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1.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 16(1): 1-10, ene. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362080

ABSTRACT

Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar la influencia de la práctica deportiva sobre el desempeño de las funciones ejecutivas y, a su vez, indagar si la ejecución individual y/o grupal del deporte establece diferencias en el desarrollo de estas habilidades cognitivas y las posibles relaciones asociadas a los tiempos de entrenamiento. Para esto, se estableció una metodología cuantitativa, de diseño comparativo-correlacional. La muestra estuvo conformada por 100 participantes entre 18 y 25 años de edad de ambos géneros, distribuidos en tres grupos, uno de deportes de ejecución individual, otro de deportistas de actividad grupal y un grupo control con personas sin participación en actividades deportivas. Se encontraron, por ejemplo, mayores desempeños en funciones de planeación, memoria de trabajo, control inhibitorio y subtipos de atención por parte de quienes practicaban algún tipo de deporte, independiente de la modalidad de ejecución; pese a que, para algunas funciones cognitivas el participar de un deporte grupal generaba mayores puntuaciones en las tareas propuestas y, en otras, la ventaja la presentaron los integrantes de deportes individuales. Asimismo, se pudo establecer que existe una relación entre el tiempo semanal de entrenamiento y el funcionamiento de la actividad ejecutiva; esto, permitió corroborar la influencia de la actividad deportiva sobre el funcionamiento cognitivo subyacente en los lóbulos frontales.


This research aimed to determine the influence of sports practice on the performance of executive functions and, in turn, to inquire whether the individual and/or group performance of sports establishes differences in the development of these cognitive skills and the possible associated relationships to training times. To do this, a quantitative, comparative-correlational design methodology was established. The sample consisted of 100 participants between 18 and 25 years of age of both genders, divided into three groups, one for individual sports, another for athletes with group activity, and a control group with people without participation in sports activities. For example, greater performance was found in planning functions, working memory, inhibitory control and attention subtypes by those who practiced some type of sport, independent of the execution modality; Despite the fact that, for some cognitive functions, participating in a group sport generated higher scores in the proposed tasks and, in others, the advantage was presented by the members of individual sports. Likewise, it was established that there is a relationship between weekly training time and the performance of executive activity; This allowed to corroborate the influence of sports activity on underlying cognitive functioning on the frontal lobes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Sports , Exercise/physiology , Cognition/physiology , Executive Function/physiology , Frontal Lobe/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
2.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(1): 1-13, mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151562

ABSTRACT

Este trabajo busca verificar la relación entre la calidad de vida y los aspectos sociodemográficos y cognitivos de las personas mayores participantes de grupos sociales. El método utilizado para estos fines es el estudio epidemiológico, cuantitativo, de diseño transversal, realizado en grupos de personas mayores residentes en una capital del sur de Brasil. Se utilizaron cuatro cuestionarios referentes a caracterización sociodemográfica, calidad de vida, aspectos cognitivos y queja de memoria subjetiva. Los resultados arrojaron datos respecto a la diferencia significativa en la calidad de vida y sus dominios en términos de edad, educación, ingresos y región de residencia y aspectos cognitivos. Las respuestas obtenidas en las preguntas generales del instrumento mostraron que la calidad de vida fue considerada buena por 176 de los encuestados, equivalentes al 54,83% y 151 encuenstados que representan el 47,04% se consideraron satisfechos en términos de salud en general. Por lo tanto, las conclusiones dan luces sobre los aspectos sociodemográficos, así como los cognitivos, están asociados con la calidad de vida de las personas mayores activas del municipio. Se enfatiza la queja de memoria subjetiva, que mostró relación con todos los aspectos analizados de la calidad de vida. Los datos obtenidos pueden servir como insumos para ampliar las posibilidades de promover la salud y la calidad de vida de la población envejecida.


Objective: To verify the relationship between the quality of life and the socio-demographic and cognitive aspects of the participating elderly people from social groups. Methods: Epidemiological, quantitative, cross-sectional design study, carried out in groups of elderly people living in a capital city in southern Brazil. Four questionnaires were used concerning sociodemographic characterization, quality of life, cognitive aspects and subjective memory complaints. Results: There were significant differences in the quality of life and its domains in terms of age, education, income and region of residence, and cognitive aspects. The answers obtained in the general questions of the instrument showed that the quality of life was considered good by 176 (54.83%) of the respondents and 151 (47.04%) were considered satisfied in terms of overall health. Conclusion: Socio-demographic aspects, as well as cognitive aspects, are associated with the quality of life of active elderly people in the municipality. The complaint of subjective memory is emphasized, which showed a relationship with all the analyzed aspects of the quality of life. The data obtained can serve as inputs to expand the possibilities of promoting the health and quality of life of the elderly population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Quality of Life , Cognition/physiology , Cognitive Aging , Social Support , Brazil/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Memory/physiology
3.
Fisioter. Bras ; 22(1): 25-36, Mar 19, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284010

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Crianças com paralisia cerebral hemiplégica (PCH) exibem dificuldades funcionais na utilização do membro superior hemiparético, repercutindo negativamente no desempenho em realizar atividades de vida diária. Atualmente, os déficits motores nessa população são acompanhados por distúrbios sensoriais, dificuldades na aprendizagem, alterações de comportamento e comunicação e défices cognitivos gerais. Objetivo: Investigar a possível associação entre os déficits motores e cognitivos de crianças com PCH, verificando ainda a influência da lateralidade da hemiplegia. Métodos: Participaram do estudo 30 crianças com PCH (idade média = 10,48 ± 2,46 anos). Os participantes foram submetidos aos seguintes testes: Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA), Matrizes Progressivas Coloridas de Raven, o Subteste cubos do Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children fourth Edition - WISC IV e a fluência verbal semântica de animais. Resultados: Os grupos foram homogêneos em relação ao sexo e idade (p > 0.05). Os grupos não diferiram em relação ao nível de desempenho motor, memória de trabalho, inteligência e fluência verbal (p > 0,05). O desempenho motor correlacionou com todas as variáveis cognitivas. Conclusão: Em crianças com PCH o desempenho motor correlacionou fortemente com funções cognitivas. Além disso, a lateralidade da lesão cerebral não influenciou o desempenho em tarefas motoras e cognitivas. (AU)


Introduction: Children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) exhibit functional difficulties in using the hemiparetic upper limb, negatively impacting their performance in carrying out activities of daily living. Currently, motor deficits in this population are accompanied by sensory disorders, learning difficulties, changes in behavior and communication and general cognitive deficits. Objective: To investigate the possible association between motor and cognitive deficits in children with PCH, also verifying the influence of laterality in hemiplegia. Methods: Thirty children with PCH participated in the study (mean age = 10.48 ± 2.46 years). Participants were subjected to the following tests: Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA), Raven's Colorful Progressive Matrices, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children fourth Edition - WISC IV Subtest and the semantic verbal fluency of animals. Results: The groups were homogeneous in relation to sex and age (p > 0.05). The groups did not differ in relation to the level of motor performance, working memory, intelligence and verbal fluency (p> 0.05). Motor performance correlated with all cognitive variables. Conclusion: In children with PCH, motor performance correlated strongly with cognitive functions. In addition, the laterality of the brain injury did not influence performance in motor and cognitive tasks. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Psychomotor Performance/physiology , Cerebral Palsy/physiopathology , Cognition/physiology , Hemiplegia/physiopathology , Functional Laterality/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
6.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 15(1): 06-11, oct. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353760

ABSTRACT

La esclerosis múltiple (EM) es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica que cursa con la desmielinización y la neurodegeneración a nivel del sistema nervioso central. Existen tres tipos de EM en función de la progresión de la enfermedad, pero la mayor parte de los pacientes tienden a presentar déficits cognitivos. Por lo tanto, resulta imprescindible el desarrollo de programas de entrenamiento cognitivos dirigidos a la mejora de estos déficits y, en definitiva, a la mejora de la calidad de vida de estos pacientes. En este sentido, el objetivo principal de este estudio fue la puesta en marcha de un programa de entrenamiento cognitivo dirigido a un paciente con esclerosis múltiple progresiva primaria (EMPP) a lo largo de un año. Los resultados pusieron de manifiesto que algunos de los déficits cognitivos que presentó inicialmente el paciente mejoraron tras varios meses de intervención. En este sentido, el paciente presentó notables mejoras en el control inhibitorio y la flexibilidad cognitiva. No obstante, los déficits en la velocidad de procesamiento se mantuvieron constantes a lo largo de toda la intervención. Asimismo, aparecieron otros déficits a lo largo de la intervención que remitieron tras la adecuación de los objetivos de intervención. Por todo ello, nuestro estudio reforzó la importancia de la puesta en marcha de los programas de rehabilitación cognitiva dirigidos a pacientes con enfermedades desmielinizantes para paliar las secuelas cognitivas derivadas de las mismas. Además, es importante que estos programas de entrenamiento cognitivo sean revisados periódicamente para adecuar los objetivos del tratamiento.


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves demyelination and neurodegeneration at the level of the central nervous system. Despite the different characteristics of each of the three types of MS, most patients with this disease present significant cognitive deficits. Therefore, it is essential to develop cognitive training programs to improve these deficits and, ultimately, increase the quality of life of these patients. Thus, the main objective of this study was to implement a one-year cognitive training program with a patient with progressive primary multiple sclerosis (PPMS). The results showed that some of the cognitive deficits the patient initially presented improved after several months of intervention. In this regard, the patient presented noteworthy improvements in inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility. However, deficits in processing speed remained constant throughout the intervention. Likewise, other deficits appeared during the intervention that remitted after adapting the intervention objectives to the patient's needs. Therefore, our study reinforces the importance of implementing cognitive rehabilitation programs for patients with demyelinating diseases to alleviate the cognitive sequelae they produce. In addition, it is important to evaluate these cognitive training programs periodically in order to adapt the objectives and improve the patient's functionality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/rehabilitation , Quality of Life , Demyelinating Diseases , Treatment Outcome , Cognition/physiology , Executive Function/physiology , Memory/physiology , Multiple Sclerosis/physiopathology
7.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(3): 284-292, Jul.-Sep. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131045

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El deterioro cognitivo leve es una alteración de la función cognitiva que no afecta de manera negativa a las actividades diarias de la persona. Factores de riesgo modificables como la hipertensión arterial podrían intervenir en el aceleramiento de este proceso y afectar a personas menores de 65 años. Una detección temprana del deterioro cognitivo leve por medio del Montreal Cognitive Assesment (MoCA) en personas con hipertensión arterial ayudaría a idear medidas para su control eficaz. Materiales y métodos: Se diseñó un estudio de tipo observacional transversal. La población se integra con pacientes hipertensos de 45 a 65 años de Guayaquil. De una base de datos de 570 pacientes, se realizó un llamado a sujetos que cumplieran los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, para la evaluación de la función cognitiva por medio del MoCA. Resultados: El 93.3% de los participantes sometidos a la prueba MoCA presentó un puntaje menor de 26. El promedio del puntaje total fue de 18.9 y el 51.6% de los participantes reveló deterioro cognitivo leve. Se obtuvo una correlación negativa del 40% (-0.40) con una p = 0.0015 entre años con hipertensión arterial y el resultado total de la prueba MoCA. Conclusiones: Por medio del MoCA se pudo cuantificar la magnitud del deterioro cognitivo en estos pacientes. Se identificó que la mayoría de los participantes examinados presentaba un puntaje promedio menor del intervalo normal. Las cifras obtenidas de los valores de correlación de Pearson muestran una actividad tendencial y relación de la hipertensión arterial con el deterioro de la función cognitiva.


Abstract Introduction: Mild cognitive impairment is an alteration of cognitive function that does not negatively affect the daily activities of the person. Modifiable risk factors such as hypertension could be involved in the acceleration of this process affecting people under 65 years of age. Early detection of mild cognitive impairment through the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in people with high blood pressure, would help to formulate strategies for its effective control. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional observational study was designed. The population is hypertensive patients between 45 and 65 years old in Guayaquil. From a database of 570 patients, a call was made to patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, for the evaluation of cognitive function through MoCA. Results: 93.3% of the participants who underwent the MoCA test had a score lower than 26. The average of the total score was 18.9, with 51.6% of the participants suffering from mild cognitive impairment. A negative correlation of 40% (-0.40) was obtained with a p = 0.0015 between years with arterial hypertension and the total result of the MoCA test. Conclusions: Through MoCA, the magnitude of cognitive deterioration in these patients could be quantified. It was detected that the majority of the examined participants had a lower average score of the normal range. The figures obtained from the Pearson correlation values show trend activity, relating arterial hypertension and deterioration of cognitive function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Cognition/physiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Hypertension/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Ecuador , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology
8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(7): 412-418, July 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131724

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Central nervous system changes associated to systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) are progressive and may cause negative effects on cognitive performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between SAH and the components of executive functions (EF), inhibitory control (IC), updating and shifting, comparing a control group (without SAH) to patients with SAH, in two levels of severity. Methods: The protocol included the following tests to evaluate EF components: T.O.V.A. Test (IC), Backward Digit Span from Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III), Phonemic and Semantic Verbal Fluency (updating), and Trail Making Test Part B (shifting). Results: A total of 204 participants was included: 56 from the Control Group (CG), 87 SAH stage 1, and 61 SAH stage 2. The groups were not different for age (52.37±12.29) and education (10.98±4.06). As to controlled blood pressure (BP), duration of hypertension treatment and number of drugs, the SAH 2 group had a worse BP control, longer duration of hypertension treatment and use of more drugs when compared to the SAH 1. The findings revealed that patients with more severe hypertension presented worse performance in updating (Backward Digit Span, phonemic and semantics VF) and shifting (Trail Making Test Part B). Conclusion: The results suggest that patients with SAH have a significant impairment in EF, more specifically in updating and shifting. Besides that, such damage may be directly proportional to the severity of SAH. It is suggested that future studies include neuroimaging exams to exclude possible cerebrovascular diseases.


RESUMO Introdução: As alterações do sistema nervoso central associadas à hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) são progressivas e podem ocasionar efeitos negativos no desempenho cognitivo. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a relação entre a HAS e os componentes das funções executivas (FE), controle inibitório (CI), atualização e alternância, comparando um grupo controle (sem HAS) a pacientes com HAS, em dois níveis de gravidade. Métodos: O protocolo incluiu os seguintes testes para avaliar os componentes das FE: T.O.V.A. Test (CI), Dígitos Ordem Indireta da Escala de Inteligência Wechsler para Adultos (Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale - WAIS-III), Fluência Verbal fonêmica e semântica (atualização) e Teste de Trilhas parte B (alternância). Resultados: Foram incluídos 204 participantes, sendo 56 do Grupo Controle (GC), 87 HAS estágio 1 (HAS 1) e 61 de HAS estágio 2 (HAS 2). Os grupos não foram diferentes em relação à idade (52,37±12,29) e escolaridade (10,98±4,06). Em relação à pressão arterial (PA) controlada, tempo de tratamento da HAS e número de medicações, o grupo HAS 2 apresentou pior controle de PA, mais tempo de tratamento da HAS e uso de maior número de medicações quando comparado ao grupo HAS 1. Os achados revelaram que os pacientes com HAS em estágio mais grave apresentaram pior desempenho nos testes de alternância (Teste de Trilhas parte B) e atualização (Dígitos Ordem Indireta, FV fonêmica e semântica). Conclusão: Esses resultados sugerem que pacientes com a HAS possuem prejuízo significativo em FE, especificamente em alternância e atualização, e que esse prejuízo pode ser diretamente proporcional à gravidade da HAS. Sugere-se que, em estudos futuros, incluam-se exames de neuroimagem com o objetivo de excluir possíveis doenças cerebrovasculares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Cognition/physiology , Cognition Disorders/complications , Executive Function/physiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Trail Making Test , Neuropsychological Tests
9.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(2): 149-156, March-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132569

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Hearing acuity, central auditory processing and cognition contribute to the speech recognition difficulty experienced by older adults. Therefore, quantifying the contribution of these factors on speech recognition problem is important in order to formulate a holistic and effective rehabilitation. Objective: To examine the relative contributions of auditory functioning and cognition status to speech recognition in quiet and in noise. Methods: We measured speech recognition in quiet and in composite noise using the Malay Hearing in noise test on 72 native Malay speakers (60-82 years) older adults with normal to mild hearing loss. Auditory function included pure tone audiogram, gaps-in-noise, and dichotic digit tests. Cognitive function was assessed using the Malay Montreal cognitive assessment. Results: Linear regression analyses using backward elimination technique revealed that had the better ear four frequency average (0.5-4 kHz) (4FA), high frequency average and Malay Montreal cognitive assessment attributed to speech perception in quiet (total r2 = 0.499). On the other hand, high frequency average, Malay Montreal cognitive assessment and dichotic digit tests contributed significantly to speech recognition in noise (total r2 = 0.307). Whereas the better ear high frequency average primarily measured the speech recognition in quiet, the speech recognition in noise was mainly measured by cognitive function. Conclusions: These findings highlight the fact that besides hearing sensitivity, cognition plays an important role in speech recognition ability among older adults, especially in noisy environments. Therefore, in addition to hearing aids, rehabilitation, which trains cognition, may have a role in improving speech recognition in noise ability of older adults.


Resumo Introdução: A alteração da acuidade auditiva, do processamento auditivo central e da cognição são fatores que contribuem para a dificuldade de reconhecimento da fala em idosos. Portanto, quantificar a contribuição desses fatores no problema de reconhecimento da fala é importante para a formulação de uma reabilitação holística e efetiva. Objetivo: Examinar as contribuições relativas do funcionamento auditivo e do estado cognitivo para o reconhecimento da fala no silêncio e no ruído. Método: Nós medimos o reconhecimento de fala no silêncio e no ruído composto com o teste Malay hearing in noise test em 72 idosos malaios nativos falantes (60-82 anos) com audição normal a perda auditiva de grau leve. A avaliação da função auditiva incluiu audiograma de tons puros, teste gaps-in-noise e testes dicótico de dígitos. A função cognitiva foi avaliada pelo teste Malay Montreal cognitive assessment. Resultados: Análises de regressão linear com técnicas de eliminação backward na orelha melhor revelaram média de quatro frequências (0,5-4 kHz) (4AF), média de alta frequência e teste Malay Montreal cognitive assessment na orelha melhor, mensurada pela percepção da fala no silêncio (r2 total = 0,499). Por outro lado, a média de alta frequência, Malay Montreal cognitive assessment e o teste dicótico de dígitos contribuíram significativamente para o reconhecimento da fala no ruído (r2 total = 0,307). Enquanto a média de alta frequência da melhor orelha mediu principalmente o reconhecimento da fala no silêncio, o reconhecimento da fala no ruído foi mensurado principalmente pela função cognitiva. Conclusões: Esses achados destacam o fato de que, além da sensibilidade auditiva, a cognição desempenha um papel importante na capacidade de reconhecimento da fala em idosos, principalmente em ambientes ruidosos. Portanto, além de aparelhos auditivos, a reabilitação, que treina a cognição, pode ter um papel na melhoria da capacidade do reconhecimento da fala no ruído entre os idosos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Presbycusis/physiopathology , Auditory Threshold/physiology , Speech Perception/physiology , Cognition/physiology , Noise , Presbycusis/diagnosis , Audiometry, Pure-Tone , Speech Reception Threshold Test , Acoustic Stimulation/methods , Hearing Tests
10.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(3): 169-175, Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098070

ABSTRACT

Abstract The chess game comprises different domains of cognitive function, demands great concentration and attention and is present in many cultures as an instrument of literacy, learning and entertainment. Over the years, many effects of the game on the brain have been studied. Seen that, we reviewed the current literature to analyze the influence of chess on cognitive performance, decision-making process, linking to historical neurological and psychiatric disorders as we describe different diseases related to renowned chess players throughout history, discussing the influences of chess on the brain and behavior.


Resumo O jogo de xadrez compreende diferentes domínios da função cognitiva, exige grande concentração e atenção e está presente em muitas culturas como instrumento de alfabetização, aprendizado e entretenimento. Ao longo dos anos, muitos efeitos do jogo no cérebro foram estudados. Dessa forma, revisamos a literatura atual para analisar a influência do xadrez no desempenho cognitivo, no processo de tomada de decisão, vinculando-a a distúrbios neurológicos e psiquiátricos históricos ao descrevermos diferentes doenças relacionadas a renomados jogadores de xadrez ao longo da história, discutindo as influências do xadrez no cérebro e no comportamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Psychiatry , Cognition/physiology , Neurology , Recreation , Brain
11.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 28: e3282, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1101721

ABSTRACT

Objective: to know the relationship between the sensory function, gait ability, and cognitive function with dependency in older adults. Method: a descriptive cross-sectional design, 146 older adults took part. Measurements: Snellen chart, Audiometer, Stereognosia tests, Semmes-Weinstein monofilament, basic aromas and flavors, GAITRite system, Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test, the Barthel Index, and the Lawton and Brody Index. Results: sensory function, cognitive function and gait explain 25% dependence on basic activities of daily life and 21% dependence on instrumental activities of daily life. The variables that influence dependence on basic activities were taste (p=.029), gait speed (p=.009), cadence (p=.002) and step length (p=.001) and, in instrumental activities, gait speed (p=.049), cadence (p=.028) and step length (p=.010). Conclusion: gait speed, cadence and stride length are variables that influence both dependence on basic and instrumental activities of daily life.


Objetivo: conhecer a relação entre a função sensorial, capacidade de caminhar e função cognitiva com dependência em idosos. Método: estudo transversal descritivo, com a participação de 146 idosos. Medições: Carta de Snellen, audiômetro, testes de estereognosia, monofilamento de Semmes-Weinstein, aromas e sabores básicos, sistema GAITRite, Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test e índice de Barthel e Lawton e Brody. Resultados: função sensorial, função cognitiva e caminhar explicam 25% de dependência de atividades básicas da vida diária e 21% de dependência de atividades instrumentais da vida diária. As variáveis que influenciam a dependência de atividades básicas foram: paladar (p=0,029), velocidade de caminhar (p=0,009), cadência (p=0,002) e comprimento do passo (p=0,001), e nas atividades instrumentais, velocidade de caminhar (p=0,049), cadência (p=0,028) e comprimento do passo (p=0,010). Conclusão: velocidade de caminhar, cadência e comprimento do passo são variáveis que influenciam a dependência de atividades básicas e instrumentais da vida cotidiana.


Objetivo: conocer la relación entre la función sensorial, capacidad de marcha y función cognitiva con la dependencia en adultos mayores. Método: diseño descriptivo transversal, en que participaron 146 adultos mayores. Mediciones: Carta Snellen, Audiómetro, pruebas de Estereognosia, Monofilamento de Semmes-Weinstein, aromas y sabores básicos, sistema GAITRite, Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test e Índice de Barthel y de Lawton y Brody. Resultados: la función sensorial, función cognitiva y marcha explican el 25% de la dependencia en las actividades básicas de la vida diaria y 21% de la dependencia en actividades instrumentales de la vida diaria. Las variables que influyen sobre la dependencia en actividades básicas fueron gusto (p=0,029), velocidad de marcha (p=0,009), cadencia (p=0,002) y longitud del paso (p=0,001); y en actividades instrumentales, velocidad de marcha (p=0,049), cadencia (p=0,028) y longitud del paso (p=0,010). Conclusión: velocidad de marcha, cadencia y longitud del paso son variables que influyen en la dependencia en actividades básicas e instrumentales de la vida diaria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Activities of Daily Living , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cognition/physiology , Walking Speed , Gait Analysis , Gait
12.
Clinics ; 75: e1435, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089609

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe elderly performance in the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT) and to discriminate its score by using types of errors as comparison among healthy controls, Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and vascular dementia (VD) patients. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 285 elderly individuals of both sexes, all over 60 years old and with more than 1 year of schooling. All participants were assessed through a detailed clinical history, laboratorial tests, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological tests including the BGT, the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and the Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (PFAQ). The BGT scores were not used to establish diagnosis. RESULTS: Mean BGT scores were 3.2 for healthy controls, 7.21 for AD, and 8.04 for VD with statistically significant differences observed between groups (p<0.0001). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the main risk factors for the diagnostic groups. BGT's scores significantly differentiated the healthy elderly from those with AD (p<0.0001) and VD (p<0.0001), with a higher area under the curve, respectively 0.958 and 0.982. BGT's scores also showed that the AD group presented 12 types of errors. Types of errors evidenced in the execution of this test may be fundamental in clinical practice because it can offer differential diagnoses between senescence and senility. CONCLUSION: A cut-off point of 4 in the BGT indicated cognitive impairment. BGT thus provides satisfactory and useful psychometric data to investigate elderly individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Aged , Psychometrics/statistics & numerical data , Dementia, Vascular/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cognition Disorders/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cognition/physiology , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Neuropsychological Tests
13.
Psicol. reflex. crit ; 33: 17, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1135894

ABSTRACT

Abstract We present a systematic and qualitative review of academic literature on early conceptual development (0-24 months of age), with an emphasis on methodological aspects. The final sample of our review included 281 studies reported in 115 articles. The main aims of the article were four: first, to organise studies into sets according to methodological similarities and differences; second, to elaborate on the methodological procedures that characterise each set; third, to circumscribe the empirical indicators that different sets of studies consider as proof of the existence of concepts in early childhood; last, to identify methodological limitations and to propose possible ways to overcome them. We grouped the studies into five sets: preference and habituation experiments , category extension tasks , object sorting tasks , sequential touching tasks and object examination tasks . In the "Results" section, we review the core features of each set of studies. In the "Discussion" and "Conclusions" sections, we describe, for one thing, the most relevant methodological shortcomings. We end by arguing that a situated, semiotic and pragmatic perspective that emphasises the importance of ecological validity could open up new avenues of research to better understand the development of concepts in early childhood.


Subject(s)
Child Development , Classification/methods , Cognition/physiology , Concept Formation , Infant
14.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 14(2): 1-7, dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102535

ABSTRACT

Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar la influencia de las emociones en los procesos de memoria declarativa en personas con enfermedad de Alzheimer. Para esto, se planteó un estudio con diseño comparativo-correlacional y modelo no probabilístico. Participaron 160 adultos mayores, 80 con diagnóstico de enfermedad de Alzheimer y 80 con envejecimiento normal, homólogos en edad, género y nivel escolar. Se encontró que, de forma general, las emociones negativas favorecen la codificación, almacenamiento y evocación de la información en personas con Alzheimer, más que las positivas, y la mayor influencia se haya en contenidos de información asociados a emociones como miedo y tristeza. Asimismo, el brindar claves semánticas posibilita una mayor cantidad de información a ser evocada. La memoria en el envejecimiento normal y patológico se beneficia de los vínculos establecidos entre la información y las emociones contextuales al momento de registrarla y almacenarla, por lo que, siendo la memoria uno de los principales deterioros en la enfermedad de Alzheimer, este vínculo es clave en el abordaje de la patología y los programas de intervención clínica.


The objective of this research was to determine the influence of emotions on declarative memory processes in people with Alzheimer's disease. A study with a comparative-correlational design and a non-probabilistic model was proposed. 160 elderly people participated, 80 with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and 80 with normal aging, homologous in age, gender and school level. It was found that in general negative emotions favor the coding storage and evocation of information in people with Alzheimer's disease, rather than positive ones, and the greatest influence is on information content associated with emotions such as fear and sadness. Likewise, providing semantic keys allows a greater amount of information to be evoked. Memory in normal and pathological aging benefits from the links established between information and contextual emotions at the time of recording and storing it since memory is one of the main impairments in Alzheimer's disease, this link is key in the approach of pathology and clinical intervention programs.


O objetivo desta pesquisa foi determinar a influência das emoções nos processos de memória declarativa em pessoas com doença de Alzheimer. Para isso, foi proposto um estudo com modelo comparativo-correlacional e não probabilístico. Participaram 160 idosos, sendo 80 com diagnóstico de doença de Alzheimer e 80 com envelhecimento normal, homólogos em idade, sexo e nível escolar. Achou-se que, em geral, as emoções negativas favorecem a codificação, armazenamento e evocação de informações em pessoas com doença de Alzheimer, ao invés das positivas, e a maior influência está no conteúdo de informação associado a emoções como medo e tristeza. Da mesma forma, fornecer chaves-semânticas permite que uma quantidade maior de informações seja evocada. A memória no envelhecimento normal e patológico se beneficia das ligações estabelecidas entre a informação e as emoções contextuais no momento de registrála e de armazená-la, de modo que, como a memória é um dos principais prejuízos na doença de Alzheimer, essa ligação é fundamental na abordagem da patologia e dos programas de intervenção clínica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Emotions/physiology , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Aging/physiology , Cognition/physiology , Memory/physiology
15.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 55(4): 5-9, out.-dez. 2019. tab.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095489

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The presence of depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment are highly correlated with aging. In addition to this, there are other variables that also influence the presence and severity of existing cognitive disorders, such as schooling level. OBJECTIVE: compare the cognitive performance among the elderly of different educational levels with and without depressive symptoms through the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT). METHODS: a cross-sectional study with elderly people of different scholarities, with and without depressive symptoms. To evaluate the depressive symptoms, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was used and the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT) and the Mental State Mini Examination (MMSE) were applied for the evaluation of cognition. RESULTS: the study included 69 elderly people with a mean age of 68.4 years (SD ± 5.9) and a mean educational level of 7.9 years (SD ± 3.7), the mean GDS score was 3.3 points (SD ± 3.8) and the mean RBMT score was 16.19 points (SD ± 3.8). CONCLUSION: in the studied sample, there is a significant difference in the performance of the elderly with and without depressive symptoms in the RBMT test when stratified by schooling


INTRODUÇÃO: A presença de sintomas depressivos e comprometimento cognitivo estão altamente correlacionados com o envelhecimento. Além disso, existem outras variáveis que também influenciam a presença e a gravidade dos distúrbios cognitivos existentes, como o nível de escolaridade. OBJETIVO: comparar o desempenho cognitivo entre idosos de diferentes níveis educacionais, com e sem sintomas depressivos, por meio do Teste de Memória Comportamental de Rivermead (RBMT). MÉTODOS: estudo transversal com idosos de diferentes bolsistas, com e sem sintomas depressivos. Para avaliar os sintomas depressivos, foi utilizada a Escala de Depressão Geriátrica (GDS) e o Teste de Memória Comportamental de Rivermead (RBMT) e o Mini Exame do Estado Mental (MEEM) foram aplicados para avaliação da cognição. RESULTADOS: o estudo incluiu 69 idosos com idade média de 68,4 anos (DP ± 5,9) e escolaridade média de 7,9 anos (DP ± 3,7), o escore médio da GDS foi de 3,3 pontos (DP ± 3,8) e o RBMT médio pontuação foi de 16,19 pontos (DP ± 3,8). CONCLUSÃO: na amostra estudada, há uma diferença significativa no desempenho de idosos com e sem sintomas depressivos no teste RBMT, quando estratificados pela escolaridade


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Cognition/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Educational Status , Neuropsychological Tests
16.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(11): 4355-4366, nov. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039513

ABSTRACT

Resumo Com o objetivo de efetuar o rastreio do perfil cognitivo dos residentes em Estruturas Para Idosos no Concelho de Miranda do Corvo, avaliaram-se 174 participantes recorrendo ao Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (n=96) e ao diagnóstico de demência reportado nos prontuários dos pacientes (n=78). Verificou-se, através do MMSE, que 41,7% dos inquiridos apresentavam pontuações sugestivas de déficit cognitivo. Adicionando a este resultado o diagnóstico de demência reportado nos prontuários dos pacientes, a percentagem subiu para 67,8% (n=118). A comparação dos nossos resultados com os obtidos a nível nacional revelou que essa percentagem foi significativamente superior (p<0,001). A escolaridade foi um fator preditivo da pontuação do MMSE (p=0,001). Conclui-se que a elevada prevalência de suspeita de déficit cognitivo e de demência revelada no nosso estudo deve remeter para a reflexão sobre a adequação dos cuidados prestados e sobre a ausência/escassez de programas de estimulação cognitiva nas estruturas residenciais para idosos. Nesse sentido, torna-se imperativo implementar avaliação cognitiva regular e instituir programas de intervenção que promovam a conservação e melhoria do funcionamento cognitivo em pessoas idosas institucionalizadas de zonas desfavorecidas.


Abstract This study aimed to screen the cognitive profile elderly people living in long-term care institutions in the municipality of Miranda do Corvo by evaluating 174 participants with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) (n=96) and the clinical dementia diagnosis (n=78). According to the MMSE, 41.7% of respondents had scores suggestive of cognitive impairment. The percentage rose to 67.8% (n=118) by adding the diagnosis of dementia reported in individual medical records to this result. The comparison of our results with those obtained nationwide showed that this proportion was significantly higher (p<0.001). The educational level was a predictive factor for MMSE scores (p=0.001). We can conclude that the high prevalence of suspected cognitive impairment and dementia revealed in our study should lead us to reflect on the quality of care provided and on the lack/scarcity of cognitive stimulation programs in long-term care institutions for seniors. Thus, it is imperative to implement regular cognitive assessment and to apply intervention programs for the preservation and improvement of the cognitive functioning of institutionalized elderly of deprived areas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Mass Screening , Cognition/physiology , Dementia/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Portugal , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Long-Term Care , Dementia/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Homes for the Aged
17.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(11): 4163-4170, nov. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039531

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este estudo propôs a avaliar o nível de atividade física e o estado cognitivo de idosos usuários das Unidades Básicas de saúde (UBS) do Município de Maringá, Paraná. Trata-se de um estudo epidemiológico descritivo, de corte observacional e transversal, realizado com 654 idosos, de ambos os sexos, usuários das UBS. Foi utilizado um questionário sociodemográfico, o Mini exame do estado mental e o International Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), versão curta. A análise dos dados foi realizada mediante o teste Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Qui quadrado, Kruskal-Wallis e "U" de Mann-Whitney, adotando significância quando p < 0,05. Os idosos não realizam atividades físicas vigorosas e poucas atividades moderadas durante a semana. Porém, apresentaram alto escore na orientação temporal (Md = 5,0), Orientação espacial (Md = 5,0), memória imediata (Md = 3,0), evocação (Md = 3,0) e linguagem (Md = 8,0). Ao comparar o estado mental em função do nível de atividade física dos idosos verificou-se que os Muito ativo/ativo possuem melhor atenção e cálculo (p = 0,036), evocação (p = 0,001) e estado cognitivo geral (p = 0,002), se comparado aos irregularmente ativos e sedentários. Níveis adequados de atividade física podem estar relacionados a melhores escores de funções cognitivas de sujeitos idosos.


Abstract This study proposed to evaluate the level of physical activity and the cognitive state of elderly users of Primary Care Facilities (UBS) of the Municipality of Maringá, State of Paraná, Brazil. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional, epidemiological study with 654 elderly men and women UBS users. A sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were employed. Data was analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney "U" tests, with a significance level of p<0.05. However, they evidenced a high score in temporal orientation (Md = 5.0), spatial orientation (Md = 5.0), immediate memory (Md = 3.0), recall (Md = 3.0) and language (Md = 8.0). When comparing the mental state according to the level of physical activity of the elderly, we observed that very active/active individuals had better attention and calculation (p = 0.036), recall (p = 0.001) and general cognitive status (p = 0.002) against irregularly active and sedentary elderly. Adequate levels of physical activity may be related to better scores of cognitive functions of elderly subjects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Primary Health Care , Exercise/psychology , Cognition/physiology , Mental Recall/physiology , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sedentary Behavior , Orientation, Spatial/physiology , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Memory/physiology , Middle Aged
18.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(11): 1398-1406, nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094169

ABSTRACT

Background Sleep duration may be a risk factor for cognitive impairment. Aim To investigate the association between sleep duration and cognitive function in Chilean older adults. Material and Methods We analyzed information from 1,384 participants aged > 60 years participating in the National Health Survey 2009-2010 who were assessed with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and self-reported their average daily sleep hours. Logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between MMSE and sleep duration. Results Compared to those participants who reported sleeping 7 hours per day, those that reported sleeping < 5 hours had a higher odd for cognitive impairment (Odds ratio (OR): 3.66 [95% confidence intervals (CI: 1.69; 7.95], p < 0.01). Similarly, those who reported sleeping > 8 hours per day also showed a higher odd for cognitive impairment (OR: 2.56 [95% CI: 1.32; 4.95], p < 0.01). This association was even stronger for people who reported more than 10 hours of sleep per day (OR: 4.46 [95% CI: 1.32; 4.95], p < 0.01). Conclusions Long and short sleep duration is associated with cognitive impairment in older adults in Chile independent of major confounding factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Sleep/physiology , Cognition/physiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Risk Factors , Life Style
20.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 83(3): 95-101, set. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057407

ABSTRACT

Objetivo Desde la aparición de la tractografía, al tratarse de una técnica no invasiva y que usa la ampliamente conocida resonancia magnética (RM), el estudio de la sustancia blanca se ha facilitado. A partir de eso, se han logrado grandes descubrimientos en cuanto a fascículos cerebrales involucrados en funciones cognitivas. Sin embargo, su evaluación sigue siendo subjetiva y depende de la experiencia y entrenamiento del evaluador, razón por la cual se ha limitado su aplicabilidad en la práctica clínica. En ese sentido, es conveniente parametrizar volúmenes cerebrales de sustancia blanca en población sana a través de una herramienta electrónica que se pueda reproducir y así poderlo aplicar en enfermos. Materiales y métodos Se reportan 10 sujetos sanos desde el punto de vista neurológico. Para cada sujeto, se adquirieron imágenes ponderadas por difusión y los resultados se visualizaron mediante FiberNavigator (http://scilus.github.io/fibernavigator). Finalmente, esa misma herramienta fue utilizada para purificar los fascículos objeto de estudio y realizar el conteo de las fibras. Resultados Se obtuvieron valores de volumetría del fascículo longitudinal superior (FLS), fascículo longitudinal inferior (FLI), fascículo frontoccipital inferior (FFI), fascículo uncinado (FU) y fascículo del cíngulo (FC), identificando que no existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el número de fibras que componen los fascículos cerebrales. Discusión Los resultados alcanzados de la anatomía y la direccionalidad de fibras de los fascículos cerebrales de este estudio coinciden con el resto de la evidencia publicada hasta el momento, sin encontrar diferencias en cuanto a su organización y recorrido. Conclusión Aunque esos resultados no sirven como valores de referencia para ser aplicados en pacientes con patología neurológica, brindamos información inexistente hasta el momento, con ese equipo en específico y la reproducción entre los distintos usuarios y el software.


Objective Since the appearance of tractography, as it is a non-invasive technique and uses the widely known magnetic resonance (MR), the study of white matter has been facilitated. After this, great discoveries have been made regarding the brain fascicles involved in cognitive functions. However, its evaluation continues to be subjective and depends on the evaluator's experience and training. That the reason why its applicability has been limited in clinical practice. Because of this, it is convenient to parametrize cerebral volumes of white matter in healthy population through an electronic, reproducible tool that could be applied in patients. Materials and Methods Ten neurologically healthy subjects are reported, for each subject we acquired images weighted by diffusion and the results were visualized by means of FiberNavigator (http://scilus.github.io/fibernavigator). Finally, this same tool was used to purify the fascicles under study and perform the fiber count. Results Volumetric values of the upper longitudinal fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior frontoccipital fasciculus, uncinated fasciculus and cingulate fasciculus were obtained, identifying that there are not statistically significant differences in the number of fibers that make up the cerebral fascicles. Discussion The results achieved of the anatomical and fiber directionality of the cerebral fascicles of this study, coincide with the rest of the evidence published up to now, without finding differences regarding its organization and route. Conclusion Although these results do not serve as reference values to be applied in patients with neurological pathology, do we provide nonexistent information so far, with this specific equipment and the reproducibility between the different users and the software.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cognition/physiology , White Matter/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Anisotropy , Titrimetry/standards , Diffusion Tensor Imaging/standards , Nerve Fibers
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