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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18719, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364412

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of present study was calculate the Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of silver nanoparticles and clotrimazole for Candida species and their interaction by the adaptation of standarized methods. The MICs values of clotrimazole were 9 E-04-3 E-03 ug/ml, 0.1-0.6 ug/ml, 3 E-03- 0.1 ug/ml and 3 E-03-0.3 ug/ml for Candida albicans susceptible to fluconazole, Candida albicans resistance to fluconazole, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis respectively. The MICs values of silver nanoparticles were 26.50- 53 ug/ml; 26.50-106 ug/ml; 106-212 ug/ ml and 26.50- 53 ug/ml for Candida albicans susceptible to fluconazole, Candida albicans resistance to fluconazole, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis respectively. Synergism between clotrimazole and silver nanoparticles was measured by checkerboard BMD (broth microdilution) test and shown only for C. albicans susceptible to fluconazole because the fractional inhibitory concentrations (FICs) values were 0.07 - 0.15 ug/ml. Indifference was shown for the other species tested because the FICs values were between 0.5 - 2- 3.06 ug/ml. The results suggest synergistic activity depending on the fungus species analysed, however we recommend the incorporation of others measurement methodologies to confirm our results. As for measurement methodologies of MICs of silver nanoparticles and clotrimazole international normative were respected to guarantee reproducible and comparable results.


Subject(s)
Candida/classification , Clotrimazole/analogs & derivatives , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/instrumentation , Fungi
2.
Vive (El Alto) ; 3(9): 227-246, dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252340

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: las infecciones fúngicas ocasionadas por levaduras del género Cándida son extremadamente comunes en mujeres de edad reproductiva, y constituyen un motivo de atención medica de salud. OBJETIVO: evaluar la susceptibilidad de Cándidas spp, mediante el método colorimétrico (Integral Yeast System Plus). MÉTODO: fue de tipo descriptivo, transversal; se recopiló información mediante observación directa en campo y el análisis documental para obtener información bibliográfica de tipo secundaria. RESULTADOS: de los 72 casos encontrados de Cándida Albicans revela que son susceptibles a la anfotericina B (2ug/ml); de los 5 casos encontrados de Cándida Krusei revela que son sensibles a la Anfotericina B (2ug/ml); De 1 caso encontrado de Cándida Parapsilosis revela sensibilidad en la Nistatina (1.25ug/ml). En este estudio la prevalencia de la infección por Cándida fue del (44.98%). CONCLUSIONES: Cándida Albicans fue la especie más común aislada en las mujeres embarazadas representando un 72%, En la evaluación de la susceptibilidad a través del kit Integral System Yeast Plus se obtuvo que Cándida Albicans es susceptible a Anfotericina B, Flucitosina entre otros, en Cándida Glabrata se obtuvo que es sensible a la Nistatina, Anfotericina B, susceptible entre otros, en Cándida Krusei se obtuvo que es sensible a la Anfotericina B, Clotrimazol, Miconazol, susceptibles a la Nistatina, Voriconazol y resistente a la Flucitosina, Ketoconazol, Itraconazol y Fluconazol.


INTRODUCTION: fungal infections caused by yeast of the genus Candida are extremely common in women of reproductive age, and constitute a reason for medical health care. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the susceptibility of Candida spp, using the colorimetric method (Integral Yeast System Plus). METHOD: it was descriptive, transversal; Information was collected through direct observation in the field and documentary analysis to obtain secondary bibliographic information. RESULTS: of the 72 cases found, Candida Albicans reveals that they are susceptible to amphotericin B (2ug / ml); of the 5 cases found, Candida Krusei reveals that they are sensitive to Amphotericin B (2ug / ml); Of 1 case found of Candida Parapsilosis reveals sensitivity in Nystatin (1.25ug / ml). In this study, the prevalence of Candida infection was (44.98%). CONCLUSIONS: Candida Albicans was the most common species isolated in pregnant women, representing 72%. In the evaluation of susceptibility through the Integral System Yeast Plus kit it was obtained that Candida Albicans is susceptible to Amphotericin B, Flucytosine among others, in Candida Glabrata was obtained that it is sensitive to Nystatin, Amphotericin B, susceptible among others, in Candida Krusei it was obtained that it is sensitive to Amphotericin B, Clotrimazole, Miconazole, susceptible to Nystatin, Voriconazole and resistant to Flucytosin, Ketoconazole, Itraconazole and Fluconazole.


INTRODUÇÃO: as infecções fúngicas causadas por leveduras do gênero Candida são extremamente comuns em mulheres em idade reprodutiva e constituem motivo de cuidados médicos. OBJETIVO: avaliar a suscetibilidade de Candida spp, por meio do método colorimétrico (Integral Yeast System Plus). MÉTODO: foi descritivo, transversal; as informações foram coletadas por meio de observação direta em campo e análise documental para obtenção de informações bibliográficas secundárias. RESULTADOS: Dos 72 casos encontrados, Cândida Albicans revelou ser suscetíveis à anfotericina B (2ug /ml); dos 5 casos encontrados, Candida Krusei revela que são sensíveis à Anfotericina B (2ug / ml); de 1 caso encontrado de Candida Parapsilosis revela sensibilidade na Nistatina (1,25ug / ml). Neste estudo, a prevalência de infecção por Candida foi (44,98%). CONCLUSÕES: Cândida Albicans foi a espécie mais comum isolada em gestantes, representando 72%. Na avaliação da susceptibilidade através do kit Integral System Yeast Plus foi obtido que Candida Albicans é suscetível à Anfotericina B, Flucitosina entre outras, em Cândida Glabrata foi obtido que é sensível a Nistatina, Anfotericina B, suscetível entre outras, em Candida Krusei foi obtido que é sensível a Anfotericina B, Clotrimazol, Miconazol, suscetível a Nistatina, Voriconazol e resistente a Flucitosina, Cetoconazol, Itraconazol e Fluconazol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Candida , Candida albicans , Amphotericin B , Colorimetry , Candida glabrata , Pregnant Women , Fluconazole , Prevalence , Clotrimazole , Itraconazole , Voriconazole , Flucytosine , Candida parapsilosis , Infections , Miconazole
3.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(3): 300-307, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132606

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Otomycosis, an infection of the ear canal by fungi, is prevalent in hot and humid weather. Nevertheless, there is not sufficient evidence for the effectiveness of different topical antifungal treatments. Tolnaftate, is a topical antifungal agent described to be effective in the treatment of otomycosis. Currently there are not sufficient studies that prove its efficacy. Objectives: To compare the efficacy of clotrimazole and tolnaftate administration in the treatment of otomycosis. Material and methods: A controlled, randomized and open clinical trial included patients diagnosed with fungal external otitis who were treated with topical antifungals, randomized into two treatment groups: (1) clotrimazole cream; (2) tolnaftate solution. They were microscopically evaluated at one and two weeks of treatment to determine resolution of disease. Recurrence and complications were recorded. Demographic and clinical variables were collected and analyzed. Follow-up and final outcomes (absence of infection) were compared between groups. Results: Forty eight patients were included, 28 in the clotrimazole group and 20 in the tolnaftate group. Spring was the weather most commonly associated with otomycosis, while otic manipulation was the risk factor more common in both groups. Predominant symptoms were itching and otic fullness. Aspergillus niger organism was isolated most frequently. Treatment with clotrimazole resulted in 75% resolution vs 45% resolution with treatment with tolnaftate at one week of treatment (p = 0.007). The Tolnaftate treatment group demonstrated higher recurrence rates and treatment failures, 20% and 15% respectively. Conclusions: Clotrimazole cream treatment is more effective than tolnaftate for uncomplicated otomycosis. More studies are needed to corroborate our results.


Resumo Introdução: Otomicose, uma infecção fúngica do canal auditivo externo, é prevalente em climas quentes e úmidos. No entanto, a literatura não apresenta evidências suficientes sobre os diferentes tratamentos antifúngicos tópicos. O tolnaftato é um antifúngico tópico descrito como eficaz no tratamento da otomicose; entretanto, sua eficácia não está suficientemente comprovada. Objetivo: Comparar a eficácia do uso de clotrimazol e tolnaftato no tratamento da otomicose. Material e método: Ensaio clínico controlado e randomizado; incluiu pacientes diagnosticados com otite externa fúngica tratados com antifúngicos tópicos, randomizados em dois grupos de tratamento: 1) clotrimazole (creme); 2) solução de tolnaftato. Eles foram avaliados microscopicamente uma e duas semanas após o início do tratamento para avaliar a resolução da doença. Recorrência e intercorrências foram registradas; além disso, as variáveis demográficas e clínicas foram coletadas e analisadas. Os dados do acompanhamento e desfechos finais (ausência de infecção) foram comparados entre os grupos. Resultados: O estudo incluiu 48 pacientes, 28 dos quais foram alocados ao grupo clotrimazole e 20 ao grupo tolnaftato. A primavera foi a estação mais comum; a manipulação foi o fator de risco mais comum em ambos os grupos. Os sintomas mais comuns foram coceira e plenitude auricular. Aspergillus niger foi o micro-organismo mais comumente isolado. Após uma semana, o tratamento com clotrimazol apresentou uma taxa de resolução de 75% vs. 45% com o tratamento com tolnaftato (p = 0,007). O tratamento com tolnaftato apresentou maiores taxas de recidiva e falhas: 20% e 15%, respectivamente. Conclusões: Em casos de otomicose não complicada, o uso de clotrimazol (creme) é mais eficaz do que o de tolnaftato. Mais estudos são necessários para corroborar os presentes resultados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Tolnaftate/administration & dosage , Clotrimazole/administration & dosage , Otomycosis/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome , Otomycosis/microbiology
4.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20200087, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132188

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the current study, nanocapsules (NC) formulations containing a co-load of clotrimazole (C), a highly prescribed antifungal drug, and diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2], an organoselenium compound with a promising scope of pharmacological actions, were prepared. Formulations were characterized as well as the potential toxicity, antioxidant action, and antifungal effect were assessed using in vitro techniques. The NCs were prepared employing Eudragit® RS 100 as polymeric wall and medium chain triglycerides or virgin coconut oil (CO) as core. All NC suspensions had pH around acid range, compound content close to theoretical value (1 mg/mL/drug), average diameter in nanometric range, positive values of zeta potential as well as high encapsulation efficacy and mucoadhesive property. Physicochemical stability was performed over a 30-day period and showed no modification in the aforementioned parameters to all samples. Preliminary screening of toxicological potential performed by the hen's egg test chorioallantoic membrane technique classified the formulations as non-irritant. The DPPH radical assay revealed that nanoencapsulated compounds had superior antioxidant action in comparison to their free forms (concentration range tested 1.0-25.0 µg/mL). Importantly, the formulation composed of CO and containing C and (PhSe)2 showed the highest antioxidant potential and was selected for further investigation regarding antifungal effect against some Candida spp strains. Results of in vitro antifungal assay demonstrated that the C and (PhSe)2 co-encapsulation had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values around 60. Thus, our study supplies additional data about advantages achieved by encapsulating active compounds.


Subject(s)
Benzene Derivatives/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Organoselenium Compounds/pharmacology , Clotrimazole/pharmacology , Nanocapsules , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740354

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of filling the external auditory meatus with 1% clotrimazole at a single visit for the treatment of otomycosis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This prospective study included 40 patients who were referred to our clinic with complaints of ear itching, pain, and fullness, and were diagnosed with unilateral otomycosis. After cleaning the mycotic hyphae from the external auditory meatus, the ear canal was filled with 1% clotrimazole, using an intravenous catheter and syringe. The patients received follow-up examinations on post-treatment days 7, 15, and 45. RESULTS: The follow-up otomicroscopic examinations revealed that 95% of the ear canals were entirely clean and that all symptoms had resolved. The post-treatment scores of pain, aural fullness and itching were significantly lower than the pre-treatment scores (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Filling the external auditory meatus with 1% clotrimazole at a single visit is an easy, efficient, and cost-effective treatment for otomycosis. Additionally, high patient compliance makes this treatment superior to long-term topical therapy.


Subject(s)
Catheters , Clotrimazole , Ear , Ear Canal , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hyphae , Otomycosis , Patient Compliance , Prospective Studies , Pruritus , Syringes
6.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 84(4): 404-409, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951858

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Otomycosis is a common diseases that can be associated with many complications including involvement of the inner ear and mortality in rare cases. Management of otomycosis can be challenging, and requires a close follow-up. Treatment options for otomycosis include local debridement, local and systemic antifungal agents and utilization of topical antiseptics. Objective This study was designed to compare the recovery rate of otomycosis using two therapeutic methods; topical betadine (Povidone-iodine) and clotrimazole. Methods In this single-blind clinical trial, 204 patients with otomycosis were selected using a non-probability convenient sampling method and were randomly assigned to two treatment groups of topical betadine and clotrimazole (102 patients in each group). Response to treatment was assessed at 4, 10 and 20 days after treatment. Data were analyzed using the independent t-test, Chi-Square and Fisher exact test in SPSS v.18 software, at a significance level of p < 0.05. Results The results showed that out of 204 patients with otomycosis, fungi type isolated included Aspergillus in 151 cases (74%), and Candida albicans in 53 patients (26%). On the fourth day after treatment, 13 patients (13.1%) in the group treated with betadine and 10 patients (9.8%) in the group treated with clotrimazole showed a good clinical response to treatment (p = 0.75). A good response to treatment was reported for 44 (43.1%) and 47 patients (46.1%) on the tenth day after the treatment (p = 0.85); and 70 (68.6%) and 68 patients (67.6%) on the twentieth day after treatment (p = 0.46) in the groups treated with betadine and clotrimazole, respectively. The response to treatment was thus not significantly different in the two groups. Conclusion In the present study the efficacy of betadine and clotrimazole was the same for the treatment of otomycosis. The result of this study supports the use of betadine as an effective antifungal in otomycosis treatment, helping to avoid the emergence of resistant organisms.


Resumo Introdução A otomicose é uma das doenças comuns associadas a muitas complicações, como envolvimento da orelha interna e mortalidade em casos raros. O tratamento da otomicose pode ser realmente desafiador e requer um acompanhamento rigoroso. As opções de tratamento para otomicose podem incluir desbridamento local, agentes antifúngicos locais e sistêmicos e uso de antissépticos tópicos, os medicamentos tópicos recomendados para o tratamento da otomicose. Objetivo Comparar a taxa de recuperação de otomicose utilizando dois métodos terapêuticos de betadina tópica (povidona-iodo) e clotrimazol. Método Neste ensaio clínico simples cego, 204 pacientes com otomicose foram selecionados utilizando-se método de amostragem de não probabilidade conveniente e randomizados para dois grupos de tratamento, com betadina tópica e com clotrimazol (102 pacientes em cada grupo). A resposta ao tratamento foi avaliada aos 4, 10 e 20 dias após o tratamento. Os dados foram analisados utilizando o teste t independente, qui-quadrado e teste de Fisher no software SPSS v.18, com nível de significância de p < 0,05. Resultados Os resultados mostraram que dos 204 pacientes com otomicose, os tipos de fungos isolados incluíram Aspergillus em 151 casos (74%) e Candida albicans em 53 pacientes (26%). No quarto dia após o tratamento, 13 pacientes (13,1%) no grupo tratado com betadina e 10 pacientes (9,8%) no grupo tratado com clotrimazol apresentaram boa resposta ao tratamento (p = 0,75). Uma boa resposta ao tratamento foi relatada para 44 (43,1%) e 47 pacientes (46,1%) no décimo dia após o tratamento (p = 0,85); e 70 (68,6%) e 68 pacientes (67,6%) no vigésimo dia após o tratamento (p = 0,46) no grupo tratado com betadina e clotrimazol, respectivamente. Assim, a resposta ao tratamento não foi significativamente diferente nos dois grupos. Conclusão No presente estudo, a eficácia da betadina e do clotrimazol foi a mesma no tratamento da otomicose. O resultado deste estudo apoia o uso de betadina como um antifúngico eficaz no tratamento da otomicose que pode ajudar a evitar o surgimento de organismos resistentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Povidone-Iodine/administration & dosage , Clotrimazole/administration & dosage , Otomycosis/drug therapy , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Administration, Cutaneous , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Single-Blind Method , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717250

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is currently the most prevalent cancer in women, and its incidence increases every year. Azole antifungal drugs were recently found to have antitumor efficacy in several cancer types. They contain an imidazole (clotrimazole and ketoconazole) or a triazole (fluconazole and itraconazole) ring. Using human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), we evaluated the effects of azole drugs on cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, migration, and invasion, and investigated the underlying mechanisms. Clotrimazole and ketoconazole inhibited the proliferation of both cell lines while fluconazole and itraconazole did not. In addition, clotrimazole and ketoconazole inhibited the motility of MDA-MB-231 cells and induced G₁-phase arrest in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, as determined by cell cycle analysis and immunoblot data. Moreover, Transwell invasion and gelatin zymography assays revealed that clotrimazole and ketoconazole suppressed invasiveness through the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase 9 in MDA-MB-231 cells, although no significant changes in invasiveness were observed in MCF-7 cells. There were no significant changes in any of the observed parameters with fluconazole or itraconazole treatment in either breast cancer cell line. Taken together, imidazole antifungal drugs showed strong antitumor activity in breast cancer cells through induction of apoptosis and G₁ arrest in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and suppression of invasiveness via matrix metalloproteinase 9 inhibition in MDA-MB-231 cells. Imidazole drugs have well-established pharmacokinetic profiles and known toxicity, which can make these generic drugs strong candidates for repositioning as antitumor therapies.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Apoptosis , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cell Cycle , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Clotrimazole , Danazol , Drugs, Generic , Female , Fluconazole , Gelatin , Humans , Incidence , Itraconazole , Ketoconazole , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , MCF-7 Cells
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773075

ABSTRACT

To investigate the clinical effect of cleaning up the external auditory canal under otoendoscope combined with Clotrimazole Ointment in the treatment of pregnancy with otitis externa mycotica.From May 2015 to May 2017,16 cases of pregnant patients(19 ears)with otitis externa mycotica were divided into two groups:pure cleaning up group and cleaning up combined with medication group.In the pure cleaning up group,external auditory canal were only cleaned up under otoendoscope conventionally in 9 patients(11 ears),while in the cleaning up combined with medication group,Clotrimazole Ointment was topically applied after cleaning up the external auditory canal under otoendoscope in 7 patients(8 ears).After treatment of 2 weeks,the clinical curative effect,adverse reaction and average time interval to take effect were compared at the end of treatment.The total effective rate(100%)in cleaning up combined with medication group's was significantly better than that in pure cleaning up group's(81.81%)(<0.05);The average time interval to take effect in cleaning up combined with medication groupwas significantly shorter than that in pure cleaning up group's[(2.71±0.70)d vs(5.40±1.96)d,<0.05].After the two-week treatment,there was a four-week follow-up.Only one patient in pure cleaning up group relapsed.After two-week treatment by Clotrimazole Ointment,this patient was cured.Cleaning up the external auditory canal under otoendoscope combined with Clotrimazole Ointment is effective and safe for the treatment of otitis externa mycotica in pregnant women.The addition of topical application of Clotrimazole Ointment further improve the therapeutic efficacy,as compared to the conventional method of cleaning up the external auditory canal under otoendoscope.We suggest clinical application of this method.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , Therapeutic Uses , Clotrimazole , Therapeutic Uses , Ear Canal , Female , Humans , Mycoses , Therapeutics , Otitis Externa , Therapeutics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Therapeutics , Sensitivity Training Groups
9.
PAFMJ-Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal. 2017; 67 (3): 458-461
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-188578

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the efficacy of single dose of oral itraconazole 400mg with 1% topical clotrimazole in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor


Study Design: Randomized controlled trial.


Place and Duration of Study: Dermatology department, Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from Jun 2015 to Dec 2015


Material and Methods: A total of 60 patients of pityriasis versicolor fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected from dermatology OPD after written informed consent and approval from the hospital ethical committee


Patients were divided into two treatment groups using random numbers table. Group A received single dose of itraconazole capsule [400mg] and group B received 1% clotrimazole cream twice daily application for 2 weeks


Patient evaluation included detailed history, clinical examination and direct microscopy of skin scrapings for fungal hyphae at the baseline, at the end of 2[nd] and 6[th] week of treatment. Efficacy of treatment was assessed on the basis of clinical and mycological cure


Results: At the end of 2 weeks of treatment, clinical cure was seen in 23 [76.6%] and 29 [96.6%] patients [p=0.05] and mycological cure in 20 [66%] and 26 [86.6%] patients in group A and B respectively [p=0.06]. At follow up [end of 6 week] 21 [70%] and 28 [93.3%] patients were cured clinically [p=0.02] while 18 [60%] and 27 [90%] patients were cured mycologically [p=0.007] in group A and B respectively


Conclusion: Topical clotrimazole [1%] was found more effective than single dose of oral itraconazole in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Male , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Clotrimazole/administration & dosage , Administration, Topical , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Dermatology , Informed Consent
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727984

ABSTRACT

Epidemiologic interest in particulate matter (PM) is growing particularly because of its impact of respiratory health. It has been elucidated that PM evoked inflammatory signal in pulmonary epithelia. However, it has not been established Ca²⁺ signaling mechanisms involved in acute PM-derived signaling in pulmonary fibroblasts. In the present study, we explored dust particles PM modulated intracellular Ca²⁺ signaling and sought to provide a therapeutic strategy by antagonizing PM-induced intracellular Ca²⁺ signaling in human lung fibroblasts MRC5 cells. We demonstrated that PM10, less than 10 µm, induced intracellular Ca²⁺ signaling, which was mediated by extracellular Ca²⁺. The PM10-mediated intracellular Ca²⁺ signaling was attenuated by antioxidants, phospholipase blockers, polyADPR polymerase 1 inhibitor, and transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) inhibitors. In addition, PM-mediated increases in reactive oxygen species were attenuated by TRPM2 blockers, clotrimazole (CLZ) and N-(p-amylcinnamoyl) anthranilic acid (ACA). Our results showed that PM10 enhanced reactive oxygen species signal by measuring DCF fluorescence and the DCF signal attenuated by both TRPM2 blockers CLZ and ACA. Here, we suggest functional inhibition of TRPM2 channels as a potential therapeutic strategy for modulation of dust particle-mediated signaling and oxidative stress accompanying lung diseases.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Calcium Signaling , Cell Line , Clotrimazole , Dust , Fibroblasts , Fluorescence , Humans , Lung Diseases , Lung , Oxidative Stress , Particulate Matter , Phospholipases , Reactive Oxygen Species
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1161-1165, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-290108

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) was a common infection associated with lifelong harassment of woman's social and sexual life. The purpose of this study was to describe the species distribution and in vitroCandidaCandida spp.) isolated from patients with VVC over 8 years.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Species which isolated from patients with VVC in Peking University First Hospital were identified using chromogenic culture media. Susceptibility to common antifungal agents was determined using agar diffusion method based on CLSI M44-A2 document. SPSS software (version 14.0, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for statistical analysis, involving statistical description and Chi-square test.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The most common strains were Candida (C.) albicans, 80.5% (n = 1775) followed by C. glabrata, 18.1% (n = 400). Nystatin exhibited excellent activity against all species (<4% resistant [R]). Resistance to azole drugs varied among different species. C. albicans: clotrimazole (3.1% R) < fluconazole (16.6% R) < itraconazole (51.5% R) < miconazole (54.0% R); C. glabrata: miconazole (25.6% R) < clotrimazole (50.5% R) < itraconazole (61.9% R) < fluconazole (73.3% R); Candida krusei: clotrimazole (0 R) < fluconazole (57.7% R) < miconazole (73.1% R) < itraconazole (83.3% R). The susceptibility of fluconazole was noticeably decreasing among all species in the study period.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Nystatin was the optimal choice for the treatment of VVC at present. The species distribution and in vitroCandida spp. isolated from patients with VVC had changed over time.</p>


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents , Pharmacology , Candida , Virulence , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal , Microbiology , China , Clotrimazole , Pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Female , Fluconazole , Pharmacology , Humans , Itraconazole , Pharmacology , Miconazole , Pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157655

ABSTRACT

Lobate GM Neo, 15 mg is a triple drug combination of a steroid clobetasol with anti-fungal miconazole and antibacterial neomycin in treatment of Eczematous disorders associated with underlying Tinea or Yeast Infections. Aims and Objectives: The study was designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of a combinations of clobetasol, neomycin and miconazole (Group A) versus betamethasone, clotrimazole, neomycin (Group B) versus betamethasone, gentamicin, miconazole (Group C) in subjects with any type of eczematous disorder associated with underlying tinea or yeast infection. Materials and Methods: This was an open label, parallel group, randomized comparative study. The primary endpoint analyzed was improvement in clinical score from baseline at the end of day 7 and other primary endpoint like hyperpigmentation were analyzed by the visual analogue scale of 1 to 10 at the end of day 7. Results: Thirty-six subjects were randomized to three groups. The clinical score showed a significant reduction from baseline at the end of day 7 in all the groups, i.e. 82.9%, 81.3% and 85.6% in Group A, B and C respectively. However, the difference between the groups were not statistically significant. Mean hyper pigmentation score showed significant decrease of 82.9% in Group A, 81.6% in Group B and 92.2% in Group C from baseline at the end of day 7. Conclusion: The triple combination of antifungal, antibacterial and potent steroid was found to be efficacious, safe and tolerable in reducing signs and symptoms (scaling, inflammation, burning and itching) of eczematous disorder associated with underlying tinea/yeast infection.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Betamethasone/administration & dosage , Clobetasol/administration & dosage , Clotrimazole/administration & dosage , Drug Combinations , Gentamicins/administration & dosage , Humans , Male , Miconazole/administration & dosage , Mycoses/drug therapy , Neomycin/administration & dosage , Tinea/drug therapy
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157645

ABSTRACT

Vaginitis is among the most common conditions for which women seek medical care, with vaginal discharge accounting for approximately 10 million office visits each year. Since there are no published studies till date that evaluated the Clinical Effectiveness and Safety of Topical Cream of Formula A [Ofloxacin (0.75 % w/w) + Ornidazole (2% w/w) + Terbinafine Hydrochloride (1% w/w) + Clobetasol Propionate (0.05% w/w)] compared to Formula B [Clotrimazole (1%w/w) + Beclometasone Dipropionate (0.025%w/w) + Neomycin Sulphate (0.5% w/w)], Formula C [Clotrimazole (1%w/w) + Beclometasone Dipropionate (0.025%w/w) + Neomycin Sulphate (0.5% w/w)], and Formula D [Clotrimazole (1%w/w) + Beclometasone Dipropionate (0.025%w/w) + Neomycin Sulphate (0.5% w/w)], in mild to moderate vaginitis, hence we undertook this randomized controlled Post Marketing Multicentric trial. Materials and methods: Female subjects diagnosed with mild to moderate symptoms of Vaginitis were eligible and those fulfilling the subject selection criteria were randomized to receive either Formula A, Formula B, Formula C or Formula D for 14 days. The Primary efficacy measures were assessment of symptoms of Vaginitis i.e. vaginal pruritis, vaginal irritation, vaginal soreness or pain, dyspareunia, vaginal erosion and vaginal inflammation and Secondary efficacy measures were assessment of Physical characteristics of vaginal discharge, assessment of pH of vaginal discharge and Microbiological evaluation. Assessment of Safety was done by recording the occurrence of adverse drug reactions. Results: The clinical success rates were comparable and even far better in case of Formula A group (in vaginal pain, Dyspareunia and vaginal erosion it was 100 %, in case of vaginal inflammation it was 92.655 % while in case of vaginal irritation, it was 94.767 % and vaginal pruritus, it was 87.096 %). Adverse events were mild and self limiting while it was totally absent in case of Formula A group. Conclusion: Topical Cream of Formula A is safe and effective for the treatment of mild to moderate vaginitis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Beclomethasone/administration & dosage , Beclomethasone/analogs & derivatives , Clobetasol/administration & dosage , Clotrimazole/administration & dosage , Drug Combinations , Dyspareunia/drug therapy , Dyspareunia/microbiology , Female , Humans , Naphthalenes/administration & dosage , Naphthalenes/analogs & derivatives , Neomycin/analogs & derivatives , Neomycin/administration & dosage , Ofloxacin/administration & dosage , Ornidazole/administration & dosage , Vaginal Diseases/drug therapy , Vaginal Diseases/microbiology , Vaginitis/drug therapy , Vaginitis/microbiology
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157587

ABSTRACT

Superficial fungal infections affect millions of people worldwide. Earlier most dermatophyte strains had relatively restricted geographical distribution. But currently, dermatophytosis has become one of the most common human infectious diseases worldwide. Fungal infections are common in hot and humid climate of tropical countries like India. Topical and systemic therapies are commonly used to treat dermatophyte infections.Clotrimazole is one of the most commonly used topical antifungal drugs. This study compared the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of Clotrimazole with Miconazole, Ketoconazole and Terbinafine in skin dermatophytes. The study demonstrated that Clotrimazole had lower MFCs as compared to Ketoconazole and Miconazole against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis. Clotrimazole had comparable MFCs versus Terbinafine against Trichophyton rubrum but it had lower MFCs against Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis. Thus, Clotrimazole is an effective antifungal agent for dermatophytosis even today.The efficacy of Clotrimazole even against strains with intermediate resistance or resistance to the older azole anti fungal drugs reiterate the current decisions of empirical treatment with topical Clotrimazole for the management of superficial dermatophyte infections.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Arthrodermataceae/drug effects , Arthrodermataceae/isolation & purification , Clotrimazole/pharmacology , Dermatomycoses/drug effects , Dermatomycoses/isolation & purification , Ketoconazole/pharmacology , Miconazole/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microsporum/drug effects , Microsporum/isolation & purification , Naphthalenes/analogs & derivatives , Naphthalenes/pharmacokinetics
15.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 21-24, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311993

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the antibacterial activity of silver sulfadiazine (SD-Ag), mupirocin, and clotrimazole used alone or in combination against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from burn wounds.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Eighteen MRSA isolates from wound excretion of 18 burn patients hospitalized in our unit from July to December 2011 were collected continuously and non-repetitively. (1) Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), 50% MIC (MIC50), and 90% MIC (MIC90) of SD-Ag, mupirocin, and clotrimazole used alone, those of SD-Ag and mupirocin used in combination, and those of SD-Ag, mupirocin, and clotrimazole used in combination to MRSA were determined by checkerboard agar dilution method. (2) Fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index was calculated to determine the combined effect of SD-Ag plus mupirocin, and SD-Ag plus mupirocin and clotrimazole. Synergy with FIC index less than or equal to 0.5 or additivity with FIC index more than 0.5 and less than or equal to 1.0 was regarded as effective, and indifference with FIC index more than 1.0 and less than or equal to 4.0 or antagonism with FIC index more than 4.0 was regarded as ineffective. The effective ratio was compared with overall ratio (assumed as 0) by unilateral binomial distribution test.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The MIC, MIC50, and MIC90 of SD-Ag, mupirocin, and clotrimazole used alone against 18 MRSA isolates were respectively 8, 8, 16 µg/mL; 2, 16, 64 µg/mL; 2, 2, 2 µg/mL. MIC of antimicrobial agents used in combination decreased from 3.1% to 50.0% as compared with that of individual agent used alone. Compared with those of single application of SD-Ag and mupirocin, MIC50 of SD-Ag and that of mupirocin both decreased 75.0%, and MIC90 of them decreased 87.5% when SD-Ag and mupirocin were used in combination. Compared with those of single application of SD-Ag, mupirocin, and clotrimazole, MIC50 of SD-Ag, mupirocin, and clotrimazole respectively decreased 75.0%, 87.5%, and 50.0%; MIC90 of them respectively decreased 87.5%, 96.9%, and 50.0% when SD-Ag, mupirocin, and clotrimazole were used in combination. Among the 18 MRSA isolates, the combined effect of SD-Ag and mupirocin was synergic in 9 isolates, additive in 7 isolates, indifferent in 2 isolates, and antagonistic in 0 isolate; the combined effect of SD-Ag, mupirocin, and clotrimazole was additive in 16 isolates, indifferent in 2 isolates, and antagonistic in 0 isolate. There were statistically significant differences between effective ratio and overall ratio of 18 MRSA isolates treated with combined antimicrobial agents (P values all above 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>For burn wounds at middle and late stages infected with Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus aureus and Fungus, low dose of SD-Ag or combination of above-mentioned antimicrobial agents can effectively control infection and decrease the adverse effect of antimicrobial agents on wound healing.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Burns , Microbiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Clotrimazole , Pharmacology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Middle Aged , Mupirocin , Pharmacology , Silver Sulfadiazine , Pharmacology , Young Adult
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-632516

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) 10% cream versus Clotrimazole 1% cream in the treatment of superficial fungal skin infection. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial SETTING: Quezon City General Hospital, Out-patient Department STUDY SUBJECTS: Patients aged 17 years old and above seen at the Department of Family and Community Medicine (DFCM) Out Patient Department (OPD) Quezon City General Hospital and Medical Center. METHOD: The study was conducted from from May-September 2013. Of 50 subjects, 49 were included in the study and assigned to either Group A (25) or Group B (24) using systematic sampling method. Patients in Group A were instructed to apply on affected areas Clotrimazole 1% cream twice a day for 2 weeks, whereas Group B applied lemon grass 10% cream twice a day for 2 weeks. RESULTS: Forty-nine subjects completed the study. In both groups, most respondents belonged to the 15-25 age group, were males, married, unemployed and reached college level. Both groups were comparable with P values > 0.05. The mean change in the grading scale of the lesion from the baseline - 2 weeks of treatment was statistically significant for both groups (P-value 0.001 for both), hence both treatments showed improvement in the fungal lesion. The difference in the baseline grading scale for both groups was not statistically significant with P-value of 0.110, hence comparable. However, comparison of the mean difference in the grading scale of the lesion after 2 weeks of treatment was statistically significant with P-value of 0.001, meaning that Group A showed faster resolution of lesions compared to Group B. No adverse reaction was observed in Group B. CONCLUSION: Topical application of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) 10% cream improved superficial fungal skin infection but was found to be inferior to Clotrimazole 1% cream as to the lesion resolution at 2 weeks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Adolescent , Cymbopogon , Clotrimazole
17.
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research. 2013; 14 (3): 258-260
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-130807

ABSTRACT

Description of a rare recurrent Gartner's duct cyst associated with yeast infection in a crossbred heifer is reported. The recurrence was caused by uncontrolled yeast infection that showed in vitro sensitivity to oxytetracycline. Administration of local clotrimazole and systemic oxytetracycline as per recommended therapeutic dose regime resulted in complete recovery


Subject(s)
Animals , Recurrence , Cattle , Cysts , Vaginal Diseases , Vagina , Oxytetracycline , Clotrimazole
18.
Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2013; 12 (46): 137-149
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-140346

ABSTRACT

Oral candidiasis, caused by Candida albicans, is one of the most common infections in immunocompromised patients, especially in HIV+ individuals. The aims of this study were to evaluate the susceptibility of C. albicans isolates to azole drugs and Trachyspermum ammi essential oil. Oral swabs were cultured from 70 HIV+ patients and In order to identify and confirm of C. albicans isolates, Chrom agar, Corn meal agar, germ tube production, carbohydrate assimilation, growth at 45[degree sign]C and PCR were performed. Sensivity to fluconazol, ketoconazole and clotrimazol were assessed by disc diffusion and also the effect of T. ammi essential oil was determined by disc diffusion and microdilution broth methods. The causative agent, in 50 patients with oral candidiasis, was C. albicans [71.4%]. In sensivity determination survey to antifungal drugs, the resistance of isolates to fluconazole, ketoconazole and clotrimazole were determined 32%, 28% and 14%, respectively. In disc diffusion, all isolates have an acceptable sensivity at 10 - 20 micro L of the oil and 30 micro L inhibit the growth completely in plate. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrsation [MIC] by microdilution broth method was 500ppm and 750ppm in 72% and 28% of isolates, respectively, and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration[MFC] in 70% of isolates were 750ppm and for the rest of the isolates [30%] were 1000ppm. We conclude that use of this native plant, as an antifungal compound, could act as a treatment of the patients with mucosal candidiasis, beside of other drugs in to the future


Subject(s)
Humans , Azoles , HIV , HIV Infections , Mouth , Oils, Volatile , Fluconazole , Ketoconazole , Clotrimazole , Antifungal Agents , Drug Resistance, Fungal
19.
IJM-Iranian Journal of Microbiology. 2013; 25 (1): 86-90
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-143259

ABSTRACT

Vaginal candidiasis is a common disease in women during their lifetime and occurs in diabetes patients, during pregnancy and oral contraceptives users. Although several antifungals are routinely used for treatment; however, vaginal candidiasis is a challenge for patients and gynecologists. The aim of the present study was to evaluate terbinafme [Lamisil] on Candida vaginitis versus clotrimazole. In the present study women suspected to have vulvovaginal candidiasis were sampled and disease confirmed using direct smear and culture examination from vaginal discharge. Then, patients were randomly divided into two groups, the first group [32 cases] was treated with clotrimazole and the next [25 cases] with Lamisil. All patients were followed-up to three weeks of treatment and therapeutic effects of both antifungal were compared. Our results shows that 12 [37.5%] patients were completely treated with clotrimazole during two weeks and, 6[18.8%] patients did not respond to drugs and were refereed for fluconazole therapy. Fourteen [43.8%] patients showed moderate response and clotrimazole therapy was extended for one more week. When Lamisil was administrated, 19 [76.0%] patients were completely treated with Lamisil in two weeks, and 1 [4.0%] of the patients did not respond to the drug and was refereed for fluconazole therapy. Five [20.0%] of our patients showed moderate response and Lamisil therapy was extended for one more week. Our results show that vaginal cream, 1% Lamisil, could be suggested as a first-line treatment in vulvovaginal candidiasis


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Naphthalenes/therapeutic use , Clotrimazole/therapeutic use , Candida albicans
20.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 48(3): 519-528, July-Sept. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-653466

ABSTRACT

Antimycotic clotrimazole (CTZ) has demonstrated remarkable activity against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and in vivo. Hemoglobin degradation by Plasmodium parasites makes amino acids available for protein synthesis, inducing oxidative stress in infected cells and producing free heme. These events represent biochemical targets for potential antimalarials. In this study, we have tested the ability of CTZ to modify the oxidative status in Plasmodium berghei-infected erythrocytes. After hemolysis, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione cycle and NADPH+H+-producing dehydrogenases were investigated using UV-visible spectrophotometry. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were evaluated as a marker of lipid damage. Results showed that CTZ significantly decreased the overall activity of 6-phosphagluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) compared to infected and non-treated cells; consequently, the glutathione cycle was inhibited, leaving the parasite vulnerable to the oxidative stress originating from hemoglobin degradation. As a compensatory response, CTZ prevented some loss of SOD and CAT activities in infected cells. The infection triggered lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes, which was decreased by CTZ. These results suggest the presence of a redox unbalance in cells treated with CTZ, discussing a possible effect of this compound disturbing the oxidative status in a Plasmodium berghei-infection.


O antifúngico clotrimazol (CTZ) tem demonstrado notável atividade contra Plasmodium falciparum. A degradação da hemoglobina por Plasmodium para a obtenção dos aminoácidos necessários à síntese protéica induz estresse oxidativo em eritrócitos devido à liberação de hemos oxidantes. Estes eventos representam alvos bioquímicos para a produção de antimaláricos potenciais. Neste estudo, testamos a capacidade do CTZ para modificar o estado oxidativo em eritrócitos infectados com Plasmodium berghei. Depois da hemólise, as atividades da superóxido dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), desidrogenases produtoras de NADPH+H+ e do ciclo de glutationa (GSH) foram investigados. A produção das espécies reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS) foi avaliada como marcador de dano lipídico. Os resultados mostraram que o CTZ diminuiu a atividade da 6-fosfogliconato desidrogenase (6PGD), em comparação com eritrócitos infectados e não tratados. Consequentemente, o ciclo da GSH foi inibido, tornando os parasitas vulneráveis ao estresse oxidativo resultante da degradação da hemoglobina. Como resposta compensatória, CTZ impediu a perda de atividade da SOD e CAT nas células infectadas. A infecção induz peroxidação lipídica nos eritrócitos, sendo esta diminuída pelo CTZ. Estes resultados sugerem a existência de desequilíbrio redox nas células tratadas com CTZ, interferindo, assim, com o estado oxidativo verificado durante a infecção malárica.


Subject(s)
Clotrimazole/analysis , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Plasmodium berghei/physiology , Erythrocytes/classification , Hemin/classification
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