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1.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 47-52, Jan.-Mar. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090559

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Cisplatin damages the auditory system and is related to the generation of free radicals. Glutathione peroxidase is an endogenous free radicals remover. Objective To investigate the mechanisms involved in otoprotection by N-acetylcys- teine through the expression of glutathione peroxidase in outer hair cells from rats treated with cisplatin. Methods Male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with cisplatin (8 mg/Kg) and/or received oral administration by gavage of N-acetylcysteine (300 mg/Kg) for 3 consecutive days. On the 4th day, the animals were euthanized and beheaded. The tympanic bullae were removed and prepared for scanning electron microscopy and Results Among the groups exposed to ototoxic doses of cisplatin, there was an increase in glutathione peroxidase immunostaining in two groups, the one exposed to cisplatin alone, and the group exposed to both cisplatin and N-acetylcysteine. Conclusion The expression of glutathione peroxidase in the outer hair cells of rats exposed to cisplatin showed the synthesis of this enzyme under cellular toxicity conditions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Free Radical Scavengers/therapeutic use , Cisplatin/toxicity , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents/toxicity , Acetylcysteine/metabolism , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Cochlea/anatomy & histology , Cochlea/drug effects , Free Radicals , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/prevention & control
2.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(2): 184-190, 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015202

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The cochlear anatomy varies in each individual, and that has an impact on decisions regarding the insertion of electrodes. The measurement of the cochlear size is the routine examination required to choose the proper cochlear implant (CI) electrodes. Objective: To acquire normative data on the size of the cochlea (length, width, height, scala timpani [ST] height, cochlear duct length [CDL]) of CI candidates in Medan, Indonesia. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted based on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) temporal bone data and on HRCT temporal data manipulated to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) multiplanar images with OsiriX MD DICOM Viewer version 9.5.1 (Pixmeo SARL, Bernex, Geneva, Switzerland) viewer of 18 patients (36 ears) who were CI candidates in Medan, Indonesia, in order to determine cochlear length (A), cochlear width, cochlear height, ST height and CDL, calculated through a simple mathematical function. Results: The average cochlear length (A) was 8.75 mm (standard deviation [SD] = 0.31 mm); the average cochlear width was 6.53 mm (SD = 0.35 mm); the average cochlear height was 3.26 mm (SD = 0.24 mm) and the average ST height at the basal cochlea was 1.00 mm (SD = 0.1mm); and 0.71 mm (SD = 0.1 mm) at the half turn of cochlea. The average total CDL was 32.45 mm (SD = 1.31 mm; range: 30.01-34.83 mm). Conclusion: The cochlear size varies in each individual; therefore, the temporal bone measurement of CI candidates using HRCT is essential: for the selection of suitable implant electrodes; to minimize cochlear damages at the insertion of the electrode arrays; and to maximize the hearing improvements (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cochlea/anatomy & histology , Cochlear Duct/anatomy & histology , Temporal Bone/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Cochlear Implantation , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural
3.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(supl.1): 7-11, 2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720403

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe topographic and endoscopic anatomy of guinea pig ear for development of surgical approaches in experimental studies. METHODS: Experimental study. Eight adult guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were used in this study. Four animals were described through endoscopic view and four animals were used to describe topographic anatomy. RESULTS: The main structures of middle ear were well identified through endoscopy view: oval and round window, ossicles and vascular structures. Temporal bone position, landmarks and its relations to skull are perceived with topographic description. CONCLUSION: Topographic anatomic description allowed exposition of temporal bone relations for external surgical approaches. Alternatively, grooves and middle ear structures were identified and may be used to transcanal accesses. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Guinea Pigs , Ear/anatomy & histology , Ear/surgery , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Anatomic Landmarks/anatomy & histology , Cochlea/anatomy & histology , Ear, Inner/anatomy & histology , Ear, Inner/surgery , Ear, Middle/anatomy & histology , Ear, Middle/surgery , Models, Animal , Reproducibility of Results , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology
5.
Rev. bras. otorrinolaringol ; 75(2): 261-267, mar.-abr. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese, English | LILACS | ID: lil-517167

ABSTRACT

Sabe-se que a deficiência auditiva afeta boa parte da população. Nos casos em que a surdez é profunda e bilateral, podem ocorrer problemas na aquisição de fala nas crianças, bem como na comunicação e socialização do indivíduo. O implante coclear vem sendo utilizado como opção terapêutica para esses casos. Na atualidade a Ressonância magnética da orelha interna é exame obrigatório na avaliação pré-operatória destes pacientes. No dia-a-dia, nos perguntamos se a ressonância magnética pode fornecer dados não só qualitativos como também quantitativos, com medidas lineares reais na cóclea reconstruída em imagens em três dimensões. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é propor uma técnica para obtenção de medidas do comprimento da cóclea em imagens de ressonância magnética obtidos de ossos temporais de cadáveres. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram avaliadas imagens de reconstrução em três dimensões da cóclea de seis cadáveres. Por meio de sobreposição de réguas digitalizadas sobre estas imagens foi possível medir o comprimento coclear. RESULTADO: Estas medidas variaram de 17 a 26,5 milímetros. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que foi possível medir o comprimento da cóclea em imagens em três dimensões de ressonância magnética pelo método proposto.


We know that hearing impairment affects a large part of the population. In cases of profound and bilateral hearing loss, children may have problems in speech development, as well as communication and socialization. Cochlear implants have been used as a treatment option in these cases. Today, inner ear MRI is a mandatory test in the preoperative evaluation of these individuals. In our daily routines, we wonder whether MRI can provide not only qualitative, but also quantitative data, with real cochlear linear values built from three dimension images. AIMS: The aim of the present investigation is to propose a method to obtain MRI cochlear length measures from the temporal bones of cadavers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We assessed three dimensional images from the cochlea of six cadavers. By overlapping digitalized rulers on these images it was possible to measure cochlear length. RESULTS: These measures varied between 17 and 26.5 millimeters. CONCLUSIONS: We have concluded that it was possible to measure cochlear length from three dimensional MRI images, by employing the method hereby proposed.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cochlea/anatomy & histology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Cochlea/pathology , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/instrumentation , Temporal Bone/pathology
6.
Rev. bras. otorrinolaringol ; 74(2): 194-199, mar.-abr. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-484824

ABSTRACT

A ossificação da cóclea, decorrente principalmente de meningite, impede a inserção completa do implante coclear convencional. Os implantes com 2 feixes de eletrodos mais curtos do que o convencional foram desenvolvidos especialmente para cócleas ossificadas. Porém, durante essa cirurgia há um grande risco de lesão da artéria carótida interna (ACI). Portanto, a medida da profundidade das cocleostomias para inserir os dois feixes de eletrodos aumentaria a segurança desse procedimento. OBJETIVOS: 1) Obter as distâncias entre as cocleostomias e a ACI em ossos temporais de cadáver; 2) Confeccionar instrumento que possa ser usado na cirurgia de implante coclear com 2 feixes de eletrodos. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Experimental prospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Em 21 ossos de cadáveres foi realizada: 1) mastoidectomia cavidade aberta; 2) cocleostomias nos giros basal e médio da cóclea; 3) identificação da ACI; 4) medida da distância entre as cocleostomias e a artéria. RESULTADOS: A medida média ± desvio padrão obtida para o túnel superior foi 8,2 ± 1,1mm e para o túnel inferior foi 8,1± 1,3mm. A menor distância encontrada foi 6,5mm para o túnel superior e 6,0mm para o túnel inferior. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar dos parâmetros calculados concluímos que a melhor medida para ser considerada na confecção do instrumento cirúrgico serão as mínimas medidas obtidas em cada um dos giros cocleares, pois é a maneira mais segura para evitar a lesão da ACI, que pode ser fatal.


Cochlear ossification, mainly secondary to meningitis, prevents the complete conventional cochlear implant insertion. Implants with two electrode bundles shorter than the conventional ones were specifically developed for ossified cochleas. However, during surgery there is a high risk of damaging the internal carotid artery (ICA). Therefore, measuring cochleostomy depth in order to insert the two electrode bundles would greatly increase the procedure's safety. AIMS: 1) Find the distances between cochleostomies and ICA in cadaver temporal bones. 2) Design an instrument that can be used in cochlear implant surgery to introduce an implant with two bundles of electrodes. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental prospective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 21 temporal bones from cadavers we performed: 1) canal wall down mastoidectomy; 2) cochleostomy in the cochlear basal and middle turns; 3) ICA identification; 4) Length determination between the cochleostomies and the artery. RESULTS: the average distance ± standard deviation obtained for the upper tunnel was of 8.2 ± 1.1 mm and for the lower tunnel it was of 8.1± 1.3 mm. The shortest distance found was of 6.5 mm for the upper tunnel and 6.0 mm for the lower tunnel. CONCLUSION: Despite the values calculated, we concluded that the best value to be considered in creating a surgical instrument are the minimum lengths obtained for each one of the cochlear turns, because this is the safest way to avoid damaging the ICA, that can be fatal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cochlear Implants , Carotid Artery Injuries/prevention & control , Carotid Artery, Internal/anatomy & histology , Cochlear Diseases/pathology , Ossification, Heterotopic/pathology , Cadaver , Cochlea/anatomy & histology , Cochlea/surgery , Cochlear Diseases/surgery , Electrodes , Ossification, Heterotopic/surgery , Prospective Studies , Prosthesis Design , Temporal Bone/surgery
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-46425

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of 3D driven equilibrium (DRIVE) imaging with 3D balanced fast field echo (bFFE) imaging in the assessment of the anatomic structures of the internal auditory canal (IAC) and inner ear at 3 Tesla (T). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty ears of 15 subjects (7 men and 8 women; age range, 22-71 years; average age, 50 years) without evidence of ear problems were examined on a whole-body 3T MR scanner with both 3D DRIVE and 3D bFFE sequences by using an 8-channel sensitivity encoding (SENSE) head coil. Two neuroradiologists reviewed both MR images with particular attention to the visibility of the anatomic structures, including four branches of the cranial nerves within the IAC, anatomic structures of the cochlea, vestibule, and three semicircular canals. RESULTS: Although both techniques provided images of relatively good quality, the 3D DRIVE sequence was somewhat superior to the 3D bFFE sequence. The discrepancies were more prominent for the basal turn of the cochlea, vestibule, and all semicircular canals, and were thought to be attributed to the presence of greater magnetic susceptibility artifacts inherent to gradient-echo techniques such as bFFE. CONCLUSION: Because of higher image quality and less susceptibility artifacts, we highly recommend the employment of 3D DRIVE imaging as the MR imaging choice for the IAC and inner ear.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Cochlea/anatomy & histology , Ear, Inner/anatomy & histology , Female , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Semicircular Canals/anatomy & histology , Vestibule, Labyrinth/anatomy & histology
8.
Noise Health ; 2003 Jul-Sep; 5(20): 1-17
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-122066

ABSTRACT

There is increasing evidence that at least one function of both the medial and the lateral olivocochlear efferent systems is to provide adjustment of the set point of activity in their postsynaptic target, the outer hair cells and afferent processes, respectively. New results, summarized in this review, suggest that both efferent systems can provide protection from noise through this mechanism. There are also intracellular pathways that can provide protection from noise-induced cellular damage in the cochlea. This review also summarizes new results on the pathways that regulate and react to levels of reactive oxygen species in the cochlea as well as the role of stress pathways for the heat shock proteins and for neurotrophic factors in protection, recovery and repair.


Subject(s)
Acoustic Stimulation , Action Potentials , Animals , Cochlea/anatomy & histology , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced/prevention & control , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
10.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 66(3): 145-148, 2002. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-316374

ABSTRACT

Los autores ofrecen un breve repaso de anatomía normal de la cóclea con imágenes de TC y RM a fin de posibilitar una más acabada identificación de hallazgos patológicos en pacientes con hipoacusia perceptiva


Subject(s)
Humans , Cochlear Aqueduct , Cochlear Duct , Cochlea , Ear, Inner , Organ of Corti , Saccule and Utricle , Cochlear Aqueduct , Cochlear Duct , Cochlea/anatomy & histology , Ear, Inner , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Organ of Corti/anatomy & histology , Saccule and Utricle/anatomy & histology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Rev. colomb. radiol ; 12(1): 870-874, mar. 2001. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-338136

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio observacional analítico de casos y controles para evaluar la densitometría de la cápsula ótica por tomografía axial computarizada de alta resolución (TACAR) en pacientes con diagnóstico clínico de otoesclerosis y en un grupo control. Se obtuvo información de 45 pacientes (90 oídos): 16 pacientes con diagnóstico de otoesclerosis y 29 del grupo control, a quienes se les realizaron de forma independiente las pruebas clínicas y TACAR con mediciones de densitometría en cinco localizaciones en la cápsula ótica. En todos los pacientes se encontraron valores de densitometría mayores al límite superior normal que ha sido descrito en la literatura. En el análisis realizado no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los dos grupos. Todos los valores de P encontrados fueron menores de 0.0001. Los resultados demuestran que los valores de densitometría en la cápsula ótica mayores a 2200 U H no se encuentran exclusivamente en pacientes con otoesclerosis y por lo tanto no pueden constituir la base para el diagnóstico por imágenes de esta patología


Subject(s)
Cochlea/anatomy & histology , Densitometry , Diagnostic Imaging , Otosclerosis
13.
14.
Biol. Res ; 29(3): 325-31, 1996.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-228525

ABSTRACT

The search for mechanisms responsible for the high sensitivity and sharp frequency tuning of first-order auditory neurons has produced surprising results. The cochlea, the mammalian auditory receptor, responds to acoustic stimuli with a sharply frequency tuned, nonlinear vibration that enhances low level stimuli, but generates appreciable distortion. This highly sensitive mechanical response is achieved by an electro-mechanical feedback process in which outer hair cells reinforce cochlear motion at low stimulus intensities


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Auditory Perception/physiology , Cochlea/physiology , Mammals/physiology , Sound , Basilar Membrane/physiology , Cochlea/anatomy & histology , Ear, Middle/physiology , Organ of Corti/physiology , Perceptual Distortion/physiology , Vestibule, Labyrinth/physiology
15.
Egyptian Journal of Anatomy [The]. 1994; 17 (1): 21-30
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-111758

ABSTRACT

Thirty-six rat embryos were used in this study. The development of the cochlea from the 10th day of gestation to full term was recorded. The developing cochlear duct started coiling at the 12th embryonic day and reached its final coiling by the 19th day. The cochlear duct epithelium of the basal coil started differentiation at the 15th gestational day, and matured to inner hair cells, tunnel of Corti and outer hair cells at the 17th day. Differentiation proceeded from the basal to the apical coil. Innervation of the sensory epithelium was found to follow its cytodifferentation The limbus spiralis and the stria vascularis started development at the 17th gestational day but were still immature at full term


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Cochlea/embryology , Cochlea/anatomy & histology , Morphogenesis , Rats
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