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Salud colect ; 16: e2514, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139508


RESUMEN Al observar los procesos de (bio)medicalización y farmacologización de la sociedad, este artículo aborda los medicamentos que han sido utilizados por individuos sanos para aumentar sus dimensiones cognitivas, como el estado de alerta, la memoria y la concentración. Las llamadas "drogas inteligentes" o "drogas nootrópicas" se han extendido entre los jóvenes a través de Internet. La circulación de información sobre tales drogas se analiza desde un blog brasileño llamado Cérebro Turbinado, sobre el que se realizó una investigación documental basada en el material publicado en el blog entre 2015 y 2017, de acceso público. La investigación adopta marcos teóricos y metodológicos de las ciencias sociales, junto a una perspectiva antropológica. Los resultados muestran que el blog actúa como un medio para la difusión del conocimiento biomédico entre el público lego y muestra la producción de nuevas formas de subjetividad al revelar los significados que se atribuyen a tales sustancias en los procesos de socialización.

ABSTRACT By observing the processes of (bio)medicalization and pharmaceuticalization of society, this article addresses drugs that have been used by healthy individuals to increase cognitive dimensions such as alertness, memory, and concentration. The use of so-called "smart drugs" or "nootropics" has spread among young people, aided by the internet. The circulation of information about such drugs are analyzed using a Brazilian blog called "Cérebro Turbinado," through publications available for public access between 2015 and 2017. The study adopts theoretical and methodological frameworks of the social sciences, including an anthropological perspective. Documental research was conducted on the internet, specifically with scientific dissemination materials and the material available from the aforementioned blog. The results show that the blog acts as a medium for spreading biomedical knowledge among the lay public and indicates the production of new forms of subjectivity by revealing the meanings attributed to these substances in socialization processes.

Humans , Cognition/drug effects , Nootropic Agents/pharmacology , Information Dissemination/methods , Blogging , Brazil , Medicalization , Modafinil/pharmacology , Amphetamines/pharmacology , Central Nervous System Stimulants/pharmacology , Methylphenidate/pharmacology
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(4): 305-311, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043432


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Bispectral index (BIS) monitoring can positively affect cognitive performance through decreasing the use of sedative agents. We aimed to evaluate the effect of BIS monitoring on early cognitive performance among patients undergoing sedation for colonoscopy. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled trial in a university hospital. METHODS: 100 patients were randomized into two groups. In the monitored group (n = 50), the depth of anesthesia was monitored using the BIS, and BIS scores were maintained between 60 and 80. In the usual care group (n = 50), BIS monitoring was not performed. To determine the patients' baseline cognitive performance levels, the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Trieger dot test (TDT) and clock drawing test (CDT) were used. The patients' post-procedure cognitive performance levels were determined when they were classified as ready for discharge. RESULTS: The total volume (mg) of propofol used [median (range) IQR] in the sedation procedure was lower in the monitored group [100 (50-200) 100-140] than in the usual care group [150 (75-200) 100-200] (P < 0.001). The discharge scores [mean (SD)] using MMSE and CDT were higher in the monitored group [26 (3) and 3 (1), respectively] than in the usual care group [23 (3) and 2 (1), respectively] (P = 0.002 and P = 0.002, respectively). The discharge scores using TDT [mean (SD)] were lower in the monitored group [11 (7)] than in the usual care group [15 (11)] (P = 0.033). CONCLUSION: BIS monitoring among sedated patients was associated with lower propofol use and smaller decline in cognitive performance. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ACTRN12617000134325).

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Midazolam/administration & dosage , Propofol/administration & dosage , Colonoscopy/methods , Cognition/drug effects , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Patient Satisfaction , Electroencephalography
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(2): 113-120, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001211


ABSTRACT Objective There is controversy regarding cognitive function in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). This study is aimed at the assessment of cognitive functions in children with CAH, and their relation to hydrocortisone (HC) therapy and testosterone levels. Subjects and methods Thirty children with CAH due to 21 hydroxylase deficiency were compared with twenty age- and sex-matched healthy controls. HC daily and cumulative doses were calculated, the socioeconomic standard was assessed, and free testosterone was measured. Cognitive function assessment was performed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale - Revised for Children and Adults (WISC), the Benton Visual Retention Test, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Results The mean age (SD) of patients was 10.22 (3.17) years [11 males (36.7%), 19 females (63.3%)]. Mean (SD) HC dose was 15.78 (4.36) mg/m 2 /day. Mean (SD) cumulative HC dose 44,689. 9 (26,892.02) mg. Patients had significantly lower scores in all domains of the WISC test, performed significantly worse in some components of the Benton Visual Retention Test, as well as in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. There was no significant difference in cognitive performance when patients were subdivided according to daily HC dose (< 10, 10 - 15, > 15 mg/m 2 /day). A positive correlation existed between cumulative HC dose and worse results of the Benton test. No correlation existed between free testosterone and any of the three tests. Conclusion Patients with CAH are at risk of some cognitive impairment. Hydrocortisone therapy may be implicated. This study highlights the need to assess cognitive functions in CAH.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Hydrocortisone/administration & dosage , Cognition/drug effects , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/psychology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Socioeconomic Factors , Testosterone/blood , Visual Perception/drug effects , Wechsler Scales , Hydrocortisone/pharmacology , Case-Control Studies , Cognition Disorders/diagnosis , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/metabolism , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/blood , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Intellectual Disability/diagnosis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Neuropsychological Tests
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(1): 19-24, Jan. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983879


ABSTRACT Aim: Our aim was to determine whether there is a relationship between vitamin D [25(OH)D] and cognitive functioning in women with low 25(OH)D levels. Methods: Ninety female patients, 25-45 years of age, who attended our outpatient clinic and had 25(OH)D levels < 30 ng/mL, were included. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale was used to determine cognitive functioning; the scale is divided into seven subgroups. Patients were divided into three subgroups according to their 25(OH)D levels. After a three-month period of 25(OH) D replacement, the patients underwent a re-evaluation using the MoCA scale. Results: The total MoCA score before treatment was significantly different from the score after treatment (p < 0.05). Language and delayed recall functions were significantly different before and after treatment (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Vitamin D levels were related to cognitive functioning in our study group.

RESUMO Objetivo: Nosso objetivo foi determinar se existe uma relação entre a vitamina D [25(OH)D] e o funcionamento cognitivo em mulheres com baixos níveis de 25(OH)D. Métodos: Noventa pacientes do sexo feminino (25-45 anos de idade) que se apresentaram ao nosso ambulatório e tinham níveis de 25(OH)D <30 ng/mL foram incluídas. A escala de avaliação cognitiva de Montreal (MoCA) foi usada para determinar o funcionamento cognitivo; a escala é dividida em sete subgrupos. As pacientes foram divididas em três subgrupos de acordo com seus níveis de 25(OH)D. Após um período de três meses de reposição de 25(OH)D, as pacientes foram submetidas a uma reavaliação de acordo com a escala MoCA. Resultados: O escore total da MoCA antes do tratamento foi significativamente diferente do escore após o tratamento (p <0,05). As funções de idioma e recordação atrasada foram mais significativamente diferentes entre antes e depois do tratamento (p <0,05). Conclusão: O nível de vitamina D foi relacionado ao funcionamento cognitivo em nosso grupo de estudo.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamin D Deficiency/psychology , Cognition/drug effects , Vitamin D/blood , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Educational Status , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Memory/drug effects
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(4): 367-375, Oct.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959251


Objective: To evaluate the effects of Hypericum perforatum (hypericum) on cognitive behavior and neurotrophic factor levels in the brain of male and female rats. Methods: Male and female Wistar rats were treated with hypericum or water during 28 days by gavage. The animals were then subjected to the open-field test, novel object recognition and step-down inhibitory avoidance test. Nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels were evaluated in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Results: Hypericum impaired the acquisition of short- and long-term aversive memory in male rats, evaluated in the inhibitory avoidance test. Female rats had no immediate memory acquisition and decreased short-term memory acquisition in the inhibitory avoidance test. Hypericum also decreased the recognition index of male rats in the object recognition test. Female rats did not recognize the new object in either the short-term or the long-term memory tasks. Hypericum decreased BDNF in the hippocampus of male and female rats. Hypericum also decreased NGF in the hippocampus of female rats. Conclusions: The long-term administration of hypericum appears to cause significant cognitive impairment in rats, possibly through a reduction in the levels of neurotrophic factors. This effect was more expressive in females than in males.

Animals , Male , Female , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cognition/drug effects , Hypericum , Frontal Lobe/metabolism , Hippocampus/metabolism , Nerve Growth Factors/analysis , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Sex Factors , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal , Pattern Recognition, Physiological/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Frontal Lobe/drug effects , Hippocampus/drug effects , Locomotion/drug effects , Memory/drug effects , Nerve Growth Factors/drug effects
Estud. interdiscip. envelhec ; 22(2): 57-74, ago. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-911144


Idosos são mais susceptíveis aos efeitos adversos cognitivos de fármacos com atividade anticolinérgica. Isso se deve a fatores associados à velhice, como comprometimento da atividade colinérgica central, aumento da permeabilidade da barreira hematoencefálica, redução do metabolismo hepático e da excreção renal e polifarmácia. A escala de Carga Anticolinérgica Cognitiva (ACB) foi elaborada com o intuito de reduzir a ocorrência eventos adversos cognitivos à farmacoterapia, como declínio cognitivo, demência e delírio. O objetivo desta revisão integrativa foi reunir achados obtidos em estudos clínicos sobre a associação entre alterações cognitivas e ACB por meio da escala. A busca nas bases MEDLINE/PubMed e BVS-Bireme gerou 11 artigos completos em inglês. Sete são longitudinais, três transversais e um observacional. Oito foram conduzidos nos Estados Unidos. Nove de 10 evidenciaram a relação entre ACB e déficit cognitivo. O MMSE foi o teste de avaliação cognitiva mais usado. As evidências mostram a importância da revisão da farmacoterapia de todo paciente com déficit cognitivo ou delírio. Deve-se evitar assumir que o declínio cognitivo é demência até as possíveis causas farmacológicas tenham sido descartadas. (AU)

Elderly people are more susceptible to cognitive adverse effects of medications with anticholinergic activity. This is due to factors associated with aging, such as decline in central cholinergic activity, increase in blood-brain barrier permeability, decline in hepatic and renal metabolism and polypharmacy. The Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) scale was developed reduce the risk for developing adverse cognitive outcomes such as cognitive impairment, dementia and delirium. The purpose of this integrative review is to bring together findings from clinical studies on the association between cognitive impairment and ACB scale. The search in MEDLINE/PubMed and BVS-Medicine bases generated 11 full articles in English. Seven were longitudinal, three transversal and one observational. Eight of them were conducted in the United States. Nine of 10 showed the relationship between the ACB and cognitive impairment due to at least one moderate or severe anticholinergic medication or due to concomitant use of multiple medications. MMSE was the most commonly cognitive assessment. Evidence shows the importance of the review of pharmacotherapy of all patients with cognitive impairment or delirium. It is important not to assume that cognitive decline is dementia until pharmacologic causes have been excluded. (AU)

Aging/drug effects , Cholinergic Antagonists/adverse effects , Cognition/drug effects
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 273-283, Jan,-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886645


ABSTRACT Tryptophan is the only precursor of serotonin and mediates serotonergic activity in the brain. Previous studies have shown that the administration of tryptophan or tryptophan depletion significantly alters cognition, mood and anxiety. Nevertheless, the neurobiological alterations that follow these changes have not yet been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of a tryptophan-enriched diet on immunoreactivity to Fos-protein in the rat brain. Sixteen male Wistar rats were distributed into two groups that either received standard chow diet or a tryptophan-enriched diet for a period of thirty days. On the morning of the 31st day, animals were euthanized and subsequently analyzed for Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei and in regions that receive serotonin innervation from these two brain areas. Treatment with a tryptophan-enriched diet increased Fos-ir in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, paraventricular hypothalamus, arcuate and ventromedial hypothalamus, dorsolateral and dorsomedial periaqueductal grey and dorsal and median raphe nucleus. These observations suggest that the physiological and behavioral alterations that follow the administration of tryptophan are associated with the activation of brain regions that regulate cognition and mood/anxiety-related responses.

Animals , Male , Anxiety/drug therapy , Brain/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/drug effects , Cognition/drug effects , Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation/administration & dosage , Affect/drug effects , Anxiety/metabolism , Time Factors , Tryptophan/administration & dosage , Brain/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Serotonin/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Dietary Supplements , Diet Therapy/methods
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 131-138, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65053


PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) pretreatment on cognitive decline and neuronal damage in an Alzheimer’s disease (AD) rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into three groups: normal saline (NS), AD, and HBO+AD. In the AD group, amyloid β peptide (Aβ)₁₋₄₀ was injected into the hippocampal CA1 region of the brain. NS rats received NS injection. In the HBO+AD group, rats received 5 days of daily HBO therapy following Aβ₁₋₄₀ injection. Learning and memory capabilities were examined using the Morris water maze task. Neuronal damage and astrocyte activation were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Dendritic spine density was determined by Golgi-Cox staining. Tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-10 production was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neuron apoptosis was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. Protein expression was examined by western blotting. RESULTS: Learning and memory dysfunction was ameliorated in the HBO+AD group, as shown by significantly lower swimming distances and escape latency, compared to the AD group. Lower rates of neuronal damage, astrocyte activation, dendritic spine loss, and hippocampal neuron apoptosis were seen in the HBO+AD than in the AD group. A lower rate of hippocampal p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation was observed in the HBO+AD than in the AD group. CONCLUSION: HBO pretreatment improves cognition and reduces hippocampal damage via p38 MAPK in AD rats.

Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Amyloid beta-Peptides/administration & dosage , Animals , Apoptosis , Cognition/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hippocampus/enzymology , Hyperbaric Oxygenation , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Interleukin-10/biosynthesis , Interleukin-1beta/biosynthesis , Learning/drug effects , Male , Memory/drug effects , Neurons , Peptide Fragments/administration & dosage , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sodium Chloride/administration & dosage , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/biosynthesis , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(5): 485-491, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794819


Abstract Objectives: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction refers to the problems associated with thought and memory that are often experienced after major surgery. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of intraperitoneally administered memantine on recovery, cognitive functions, and pain after propofol anesthesia. Methods: The study was conducted in Gazi University Animal Research Laboratory, Ankara, Turkey in January 2012. Twenty-four adult female Wistar Albino rats weighing 170-270 g were educated for 300 s in the radial arm maze (RAM) over three days. Group P was administered 150 mg kg−1 of intraperitoneal (IP) propofol; Group M was given 1 mg kg−1 of IP memantine; and Group MP was given 1 mg kg−1 of IP memantine before being administered 150 mg kg−1 of IP propofol. The control group received only IP saline. RAM and hot plate values were obtained after recovery from the groups that received propofol anesthesia and 30 min after the administration of drugs in other two groups. Results: The duration of recovery for Group MP was significantly shorter than Group P (p < 0.001), and the number of entries and exits in the RAM by Group MP was significantly higher during the first hour when compared to Group P (p < 0.0001). Hot plate values, on the other hand, were found to be significantly increased in all groups when compared to the control values, aside from Group C (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: In this study, memantine provided shorter recovery times, better cognitive functions, and reduced postoperative pain. From this study, we find that memantine has beneficial effects on recovery, cognitive functions, and pain after propofol anesthesia.

Resumo Objetivos: A disfunção cognitiva no pós-operatório refere-se a problemas associados ao pensamento e à memória que são frequentemente manifestados após uma cirurgia de grande porte. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da memantina administrada por via intraperitoneal sobre a recuperação, as funções cognitivas e a dor após a anestesia com propofol. Métodos: O estudo foi feito no Laboratório de Pesquisa com Animais da Universidade de Gazi, Ankara, Turquia, em janeiro de 2012. Vinte e quatro ratos albinos do sexo feminino, adultos, da linhagem Wistar, com 170-270 g, foram treinados durante 300 segundos no labirinto radial de oito braços (LRB) durante três dias. O Grupo P recebeu 150 mg/kg−1 de propofol por via intraperitoneal (IP), o Grupo H recebeu 1 mg/kg−1 de memantina IP e o Grupo MP recebeu 1 mg/kg−1 de memantina IP antes da administração de 150 mg/kg−1 de propofol (IP). O grupo controle recebeu apenas solução salina IP. Os valores do LRB e da placa quente foram obtidos após a recuperação dos grupos que receberam propofol e 30 minutos após a administração dos fármacos nos outros dois grupos. Resultados: O tempo de recuperação do Grupo MP foi significativamente menor do que o do Grupo P (p < 0,001) e o número de entradas e saídas do LRB do Grupo MP foi significativamente maior durante a primeira hora, em comparação com o Grupo P (p < 0,0001). Os valores da placa quente, por outro lado, foram significativamente maiores em todos os grupos, em comparação com os valores do grupo controle, exceto pelo Grupo C (p < 0,0001). Conclusão: No presente estudo, memantina proporcionou tempos mais curtos de recuperação, funções cognitivas melhores e reduziu a dor no pós-operatório. A partir deste estudo, descobrimos que a memantina tem efeitos benéficos sobre a recuperação, as funções cognitivas e a dor após anestesia com propofol.

Animals , Female , Rats , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Memantine/pharmacology , Propofol/adverse effects , Cognition/drug effects , Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Intravenous/adverse effects , Pain Measurement/adverse effects , Memantine/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Maze Learning/drug effects , Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists/administration & dosage , Injections, Intraperitoneal
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(4): 376-382, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787621


Abstract Background and objective: Sugammadex is the first selective relaxant binding agent. When compared with neostigmine, following sugammadex administration patients wake earlier and have shorter recovery times. In this study, we hypothesized that fast and clear awakening in patients undergoing general anesthesia has positive effects on cognitive functions in the early period after operation. Methods: Approved by the local ethical committee, 128 patients were enrolled in this randomized, prospective, controlled, double-blind study. Patients were allocated to either Sugammadex group (Group S) or the Neostigmine group (Group N). The primary outcome of the study was early postoperative cognitive recovery as measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). After baseline assessment 12-24 h before the operation. After the operation, when the Modified Aldrete Recovery Score was ≥9 the MMSE and 1 h later the MoCA tests were repeated. Results: Although there was a reduction in MoCA and MMSE scores in both Group S and Group N between preoperative and postoperative scores, there was no statistically significant difference in the slopes (p > 0.05). The time to reach TOF 0.9 was 2.19 min in Group S and 6.47 min in Group N (p < 0.0001). Recovery time was 8.26 min in Group S and 16.93 min in Group N (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: We showed that the surgical procedure and/or accompanying anesthetic procedure may cause a temporary or permanent regression in cognitive function in the early postoperative period. However, better cognitive performance could not be proved in the Sugammadex compared to the Neostigmine.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivo: Sugamadex é o primeiro agente de ligação relaxante seletivo. Após a administração de sugamadex, os tempos de despertar e de recuperação dos pacientes são menores, em comparação com neostigmina. Neste estudo, a hipótese foi que um despertar mais rápido e claro dos pacientes submetidos à anestesia geral tem efeitos positivos sobre as funções cognitivas no pós-operatório imediato. Métodos: Após a aprovação do Comitê de Ética local, 128 pacientes foram incluídos neste estudo prospectivo, randômico, controlado e duplo-cego. Os pacientes foram designados para o grupo sugamadex (Grupo S) ou grupo neostigmina (Grupo N). O desfecho primário do estudo foi a recuperação cognitiva no pós-operatório imediato, de acordo com a mensuração da Avaliação de Montreal da Função Cognitiva (MoCA) e com o Mini Exame do Estado Mental (MMSE), após a avaliação inicial 12-24 h antes da operação. Após a operação, quando o escore de recuperação de Aldrete modificado era ≥ 9, o teste MMSE e, uma hora depois, o teste MoCA foram repetidos. Resultados: Embora tenha havido uma redução nos escores de MoCA e MMSE tanto no Grupo S quanto no Grupo N, entre os escores pré- e pós-operatório não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa nas reduções (p > 0,05). O tempo para atingir TOF 0,9 foi de 2,19 min no Grupo S e de 6,47 min no Grupo N (p < 0,0001). O tempo de recuperação foi de 8,26 min no Grupo S e de 16,93 min no Grupo N (p < 0,0001) Conclusão: Mostramos que o procedimento cirúrgico e/ou procedimento anestésico de acompanhamento pode causar uma regressão temporária ou permanente da função cognitiva no pós-operatório imediato. No entanto, um desempenho cognitivo melhor não pode ser provado no grupo sugamadex em comparação com o grupo neostigmina.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Cognition/drug effects , gamma-Cyclodextrins/pharmacology , Postoperative Period , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Sugammadex , Anesthesia, General , Neostigmine/pharmacology
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(4): 371-374, 04/2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745751


O uso do canabidiol em algumas condições neurológicas foi liberado pelo Conselho Regional de Medicina de São Paulo e pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA). Especialistas em nome da Academia Brasileira de Neurologia prepararam uma posição crítica sobre o uso do canabidiol e outros derivados da cannabis em doenças neurológicas.

The use of cannabidiol in some neurological conditions was allowed by Conselho Regional de Medicina de São Paulo and by Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA). Specialists on behalf of Academia Brasileira de Neurologia prepared a critical statement about use of cannabidiol and other cannabis derivatives in neurological diseases.

Humans , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use , Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Academies and Institutes , Brazil , Cognition/drug effects , Drug Approval , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Neurology , Neuralgia/drug therapy , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 72(6): 411-417, 06/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-712680


The effects of galantamine (GAL) on quality of life (QoL) and cognitive speed, as well its effects combined with nimodipine (NIM) in Alzheimer disease (AD) with cerebrovascular disease (mixed dementia), have not been explored. Method : Double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter Brazilian trial, studying the effects of GAL/NIM vs. GAL/placebo (PLA) in mild to moderate mixed dementia. Patients were randomized to receive GAL/NIM or GAL/PLA for 24 weeks. Primary efficacy measures were changes on a computerized neuropsychological battery (CNTB) and QoL Scale in Alzheimer's Disease (QoL-AD) from baseline to week 24. Results : Twenty-one patients received at least one drug dose (9 GAL/NIM and 12 GAL/PLA). Groups were matched for age, sex, education, cognitive and QoL scores at baseline. No significant differences were observed between groups on primary or secondary measures. QoL and cognitive performance showed significant improvement (p<0.05) from baseline when all GAL-treated patients were analyzed. Adverse events were predominantly mild to moderate. Conclusion : GAL treatment improved QoL in mixed dementia, in addition to its previously known cognitive benefits. The combination GAL/NIM was not advantageous. However, the small sample size precludes any definitive conclusions. Trial registered at NCT00814658 .

Os efeitos da galantamina (GAL) sobre qualidade de vida (QdV) e velocidade de processamento cognitivo, bem como da combinação com nimodipina (NIM) no tratamento da doença de Alzheimer (DA) com doença cerebrovascular (demência mista) ainda não foram investigados. Método : Estudo multicêntrico brasileiro, duplo-cego, controlado com placebo, avaliando os efeitos de GAL/NIM x GAL/placebo (PLA) na demência mista leve a moderada. Pacientes receberam tratamento com GAL/NIM ou GAL/PLA por 24 semanas. Medidas de eficácia primária foram as variações no desempenho em bateria de testes neuropsicológicos computadorizados e na escala QdV-DA ao final do estudo. Resultados : Vinte um pacientes receberam pelo menos uma dose da droga (9 GAL/NIM e 12 GAL/PLA). Os grupos foram emparelhados por idade, sexo, escolaridade, escores cognitivos e de QdV na linha de base. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os dois grupos nas medidas de eficácia primária e secundária. Na avaliação de todos os pacientes que receberam GAL, houve melhora significativa (p<0,05) em QdV-DA e desempenho cognitivo. Os eventos adversos foram predominantemente leves a moderados. Conclusão : O tratamento com GAL proporcionou melhora da QdV na demência mista, além dos benefícios cognitivos previamente conhecidos. A combinação GAL/NIM não foi vantajosa. O reduzido tamanho amostral impede conclusões definitivas. .

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Cognition/drug effects , Dementia/drug therapy , Galantamine/administration & dosage , Nimodipine/administration & dosage , Quality of Life , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/drug therapy , Cognition/physiology , Double-Blind Method , Drug Therapy, Combination , Neuropsychological Tests , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 36(2): 101-106, Apr-Jun/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715726


Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of methylphenidate (MPH) use among 5th and 6th year medical students, to discriminate MPH use with and without medical indication, and to correlate MPH use with alcohol intake. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study in which medical students were invited to answer a questionnaire to evaluate academic and socioeconomic status, MPH use patterns, and attitudes towards neuroenhancing drugs. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to assess alcohol intake; a score ≥ 8 suggests potentially hazardous alcohol use. Results: Fifty-two participants (34.2%) had already used MPH, of which 35 (23.02%) had used it without medical indication. The number of 6th year students who had used MPH was more than twice higher than that of their 5th year counterparts (32.89 vs. 13.15%, respectively; p = 0.004). Also, 43.6% (p = 0.031) of the users of MPH had an AUDIT score ≥ 8; 33.3% (p = 0.029) of non-medical users of MPH had an AUDIT score ≥ 8. Conclusions: In this study, the use of MPH without medical indication was prevalent. Our findings also confirmed the association between non-medical use of MPH and potentially hazardous alcohol use (AU)

Objetivos: Avaliar a prevalência do uso do metilfenidato entre estudantes do 5º e do 6º ano de uma faculdade de medicina, discriminar o uso com ou sem indicação médica e correlacionar o uso de metilfenidato com a ingestão de álcool. Métodos: Este é um estudo transversal, em que os alunos de medicina foram convidados a responder um questionário para avaliação do status socioeconômico e acadêmico, padrões do uso do metilfenidato e atitude em relação a drogas potencializadoras da cognição. Também foi aplicado o questionário The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), que avalia o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas, onde um score ≥ 8 significa ingestão potencialmente perigosa de álcool. Resultados: Cinquenta e dois participantes (34,2%) já haviam usado metilfenidato, sendo que 35 destes (23,02%) haviam usado a substância sem indicação médica. O número de estudantes do 6º ano que fizeram uso não médico de metilfenidato foi mais de duas vezes maior do que o número de estudantes do 5º ano (32,89 versus 13,15%, respectivamente; p = 0,004). Em relação ao AUDIT, 43,6% (p = 0,031) dos usuários de metilfenidato tiveram escores ≥ 8; 33,3% (p = 0,029) dos usuários não médicos de metilfenidato tiveram escores ≥ 8 no AUDIT. Conclusões: Neste estudo, o uso de metilfenidato sem indicação médica foi prevalente. Os achados também evidenciaram a associação entre o uso não médico de metilfenidato e o uso potencialmente perigoso de álcool (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Methylphenidate/administration & dosage , Students, Medical/psychology , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Attention/drug effects , Brazil/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Stimulants/administration & dosage , Cognition/drug effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prevalence , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 59(3): 285-289, maio-jun. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-679503


OBJECTIVE: To review the effects of methylphenidate on cognitive enhancement, memory, and performance in medical students. METHODS: A review of four databases (LILACS, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and SciELO), analyzing the title and of all articles published between 1990 and 2012 in English, Portuguese, and Spanish. Selected articles were read in entirety, including in the review those that met the established criteria. RESULTS: The prevalence of use among medical students reached 16%, with no gender difference. Most students began using the drug after entering the university, and the reasons cited to justify it are related to enhancing academic performance. CONCLUSION: There is no evidence in the literature that the use of methylphenidate is beneficial in terms of memory or learning. The drug simply increases wakefulness and alertness, reducing the time of sleep.

OBJETIVO: Revisar o uso de metilfenidato em estudantes de medicina hígidos, abordando a prevalência, variáveis demográficas, motivos e possível melhora do desempenho acadêmico desta população. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se uma revisão nas bases de dados LILACS, PubMed, ScienceDirect e Sci-ELO, analisando-se o título e resumo de todos os artigos publicados entre 1990 e 2012 nos idiomas inglês, português e espanhol. Os artigos selecionados foram lidos de forma integral, incluindo-se na revisão aqueles que atenderam aos critérios determinados. RESULTADOS: A prevalência do uso em estudantes de medicina chega a 16%, não havendo diferença entre os gêneros. A maioria dos alunos iniciou o uso após ingresso no nível superior e os motivos citados para justificá-lo estão relacionados à melhora do desempenho acadêmico. CONCLUSÃO: Não existe evidência na literatura contemporânea que o uso de metilfenidato é benéfico em relação à memória ou aprendizagem. A droga apenas torna o usuário mais desperto e alerta, reduzindo o tempo de sono.

Humans , Central Nervous System Stimulants/pharmacology , Cognition/drug effects , Motivation , Methylphenidate/pharmacology , Students, Medical/psychology
Clinics ; 68(3): 351-358, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-671426


OBJECTIVE: To identify the impact of supplemental zinc, vitamin A, and glutamine, alone or in combination, on long-term cognitive outcomes among Brazilian shantytown children with low median height-for-age z-scores. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in children aged three months to nine years old from the urban shanty compound community of Fortaleza, Brazil. Demographic and anthropometric information was assessed. The random treatment groups available for cognitive testing (total of 167 children) were: (1) placebo, n = 25; (2) glutamine, n = 23; (3) zinc, n = 18; (4) vitamin A, n = 19; (5) glutamine+zinc, n = 20; (6) glutamine+vitamin A, n = 21; (7) zinc+vitamin A, n = 23; and (8) glutamine+zinc+vitamin A, n = 18. Neuropsychological tests were administered for the cognitive domains of non-verbal intelligence and abstraction, psychomotor speed, verbal memory and recall ability, and semantic and phonetic verbal fluency. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 16.0. NCT00133406. RESULTS: Girls receiving a combination of glutamine, zinc, and vitamin A had higher mean age-adjusted verbal learning scores than girls receiving only placebo (9.5 versus 6.4, p = 0.007) and girls receiving zinc+vitamin A (9.5 versus 6.5, p = 0.006). Similar group differences were not found between male study children. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that combination therapy offers a sex-specific advantage on tests of verbal learning, similar to that seen among female patients following traumatic brain injury.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Dietary Supplements , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Glutamine/administration & dosage , Verbal Learning/drug effects , Vitamin A/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Zinc/administration & dosage , Brazil , Cognition/drug effects , Double-Blind Method , Neuropsychological Tests , Poverty Areas , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Treatment Outcome
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 29(1): 127-134, enero-mar. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-625612


La marihuana es una sustancia psicoactiva ampliamente usada en la sociedad, especialmente entre los más jóvenes. El uso de esta sustancia ha sido asociado consistentemente con diversos problemas de salud, muchos de los cuales tienen en común una alteración en las manifestaciones cognitivas de la conducta, incluyendo la memoria, la atención, la emoción y la toma de decisiones. Se encontró evidencia que los cannabinoides, la sustancia activa de la marihuana, impactan negativamente en la memoria a corto plazo, memoria de trabajo y la toma de decisiones. Asimismo, los cannabinoides afectan la atención y la interacción entre los eventos cognitivos y la emoción. Esta información puede ser usada como argumento de plausibilidad biológica para interpretar una serie de hallazgos clínicos y epidemiológicos en los que el uso de marihuana se ha mostrado relacionado con problemas tales como accidentes de tránsito, psicosis, depresión, pobre trayectoria académica, entre otros.

Marijuana is one of the most commonly used psychoactive substances in society, mainly among youths. Its use has been consistently associated with several health problems, many of which have in common an impairment in the cognitive processes of behavior, including the memory, attention, emotion and decision making. There is evidence suggesting that cannabinoids, marijuana´s primary psychoactive substance, have a negative effect in short-term memory, working memory, and decision making. It has also been found that cannabinoids affect attention and the interaction between cognitive events and emotion. This information can be used as an argument of biological plausibility to assess clinical and epidemiological research findings that show that marijuana`s use is associated to problems such as traffic accidents, psychosis, depression and poor academic records, among others.

Humans , Cannabis/adverse effects , Cognition/drug effects , Marijuana Abuse/complications , Emotions/drug effects , Memory/drug effects , Nervous System/drug effects
Egyptian Rheumatologist [The]. 2012; 34 (2): 67-73
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-170408


Systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE] is a chronic autoimmune disease which can cause prominent central nervous system [CNS] involvement. Cognitive dysfunction is one of the major neuropsychiatric syndromes of SLE. To evaluate cognitive functions in SLE patients without evident neuropsychiatric manifestations and to find out if it is correlated with disease activity and with treatment. Thirty SLE patients without evident neuropsychiatric manifestations were evaluated. The evaluation included full clinical examination, assessment of SLE disease activity index-2k [SLEDAI-2k], routine laboratory investigations, autoantibodies assessment and cognitive function assessment using Montréal cognitive assessment [MoCA] scale and trail making test [TMT] [part A and part B]. Twenty apparently healthy individuals were taken as control. Cognitive dysfunction is present in all SLE patients included in our study. During assessment of cognitive functions, a highly statistically significant difference was observed between patients and control subjects, even with equal levels of education. While patients with higher educational levels were as impaired as those with lower levels of education. Cognitive dysfunction was not correlated with disease activity or with the doses of drugs used for treatment. But a statistically significant positive correlation was noted between deterioration of cognitive functions and the disease duration. Cognitive dysfunction is a prominent feature in SLE patients without symptoms of CNS involvement. Psychological evaluation should be performed for each SLE patient to detect cognitive dysfunctions. Psychological intervention is recommended to prevent further deterioration. Correlation with disease duration should pay attention to the chronicity of disease

Female , Cognition/drug effects , Disease Progression
IJCN-Iranian Journal of Child Neurology. 2012; 6 (2): 9-18
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-144198


Childhood epilepsy is a chronic, recurrent disorder of unprovoked seizures. The onset of epilepsy in childhood has significant implications for brain growth and development. Seizures may impair the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes and compromise the child's intellectual and cognitive functioning, leading to tremendous cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial consequences. Children with epilepsy are at increased risk for emotional and behavioral problems. In addition to the direct effects of epilepsy, there are multiple contributory factors including the underlying neurological abnormalities and adverse effects of medication. This review discusses the current understanding of various psychiatric aspects of childhood epilepsy, including the neuropsychological, behavioral and psychosocial concomitants of childhood epilepsy

Humans , Child , Cognition/drug effects , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects , Epilepsy/therapy