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1.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 533-535, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986064

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical diagnostic characteristics of pneumoconiosis patients of migrant workers in Hunan Province, and to provide scientific basis for the prevention and treatment of pneumoconiosis. Methods: In February 2022, through the Hunan Provincial Medical Treatment and Assistance Information Platform for Pneumoconiosis Migrant Workers, the cases of irresponsible subjects with pneumoconiosis that were first diagnosed clinically in Hunan Province from January 2017 to December 2021 were collected, and analyzed their gender, age, length of service, types of pneumoconiosis, stages of pneumoconiosis, and comorbidities. Results: From January 2017 to December 2021, there were a total of 26131 cases of irresponsible pneumoconiosis patients diagnosed clinically in Hunan Province, with males accounting for 99.8% (26072 cases) and an average age of (60.66±8.04) years old. Among the 26131 patients, coal workers' pneumoconiosis and silicosis were the main causes, with 16816 and 9078 cases respectively, accounting for 99.1% of the diagnosed cases. There were 8640 cases (33.1%) of stageⅠpneumoconiosis, 6601 cases (25.2%) of stage Ⅱ pneumoconiosis, and 10890 cases (41.7%) of stage Ⅲ pneumoconiosis. 2051 patients experienced complications. The average age of exposure to dust of 26131 patients was (17.81±9.69) years, and the age of exposure to dust in silicosis patients was (14.60±9.62) years. The working age of coal worker's pneumoconiosis was (19.60±9.26) years. Compared with coal workers' pneumoconiosis patients, silicosis patients had a shorter working time exposed to dust, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05) . Conclusion: Coal workers' pneumoconiosis and silicosis are mainly diagnosed for the first time in migrant workers' pneumoconiosis patients in Hunan Province. Pneumoconiosis patients should be diagnosed in time, which is conducive to treatment and rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Child, Preschool , Coal Mining , Pneumoconiosis/epidemiology , Silicosis , Anthracosis/epidemiology , Dust , Coal , China/epidemiology
2.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 344-349, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986010

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the exposure level of dust and noise in the mining industry and provide data support for revising policy for the prevention and control of occupational diseases. Methods: In May 2022, Data was collected through the National Surveillance Program for Occupational Hazards in the Workplace. Descriptive analysis was conducted for dust and noise levels by industry type and enterprise size from 7, 679 enterprises in the mining industry among 29 provincial regions nationwide. Results: The enterprises in the mining industry included in the National Surveillance Program for Occupational Hazards in the Workplace are mainly small and micro, accounting for 47.97% (3684/7679) and 30.00% (230/7679) respectively. The industry is mainly compred of employers in the non-metallic ming and beneficiation industry, accounting for 50.25% (3859/7679). Among the enterprises with silica dust, coal dust, and noise hazards, the proportion of enterprises where total dust concentration and noise intensity exceed the standard is higher than 50%. 30% of the posts are with an exposure level of silica dust, coal dust, and noise that exceeds the standard. The exceedance rate and the median of the time-weighted average concentration of total coal dust among large and medium-sized enterprises are higher than those among small and micro-sized enterprises (P<0.05) . Conclusion: The dust and noise hazards in the mining industry are lower than in the past in China, but more than 25% of workers are still at a high risk of occupational pneumoconiosis and noise deafness. Therefore, intervention and surveillance strategies should be strengthened in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dust/analysis , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Occupational Health , Coal , Silicon Dioxide/analysis , Coal Mining
3.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 891-898, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985609

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the spatial distribution characteristics and correlation between the prevalence of dental fluorosis and the chemical elemental composition of drinking water sources in coal-fired fluorosis areas. Methods: Based on the survey data on the prevalence of dental fluorosis at CDC in Guizhou Province in 2022, 274 original surface drinking water sources were collected in typical coal-fired fluorosis areas, and fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), aluminum (Al), titanium (Ti), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), cadmium (Cd), barium (Ba), lead (Pb) 17 elements; apply Moran's I index, Getis-Ord Gi* hotspot analysis of the global spatial autocorrelation of chemical elements in drinking water and the degree of aggregation of each element on the local area, and correlation analysis with the prevalence of dental fluorosis in the region. Results: Except for Cu, Zn, and Cd, global spatial autocorrelation Moran's I was negative, and all other elements were positive. F, Ca, Al, Ti, As, Mo, Cd, and Cu elements showed high values of aggregation in the southeastern low-altitude area; Mg, Ba, Pb, Cr, Mn, and Fe elements were mainly aggregated in the central altitude terrain transition area, Zn and Se elements in water sources are significantly positively correlated with the prevalence of dental fluorosis (P<0.05). In contrast, F, Mg, Al, Ti, As, Mo, Cd, Ba, and Pb elements negatively correlate (P<0.05). Elements in the central region were high-high aggregation, as a hot spot aggregation area with high disease incidence, while F, Al, Mn, Mo, Cd, and Ba elements in the western region were low-low aggregation, as a cold spot aggregation area with a low incidence of fluorosis. Conclusions: The risk of population fluoride exposure in surface drinking water sources is shallow. However, the chemical element content of drinking water sources in coal-fired polluted endemic fluorosis areas has prominent spatial geographical distribution characteristics. There is a significant spatial aggregation effect with the prevalence of dental fluorosis, which may play a synergistic or antagonistic effect on the occurrence and prevalence of dental fluorosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drinking Water , Prevalence , Coal , Fluorides/adverse effects , Cadmium , Fluorosis, Dental/epidemiology , Lead , Selenium , Arsenic
4.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 228-230, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970744

ABSTRACT

The underground environment is dark and humid, and it is easy to breed pathogenic microorganisms. A lump in the right lung of a coal mine underground transport worker was found druing occupational health examination. CT examination showed that the lump was located in the posterior segment of the upper lobe of the right lung, with point strip calcification, liquefaction necrosis, and proximal bronchial stenosis and occlusion. MRI examination FS-T(2)WI and DWI showed "target sign", annular low signal around the central high signal, and low mixed signal around the periphery, and annular high signal in the isosignal lesions on T(1)WI. Then the pulmonary aspergillus infection was confirmed by pathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coal , Miners , Pneumonia , Lung , Aspergillosis , Coal Mining
5.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 177-182, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970734

ABSTRACT

Objective: To construct and verify a light-weighted convolutional neural network (CNN), and explore its application value for screening the early stage (subcategory 0/1 and stage Ⅰ of pneumoconiosis) of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) from digital chest radiography (DR) . Methods: A total of 1225 DR images of coal workers who were examined at an Occupational Disease Prevention and Control Institute in Anhui Province from October 2018 to March 2021 were retrospectively collected. All DR images were collectively diagnosed by 3 radiologists with diagnostic qualifications and gave diagnostic results. There were 692 DR images with small opacity profusion 0/- or 0/0 and 533 DR images with small opacity profusion 0/1 to stage Ⅲ of pneumoconiosis. The original chest radiographs were preprocessed differently to generate four datasets, namely 16-bit grayscale original image set (Origin16), 8-bit grayscale original image set (Origin 8), 16-bit grayscale histogram equalized image set (HE16) and 8-bit grayscale histogram equalized image set (HE8). The light-weighted CNN, ShuffleNet, was applied to train the generated prediction model on the four datasets separately. The performance of the four models for pneumoconiosis prediction was evaluated on a test set containing 130 DR images using measures such as the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and Youden index. The Kappa consistency test was used to compare the agreement between the model predictions and the physician diagnosed pneumoconiosis results. Results: Origin16 model achieved the highest ROC area under the curve (AUC=0.958), accuracy (92.3%), specificity (92.9%), and Youden index (0.8452) for predicting pneumoconiosis, with a sensitivity of 91.7%. And the highest consistency between identification and physician diagnosis was observed for Origin16 model (Kappa value was 0.845, 95%CI: 0.753-0.937, P<0.001). HE16 model had the highest sensitivity (98.3%) . Conclusion: The light-weighted CNN ShuffleNet model can efficiently identify the early stages of CWP, and its application in the early screening of CWP can effectively improve physicians' work efficiency.


Subject(s)
Humans , Retrospective Studies , Anthracosis/diagnostic imaging , Pneumoconiosis/diagnostic imaging , Coal Mining , Neural Networks, Computer , Coal
6.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 21-30, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970705

ABSTRACT

Objective: Differential flora and differential metabolites shared by the intestinal and respiratory tracts of rats were screened to analyze the possible role of changes in intestinal flora and metabolites in the progression of pneumoconiosis in rats. Methods: In April 2020, 18 SD rats were randomly divided into three groups (control group, coal mine dust group and silica group, 6 in each group) , rats in the coal mine dust group and silica group were perfused with 1 ml of 50 mg/ml coal mine well dust suspension and silica suspension by nontracheal exposure, respectively. While rats in the control group were perfused with an equal dose of sterilized normal saline. Twenty four weeks after dust staining, rat feces, throat swabs, and lung lavages were collected. 16SrDNA gene sequencing and UHPLC-QTOF-MS untargeted metabolomics were used to analyze the flora and metabolites in feces, throat swabs and lung lavage fluid of rats in each group, to screen for shared differential flora and shared differential metabolites in intestinal and respiratory tract, and the correlation analysis between the differential flora and metabolites was performed using Spearman's statistics. Results: Compared with the control group, a total of 9 species shared differential flora between intestinal and respiratory tract were screened at phylum level, and a total of 9 species shared differential genus between intestinal and respiratory tract were screened at genus level in the coal mine dust group, mainly Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, etc. Compared with the control group, a total of 9 shared differential flora were screened at the phylum level, and a total of 5 shared differential genus were screened at the genus level in the silica group, mainly Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Allobactera, Mucilaginibacter, etc. Compared with the control group, a total of 7 shared differential metabolites were screened for up-regulation of Stigmatellin, Linalool oxide and Isoleucine-leucine in both intestinal and respiratory tract in the coal mine dust group. Compared with the control group , a total of 19 shared differential metabolites werescreened in the silica group, of which Diethanolamine, 1-Aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid, Isoleucine-leucine, Sphingosine, Palmitic acid, D-sphinganine, 1, 2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine, and 1-Stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphocholine were up-regulated in both the intestinal and respiratory tract. Conclusion: There is a translocation of intestinal and respiratory flora in pneumoconiosis rats, and rats have an imbalance of lipid metabolism during the progression of pneumoconiosis.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Isoleucine , Leucine , Coal Mining , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Pneumoconiosis , Dust/analysis , Silicon Dioxide , Coal
7.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 359-368, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Xuanwei and Fuyuan are rural counties, located in the late Permian coal poly area of eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou, where lung cancer mortality rates are among the highest in the China, with similarity for both men and women, younger age at diagnosis and death, and higher in rural areas than in urban areas. In this paper, long-term follow-up of lung cancer cases in local peasants was conducted to observe their survival prognosis and its influencing factors.@*METHODS@#Data of patients diagnosed with lung cancer from January 2005 to June 2011, who had lived in Xuanwei and Fuyuan counties for many years, were collected from 20 hospitals at the local provincial, municipal and county levels. To estimate survival outcomes, individuals were followed up until the end of 2021. The 5-year, 10-year and 15-year survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Survival differences were examined with Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models.@*RESULTS@#A total of 3,017 cases were effectively followed up (2,537 peasants and 480 non-peasants). The median age at diagnosis was 57 years, and the median follow-up time was 122 months. During the follow-up period, 2,493 cases (82.6%) died. The distribution of cases by clinical stage was as follows: stage I (3.7%), stage II (6.7%), stage III (15.8%), stage IV (21.1%) and unknown stage (52.7%). Treatment at the provincial, municipal and county-level hospitals accounted for 32.5%, 22.2% and 45.3%, respectively, and surgical treatment was performed in 23.3% of cases. The median survival time was 15.4 months (95%CI: 13.9-16.1), and the 5-year, 10-year and 15-year overall survival rates were 19.5% (95%CI: 18.0%-21.1%), 7.7% (95%CI: 6.5%-8.8%) and 2.0% (95%CI: 0.8%-3.9%), respectively. Peasants with lung cancer had a lower median age at diagnosis, higher proportion residing in remote rural areas, and higher use of bituminous coal as a household fuel. They also have a lower proportion of early-stage cases, treatment at provincial or municipal hospitals, and surgical treatment, leading to poorer survival outcomes (HR=1.57). Even when considering factors such as gender, age, residential location, clinical stage at diagnosis, histological type, hospital level of service, and surgical intervention, peasants still exhibit a survival disadvantage. Multivariable Cox model analysis comparing peasants and non-peasants reveals that surgical intervention, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, and hospital level of service are common factors influencing survival prognosis, while the use of bituminous coal as a household fuel, hospital level of service and adenocarcinoma (compared to squamous cell carcinoma) are independent prognostic factors for lung cancer survival among peasants.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The lower lung cancer survival rate among peasants is associated with their lower socioeconomic status, lower proportion of early-stage diagnoses, lower proportion of surgical interventions, and treatment at provincial-level hospitals. Furthermore, the impact of other factors such as high-risk exposure to bituminous coal pollution on survival prognosis requires further investigation.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Coal
8.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 29(4): 1063-1084, oct,-dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421584

ABSTRACT

Resumo Na primeira metade do século XX, a Região Carbonífera Catarinense passou por um intenso processo de industrialização que impactou diretamente as diferentes formas de vida. Como resultado da exploração do carvão mineral, a região enfrentou uma série de problemas sanitários que dificultavam o próprio processo de acumulação do capital. Diante da incapacidade de o poder público atender às demandas sanitárias, o empresariado local estabeleceu parcerias com congregações religiosas femininas para prestar serviços assistenciais em suas vilas operárias. Como resultado dessa relação, as Pequenas Irmãs da Divina Providência produziram um álbum/relatório, composto por textos, desenhos e fotografias que retratam suas atividades assistenciais, entre 1955 e 1957, em uma das vilas da região.


Abstract During the first half of the twentieth century, the coal-producing region of Santa Catarina state underwent intense industrialization that directly impacted various ways of life; various health problems emerged in the region as a result of coal mining and impeded economic progress. As the government was unable to meet health demands, local businesses established partnerships with female religious orders that provided assistance services in the villages where workers lived. As part of such a partnership, the Pequenas Irmãs da Divina Providência created an album of texts, drawings, and photographs as a report describing their activities from 1955 to 1957 in one such village in the region.


Subject(s)
Coal , Natural Resources Exploitation , Delivery of Health Care , Industrial Development , Health Services Needs and Demand , Brazil , History, 20th Century
9.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 149-151, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935765

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the harm degree of underground noise and provide basis for noise control. Methods: In November 2019, 13 typical coal mines in Sichuan Province were selected as the research objects, and a total of 1203 sites and 609 jobs of noise exposure were investigated. Results: The noise intensity P75 >80 dB (A) was measured. The noise intensity of the inspection place of the air compressor is >86 dB (A) , the noise intensity of the inspection place of the gas drainage and the operation place of the main fan is between 80-85 dB (A) . Conclusion: Besides the harm of dust, noise exposure should also be paid attention to, and the measures of sound absorption and sound insulation should be taken or personal protection should be strengthened.


Subject(s)
Coal , Coal Mining , Dust/analysis , Noise , Occupational Exposure
10.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 103-108, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935754

ABSTRACT

Objective: To detect of gene expression and genotype of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) from coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) , It is explored whether CWP is related to ATM gene. Methods: In October 2020, the relevant information of 264 subjects who received physical examination or medical treatment in the Department of occupational diseases of Guiyang public health treatment center from January 2019 to September 2020 was collected. Through the occupational health examination, 67 healthy people with no history of exposure to occupational hazards were selected as the healthy control group; The coal miners with more than 10 years of coal dust exposure history and small shadow in the lung but not up to the diagnostic criteria were the dust exposure control group, a total of 66 people; The patients with the same history of coal dust exposure and confirmed stage I were coal worker's pneumoconiosis stage I group, a total of 131 people. The expression of ATM was detected by QRT PCR. ATM rs189037 and rs1801516 were genotyped by massarray. Results: There was significant difference in the expression of ATM among the groups (P<0.05) ; Compared with the healthy control group, the expression of ATM in the dust exposed control group was significantly increased (P<0.05) . With the occurrence and development of CWP, the GG of rs189037 wild type decreased, the GA of mutant heterozygote and AA of homozygote increased, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05) ; Rs1801516 wild type GG and mutant heterozygote GA had no significant changes (P>0.05) . There were significant differences in age, neutrophils and basophils among rs189037 groups (all P<0.05) . There were no significant differences in blood pressure, eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, smoking and drinking history among rs189037 groups (all P>0.05) . Compared with wild-type GG, the or of mutant heterozygotes and homozygotes increased, but the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05) . Conclusion: ATM gene may be one of the early activation genes of CWP and rs189037 may be the functional loci which affects gene expression. ATM gene is related to inflammatory response, Neutrophils and basophils have an impact on the development of CWP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anthracosis/genetics , Ataxia Telangiectasia , Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins/genetics , China , Coal , Coal Mining , Miners , Pneumoconiosis/epidemiology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
11.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(1): 102-114, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990892

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Las centrales termoeléctricas (CTE) a carbón representan un riesgo para la salud de las comunidades expuestas. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura científica nacional e internacional enfocada en los efectos en salud de niños y la exposición a emisiones al aire provenientes de CTE a carbón. Se inclu yeron 21 artículos para su revisión en texto completo, donde se midieron efectos en salud infantil relacionados a presencia de biomarcadores de exposición y efecto, daños perinatales, neuroconductuales y respiratorios principalmente. La exposición a emisiones de CTE a carbón en el embarazo se asoció a niños con bajo peso y muy bajo peso al nacer, menor talla, menor diámetro de Circunfe rencia del Cráneo (CC) y prematuridad; el diámetro de CC aumentó en recién nacidos después del cierre de CTE. Se encontraron menor coeficiente de desarrollo (CD) y coeficiente intelectual (CI) en niños expuestos a emisiones de CTE a carbón comparados con no expuestos; CD aumentó cuando la central fue cerrada. Por otro lado, vivir en zonas con fuentes de emisión de mercurio (asociadas a CTE y plantas de cemento que funcionan con carbón) se asoció con mayor riesgo de autismo. En salud respiratoria, los artículos fueron consistentes en reportar menor función pulmonar en niños residentes en zonas expuestas a fuentes de combustión de carbón comparados con grupos de niños no expuestos. Es muy necesario abrir el debate en Chile sobre los riesgos controlables a los que se enfrenta la población infantil a consecuencia de plantas generadoras de energía instaladas en Chile.


Abstract: Coal-fired power plants (CFPP) represent a health risk to the exposed communities. A review of national and international scientific literature was made focused on the health effects on children and exposure to air emissions from CFPP. Twenty-one articles were included for full-text review, where effects on child health mainly related to the biomarkers presence of exposure and effect, pe rinatal, neurobehavioral and respiratory damages were measured. Exposure to CFPP emissions in pregnancy was associated with low birth weight and very low birth weight, shorter height, smaller head circumference (HC) diameter, and prematurity; the HC diameter increased in newborns after the CFPP closure. Lower coefficient of development (CD) and intelligence quotient (IQ) were found in children exposed to CFPP emissions compared with unexposed ones; CD increased when the plant was closed. On the other hand, living in areas with mercury emission sources (associated with CFPP and cement plants that work with coal) was associated with an increased risk of autism. In respira tory health, the articles were consistent with reporting lower pulmonary function in children living in areas exposed to coal combustion sources compared with groups of unexposed children. There is a great need to open the debate in Chile on the controllable risks faced by the child population as a result of power generation plants located in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Power Plants , Child Health , Coal , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/etiology , Child Development , Chile , Global Health
12.
Barbarói ; (54,n.esp): 173-190, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BVSF | ID: biblio-1046796

ABSTRACT

O presente ensaio propõe análise crítica dos mecanismos participativos utilizados no processo de licenciamento do Projeto Mina Guaíba, na Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre. Cobrindo 4.380 hectares trata-se da maior lavra de carvão mineral a céu aberto no país, visando abastecer Polo Carboquímico composto por termelétrica, usina de gaseificação e indústrias de fertilizantes a serem construídos por estatais chinesas. Apresenta a hipótese que a decisão pela construção do polo foi incentivada pelo governo da China que, desde a crise de poluição atmosférica pelas termelétricas a carvão, em 2013, financia a exportação da capacidade ociosa de planejamento e construção de instalações industriais. De modo receptivo, o governo gaúcho criou, em 2017, o programa PROCARVÃO-RS buscando atrair expertise e capital chinês. Com base em referencial metodológico estabelecido por pesquisa pelo IPEA, e utilizando a Escada de Arnstein, conclui que as audiências públicas realizadas na região metropolitana são inócuas quanto aos objetivos da Política Gaúcha sobre Mudanças Climáticas, na medida em que não alteram escopo ou alcance da implantação da lavra, se restringindo a adicionar eventuais medidas compensatórias.(AU)


This essay proposes a critical analysis of the participatory mechanisms used in the licensing process of the Project Mina Guaíba in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul state. Covering 4,380 hectares, it will become the largest open-pit mine in the country, aiming to supply a thermoelectric power plant, gasification plant and fertilizer industries built by Chinese state-owned companies. It discusses the hypothesis that the decision to build the pole was encouraged by the Chinese government, which, since the 2013 air pollution crisis, has financed the export of idle capacity for planning and building industrial facilities. In a receptive way, the state government created, in 2017, the PROCARVÃO-RS program seeking to attract Chinese expertise and capital. Using the Ladder of Citizen Participation by Arnstein as reference, it concludes that public hearings held in the metropolitan region are innocuous within the objectives of the state?s Climate Change Policy, as they do not alter the project, restricting itself to adding compensatory measures.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Climate Change , Coal , Community Participation , Air Pollution
13.
The Filipino Family Physician ; : 93-99, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-965473

ABSTRACT

Background@#Coal is mainly used in power generation accounting to about 44% in 2015. The demand in the use of coal remains steady despite the known impacts on the environment and health. Respiratory and dermatologic problems are the most studied complication of biomass exposure. However, there are still limited studies to report symptoms related to the effects of both indoor air pollution with an existing biomass exposure.@*Objective@#To compare commonly self-reported pulmonary, dermatologic symptoms, respiratory diseases and determine associated environmental factors among households living near and far from the coal stockpile facility in Tondo, Manila.@*Methods@#A cross sectional study was conducted among household members living in two selected Barangays in Tondo, Manila. Families who live less than 500m across a coal stock piling facility were grouped as Near to stock pile while families living in a barangay which was two kilometers away from a coal stock piling facility were called Far from stock pile group. The data were collected thru interviewer-assisted questionnaires and was analyzed using STATA 14.@*Results@#There were 294 respondents included in the study. Symptoms of dyspnea, breathlessness, cough, pruritus, sputum production and wheezing reported primarily by respondents living in near and far from coal exposure were similar. However, presence of the symptoms reported among family members in the near groups were higher compared to those living far from the stock pile. There was a significantly higher FEV1/FVC ratio in the near group compared to the far group. Significant environmental factors related to symptomatic households living near and far from a coal stockpile facility include dust, heat, smoke and stress. The harmful environmental factors associated to cause dyspnea among households living near a coal stockpile facility were the following: use of firewood for cooking and living near a flood prone area.@*Conclusion@#There was no difference in self-reported symptoms and family member’s medical history of illness in both study group. However, respondent’s history of pulmonary and dermatologic illness and family member’s symptoms were significantly higher among respondents living in the near the stockpile. Environmental factors associated to symptoms in the near group are wood and mixed wood-cement housing material, living in a flood prone area, water source such as standpipe and water kiosk.


Subject(s)
Coal , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 461-469, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786575

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Collisions involving workers and mobile machines continue to be a major concern in underground coal mines. Over the last 30 years, these collisions have resulted in numerous injuries and fatalities. Recently, the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) proposed a rule that would require mines to equip mobile machines with proximity detection systems (PDSs) (systems designed for automated collision avoidance). Even though this regulation has not been enacted, some mines have installed PDSs on their scoops and hauling machines. However, early implementation of PDSs has introduced a variety of safety concerns. Past findings show that workers' trust can affect technology integration and influence unsafe use of automated technologies.METHODS: Using a mixed-methods approach, the present study explores the effect that factors such as mine of employment, age, experience, and system type have on workers' trust in PDSs for mobile machines. The study also explores how workers are trained on PDSs and how this training influences trust.RESULTS: The study resulted in three major findings. First, the mine of employment had a significant influence on workers' trust in mobile PDSs. Second, hands-on and classroom training was the most common types of training. Finally, over 70% of workers are trained on the system by the mine compared with 36% trained by the system manufacturer.CONCLUSION: The influence of workers' mine of employment on trust in PDSs may indicate that practitioners and researchers may need to give the organizational and physical characteristics of each mine careful consideration to ensure safe integration of automated systems.


Subject(s)
Automation , Coal , Employment , Mining , Occupational Health
15.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 438-447, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690638

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore whether the intake of dietary carotenoids could protect against skeletal fluorosis in Guizhou province in which coal-burning fluorosis is endemic.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A case-control study of 196 patients with skeletal fluorosis and 196 age and gender-matched controls was conducted in Zhijin, Guizhou Province. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to assess habitual dietary intake using a 75-item food frequency questionnaire and various covariates with structured questionnaires. Urinary fluoride was measured using an ion-selective electrode method. The genotype of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) rs11968525 was detected by TaqMan method.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>We observed significant dose-dependent inverse associations of skeletal fluorosis with intake of β-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, and total carotenoids (P-trend = 0.002 to 0.018), whereas α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin intakes were not found to be related to skeletal fluorosis, after adjustment for potential confounders. The adjusted ORs and 95% CI of skeletal fluorosis for the highest versus lowest quartile were 0.30 (0.10, 0.86) for β-carotene, 0.23 (0.08, 0.66) for lycopene, 0.26 (0.10, 0.75) for lutein/zeaxanthin and 0.34 (0.14, 0.74) for total carotenoids (all P-trend < 0.05). Stratified analyses showed that the protective effects of lutein/zeaxanthin and total carotenoids on skeletal fluorosis were more evident for individuals with the AG+AA genotypes of SOD2 (rs11968525).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Increased intakes of β-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, and total carotenoids are independently associated with a lower risk of coal-burning skeletal fluorosis. SOD2 (rs11968525) polymorphisms might modify the inverse associations between dietary carotenoids and skeletal fluorosis.</p>


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Genetics , Urine , Carotenoids , Case-Control Studies , China , Coal , Energy Intake , Environmental Exposure , Feeding Behavior , Fluoride Poisoning , Genetics , Urine , Fluorides , Urine , Polymorphism, Genetic , Superoxide Dismutase , Genetics , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine ; : 23-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762525

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced by incomplete combustion have negative effects on human health due to their carcinogenicity and teratogenicity. Indoor sources of PAHs include tobacco smoke, heating sources, and cooking. This study evaluated the relationship between human PAH exposure and residence characteristics. METHOD: This study was based on the second Korean National Environmental Health Survey (2012–2014). Non-smoking housewives were included in the analyses (n = 1269). The concentrations of urinary PAH metabolites (2-naphthol, 2-hydroxyfluorene, 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene) were adjusted by urine creatinine level. The geometric mean concentrations of urinary PAH metabolites by residential factors were examined. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between residential variables and PAH exposures. RESULTS: The adjusted geometric mean concentrations of urinary 2-hydroxyfluorene and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene were significantly higher in the group residing within 100 m of a major road (p  100 m from a major road. In logistic regression analyses, the odds ratio (OR) for exceeding the third quartile of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration was significantly higher in the group using coal or wood fuel for residential heating than in the group using gas (OR = 2.745, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.295–5.819). The detached house group had a significantly higher OR for 1-hydroxyphenanthrene compared with the apartment group (OR = 1.515, 95% CI = 1.023–2.243). CONCLUSION: Our study shows the evidence of associations between some urinary PAH metabolite levels (1-hydroxyphenanthrene and 1-hydroxypyrene) and residence characteristics. Additional studies are needed to clarify these associations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coal , Cooking , Creatinine , Environmental Health , Heating , Hot Temperature , Logistic Models , Methods , Odds Ratio , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Residence Characteristics , Smoke , Tobacco , Wood
17.
Rev. salud pública ; 19(3): 362-367, mayo-jun. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-903116

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar la percepción de calidad de vida en habitantes de zonas mineras de explotación de carbón mineral y zonas agrícolas Materiales y Métodos Estudio de corte trasversal descriptivo en 228 individuos habitantes de municipios de explotación de carbón (n=151) y de municipios con actividades agrícolas (n=78). Quienes respondieron encuesta SF36 y test socio demográfico. Resultados Se encontró que la percepción de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud es menor en los habitantes del área de explotación del carbón frente a los habitantes de zona agrícola solo con diferencia estadística en la percepción general de la escala y sin diferencia pro cada una de las escalas. Discusión La contaminación generada en zonas de explotación minera de carbón repercute en la salud de las personas y su percepción de calidad de vida, la evidencia es débil al no demostrar diferencias estadísticamente significativas por área en cada subescala y solo se demostró en percepción general.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the perception of quality of life in inhabitants of mineral mining areas of mineral coal and agricultural areas. Materials and Methods Descriptive cross-sectional study of 229 individuals living in coal mining municipalities (n=151) and municipalities with agricultural activities (n=78). Those who answered SF36 survey and socio-demographic test. Results It was found that the perception of the health-related quality of life is lower in the inhabitants of the area of coal exploitation compared to the inhabitants of agricultural zone only with statistical difference in the general perception of the scale and with no difference pro each one of the scales. Discussion Pollution generated in coal mining areas has an impact on the health of people and their perception of quality of life. The evidence is weak in showing no statistically significant differences by area in each subscale and was only demonstrated in general perception.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality of Life , Environmental Health , Coal/adverse effects , Mining , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia
18.
Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine ; : 9-2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-181988

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bricks have been manufactured in Nepal for hundreds of years and are seen as a component of Nepalese sculpture and architecture. Large quantities of hazardous materials including high concentrations of particulate matter are emitted on a daily basis from brick kilns. Exposure to these hazardous materials can lead to adverse consequences on the environment and human health. This study was conducted to  estimate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms/illnesses and the magnitude of respirable and total dust exposures among Nepalese brick kiln workers. METHODS: Respiratory symptoms/illnesses were evaluated by questionnaire among brickfield workers (n = 400) and a referent group of grocery workers (n = 400) in Kathmandu valley. Work zones (WZs): green brick molding (GBM), green brick stacking/carrying (GBS/C), red brick loading/carrying (RBL/C), coal preparation (CP) and firemen (FM) were the similar exposure groups (SEGs) from where personal air samples and interviews were taken. Among brickfield workers, personal monitoring was conducted across SEGs for total (n = 89) and respirable (n = 72) dust during February–March 2015 and March–April 2016. Applying multi-stage probability proportionate to size sampling technique, 16 kilns and 400 brick workers for interview were selected. Proportions, means, medians and ranges were calculated for the demographics, samples and respiratory symptoms/illnesses. One-way ANOVA was applied to compare the significance differences of the level of particulate matter among SEGs. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate association between respiratory symptoms/illnesses and participants groups, and SEGs among brick kiln workers at 0.05 level. Statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 21. RESULTS: Chronic cough (14.3%), phlegm (16.6%) and bronchitis (19.0%) were higher (P < 0.05) among brickfield compared with grocery workers (6.8, 5.8 and 10.8%). Mean respirable (5.888 mg/m3) and total (20.657 mg/m3) dust exposures were highest for red brick loading tasks. The prevalence of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, chronic bronchitis, wheezing and asthma were significantly higher for other WZs workers (p < 0.05) compared with CP; for GBM: 22.9, 34.6, 15.0 and 7.5%; for GBS/C: 13.5, 15.8, 10.0, 8.8 and 7.5%; for RBL/C: 11.1, 17.1, 27.4, 19.0 and 11.9%; for FM: 18.4, 12.5, 28.4, 4.9 and 0.0%; and for CP: 4.9, 6.3, 13.3, 9.3 and 4.0% respectively. CONCLUSION: High dust exposures identified in this study may explain the increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms/illnesses among Nepalese brickfield workers, warranting action to reduce exposures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma , Bronchitis , Bronchitis, Chronic , Coal , Cough , Demography , Dust , Fungi , Hazardous Substances , Logistic Models , Nepal , Particulate Matter , Prevalence , Respiratory Sounds , Sculpture
19.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 296-305, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-43185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Surfactant-containing water sprays are commonly used in coal mines to collect dust. This study investigates the dust collection performance of different surfactant types for a range of coal dust particle sizes and charges. METHODS: Bituminous coal dust aerosol was generated in a wind tunnel. The charge of the aerosol was either left unaltered, charge-neutralized with a neutralizer, or positively- or negatively-charged using a diffusion charger after the particles were neutralized. An anionic, cationic, or nonionic surfactant spray or a plain water spray was used to remove the particles from the air flow. Some particles were captured while passing through spray section, whereas remaining particles were charge-separated using an electrostatic classifier. Particle size and concentration of the charge-separated particles were measured using an aerodynamic particle sizer. Measurements were made with the spray on and off to calculate overall collection efficiencies (integrated across all charge levels) and efficiencies of particles with specific charge levels. RESULTS: The diameter of the tested coal dust aerosol was 0.89 μm ± 1.45 [geometric mean ± geometric standard deviations (SD)]. Respirable particle mass was collected with 75.5 ± 5.9% (mean ± SD) efficiency overall. Collection efficiency was correlated with particle size. Surfactant type significantly impacted collection efficiency: charged particle collection by nonionic surfactant sprays was greater than or equal to collection by other sprays, especially for weakly-charged aerosols. Particle charge strength was significantly correlated with collection efficiency. CONCLUSION: Surfactant type affects charged particle spray collection efficiency. Nonionic surfactant sprays performed well in coal dust capture in many of the tested conditions.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Coal , Diffusion , Dust , Particle Size , Water , Wind
20.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 101-107, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-357844

ABSTRACT

Xuanwei district in Yunnan Province of China has pretty high incidence of lung cancer in China, even a- round the world. Studies have shown that there exists a close relationship between lung cancer and local indoor air pollution caused by Bituminous coal. Considering that the indoor air pollution in Xuanwei District is caused by "open fireplace", an indoor air pollution simulation system was designed, and an F344 rats lung damage model was estab- lished for this indoor air pollution fireplace. The model is based on indoor air pollution simulation system with signal multiplexer control and multi-channel acquisition, and mining PID algorithm was used for polynomial fitting to each test point, and a relatively constant PM2. 5 air pollution status was simulated. The results showed that the system could simulate a variety of states of air pollution, provide a new test method for evaluation of human injury caused by indoor air pollution and a new idea for the study of the incidence of lung cancer in Xuanwei district and other places.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Air Pollution, Indoor , China , Coal , Incidence , Lung , Pathology , Lung Neoplasms , Epidemiology , Models, Biological , Particulate Matter , Rats, Inbred F344
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