tolerancia, con repercusión económica y científica, cuya principal indicación aprobada por organizaciones internacionales de la comunidad médica es la infección recurrente o recaída de Clostriium difficile en adultos y niños. Otras indicaciones ensayadas son enfermedades inflamatorias crónicas intestinales, en especial la colitis ulcerosa; síndrome de intestino irritable, enfermedades metabólicas como la obesidad y diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y neuropsiquiátricas que se asocian con desequilibrio de la microbiota intestinal (AU)


Introduction: Fecal microbiota´s transplant (TMF, by its acronym in Spanish) is based on the infusion of fecal material from a healthy subject to another patient due to a specific condition related to intestinal microbiota dysbiosis. Among the indications used with promising results in the last 20 years are the ones used for the infection by Clostridium difficile. Objective: To analyze the most advanced knowledge and advantages of TMF in different conditions in humans, especially in childhood Method: Publications on this condition in Spanish and English in PubMed, Google Scholar, SciELO and Latindex databases from 2015 to January 30, 2019 were reviewed. Results: Historical background, criteria for indication of TMF, donor's selection procedure, preparation and preservation of fecal material, administration routes, risks and adverse effects, and results achieved in recent years worldwide are determined. 90 percent resolution of symptoms in recurrent infection by Clostridium difficile is described. Final considerations: The TMF is an effective and safe treatment, easy to perform and of good tolerance, with economic and scientific impact, whose main indication approved by international organizations of the medical community is the recurrent infection or relapse of Clostriium difficile in adults and children. Other indications tested are chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases, especially ulcerative colitis; irritable bowel syndrome, metabolic diseases as obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2, and neuropsychiatric ones that are associated with imbalance of the intestinal microbiota(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Clostridium Infections/therapy , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation/methods , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology
17.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(4): 291-294, ago. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040525

ABSTRACT

La diarrea por Clostridium difficile es reconocida de manera creciente en pacientes hospitalizados y se asocia con alta mortalidad. La vancomicina por vía enteral es el tratamiento antibiótico recomendado para las diferentes formas, incluso las más graves. Sin embargo, un grupo pequeño de pacientes desarrolla formas refractarias a ese tratamiento y no existen esquemas antibióticos alternativos recomendados para estos casos. El trasplante de microbiota fecal ha demostrado ser exitoso en una serie de casos de diarrea grave asociada a este microorganismo. Presentamos un caso de diarrea refractaria por C. difficile que fue tratada con éxito con una infusión de microbiota fecal.


Clostridium difficile infection is an increasingly recognized cause of diarrhea in inpatients, frequently associated to high mortality. Vancomycin is the treatment of choice for all Clostridium difficile- associated diarrheas, with different degrees of severity. However, some patients develop refractory forms to that treatment and there are no alternative antibiotic schemes recommended for these cases. Fecal microbiota transplantation has been shown to be successful in a series of cases of severe diarrhea associated with this organism. We present a case of refractory C. difficile infection successfully treated with fecal microbiota transplantation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections/therapy , Diarrhea/therapy , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Treatment Outcome , Clostridium Infections/complications , Diarrhea/microbiology
18.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(4): 343-349, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286516

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La infección por Clostridium difficile (ICD) es causa de diarrea hospitalaria potencialmente letal. Objetivo: Identificar los factores de riesgo para mortalidad en pacientes hospitalizados con ICD. Método: Estudio transversal y retrospectivo. Se analizaron factores de riesgo: edad, comorbilidades, estado nutricional, antecedente y uso de antibióticos, de inhibidores de bomba de protones, esteroides, inmunosupresores, quimioterapia y desarrollo de lesión renal aguda (LRA). Resultados: Fueron evaluados 68 casos (incidencia de 25.7/10 000 egresos hospitalarios). La edad fue de 51.4 ± 19.37 años y la mortalidad de 22.2 %. La desnutrición moderada a severa mostró RM = 20.15, IC 95 % = 1.13-35, p = 0.004; el uso de más de dos antibióticos, RM = 1.61, IC 95 % = 0.39-6.65, p = 0.01; la LRA determinada por elevación de los niveles de creatinina, RM = 1.34, IC 95 % = 0.09-2.21, p = 0.02; la hipotensión con uso de vasopresores, RM = 1.28, IC 95 % = 0.30-1.23, p = 0.001; y el desarrollo de falla orgánica múltiple (FOM), RM = 1.13, IC 95 % = 0.31-4.92, p = 0.002. Conclusiones: La desnutrición moderada a severa, el uso de más de dos antibióticos, la LRA, la hipotensión con uso de vasopresores y la FOM se asocian con incremento en la mortalidad en pacientes con ICD.


Abstract Introduction: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes potentially lethal diarrhea. Objective: To identify the risk factors for mortality in hospitalized patients with CDI. Method: Cross-sectional, retrospective study. The analyzed risk factors were age, comorbidities, nutritional status, past and current use of antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors, steroids, immunosuppressive therapy and chemotherapy, as well as development of acute kidney injury (AKI). Results: Sixty-eight cases were assessed. Mean age was 51.4 ± 19.37 years. Mortality was 22.2 %. Moderate to severe undernutrition (Odds ratio [OR] = 20.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-35; p = 0.004), use of more than 2 antibiotics (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 0.39-6.65; p = 0.01), AKI as determined by creatinine levels (OR = 1.34; 95% CI = 0.09-2.21; p = 0.02), hypotension with vasopressor use (OR = 1.28; 95% CI = 0.30-1.23; p = 0.001) and multiple organ failure (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 0.31-4.92; p = 0.002) were associated with mortality. Conclusions: CDI represents an important problem in hospitalized patients and confers them an additional morbidity and mortality risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Clostridioides difficile/isolation & purification , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Clostridium Infections/etiology , Clostridium Infections/mortality , Diarrhea/microbiology , Hospitalization
19.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(4): 536-540, ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042673

ABSTRACT

Resumen La infección por Clostridioides (previamente Clostridium) difficile se ha convertido en un problema de salud importante debido al aumento en su incidencia, gravedad y recurrencia. En este último escenario, una edad mayor de 65 años ha sido asociada a una evolución más desfavorable. Factores de riesgo como la presencia de una inmunidad alterada, co-morbilidades, malnutrición, polifarmacia y cambios en la microbiota intestinal explicarían este mayor riesgo a mayor edad. El trasplante de microbiota fecal (TMF) es una estrategia efectiva en el tratamiento de la infección recurrente por Clostridioides difficile cuando la terapia estándar fracasa. Guías publicadas recientemente sugieren que esta estrategia puede ser utilizada a partir de la segunda recurrencia. Sin embargo, escasos estudios han evaluado los resultados del TMF en pacientes mayores de 65 años y para nuestro conocimiento existe una escasa experiencia nacional en este grupo de pacientes. Presentamos dos casos de TMF en pacientes octogenarios con una infección recurrente por Clostridioides difficile, con una evolución satisfactoria a largo plazo.


Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile infection has become a major health problem due to the increase in its incidence, severity, and recurrence. In this last scenario, age over 65 has been associated with a more unfavorable evolution. Risk factors such as the presence of altered immunity, comorbidities, malnutrition, polypharmacy, and changes in the intestinal microbiota would explain this higher risk in this group of patients. On the other hand, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective strategy in the treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection when standard therapy fails. Recently published guidelines suggest that this strategy can be used from the second recurrence. However, few studies have evaluated the results of the FMT in patients over 65 years old, and for our knowledge, there is limited national experience in this group of patients. We present two cases of TMF in octogenarian patients with a recurrent infection due to Clostridioides difficile, with satisfactory recovery at the long term.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Clostridium Infections/therapy , Diarrhea/microbiology , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Recurrence
20.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(7): 435-446, July 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040711

ABSTRACT

Clostridial diseases are important causes of livestock losses in the southern Rio Grande do Sul. Since 1978 annual surveys conducted at the "Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico" of the "Universidade Federal de Pelotas" (LRD-UFPel) have shown that clostridial diseases represent 10.40% of the bacterial diseases diagnosed in cattle and 1.65% of all diseases diagnosis in cattle over a 40-year period. The purpose of this study is to review the clinical, epidemiological and pathological aspects of the clostridial diseases diagnosed in cattle from January 1978 to December 2018 at the LRD-UFPel in the hopes that it will constitute a useful guide for field veterinary practitioners and interested farmers. We assessed and review the necropsy protocols of 6,736 cattle; these necropsies were performed either by LRD-UFPel faculty or by field veterinary practitioners; 111 outbreaks (1.65%) were diagnosed as clostridial disease, distributed as follows: 35 outbreaks of tetanus, 34 of blackleg, 23 of bacillary hemoglobinuria, 11 of malignant edema (gas gangrene), and eight of botulism. Approximately 904, from a total of 42,480 cattle at risk, died in these outbreaks.(AU)


Clostridioses são doenças produzidas por alguma das espécies do gênero Clostridium e são importantes causas de perdas pecuárias no sul do Rio Grande do Sul. Pesquisas anuais realizadas no Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico da Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (LRD-UFPel) desde 1978 demonstraram que as clostridioses representaram 11,1% das doenças bacterianas diagnosticadas em bovinos e 1,65% de todos os diagnósticos de doenças em bovinos ao longo de 40 anos. O objetivo deste estudo é revisar os aspectos clínicos, epidemiológicos e patológicos das clostridioses diagnosticadas de janeiro de 1978 a dezembro de 2018, pelo LRD/UFPel com a intenção de que esse trabalho possa servir de guia útil para os veterinários de campo e fazendeiros interessados. Foram avaliados e revisados os protocolos de necropsia de 6.736 bovinos; essas necropsias foram realizadas pelo pessoal do LRD/UFPel ou por veterinários de campo. Cento e quatro (1,16%) casos foram diagnosticados como clostridioses, distribuídos da seguinte forma: 35 surtos de tétano, 34 de carbúnculo sintomático, 23 de hemoglobinúria bacilar, 11 de edema maligno (gangrena gasosa) e oito de botulismo. Aproximadamente 904, de um total de 42.480 bovinos sob-risco, morreram nesses surtos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Botulism/veterinary , Carbuncle/veterinary , Clostridium/isolation & purification , Clostridium Infections/veterinary , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Gas Gangrene/veterinary , Hemoglobinuria/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL