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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935765

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the harm degree of underground noise and provide basis for noise control. Methods: In November 2019, 13 typical coal mines in Sichuan Province were selected as the research objects, and a total of 1203 sites and 609 jobs of noise exposure were investigated. Results: The noise intensity P75 >80 dB (A) was measured. The noise intensity of the inspection place of the air compressor is >86 dB (A) , the noise intensity of the inspection place of the gas drainage and the operation place of the main fan is between 80-85 dB (A) . Conclusion: Besides the harm of dust, noise exposure should also be paid attention to, and the measures of sound absorption and sound insulation should be taken or personal protection should be strengthened.


Subject(s)
Coal , Coal Mining , Dust/analysis , Noise , Occupational Exposure
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935754

ABSTRACT

Objective: To detect of gene expression and genotype of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) from coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) , It is explored whether CWP is related to ATM gene. Methods: In October 2020, the relevant information of 264 subjects who received physical examination or medical treatment in the Department of occupational diseases of Guiyang public health treatment center from January 2019 to September 2020 was collected. Through the occupational health examination, 67 healthy people with no history of exposure to occupational hazards were selected as the healthy control group; The coal miners with more than 10 years of coal dust exposure history and small shadow in the lung but not up to the diagnostic criteria were the dust exposure control group, a total of 66 people; The patients with the same history of coal dust exposure and confirmed stage I were coal worker's pneumoconiosis stage I group, a total of 131 people. The expression of ATM was detected by QRT PCR. ATM rs189037 and rs1801516 were genotyped by massarray. Results: There was significant difference in the expression of ATM among the groups (P<0.05) ; Compared with the healthy control group, the expression of ATM in the dust exposed control group was significantly increased (P<0.05) . With the occurrence and development of CWP, the GG of rs189037 wild type decreased, the GA of mutant heterozygote and AA of homozygote increased, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05) ; Rs1801516 wild type GG and mutant heterozygote GA had no significant changes (P>0.05) . There were significant differences in age, neutrophils and basophils among rs189037 groups (all P<0.05) . There were no significant differences in blood pressure, eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, smoking and drinking history among rs189037 groups (all P>0.05) . Compared with wild-type GG, the or of mutant heterozygotes and homozygotes increased, but the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05) . Conclusion: ATM gene may be one of the early activation genes of CWP and rs189037 may be the functional loci which affects gene expression. ATM gene is related to inflammatory response, Neutrophils and basophils have an impact on the development of CWP.


Subject(s)
Anthracosis/genetics , Ataxia Telangiectasia , Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins/genetics , China , Coal , Coal Mining , Humans , Miners , Pneumoconiosis/epidemiology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
3.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 461-469, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786575

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Collisions involving workers and mobile machines continue to be a major concern in underground coal mines. Over the last 30 years, these collisions have resulted in numerous injuries and fatalities. Recently, the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) proposed a rule that would require mines to equip mobile machines with proximity detection systems (PDSs) (systems designed for automated collision avoidance). Even though this regulation has not been enacted, some mines have installed PDSs on their scoops and hauling machines. However, early implementation of PDSs has introduced a variety of safety concerns. Past findings show that workers' trust can affect technology integration and influence unsafe use of automated technologies.METHODS: Using a mixed-methods approach, the present study explores the effect that factors such as mine of employment, age, experience, and system type have on workers' trust in PDSs for mobile machines. The study also explores how workers are trained on PDSs and how this training influences trust.RESULTS: The study resulted in three major findings. First, the mine of employment had a significant influence on workers' trust in mobile PDSs. Second, hands-on and classroom training was the most common types of training. Finally, over 70% of workers are trained on the system by the mine compared with 36% trained by the system manufacturer.CONCLUSION: The influence of workers' mine of employment on trust in PDSs may indicate that practitioners and researchers may need to give the organizational and physical characteristics of each mine careful consideration to ensure safe integration of automated systems.


Subject(s)
Automation , Coal , Employment , Mining , Occupational Health
4.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(1): 102-114, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990892

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Las centrales termoeléctricas (CTE) a carbón representan un riesgo para la salud de las comunidades expuestas. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura científica nacional e internacional enfocada en los efectos en salud de niños y la exposición a emisiones al aire provenientes de CTE a carbón. Se inclu yeron 21 artículos para su revisión en texto completo, donde se midieron efectos en salud infantil relacionados a presencia de biomarcadores de exposición y efecto, daños perinatales, neuroconductuales y respiratorios principalmente. La exposición a emisiones de CTE a carbón en el embarazo se asoció a niños con bajo peso y muy bajo peso al nacer, menor talla, menor diámetro de Circunfe rencia del Cráneo (CC) y prematuridad; el diámetro de CC aumentó en recién nacidos después del cierre de CTE. Se encontraron menor coeficiente de desarrollo (CD) y coeficiente intelectual (CI) en niños expuestos a emisiones de CTE a carbón comparados con no expuestos; CD aumentó cuando la central fue cerrada. Por otro lado, vivir en zonas con fuentes de emisión de mercurio (asociadas a CTE y plantas de cemento que funcionan con carbón) se asoció con mayor riesgo de autismo. En salud respiratoria, los artículos fueron consistentes en reportar menor función pulmonar en niños residentes en zonas expuestas a fuentes de combustión de carbón comparados con grupos de niños no expuestos. Es muy necesario abrir el debate en Chile sobre los riesgos controlables a los que se enfrenta la población infantil a consecuencia de plantas generadoras de energía instaladas en Chile.


Abstract: Coal-fired power plants (CFPP) represent a health risk to the exposed communities. A review of national and international scientific literature was made focused on the health effects on children and exposure to air emissions from CFPP. Twenty-one articles were included for full-text review, where effects on child health mainly related to the biomarkers presence of exposure and effect, pe rinatal, neurobehavioral and respiratory damages were measured. Exposure to CFPP emissions in pregnancy was associated with low birth weight and very low birth weight, shorter height, smaller head circumference (HC) diameter, and prematurity; the HC diameter increased in newborns after the CFPP closure. Lower coefficient of development (CD) and intelligence quotient (IQ) were found in children exposed to CFPP emissions compared with unexposed ones; CD increased when the plant was closed. On the other hand, living in areas with mercury emission sources (associated with CFPP and cement plants that work with coal) was associated with an increased risk of autism. In respira tory health, the articles were consistent with reporting lower pulmonary function in children living in areas exposed to coal combustion sources compared with groups of unexposed children. There is a great need to open the debate in Chile on the controllable risks faced by the child population as a result of power generation plants located in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Power Plants , Child Health , Coal , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/etiology , Child Development , Chile , Global Health
5.
Barbarói ; (54,n.esp): 173-190, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BVSF | ID: biblio-1046796

ABSTRACT

O presente ensaio propõe análise crítica dos mecanismos participativos utilizados no processo de licenciamento do Projeto Mina Guaíba, na Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre. Cobrindo 4.380 hectares trata-se da maior lavra de carvão mineral a céu aberto no país, visando abastecer Polo Carboquímico composto por termelétrica, usina de gaseificação e indústrias de fertilizantes a serem construídos por estatais chinesas. Apresenta a hipótese que a decisão pela construção do polo foi incentivada pelo governo da China que, desde a crise de poluição atmosférica pelas termelétricas a carvão, em 2013, financia a exportação da capacidade ociosa de planejamento e construção de instalações industriais. De modo receptivo, o governo gaúcho criou, em 2017, o programa PROCARVÃO-RS buscando atrair expertise e capital chinês. Com base em referencial metodológico estabelecido por pesquisa pelo IPEA, e utilizando a Escada de Arnstein, conclui que as audiências públicas realizadas na região metropolitana são inócuas quanto aos objetivos da Política Gaúcha sobre Mudanças Climáticas, na medida em que não alteram escopo ou alcance da implantação da lavra, se restringindo a adicionar eventuais medidas compensatórias.(AU)


This essay proposes a critical analysis of the participatory mechanisms used in the licensing process of the Project Mina Guaíba in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul state. Covering 4,380 hectares, it will become the largest open-pit mine in the country, aiming to supply a thermoelectric power plant, gasification plant and fertilizer industries built by Chinese state-owned companies. It discusses the hypothesis that the decision to build the pole was encouraged by the Chinese government, which, since the 2013 air pollution crisis, has financed the export of idle capacity for planning and building industrial facilities. In a receptive way, the state government created, in 2017, the PROCARVÃO-RS program seeking to attract Chinese expertise and capital. Using the Ladder of Citizen Participation by Arnstein as reference, it concludes that public hearings held in the metropolitan region are innocuous within the objectives of the state?s Climate Change Policy, as they do not alter the project, restricting itself to adding compensatory measures.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Climate Change , Coal , Community Participation , Air Pollution
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762525

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced by incomplete combustion have negative effects on human health due to their carcinogenicity and teratogenicity. Indoor sources of PAHs include tobacco smoke, heating sources, and cooking. This study evaluated the relationship between human PAH exposure and residence characteristics. METHOD: This study was based on the second Korean National Environmental Health Survey (2012–2014). Non-smoking housewives were included in the analyses (n = 1269). The concentrations of urinary PAH metabolites (2-naphthol, 2-hydroxyfluorene, 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene) were adjusted by urine creatinine level. The geometric mean concentrations of urinary PAH metabolites by residential factors were examined. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between residential variables and PAH exposures. RESULTS: The adjusted geometric mean concentrations of urinary 2-hydroxyfluorene and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene were significantly higher in the group residing within 100 m of a major road (p  100 m from a major road. In logistic regression analyses, the odds ratio (OR) for exceeding the third quartile of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration was significantly higher in the group using coal or wood fuel for residential heating than in the group using gas (OR = 2.745, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.295–5.819). The detached house group had a significantly higher OR for 1-hydroxyphenanthrene compared with the apartment group (OR = 1.515, 95% CI = 1.023–2.243). CONCLUSION: Our study shows the evidence of associations between some urinary PAH metabolite levels (1-hydroxyphenanthrene and 1-hydroxypyrene) and residence characteristics. Additional studies are needed to clarify these associations.


Subject(s)
Coal , Cooking , Creatinine , Environmental Health , Heating , Hot Temperature , Humans , Logistic Models , Methods , Odds Ratio , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Residence Characteristics , Smoke , Tobacco , Wood
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690638

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore whether the intake of dietary carotenoids could protect against skeletal fluorosis in Guizhou province in which coal-burning fluorosis is endemic.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A case-control study of 196 patients with skeletal fluorosis and 196 age and gender-matched controls was conducted in Zhijin, Guizhou Province. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to assess habitual dietary intake using a 75-item food frequency questionnaire and various covariates with structured questionnaires. Urinary fluoride was measured using an ion-selective electrode method. The genotype of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) rs11968525 was detected by TaqMan method.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>We observed significant dose-dependent inverse associations of skeletal fluorosis with intake of β-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, and total carotenoids (P-trend = 0.002 to 0.018), whereas α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin intakes were not found to be related to skeletal fluorosis, after adjustment for potential confounders. The adjusted ORs and 95% CI of skeletal fluorosis for the highest versus lowest quartile were 0.30 (0.10, 0.86) for β-carotene, 0.23 (0.08, 0.66) for lycopene, 0.26 (0.10, 0.75) for lutein/zeaxanthin and 0.34 (0.14, 0.74) for total carotenoids (all P-trend < 0.05). Stratified analyses showed that the protective effects of lutein/zeaxanthin and total carotenoids on skeletal fluorosis were more evident for individuals with the AG+AA genotypes of SOD2 (rs11968525).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Increased intakes of β-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, and total carotenoids are independently associated with a lower risk of coal-burning skeletal fluorosis. SOD2 (rs11968525) polymorphisms might modify the inverse associations between dietary carotenoids and skeletal fluorosis.</p>


Subject(s)
Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Genetics , Urine , Carotenoids , Case-Control Studies , China , Coal , Energy Intake , Environmental Exposure , Feeding Behavior , Female , Fluoride Poisoning , Genetics , Urine , Fluorides , Urine , Humans , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Genetic , Superoxide Dismutase , Genetics , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Rev. salud pública ; 19(3): 362-367, mayo-jun. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-903116

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar la percepción de calidad de vida en habitantes de zonas mineras de explotación de carbón mineral y zonas agrícolas Materiales y Métodos Estudio de corte trasversal descriptivo en 228 individuos habitantes de municipios de explotación de carbón (n=151) y de municipios con actividades agrícolas (n=78). Quienes respondieron encuesta SF36 y test socio demográfico. Resultados Se encontró que la percepción de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud es menor en los habitantes del área de explotación del carbón frente a los habitantes de zona agrícola solo con diferencia estadística en la percepción general de la escala y sin diferencia pro cada una de las escalas. Discusión La contaminación generada en zonas de explotación minera de carbón repercute en la salud de las personas y su percepción de calidad de vida, la evidencia es débil al no demostrar diferencias estadísticamente significativas por área en cada subescala y solo se demostró en percepción general.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the perception of quality of life in inhabitants of mineral mining areas of mineral coal and agricultural areas. Materials and Methods Descriptive cross-sectional study of 229 individuals living in coal mining municipalities (n=151) and municipalities with agricultural activities (n=78). Those who answered SF36 survey and socio-demographic test. Results It was found that the perception of the health-related quality of life is lower in the inhabitants of the area of coal exploitation compared to the inhabitants of agricultural zone only with statistical difference in the general perception of the scale and with no difference pro each one of the scales. Discussion Pollution generated in coal mining areas has an impact on the health of people and their perception of quality of life. The evidence is weak in showing no statistically significant differences by area in each subscale and was only demonstrated in general perception.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality of Life , Environmental Health , Coal/adverse effects , Mining , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia
9.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 296-305, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-43185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Surfactant-containing water sprays are commonly used in coal mines to collect dust. This study investigates the dust collection performance of different surfactant types for a range of coal dust particle sizes and charges. METHODS: Bituminous coal dust aerosol was generated in a wind tunnel. The charge of the aerosol was either left unaltered, charge-neutralized with a neutralizer, or positively- or negatively-charged using a diffusion charger after the particles were neutralized. An anionic, cationic, or nonionic surfactant spray or a plain water spray was used to remove the particles from the air flow. Some particles were captured while passing through spray section, whereas remaining particles were charge-separated using an electrostatic classifier. Particle size and concentration of the charge-separated particles were measured using an aerodynamic particle sizer. Measurements were made with the spray on and off to calculate overall collection efficiencies (integrated across all charge levels) and efficiencies of particles with specific charge levels. RESULTS: The diameter of the tested coal dust aerosol was 0.89 μm ± 1.45 [geometric mean ± geometric standard deviations (SD)]. Respirable particle mass was collected with 75.5 ± 5.9% (mean ± SD) efficiency overall. Collection efficiency was correlated with particle size. Surfactant type significantly impacted collection efficiency: charged particle collection by nonionic surfactant sprays was greater than or equal to collection by other sprays, especially for weakly-charged aerosols. Particle charge strength was significantly correlated with collection efficiency. CONCLUSION: Surfactant type affects charged particle spray collection efficiency. Nonionic surfactant sprays performed well in coal dust capture in many of the tested conditions.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Coal , Diffusion , Dust , Particle Size , Water , Wind
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-181988

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bricks have been manufactured in Nepal for hundreds of years and are seen as a component of Nepalese sculpture and architecture. Large quantities of hazardous materials including high concentrations of particulate matter are emitted on a daily basis from brick kilns. Exposure to these hazardous materials can lead to adverse consequences on the environment and human health. This study was conducted to  estimate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms/illnesses and the magnitude of respirable and total dust exposures among Nepalese brick kiln workers. METHODS: Respiratory symptoms/illnesses were evaluated by questionnaire among brickfield workers (n = 400) and a referent group of grocery workers (n = 400) in Kathmandu valley. Work zones (WZs): green brick molding (GBM), green brick stacking/carrying (GBS/C), red brick loading/carrying (RBL/C), coal preparation (CP) and firemen (FM) were the similar exposure groups (SEGs) from where personal air samples and interviews were taken. Among brickfield workers, personal monitoring was conducted across SEGs for total (n = 89) and respirable (n = 72) dust during February–March 2015 and March–April 2016. Applying multi-stage probability proportionate to size sampling technique, 16 kilns and 400 brick workers for interview were selected. Proportions, means, medians and ranges were calculated for the demographics, samples and respiratory symptoms/illnesses. One-way ANOVA was applied to compare the significance differences of the level of particulate matter among SEGs. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate association between respiratory symptoms/illnesses and participants groups, and SEGs among brick kiln workers at 0.05 level. Statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 21. RESULTS: Chronic cough (14.3%), phlegm (16.6%) and bronchitis (19.0%) were higher (P < 0.05) among brickfield compared with grocery workers (6.8, 5.8 and 10.8%). Mean respirable (5.888 mg/m3) and total (20.657 mg/m3) dust exposures were highest for red brick loading tasks. The prevalence of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, chronic bronchitis, wheezing and asthma were significantly higher for other WZs workers (p < 0.05) compared with CP; for GBM: 22.9, 34.6, 15.0 and 7.5%; for GBS/C: 13.5, 15.8, 10.0, 8.8 and 7.5%; for RBL/C: 11.1, 17.1, 27.4, 19.0 and 11.9%; for FM: 18.4, 12.5, 28.4, 4.9 and 0.0%; and for CP: 4.9, 6.3, 13.3, 9.3 and 4.0% respectively. CONCLUSION: High dust exposures identified in this study may explain the increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms/illnesses among Nepalese brickfield workers, warranting action to reduce exposures.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Bronchitis , Bronchitis, Chronic , Coal , Cough , Demography , Dust , Fungi , Hazardous Substances , Humans , Logistic Models , Nepal , Particulate Matter , Prevalence , Respiratory Sounds , Sculpture
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77214

ABSTRACT

Asthma is the most common chronic pulmonary disease worldwide and places a considerable economic burden on society. China is the world's largest developing country and has the largest population. China has undergone dramatic changes in the past few decades. The traditional lifestyle and living environment have changed in ways that directly affect the prevalence of asthma. The prevalence of asthma is lower in Chinese children and adults than in developed countries, but the prevalence has been on the rise during the past 30 years. The prevalence significantly varies among different parts of China. Polymorphisms of multiple genes, outdoor air pollution caused by PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, environmental tobacco smoke, and coal, indoor pollution, and inhaled allergens, such as house dust mites, pollen, and cockroach particles, are risk factors for asthma.


Subject(s)
Adult , Air Pollution , Allergens , Asians , Asthma , Child , China , Coal , Cockroaches , Developed Countries , Developing Countries , Environmental Exposure , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Life Style , Lung Diseases , Pollen , Polymorphism, Genetic , Prevalence , Pyroglyphidae , Risk Factors , Smoke , Tobacco
12.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 158-165, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-632836

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study evaluated the quality of indoor air in households surrounding a coal-fired power plant in Pagbilao, Quezon and its impact to the residents in these communities.  METHODS: The researchers used a quantitative approach and gathered both primary and secondary data from the Province of Quezon, Municipalities of Pagbilao and Padre Burgos and 12 other barangays from January to June 2008. A household survey was conducted to obtain the health and socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents. Likewise, indoor air quality surveys, respiratory health profiling and pulmonary function tests were done. Indoor air quality monitoring measured eight hour levels of particulate matter -10 (PM10) in "near" and "far" barangays and sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in two primary impact barangays as indicated in the environmental impact assessment of the power plant.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Results showed that there is no significant difference (p=


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Middle Aged , Adult , Young Adult , Adolescent , Child , Air Pollutants , Coal , Gases , Air Pollution, Indoor , Coal , Environmental Exposure , Nitrogen Dioxide , Risk Factors , Smoking , Sulfur Dioxide , Environmental Illness , Tobacco Smoke Pollution
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-357844

ABSTRACT

Xuanwei district in Yunnan Province of China has pretty high incidence of lung cancer in China, even a- round the world. Studies have shown that there exists a close relationship between lung cancer and local indoor air pollution caused by Bituminous coal. Considering that the indoor air pollution in Xuanwei District is caused by "open fireplace", an indoor air pollution simulation system was designed, and an F344 rats lung damage model was estab- lished for this indoor air pollution fireplace. The model is based on indoor air pollution simulation system with signal multiplexer control and multi-channel acquisition, and mining PID algorithm was used for polynomial fitting to each test point, and a relatively constant PM2. 5 air pollution status was simulated. The results showed that the system could simulate a variety of states of air pollution, provide a new test method for evaluation of human injury caused by indoor air pollution and a new idea for the study of the incidence of lung cancer in Xuanwei district and other places.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , Animals , China , Coal , Humans , Incidence , Lung , Pathology , Lung Neoplasms , Epidemiology , Models, Biological , Particulate Matter , Rats , Rats, Inbred F344
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296564

ABSTRACT

This study was to investigate whether working in conditions of elevated concentrations of mine gases (CO2, CO, CH4, DMS) and dust may result in oxidative stress. Coal miners (n=94) from the Velenje Coal mine who were arranged into control group and three groups according to a number of consecutive working days. 8-isoprostane as a biological marker of oxidative stress was measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Miners who worked for three consecutive days had higher 8-isoprostane values in EBC compared to the control group. Gas/dust concentrations and exposure time of a single/two day shift seem too low to trigger immediate oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Adult , Biomarkers , Breath Tests , Coal , Coal Mining , Workforce , Dinoprost , Dust , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Miners , Occupational Exposure , Oxidative Stress
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-326088

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the differences in the autophagy activity of alveolar macrophages between patients with different stages of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 116 coal workers were investigated in the field. Their lung lavage fluid was collected and purified to obtain alveolar macrophages. The morphological characteristics of autophagy were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The expression of autophagy marker (LC3) and autophagy regulators (Beclin1, mTOR, and p-mTOR) was measured by Western blot. The autophagy activity of alveolar macrophages was compared between dust-exposed subjects and patients with stage I, II, and III CWP.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The autophagy activity of alveolar macrophages differed between patients with different stages of CWP, according to transmission electron microscopy. Patients with stage II CWP had significantly higher protein expression of LC3 II/I and Beclin1 in pulmonary macrophages than those with stage ICWP (P < 0.05); patients with stage III CWP had significantly lower protein expression of LC3 II/I and Beclin1 in pulmonary macrophages than those with stage II CWP (P < 0.05), but had significantly higher protein expression of LC3 II/I and Beclin1 than those with stage I CWP (P < 0.05); patients with stage II CWP had a significantly higher protein expression of Beclin1 than the dust-exposed subjects (P < 0.05). Patients with stage II CWP had significantly lower expression of mTOR and p-mTOR in pulmonary macrophages than the dust-exposed subjects and those with stage I CWP (P < 0.05), while patients with stage III CWP had significantly higher expression of mTOR and p-mTOR than those with stage II CWP (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The autophagy activity of alveolar macrophages varies between patients with different stages of CWP.</p>


Subject(s)
Anthracosis , Pathology , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins , Metabolism , Autophagy , Beclin-1 , Biomarkers , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Coal , Coal Mining , Dust , Humans , Macrophages, Alveolar , Pathology , Membrane Proteins , Metabolism , Microtubule-Associated Proteins , Metabolism , Occupational Exposure , Pneumoconiosis , Pathology
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-326086

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of secondary dust exposure after whole-lung lavage (WLL) on the clinical symptoms, arterial blood gas parameters, and pulmonary function in subjects with pneumoconiosis and patients with stage I coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The subjects with pneumoconiosis and patients with stage I CWP who underwent WLL in our hospital during the study period were selected. All patients were divided into postoperative dust exposure group (n = 86) and lavage control group (n = 86) according to whether they were exposed to dust after conventional operation. In addition, their workmates with similar age, history of dust exposure, and type of dust exposure were selected as non-lavage control group (n = 86). Follow-up was performed before and at one month and one year after WLL to evaluate clinical symptoms, arterial blood gas parameters, and pulmonary function.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>One month after operation, the clinical scores of the postoperative dust-exposure group and lavage control group were significantly reduced compared with their preoperative scores and the clinical score of the non-lavage control group (P < 0.01). One year after operation, the clinical scores of the postoperative dust-exposure group and lavage control group were significantly reduced compared with their preoperative scores and the clinical score of the non?lavage control group (P < 0.01), and the lavage control group had a significantly lower clinical score than the postoperative dust exposure group (P < 0.01). One month after operation, the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) of the postoperative dust-exposure group and lavage control group were significantly higher than their preoperative values and the arterial PaO2 of the non-lavage control group (P < 0.01). One year after operation, the lavage control group had significantly higher arterial PaO2 than the postoperative dust exposure group and the arterial PaO2 of the non-lavage control group was significantly lower than its preoperative value and the arterial PaO2 of the postoperative dust exposure group and lavage control group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01); the postoperative dust exposure group showed a significant decrease in arterial PaO2 (P < 0.01), while the lavage control group showed a significant increase in arterial PaO2 (P < 0.01). The partial pressure of carbon dioxide showed no significant differences between the three groups before and at one month and one year after operation (P > 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Dust exposure should be avoided after WLL to ensure the treatment outcome.</p>


Subject(s)
Anthracosis , Therapeutics , Blood Gas Analysis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Coal , Coal Mining , Control Groups , Dust , Humans , Lung , Occupational Exposure , Oxygen , Pneumoconiosis , Treatment Outcome
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350562

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore whether the tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within EPHX1 gene were involved in the genetic susceptibility to coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) by case-control study.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>This study consisted of 697 CWP patients and 694 controls. All the subjects were Han Chinese, underground coal miners and recruited from coal mines of Xuzhou Mining Business Group Co Ltd.. The venous blood samples were obtained from all subjects and extracted genome DNA from the isolated leucocytes. Three SNPs were selected from the HapMap and the genotyping was done by the TaqMan method with the ABI 7900HT Real Time PCR system.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The Single SNP analyses showed that the genotype frequencies of EPHX1 (rs2234922) was significantly associated with decreased risk of CWP under co-dominant model (OR = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.06~0.79, P = 0.020), recessive model (OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.06~0.82, P = 0.023), and addictive model (OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.58~0.96, P = 0.022). The further stratification analysis showed that the risk of CWP will significantly decreased in non-smoking groups (OR = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.01~0.83, P = 0.033).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Our results suggest that individuals with the EPHX1 (rs223492) GG genotype was associated with a dereased risk of CWP, and it has a protective effect on the developing CWP.</p>


Subject(s)
Anthracosis , Genetics , Case-Control Studies , Coal , Epoxide Hydrolases , Genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors , Sequence Analysis, DNA
18.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 150-155, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201031

ABSTRACT

The health impacts of particulate matter (PM) are of global concern, but the implications of the development and exacerbation of bronchial asthma are subject to debate. PM is generated by several sources including vehicle exhaust fumes, the flaring of hydrocarbons at refineries, coal burning at power plants, and thermal treatment of hazardous waste. Recently, the health effects of PM have been documented with increasing frequency due to the greater release of PM from countries such as China. PM is frequently categorized according to mean aerodynamic diameter, with particles ranging in size from coarse (2.5-10 microm in diameter) to fine (< 2.5 microm) to ultrafine (< 0.1 microm). Smaller PM particles are more likely to cause respiratory toxicity and dysfunction due to their propensity to be deposited deep within the lower airways and alveoli. This article briefly reviews the health consequences of PM, with a particular focus on asthma and respiratory disease.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Burns , China , Coal , Hazardous Waste , Hydrocarbons , Particulate Matter , Power Plants
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(11): 982-989, 11/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723899

ABSTRACT

Few studies evaluate the amount of particulate matter less than 2.5 mm in diameter (PM2.5) in relation to a change in lung function among adults in a population. The aim of this study was to assess the association of coal as a domestic energy source to pulmonary function in an adult population in inner-city areas of Zunyi city in China where coal use is common. In a cross-sectional study of 104 households, pulmonary function measurements were assessed and compared in 110 coal users and 121 non-coal users (≥18 years old) who were all nonsmokers. Several sociodemographic factors were assessed by questionnaire, and ventilatory function measurements including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), the FEV1/FVC ratio, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were compared between the 2 groups. The amount of PM2.5 was also measured in all residences. There was a significant increase in the relative concentration of PM2.5 in the indoor kitchens and living rooms of the coal-exposed group compared to the non-coal-exposed group. In multivariate analysis, current exposure to coal smoke was associated with a 31.7% decrease in FVC, a 42.0% decrease in FEV1, a 7.46% decrease in the FEV1/FVC ratio, and a 23.1% decrease in PEFR in adult residents. The slope of lung function decrease for Chinese adults is approximately a 2-L decrease in FVC, a 3-L decrease in FEV1, and an 8 L/s decrease in PEFR per count per minute of PM2.5 exposure. These results demonstrate the harmful effects of indoor air pollution from coal smoke on the lung function of adult residents and emphasize the need for public health efforts to decrease exposure to coal smoke.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects , Coal/toxicity , Lung/physiology , Particulate Matter/toxicity , China , Cities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Forced Expiratory Volume/drug effects , Housing , Particulate Matter/analysis , Respiratory Function Tests , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Smoke/adverse effects , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Vital Capacity/drug effects
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 911-918, July-Sept. 2014. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727020

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the production of humic substances (HS) through the bacterial solubilization of low rank coal (LRC) was evaluated. The evaluation was carried out by 19 bacterial strains isolated in microenvironments with high contents of coal wastes. The biotransformed LRC and the HS produced were quantified in vitro in a liquid growth medium. The humic acids (HA) obtained from the most active bacterial strain were characterized via elemental composition (C, H, N, O), IR analyses, and the E4/E6 ratio; they were then compared with the HA extracted chemically using NaOH. There was LRC biotransformation ranged from 25 to 37%, and HS production ranged from 127 to 3100 mg.L-1. More activity was detected in the isolated strains of Bacillus mycoides, Microbacterium sp, Acinetobacter sp, and Enterobacter aerogenes. The HA produced by B. mycoides had an IR spectrum and an E4/E6 ratio similar to those of the HA extracted with NAOH, but their elemental composition and their degree of aromatic condensation was different. Results suggest that these bacteria can be used to exploit the LRC resulting from coal mining activities and thus produce HS in order to improve the content of humified organic matter in soils.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/metabolism , Coal , Humic Substances/analysis , Biotransformation , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Elements , Environmental Microbiology
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