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Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(9): 696-699, Sept. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040743


This study described an outbreak of necrohemorrhagic enteritis in a beef cattle feedlot in Nova Crixás, State of Goiás, Brazil, with emphasis on epidemiological, lesional, and laboratory aspects. Visits to the property were carried out and a necroscopic examination was performed on the bovine cadavers (N=57), which presented similar macroscopic alterations. Epidemiological data were collected, mainly referring to the feeding management of animals, and tissue samples were submitted to histopathological examination. Samples of feces and intestinal contents were also collected for bacterial isolation and PCR genotyping to detect the etiological agent, being confirmed Clostridium perfringens type A strains in 100% of the samples. Furthermore, 33.3% of strains isolated from intestinal contents and 40% of those isolated from feces were positive for beta-2 encoding gene. Considering the history, macroscopic and microscopic findings, as well as bacterial isolation and PCR, the diagnosis of bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis was determined.(AU)

Descreve-se um surto de enterite necro-hemorrágica em um confinamento de bovinos de corte no município de Nova Crixás, Estado de Goiás, Brasil, com ênfase nos aspectos epidemiológicos, lesionais e laboratoriais. Foram realizadas visitas à propriedade e todos os cadáveres bovinos (N=57) foram submetidos ao exame necroscópico, os quais apresentaram alterações macroscópicas semelhantes. Foram compilados dados epidemiológicos, sobretudo referentes ao manejo alimentar dos animais e amostras de tecido foram submetidas a exame histopatológico. Foram colhidas, também, amostras de fezes e conteúdo intestinal para isolamento bacteriano e genotipagem por PCR para detecção do agente etiológico, sendo confirmadas estirpes de Clostridium perfringens tipo A em 100% das amostras. Ainda, 33,3% das cepas de Clostridium perfringens isoladas no conteúdo intestinal e 40% daquelas isoladas nas fezes foram positivas para o gene codificador da toxina beta-2. Considerando o histórico, os achados macroscópicos e microscópicos, o isolamento bacteriano e o PCR, foi estabelecido o diagnóstico de enterite necro-hemorrágica por C. perfringens tipo A.(AU)

Animals , Cattle , Clostridium perfringens/isolation & purification , Enteritis/pathology , Enteritis/veterinary , Brazil
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(1): 150-155, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-892937


ABSTRACT Fournier's Gangrene (FG) is an infectious disease caused by several synergic microbes, with high morbidity and mortality rates; therefore, the search for new less invasive and mutilating treatments, with faster recovery, has been proposed. Surgical intervention, the use of several systemic and topic antibiotics, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy are currently the best approach for the treatment of these patients. The use of Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI) aims to lower morbidity and mortality, by reducing bacterial microbiota and speeding wound healing. In the present study, viable bacteria were separated in four groups: Group L-/F- (no irradiation with red laser and absence of methylene blue photosensitizer), Group L-/F+ (no irradiation with red laser and presence of methylene blue), Group L+/F- (irradiation with red laser and absence of methylene blue) and L+/F+ (irradiation with red laser associated to methylene blue). In all groups, exposure time to treatment was 5, 10 and 15 minutes. The concentration of methylene blue photosensitizer was 0.1mg/L, and the dose of red laser (660nm wave length) was 176.9mW/cm2. Following irradiation, the reduction of number of bacteria was evaluated, and the results were expressed in colony forming units (CFU) and as exponential reduction. As the main results, in the L+/F+ group, there were no Clostridium perfringens and Staphylococcus aureus CFUs and there was a reduction of Escherichia coli that was not observed in the other groups.

Photochemotherapy , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , Fournier Gangrene/microbiology , Fournier Gangrene/therapy , Methylene Blue/therapeutic use , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , In Vitro Techniques , Clostridium perfringens/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(6): 1709-1713, nov.-dez. 2018. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-969642


The aim of the present study was to isolate Clostridium perfringens and C. difficile in crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) from Northeastern Brazil. Stool samples of 18 captive crab-eating foxes from four states of Northeastern Brazil (Alagoas, Bahia, Paraíba e Pernambuco) were collected and subjected to C. perfringens and C. difficile isolation. Suggestive colonies of C. perfringens were then analyzed for genes encoding the major C. perfringens toxins (alpha, beta, epsilon and iota), beta-2 toxin (cpb2), enterotoxin (cpe), and NetB- (netB) and NetF- (netF) encoding genes. C. difficile strains were analyzed by multiplex-PCR for a housekeeping gene (tpi), toxins A (tcdA) and B (tcdB) and a binary toxin gene (cdtB). Unthawed aliquots of stool samples positive for toxigenic C. difficile were subjected to a commercial ELISA to evaluate the presence of A/B toxins. Clostridium perfringens (type A) was isolated from five (27%) samples, and only one sample was positive for beta-2 enconding gene (cpb2). Two (11%) stool samples were positive for C. difficile, but negative for A/B toxins. These two wild canids were also positive for C. perfringens type A. This is the first report of C. difficile in crab-eating fox.(AU)

O objetivo deste estudo foi isolar Clostridium perfringens e C. difficile em cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous) da região Nordeste do Brasil. Amostras de fezes de 18 cachorros-do-mato mantidos em cativeiro e oriundos de quatro estados da região Nordeste do Brasil (Alagoas, Bahia, Paraíba e Pernambuco) foram coletadas e submetidas a isolamento de C. perfringens e C. difficile. As colônias sugestivas de C. perfringens foram analisadas para os genes que codificam as principais toxinas de C. perfringens (alfa, beta, épsilon e iota), toxina beta-2 (cpb2), enterotoxina (cpe) e NetB- (netB) e NetF- (netF). As cepas de C. difficile foram analisadas por PCR-multiplex para o gene tpi, toxinas A (tcdA) e B (tcdB) e um gene de toxina binária (cdtB). Alíquotas de amostras de fezes positivas para C. difficile toxigênico foram submetidas a um ELISA comercial para avaliar a presença de toxinas A/B. Clostridium perfringens (tipo A) foi isolado de cinco (27%) amostras, e apenas uma amostra foi positiva para o gene da toxina beta-2 (cpb2). Duas (11%) amostras de fezes foram positivas para C. difficile, mas negativas para toxinas A/B. Estes dois canídeos silvestres também foram positivos para C. perfringens tipo A. Este é o primeiro relato de C. difficile em cachorro-do-mato.(AU)

Animals , Clostridioides difficile/isolation & purification , Clostridium perfringens/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/veterinary
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 764-768, Oct.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889184


ABSTRACT Clostridium perfringens is the causative agent for necrotic enteritis. It secretes the major virulence factors, and α- and NetB-toxins that are responsible for intestinal lesions. The TpeL toxin affects cell morphology by producing myonecrosis, but its role in the pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis is unclear. In this study, the presence of netB and tpeL genes in C. perfringens type A strains isolated from chickens with necrotic enteritis, their cytotoxic effects and role in adhesion and invasion of epithelial cells were evaluated. Six (27.3%) of the 22 C. perfringens type A strains were harboring the tpeL gene and produced morphological alterations in Vero cells after 6 h of incubation. Strains tpeL (-) induced strong cell rounding after 6 h of incubation and produced cell enlargement. None of the 22 strains harbored netB gene. All the six tpeL (+) gene strains were able to adhere to HEp-2 cells; however, only four of them (66.6%) were invasive. Thus, these results suggest that the presence of tpeL gene or TpeL toxin might be required for the adherence of bacteria to HEp-2 cells; however, it could not have any role in the invasion process.

Humans , Animals , Poultry Diseases/microbiology , Bacterial Adhesion , Clostridium Infections/microbiology , Clostridium Infections/veterinary , Clostridium perfringens/physiology , Epithelial Cells/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Vero Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chickens , Clostridium perfringens/isolation & purification , Clostridium perfringens/genetics
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(3): 1030-1033, July-Sept. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-656670


The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 13 antibiotics against Clostridium perfringens isolated from Brazilian piglets. The collection of isolates was performed in June to October 2010. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin and ceftiofur, whereas most were resistant to tetracycline and lincomycin. Avilamycin and narasin were more effective against isolates from non-diarrheic than from diarrheic piglets. The other antimicrobials were less active in need of high concentrations to inhibit the growth of the C. perfringens type A. These results suggest the need for further studies evaluating molecular factors related to the antimicrobial resistance of C. perfringens.

Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Amoxicillin/isolation & purification , Clostridium perfringens/growth & development , Clostridium perfringens/isolation & purification , Diarrhea , Disease Susceptibility , Tetracycline Resistance , Methods , Swine
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 18(1): 83-87, 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-618193


Of the 102 samples collected from mammals and birds, both domestic and captive wild, 48 were found to be positive for Clostridium perfringens. Most of the mammal isolates (84.38%) appeared to have been collected from clinically affected animals, while 33.33% of the bird samples were from clinically affected and 21.43% from apparently healthy birds infected with C. perfringens. Isolates revealed high sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and norfloxacin. Among the isolated C. perfringens, 30 (62.50%) showed DNase production. Hemolytic activity was recorded in 14 (24.16%) of the isolates and 28 (58.33%) showed phospholipase C production. All the phospholipase C positive isolates revealed the presence of cpa gene encoding alpha (α) toxin. Of the 102 samples collected from mammals and birds, both domestic and captive wild, 48 were found to be positive for Clostridium perfringens. Most of the mammal isolates (84.38%) appeared to have been collected from clinically affected animals, while 33.33% of the bird samples were from clinically affected and 21.43% from apparently healthy birds infected with C. perfringens. Isolates revealed high sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and norfloxacin. Among the isolated C. perfringens, 30 (62.50%) showed DNase production. Hemolytic activity was recorded in 14 (24.16%) of the isolates and 28 (58.33%) showed phospholipase C production. All the phospholipase C positive isolates revealed the presence of cpa gene encoding α toxin.(AU)

Animals , Toxins, Biological , Clostridium Infections/veterinary , Clostridium perfringens/isolation & purification , Clostridium perfringens/pathogenicity , Birds , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , India , Animals, Domestic , Mammals
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-102514


An 80-year-old woman with hilar cholangiocarcinoma was hospitalized due to sudden-onset abdominal pain. Computed tomography revealed hepatic necrosis accompanied with emphysematous change in the superior segment of the right liver (S7/S8), implying spontaneous rupture, based on the presence of perihepatic free air. Although urgent percutaneous drainage was performed, neither pus nor fluids were drained. These findings suggest emphysematous hepatitis with a hepatic mass. Despite the application of intensive care, the patient's condition deteriorated rapidly, and she died 3 days after admission to hospital. Liver gas has been reported in some clinical diseases (e.g., liver abscess) to be caused by gas-forming organisms; however, emphysematous hepatitis simulating emphysematous pyelonephritis is very rare. The case reported here was of fatal emphysematous hepatitis in a patient with hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bile Duct Neoplasms/complications , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic/pathology , Cefotaxime/therapeutic use , Cholangiocarcinoma/complications , Clostridium Infections/drug therapy , Clostridium perfringens/isolation & purification , Emphysema/complications , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli Infections/drug therapy , Female , Hepatitis/complications , Humans , Metronidazole/therapeutic use , Pneumoperitoneum/complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Rev. biol. trop ; 59(4): 1479-1485, Dec. 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-646526


Molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance of Clostridium perfringens isolates of different origins from Costa Rica. Clostridium perfringens, a Gram positive, spore-forming anaerobe, is widely distributed in nature. Based upon their production of four major toxins α, β, ε and ι, C. perfringens is classified into five toxinotypes (A-E). Some strains produce an enterotoxin (CPE), encoded by the cpe gene, which causes diarrhea in humans and some animals. C. perfringens strains that had been previously isolated and been kept at -80°C were analyzed for the presence of toxin genes and for antimicrobial resistance: 20 from soils,20 from animal, 20 from human origin and 21 from food non related to outbreaks. According to PCR results, all strains were classified as C. perfringens type A, since only α toxin gene was detected, while cpe was detected in two strains (2.5%) isolated from food, as it has been described in other world regions. Antibiotic resistance to at least one antibiotic was detected in 44% of the strains, 41% was resistant to clindamycin, 25% to chloramphenicol, 22% to penicillin and 20% to metronidazole. Soils strains showed the highest resistance percentages to almost all antibiotics. Multiresistance (to three or more antibiotic groups) was detected in the strains from soil (40%), human origin (30%), food (14%) and animal origin (5%). The high resistance rates found may be explained by the widespread use of antimicrobials as growth promoters in plants and animals; also these resistant strains may act as reservoir of resistance genes that may be transferred between bacteria in different environments. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4): 1479-1485. Epub 2011 December 01.

Clostridium perfringens es un bacilo Gram positivo, esporulado, anaerobio, ampliamente distribuido en la naturaleza, que produce cuatro toxinas principales α, β, ε y ι, las cuales permiten su clasificación en cinco toxinotipos (A-E). Algunas cepas producen una enterotoxina (CPE), codificada por el gen cpe, que causa diarrea en seres humanos y en algunos animales. La presencia de los genes de estas toxinas y la sensibilidad a los antibióticos se determinó en 81 cepas de C. perfringens previamente aisladas y que habían sido mantenidas a -80°C; 20 de suelos, 20 de origen animal, 20 de origen humano y 21 de alimentos cocidos no relacionados con brotes alimentarios. De acuerdo con los resultados de PCR, todas las cepas fueron clasificadas como C. perfringens tipo A, debido a que solo se les detectó el gen de la toxina α, mientras que el gen de la enterotoxina (cpe) se detectó en dos cepas (2.5%) aisladas de alimentos, tal como ha sido descrito en otras regiones del mundo. El 44% de las cepas fue resistente a algún antibiótico; clindamicina (41%), cloranfenicol (25%), penicilina (22%) y metronidazol (20%). En general, las cepas provenientes de suelos presentaron los mayores porcentajes de resistencia a casi todos los antibióticos. El 40% de las cepas de suelo presentó multiresistencia (a tres o más grupos de antibióticos), el 30% de las de origen humano, el 14% de las de alimentos y el 5% de las de origen animal. Las altas tasas de resistencia encontradas podrían deberse al amplio uso de antibióticos como promotores de crecimiento de plantas y animales y esas cepas resistentes podrían actuar como reservorio de genes de resistencia que pueden transferirse entre bacterias de diversos ambientes.

Animals , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Clostridium perfringens/drug effects , Clostridium perfringens/genetics , Enterotoxins/genetics , Costa Rica , Clostridium perfringens/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction
Veterinary Medical Journal. 2010; 58 (1): 81-90
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-110764


Examined field chickens with signs and lesions of natural infection with necrotic enteritis [NE] revealed the isolation of Clostridium perfringens [C. perfringens] from positive chickens at the rate of 63.33%, 30%, 30% and 66.66% in autumn, winter, spring and summer; respectively. The overall positive samples were 57 out of examined 120 chickens with incidence of 47.5%. Regarding chicken breed, isolation rate in autunm were 65% and 60.0%, in winter 35.0% and 20.0%, in spring 25.0% and 40.0%, in summer 85.0% and 30.0% was recorded out of broilers and layers; respectively. C. perfringens isolates were serologically typed into 24 type A, 3 type C and 30 nontoxigenic isolates. Type A isolates were 5, 2, 6 and 11 in autumn, winter, spring and summer; respectively. While type C isolates were 2 in autumn and 1 in spring. C. perflingens Type A recovered from broiler and layer were 2 and 3, 2 and 0, 4 and 2, 10 and 1 in autumn, winter, spring and summer; respectively. Only 2 isolates of type C were recovered in autumn and I in spring

Clostridium perfringens/isolation & purification , Enteritis/veterinary , Seasons
Veterinary Medical Journal. 2010; 58 (2): 111-121
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-117302


One hundred and ten milk samples were collected from 35 dairy cows with recurrent mastitis and 75 apparently healthy ones. The field application of California Mastitis Test [CMT] on the apparently healthy cows indicated 60% [45 out of 75 cows] with sub-clinical mastitis. The estimation of SCC recorded 31.8% [35 samples] above Ixl0[6] cell/ml, 40.9% [45 samples] were ranged between 4xl0[5] to Ixl0[5] cell/ml and 27.3% [30 samples] were less than 4xl0[5] cell/ml. The bacteriological examination revealed 10% facultative anaerobic bacteria from normal milk samples, while both facultative and obligatory anaerobic bacteria were 62.2% from sub-clinical and 100% from clinical mastitic milk samples. The highly effective antibiotics on the isolated bacteria in the laboratory were florofenicol, tetradelta, gentamicin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, refampicin and metronidazol

Animals , Mastitis/microbiology , Cattle/microbiology , Milk/microbiology , Clostridium perfringens/isolation & purification
Braz. j. microbiol ; 40(2): 262-264, Apr.-June 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-520215


Clostridium perfringens is a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of chickens as well as a potential pathogen that causes necrotic enteritis and colangio hepatitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of seven different compounds used for therapy, growth promotion or prevention of coccidiosis was determined by agar dilution method for 55 C. perfringens strains isolated from the intestines of broiler chickens. All strains showed high susceptibility to penicillin, avilamycin, monensin and narasin. Only 7.3% of the strains showed an intermediated sensitivity to lincomycin, and 49 (89.1%) were considered susceptible. For tetracycline and bacitracin, 41.8% and 47.3% of strains, respectively, were considered resistant.

Clostridium perfringens é um habitante normal da microbiota intestinal de frangos, sendo um agente potencialmente patogênico, causador de enterite necrótica e colangio-hepatite.A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) de sete drogas utilizadas na terapêutica, como agentes promotores de crescimento ou na prevenção de coccidiose foi determinada pelo método de diluição em ágar para 55 estirpes de C. perfringens isoladas do intestino de frangos de corte. Todas as estirpes revelaram alta sensibilidade à penicilina, avilamicina, narasin e monensina, apenas 7,3% demonstraram CIM intermediário para lincomicinae 89.1% foram consideradas sensíveis. Para tetraciclina e bacitracina, 41,8% e 47.3% das amostras, respectivamente, foram consideradas resistentes.

Animals , Clostridium Infections , Clostridium perfringens/isolation & purification , Coccidiostats/analysis , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Enteritis/veterinary , In Vitro Techniques , Poultry , Methods , Pathology, Veterinary , Methods
Ciênc. rural ; 38(7): 1943-1947, out. 2008. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-495105


Clostridium perfringens (Cp) é uma bactéria aneróbica gram positiva que, além de provocar gangrena gasosa e enterotoxemia em humanos e animais, constitui-se na principal causa de enterite necrótica em aves de criações intensificadas. A identificação dos isolados foi realizada pela reação de lecitinase em ágar TSC-gema de ovo, colônias com dupla hemólise em ágar sangue desfibrinado de eqüino, coloração de Gram e provas bioquímicas. Das amostras analisadas, 171Cp foram isolados em jejuno e íleo de frangos de corte provenientes de um frigorífico da região de Pará de Minas-MG. Cp foi isolado em 62 (49,6 por cento) de 125 amostras de conteúdo lumenal de jejunos e em 109 (87,2 por cento) de igual número de íleos dos frangos de corte. Utilizando-se a técnica da PCR múltipla para genotipicacão das estirpes de Cp, de acordo com os genes para as toxinas principais e letais (cpa, cpb, etx e iA), da toxina cpb2 (cpb2) e enterotoxina (cpe), as estirpes de Cp isoladas foram classificadas em cinco tipos toxigênicos (A-E). Das 62 estirpes de Cp isoladas do jejuno, foram obtidos 42/62 (67,7 por cento) tipo A, 1/62 (1,6 por cento) tipo A com produto de amplificação para o gene da toxina beta2, 0/62 (0 por cento) tipo B, 17/62 (27,4 por cento) tipo C, 1/62 (1,6 por cento) tipo D. Das 109 amostras de Cp isolados do íleo das aves foram obtidos 62/109 (56,9 por cento) tipo A, 3/109 (2,7 por cento) tipo A com produto de amplificação para o gene da toxina beta2, 1/62 (0,9 por cento) tipo B, 38/109 (34,9 por cento) tipo C, 1/109 (0,9 por cento) tipo D. Cp A (60,8 por cento) e Cp C (32,2 por cento) foram os tipos toxigênicos predominantes em conteúdo intestinal de frango de corte. Cinco (2,9 por cento) das 171 amostras de Cp isolados não foram tipificadas. Não foram detectados os genes codificadores das toxinas iota (iA) e enterotoxina (cpe) em nenhuma das 171 estirpes de Cp caracterizados.

Clostridium perfringens (Cp) is an anaerobic gram-positive bacterium which causes gaseous gangrene and enterotoxaemias in humans and domestic animals, besides being the primary cause of necrotic enteritis in poultry. Cp isolates were preliminary identified according to the lecithinase test on agar TSC-egg yolk, colony with double haemolysis in desfibrinated horse blood agar, Gram staining and biochemical tests. Cp isolates (171) were obtained from the intestinal content of broiler chickens sampled in a slaughterhouse in Pará de Minas city, MG, Brazil. Cp was isolated in 62/125 (49.6 percent) strains from jejunum content and in 109/125 (87.2 percent) of ileum. Cp strains were classified into five toxigenic types (A-E), using multiplex PCR assay for genotyping of the principal and lethal toxins in the detection of genes coding for toxins alfa, beta, epsilon e iota, nomely genes cpa, cpb, etx e iA genes, beta2 toxin (cpb2) and enterotoxin (cpe). From a total of 62 Cp jejunum isolates obtained 42/62 (67.7 percent) were type A, 1/62 (1.6 percent) type A with the amplification of products for beta2 toxin gene (A/B2), 0/62 (0 percent) type B, 17/62 (27.4 percent) type C and 1/62 (1.6 percent) type D. A total of 109 ileum Cp isolates were obtained being 62/109 (56.9 percent) type A, 3/109 (2.7 percent) type A/B2 toxin gene, 1/62 (0.9 percent) type B, 38/109 (34.9 percent) type C, 1/109 (0.9 percent) type D. Cp A (60.8 percent) and Cp C (32.2 percent) toxigenic types were the most prevalent types in the analyzed intestinal contents of broiler chickens Cp A 104/171 (60.8 percent) and 55/171 (32.2 percent) toxigenic types which were the most prevalent types analyzed into two partes of the intestinal content of broiler chickens. Five (2.9 percent) out of 171 Cp isolates were not typified. The iota toxin (iA) and enterotoxin gene (cpe) codifying genes were not identified.

Animals , Chickens , Clostridium perfringens/isolation & purification , Clostridium perfringens/pathogenicity , Poultry Diseases/etiology , Enteritis/etiology , Enteritis/veterinary
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 60(4): 821-824, ago. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-489822


Purified epsilon prototoxin of Clostridium perfringens type D was produced, purified, and detoxified by the stoiechiometric method of non-radioactive iodine incorporation. Different degrees of iodination were perfomed and the toxicity of the derivatives were analysed by in vivo studies. Toxicity decreased inversely to the iodine incorporation. Eletrophoretic analysis showed different levels of stability of samples kept under different temperatures 4ºC, - 20ºC, and -80 ºC. The iodinated prototoxins were stocked for a period of four months.

A prototoxina epsílon de Clostridium perfringens tipo D foi produzida, purificada e destoxificada por estoiquiometria. Diferentes quantidades de iodo foram incorporadas à estrutura protéica da prototoxina e a toxicidade dos derivados foi analisada em estudos in vivo. Verificou-se que a toxicidade diminuiu à medida que os átomos de iodo foram incorporados à prototoxina. A análise eletroforética demonstrou a estabilidade das amostras quando armazenadas a 4ºC, -20ºC e -80ºC. A prototoxina iodada foi estocada por um período de quatro meses.

Animals , Clostridium perfringens/isolation & purification , Halogenation , Toxicity/adverse effects
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 27(7): 297-300, jul. 2007. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-461220


The objectives were to determine the prevalence of fibrinonecrotic enteritis (FNE) on a farrow-to-finish farm of 1,000 sows, to categorize the pathological changes, and to to investigate the lesion associated agents Isospora suis and Clostridium perfringens. Causes of preweaning mortality (PWM) were classified into 8 categories including FNE. Obtained data were evaluated for statistical significance by adjusted Chi-square analysis. Samples of FNE were taken for complementary studies including a PCR technique for genotyping toxin genes of Clostridium perfringens from gut samples fixed in 10 percent neutral formalin. From 3,153 piglets examined, less than 1 percent was classified as FNE. FNE prevalence increased progressively from the first to the third week, the last differing statistically from the others. Eighty percent of gut samples with FNE lesions were positive to Isospora suis, when examined by PCR from 9 severe FNE lesions detected 7 positive samples only for a toxin gene, characteristic of C. perfringens type-A.

Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar a prevalência de enterite fibrinonecrótica (EFN) em uma granja tecnificada com 1000 matrizes, classificar as mudanças patológicas e investigar a lesão decorrente da associação dos agentes Clostri-dium perfringens e Isospora suis. As lesões macroscópicas devidas à mortalidade pré-desmame (MPD) foram classificadas em oito categorias incluindo EFN. Os dados obtidos foram avaliados pelo teste Qui-quadrado. Amostras de EFN foram colhidas para estudos complementares incluindo uma técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) para identificação dos genes codificadores de toxinas de C. perfringens a partir de amostras do intestino fixadas em formalina a 10 por cento. Dos 3.153 leitões examinados, menos que 1 por cento foram classificados como EFN. As análises estatísticas revelaram que a EFN aumentou progressivamente a partir da primeira para a terceira semana, sendo que a última semana diferiu estatisticamente das demais. Oitenta porcento das amostras do intestino com EFN foram positivas para I. suis. Por meio da PCR a partir dos 9 casos de EFN severa, 7 foram positivos somente para o gene da toxina alfa, característico de C. perfringens tipo A.

Clostridium perfringens/isolation & purification , Enteritis/epidemiology , Isospora/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Swine
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 59(3): 810-812, jun. 2007. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-461160


Relata-se, pela primeira vez no Brasil, a ocorrência de mastite gangrenosa caprina atípica causada pela co-infecção por Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens e Escherichia coli em uma cabra da raça Boer, na segunda semana de lactação. Descrevem-se os achados clínicos, os procedimentos de diagnóstico microbiológico e a conduta terapêutica.

Animals , Female , Goats , Gangrene/veterinary , Mastitis/epidemiology , Mastitis/etiology , Mastitis/veterinary , Clostridium perfringens/isolation & purification , Clostridium perfringens/pathogenicity , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Bacterial Infections/veterinary , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 13(4): 885-893, 2007. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-471149


Postmortem examination of a Boer buck that died peracutely revealed bowel and liver diffusely congested and edematous. Kidney was apparently edematous. Clostridium perfringens type A was isolated from bowel and type D from kidney. Microscopic examination revealed large areas of necrosis in the renal cortex and medulla (pulpy kidney disease), hyperemia and centrilobular necrosis of the liver, necrosis of the small-intestine wall, pulmonary edema and congestion, intense hyperemia of the cerebellum, hyperemia and edema of the brain.

Animals , Clostridium Infections , Clostridium perfringens/isolation & purification , Enterotoxemia , Goats
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 58(5): 952-954, out. 2006.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-441549


This report describes a case of bovine enterotoxaemia in Morro da Garça, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Clostridium perfringens type D was isolated in pure culture and was characterized by biochemical reactions and PCR. By the mouse neutralization test, the presence of epsilon toxin from intestinal content was detected.

Animals , Female , Cattle , Clostridium perfringens/isolation & purification , Enterotoxemia/diagnosis , Enterotoxemia/prevention & control
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 58(2): 276-278, abr. 2006. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-432681


Empregaram-se os métodos cromatográficos de afinidade metálica e de imunoafinidade para purificação da toxina beta em sobrenadante de cultivo de Clostridium perfringens tipo C. Observaram-se, na eletroforese das primeiras frações eluidas nos dois métodos de purificação, uma banda de peso molecular aproximado de 38kDa, característica da forma monomérica de toxina beta de Clostridium perfringens tipo C, e bandas de peso moleculares superiores, referentes às suas formas oligoméricas. Maior rendimento foi obtido com a utilização do método de imunoafinidade.

Clostridium perfringens/isolation & purification , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 26(1): 51-54, jan.-mar. 2006. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-423931


Foi avaliada a resposta sorológica de vacina experimental contra a enterotoxemia em quatro grupos de caprinos. O Grupo 1 recebeu colostro de vacas não vacinadas e nenhuma dose de vacina. Os Grupos 2, 3 e 4 receberam colostro de vacas vacinadas, e uma dose de vacina aos 80 dias de idade nos Grupos 3 e 4. O Grupo 4 recebeu a segunda dose de vacina aos 120 dias de idade. Os níveis de anticorpos séricos foram avaliados pelo ELISA nas vacas antes e depois do parto e nos caprinos aos 3, 80, 120 e 160 dias de idade. Não houve diferença significativa nos níveis de anticorpos séricos das vacas vacinadas e não vacinadas, assim como entre os quatro grupos de caprinos avaliados aos três dias de vida. Os Grupos 3 e 4 apresentaram títulos médios de anticorpos de 0,6 UI/mL e 1,1 UI/mL, respectivamente, aos 40 dias após a primovacinação. A resposta vacinal do grupo 4, 40 dias após o reforço, foi de 1,8 UI/mL, superior ao Grupo 3 que foi de 0,2 UI/mL. Portanto, no esquema proposto, o uso de colostro não induziu a imunização passiva dos cabritos. No entanto, a primovacinação e reforço 40 dias após desencadearam níveis de anticorpos considerados satisfatórios.

Colostrum , Clostridium perfringens/isolation & purification , Enterotoxemia/diagnosis , Enterotoxemia/prevention & control , Goats , Vaccines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal. 2006; 52 (108): 321-335
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-135540


A total of 140 rectal swabs, 20 of apparently healthy, 80 diarrhoeic rabbits and 40 freshly dead and sacrificed diarrhoeic rabbits 6-8 weeks old collected from EI-Minia and Assiut provinces. Collected samples were examined bacteriologically for prevalence and pathogenicity of clostridia. According to morphological characters and biochemical reactions. The incidence of C.perfringens and C.spiroforme were 55 [39.30%] and 10 [7.14%] respectively. There was variation between the prevalence rate of clostridia according to their general healthy condition, where was 3 [15%] in apparently healthy, 32 [40] in diarrhoeic rabbits while was 30 [75%] in dead and slaughtered diarrhoeic rabbits. For toxogenic and non-toxogenic type of C-perfringens, the incidence of toxigenic type was 45 [81.82%] while was 10 [18.18%] for nontoxigenic type. ToxIgenic type revealed that type "E" was the most predominant [71.11%], followed by type "A", "D" and "B" were [15.56%], [8.89%] and [4.45%] respectively. The pathogencity test of the isolates revealed high mortality of infected rabbits with C.perfringens type "E" reached to [75%] and [37.5%] for type "A", while reached to [62.5%] for C.spiroforme. All dead infected rabbits showed profuse watery diarrhoea and die within few first days after onset. Postmortem examination showed a varying degree of inflammation and ulcerative lesions on mucosal surface of caecum, colon and ileum while internal organs were congested and sometimes necrotic foci in liver. Sensitivity test of Clostridial strains against some antibiotics in vitro showed that, Ampcillin, Norfloxacin and Chloramphenicol were highly effective, while the strains were resistance to Streptomycin and Gentamycin

Animals , Rabbits/microbiology , Clostridium perfringens/isolation & purification , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology