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1.
Med. infant ; 30(3): 289-292, Septiembre 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1516000

ABSTRACT

Las funciones ejecutivas generalmente se conceptualizan como un conjunto de procesos generales de control de orden superior que trabajan juntos para dirigir y gestionar las funciones cognitivas, emocionales y conductuales, especialmente durante la resolución activa de problemas. Su disfunción es frecuente de ser detectada como comorbilidad de otros trastornos del neurodesarrollo, causa o efecto? La detección precoz de la disfunción ejecutiva y su abordaje terapéutico temprano, mejora el pronóstico global madurativo en el periodo infantojuvenil. Esta sucinta revisión de las funciones ejecutivas intenta resaltar su importancia para el pediatra y su mirada de los trastornos del neurodesarrollo (AU)


Executive functions are typically understood as a set of general higher-order control processes that collectively direct and manage cognitive, emotional, and behavioral functions, especially during active problem solving. Their dysfunction is often detected as a comorbidity of other neurodevelopmental disorders; cause or effect? Early detection of executive dysfunction and a prompt therapeutic approach improves the overall developmental prognosis in childhood and adolescence. This brief review of executive functions aims to highlight their importance for the pediatrician and his/her view of neurodevelopmental disorder (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Attention/physiology , Cognition/physiology , Executive Function/physiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/diagnosis
2.
Distúrb. comun ; 35(1): e60065, 01/06/2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1436202

ABSTRACT

Introdução: estudos relatam melhora de habilidades cognitivas após a reabilitação vestibular, porém estes estudos utilizaram testes de rastreio cognitivo ou avaliaram habilidades cognitivas específicas, não contemplando uma avaliação cognitiva detalhada. Objetivo: avaliar as habilidades cognitivas, sintomas depressivos, funcionalidade e aspectos sociodemográficos de idosos com disfunção vestibular antes e após a reabilitação vestibular. Método: estudo longitudinal, quase experimental e analítico. A casuística foi composta por 11 idosos com idade entre 60 e 89 anos, ambos os sexos, todos com disfunção vestibular comprovada por meio dos exames VEMP e/ou v-HIT. Os participantes foram submetidos à avaliação cognitiva, da funcionalidade e dos sintomas depressivos antes e após oito sessões semanais de RV.Resultados: encontrou-se associação entre o MEEM com a escolaridade e com o DHI; o questionário de Pfeffer correlacionou-se com o DHI; a GDS-15 com a EVA e a EEB. Após a RV observou-se melhora do ganho do canal semicircular anterior direito, da EVA, do DHI e suas subescalas físico, funcional e emocional; GDS-15, Neupsilin total e suas subescalas percepção, memória e praxia. Conclusão: após a reabilitação vestibular houve aumento do ganho do reflexo vestíbulo-ocular, diminuição dos impactos causados pela tontura na qualidade de vida e do sofrimento psicológico, além da melhora da função cognitiva geral e das habilidades de percepção, memória e praxia.(AU)


Introduction: Studies have reported improved cognitive skills after vestibular rehabilitation (VR). However, they used cognitive screening tests or other ones that assess specific cognitive skills, not assessing cognition in detail. Objective: To assess cognitive skills, depressive symptoms, functioning, and sociodemographic aspects in older adults with vestibular dysfunction before and after vestibular rehabilitation. Method: Longitudinal, analytical, quasi-experimental study. The sample had 11 older adults aged 60 to 89 years, of both sexes, all of them with vestibular dysfunction verified with VEMP and/or vHIT examination. Participants were submitted to cognitive, functioning, and depressive symptoms assessment before and after eight weekly VR sessions. Results: MMSE was associated with educational attainment and DHI; the Pfeffer questionnaire was correlated with DHI; GDS-15 was correlated with VAS and BBS. After VR, there were improvements in gain in the right anterior semicircular canal, VAS, DHI and its physical, functional, and emotional subscales, GDS-15, and Neupsilin total score and its perception, memory, and praxis subscales. Conclusion: After VR, the vestibulo-ocular reflex gain increased, the impacts of dizziness on the quality of life and the psychological suffering decreased, and the overall cognitive function and perception, memory, and praxis skills improved. (AU)


Introducción: los estudios informan mejoría en las habilidades cognitivas después de la rehabilitación vestibular, pero estos estudios utilizaron pruebas de detección cognitiva o evaluaron habilidades cognitivas específicas, no contemplando una evaluación cognitiva detallada. Objetivo: evaluar habilidades cognitivas, síntomas depresivos, funcionalidad y aspectos sociodemográficos de ancianos con disfunción vestibular antes y después de la rehabilitación vestibular. Método: estudio longitudinal, cuasi-experimental y analítico. La casuística estuvo constituida por 11 ancianos con edades entre 60 y 89 años, de ambos sexos, todos con disfunción vestibular comprobada mediante exámenes VEMP y/o v-HIT. Los participantes se sometieron a una evaluación de síntomas cognitivos, funcionales y depresivos antes y después de ocho sesiones semanales de rehabilitación vestibular. Resultados: se encontró asociación entre el MMSE con la educación y con el DHI; el cuestionario de Pfeffer correlacionó con el DHI; el GDS-15 con el EVA y el EEB. Después de la RV, hubo una mejora en la ganancia del canal semicircular anterior derecho, la EVA, el DHI y sus subescalas física, funcional y emocional; GDS-15, Neupsilina total y sus subescalas percepción, memoria y praxis. Conclusión: después de la rehabilitación vestibular, hubo aumento en la ganancia del reflejo vestíbulo-ocular, disminución de los impactos causados por el mareo en la calidad de vida y el sufrimiento psicológico, mejoría en la función cognitiva general y en las habilidades de percepción, memoria y praxis. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cognition/physiology , Dizziness/rehabilitation , Postural Balance , Controlled Before-After Studies , Neuropsychological Tests
3.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1452104

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine a model of associations between cognition, functionality, and life-space mobility, and the mediating role of perceived control and autonomy. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with a sample of older adults aged over 72 years, which used data from the FIBRA study. We used the structural equation modeling technique. Variables in this model were cognition, functionality, perceived control and autonomy, and life-space mobility, with sociodemographic and health covariables. Data imputation was done through the expected maximization method aiming at more effective data utilization. This study was funded by Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior. RESULTS: The mediation model reached good fit indices. Cognition, functionality, and perceived control and autonomy demonstrated a predictive capacity for life space. Functionality and perceived control and autonomy mediated the relationship between cognition and life space; therefore, cognition influences life space, given its associations with the mediating variables. There was a mediating effect of perceived control and autonomy on the relationship between functionality and life space. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived control and autonomy have an adaptive role when considering changes in personal competencies. This adaptation is reflected on life spaces, indicating an adjustment between competence and environment. Studies aimed at promoting a good relationship between an individual and his or her context maintaining life space should consider perceived control and autonomy as important mechanisms in this relationship


OBJETIVOS: Examinar um modelo de associações entre cognição, funcionalidade e mobilidade em espaço de vida, e o papel mediador da percepção de controle e autonomia. METODOLOGIA: Estudo transversal, com amostra composta por idosos acima de 72 anos, utilizando dados do estudo FIBRA. Utilizou-se a técnica de Modelagem por Equações Estruturais. As variáveis do modelo foram a cognição, a funcionalidade, a percepção de controle e autonomia e a mobilidade em espaço de vida, com covariáveis sociodemográficas e de saúde. Realizou-se imputação de dados através da técnica Expected Maximization, visando o melhor aproveitamento dos dados. Estudo financiado pela Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior. RESULTADOS: O modelo de mediação obteve bons índices de ajuste. A cognição, a funcionalidade e a percepção de controle e autonomia demonstraram capacidade preditiva do espaço de vida. A funcionalidade e a percepção de controle e autonomia mediaram a relação entre a cognição e o espaço de vida, portanto, a cognição influencia o espaço de vida, dada suas associações com as variáveis mediadoras. Houve efeito de mediação da percepção de controle e autonomia na relação entre a funcionalidade e o espaço de vida. CONCLUSÕES: A percepção de controle e autonomia exerce função adaptativa frente às alterações nas competências pessoais. Essa adaptação é refletida nos espaços de vida, indicando ajuste entre competência e meio. Estudos que visem promover uma boa relação entre o indivíduo e seu contexto, mantendo o espaço de vida, devem considerar a percepção de controle e autonomia como mecanismo importante nesta relação."


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Activities of Daily Living , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Cognition/physiology , Personal Autonomy , Physical Functional Performance , Socioeconomic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Frail Elderly
4.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 409-424, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971584

ABSTRACT

For decades, memory research has centered on the role of neurons, which do not function in isolation. However, astrocytes play important roles in regulating neuronal recruitment and function at the local and network levels, forming the basis for information processing as well as memory formation and storage. In this review, we discuss the role of astrocytes in memory functions and their cellular underpinnings at multiple time points. We summarize important breakthroughs and controversies in the field as well as potential avenues to further illuminate the role of astrocytes in memory processes.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes , Neuronal Plasticity/physiology , Memory/physiology , Neurons/physiology , Cognition/physiology
5.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 973-983, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982420

ABSTRACT

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by emotion dysregulation. Whether implicit emotion regulation can compensate for this deficit remains unknown. In this study, we recruited 159 subjects who were healthy controls, had subclinical depression, or had MDD, and examined them under baseline, implicit, and explicit reappraisal conditions. Explicit reappraisal led to the most negative feelings and the largest parietal late positive potential (parietal LPP, an index of emotion intensity) in the MDD group compared to the other two groups; the group difference was absent under the other two conditions. MDD patients showed larger regulatory effects in the LPP during implicit than explicit reappraisal, whereas healthy controls showed a reversed pattern. Furthermore, the frontal P3, an index of voluntary cognitive control, showed larger amplitudes in explicit reappraisal compared to baseline in the healthy and subclinical groups, but not in the MDD group, while implicit reappraisal did not increase P3 across groups. These findings suggest that implicit reappraisal is beneficial for clinical depression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Depressive Disorder, Major/psychology , Emotional Regulation , Depression , Emotions/physiology , Cognition/physiology
6.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 82(3): 383-390, sept. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1409950

ABSTRACT

Resumen La otitis media constituye una de las consultas médicas más comunes en la población infantil. Se caracteriza por la inflamación del oído medio en presencia de exudado en la cavidad timpánica, abarcando un amplio espectro de formas clínicas, dentro de las que destacan la otitis media aguda, con efusión y crónica. La hipoacusia de conducción es una de las complicaciones de la otitis media, por lo que es lógico pensar que algunas habilidades del lenguaje y cognición infantil podrían verse afectadas secundariamente. Sin embargo, la evidencia en torno al tema no es concluyente y se aprecian opiniones contrapuestas; asimismo, no existe actualmente una revisión de la literatura que agrupe las investigaciones existentes en torno al tema. Por ello, el presente estudio pretende identificar y analizar la evidencia científica disponible sobre el efecto de la otitis media en el desarrollo de la cognición y lenguaje infantil. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura guiada por protocolo PRISMA en bases de datos de acuerdo a términos claves. Fueron analizados 8 artículos que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Los resultados recabados sugieren, por una parte, que la otitis media afecta el lenguaje en sus distintas dimensiones, el vocabulario comprensivo y la longitud media del enunciado; mientras que, por otra parte, no se encontró efecto directo de la otitis media o hipoacusia sobre la comprensión del lenguaje. Se concluye que las investigaciones analizadas presentan gran variabilidad de resultados y conclusiones. No existen reportes sobre su impacto en otros dominios de la cognición.


Abstract Otitis media is one of the most common medical consultations in children. It is characterized by inflammation of the middle ear in the presence of exudate in the tympanic cavity, covering a wide spectrum of clinical forms, among which acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion and chronic otitis media are the most outstanding. Conductive hearing loss is one of the complications of otitis media, so it is logical to think that some language and cognitive skills in children could be affected. However, the evidence on this matter is not conclusive and there are conflicting opinions; likewise, there is currently no review of the literature that compile the existing research on this topic. Therefore, the present study aims to identify and analyze the available scientific evidence on the effect of otitis media on the development of children's cognition and language. A review of the literature, guided by PRISMA protocol, was conducted in databases according to key terms. Eight articles that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed. The results suggest, on the one hand, that otitis media affects language in its different dimensions, comprehensive vocabulary and average sentence length; while on the other hand, no direct effect of otitis media or hearing loss on language comprehension was found. In is concluded that the research that were analyzed present great variability of results and conclusions. There are no reports on its impact on other domains of cognition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Otitis Media/complications , Cognition/physiology , Language Development Disorders/etiology , Quality of Life , Child Language , Hearing Loss, Conductive/etiology
7.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 16(1): 1-10, ene. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362080

ABSTRACT

Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar la influencia de la práctica deportiva sobre el desempeño de las funciones ejecutivas y, a su vez, indagar si la ejecución individual y/o grupal del deporte establece diferencias en el desarrollo de estas habilidades cognitivas y las posibles relaciones asociadas a los tiempos de entrenamiento. Para esto, se estableció una metodología cuantitativa, de diseño comparativo-correlacional. La muestra estuvo conformada por 100 participantes entre 18 y 25 años de edad de ambos géneros, distribuidos en tres grupos, uno de deportes de ejecución individual, otro de deportistas de actividad grupal y un grupo control con personas sin participación en actividades deportivas. Se encontraron, por ejemplo, mayores desempeños en funciones de planeación, memoria de trabajo, control inhibitorio y subtipos de atención por parte de quienes practicaban algún tipo de deporte, independiente de la modalidad de ejecución; pese a que, para algunas funciones cognitivas el participar de un deporte grupal generaba mayores puntuaciones en las tareas propuestas y, en otras, la ventaja la presentaron los integrantes de deportes individuales. Asimismo, se pudo establecer que existe una relación entre el tiempo semanal de entrenamiento y el funcionamiento de la actividad ejecutiva; esto, permitió corroborar la influencia de la actividad deportiva sobre el funcionamiento cognitivo subyacente en los lóbulos frontales.


This research aimed to determine the influence of sports practice on the performance of executive functions and, in turn, to inquire whether the individual and/or group performance of sports establishes differences in the development of these cognitive skills and the possible associated relationships to training times. To do this, a quantitative, comparative-correlational design methodology was established. The sample consisted of 100 participants between 18 and 25 years of age of both genders, divided into three groups, one for individual sports, another for athletes with group activity, and a control group with people without participation in sports activities. For example, greater performance was found in planning functions, working memory, inhibitory control and attention subtypes by those who practiced some type of sport, independent of the execution modality; Despite the fact that, for some cognitive functions, participating in a group sport generated higher scores in the proposed tasks and, in others, the advantage was presented by the members of individual sports. Likewise, it was established that there is a relationship between weekly training time and the performance of executive activity; This allowed to corroborate the influence of sports activity on underlying cognitive functioning on the frontal lobes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Sports , Exercise/physiology , Cognition/physiology , Executive Function/physiology , Frontal Lobe/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
8.
Distúrb. comun ; 33(4): 695-704, dez.2021. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414409

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Dificuldades de desempenho comunicativo e de reconhecimento de fala em ambientes ruidosos são associadas ao envelhecimento. O declínio do reconhecimento da fala com ruído competitivo é devido a uma combinação de fatores auditivos e não-auditivos que acentuam ao longo do tempo e com o avanço da idade. Objetivo: Identificar os aspectos cognitivos e auditivos que contribuem para o declínio do reconhecimento de fala no ruído em idosos. Método: Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo, analítico, observacional e transversal. A amostra foi composta por dois grupos: um de adultos e outro de idosos, selecionados conforme os seguintes critérios de inclusão: ouvintes normais; idade entre 18 e 70 anos, de ambos os sexos. Os aspectos cognitivos foram analisados pelo Montreal Cognitive Assessment e, nos processos auditivos, foram aplicados testes de audiometria tonal limiar, psicofísicos de reconhecimento de fala em escuta difícil e de resolução temporal. Resultados: Quando comparados por grupo etário, os testes psicoacústicos apresentaram diferenças significativas nas condições: 1) SSI / OD - S/R 0 (p=0,001), 2) SSI / OD - S/R -15 (p=0,000), 3) HINT / OE S/R -10 (p=0,03), 5) HINT / OE S/R -15 (p= 0,02) quando aplicado o teste Mann Whitney U. Quando comparados por grupo etário, os testes GIN e TDD não apresentaram diferenças significativas. Já quando os testes psicoacústicos foram comparados independentes do grupo etário, os sujeitos com MoCA normal e alterados não apresentaram diferenças significativas (p=0,280). Conclusão: A partir da amostra estudada, observou-se que os aspectos cognitivos não contribuíram no desempenho da percepção de fala com estímulos competitivos quando comparados os grupos de adultos e idosos. Por outro lado, os aspectos auditivos avaliados mostraram que os idosos apresentam maiores dificuldades de compreensão da fala no ruído quando comparados aos indivíduos mais jovens.


Introduction: Difficulties in communicative performance and speech recognition in noise are associated with aging. The decline in speech recognition with competitive noise is due to a combination of auditory and non-auditory factors that worsens over time and with aging. Objective: To identify the cognitive and auditory aspects that contribute to the decline of speech recognition in noise in the elderly. Method: This is a prospective, analytical, observational and cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of two groups: one of adults and one of elderly, selected according to the following inclusion criteria: normal listeners; between 18 and 70 years old, of both sexes. The cognitive aspects were analyzed with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and, in the auditory processes, pure-tone audiometry threshold tests, psychophysical speech recognition in difficult listening and temporal resolution were applied. Results: When compared by age group, psychoacoustic tests showed significant differences in conditions: 1) SSI / RE - SNR 0 (p = 0.001), 2) SSI / RE - SNR -15 (p = 0.000), 3) HINT / LE SNR -10 (p = 0.03), 5) HINT / LE SNR -15 (p = 0.02) when the Mann Whitney U test was applied. GIN and DDT tests did not show significant differences. When the psychoacoustic tests were compared regardless of the age group, the subjects with normal and changed MoCA did not present significant differences (p = 0.280). Conclusion: From the studied sample, cognitive aspects did not contribute to the performance of speech perception with competitive stimuli when comparing the adults and the elderly. On the other hand, the assessed auditory aspects showed that the elderly have greater difficulties in understanding speech in noise when compared to younger individuals.


Introducción: Las dificultades en el desempeño comunicativo y el reconocimiento del habla en entornos ruidosos están asociadas con el envejecimiento. La disminución del reconocimiento de voz con ruido competitivo se debe a una combinación de factores auditivos y no auditivos que se acentúan con el tiempo y con la edad. Objetivo: Identificar los aspectos cognitivos y auditivos que contribuyen al declive del reconocimiento del habla en ruido en las personas mayores. Método: Se trata de un estudio prospectivo, analítico, observacional y transversal. La muestra estuvo conformada por dos grupos: uno para adultos y otro para ancianos, seleccionados según los siguientes criterios de inclusión: oyentes normales; entre 18 y 70 años, de ambos los sexos. Los aspectos cognitivos fueron analizados por la Evaluación Cognitiva de Montreal y, en los procesos auditivos, se aplicaron pruebas de audiometría tonal umbral, reconocimiento psicofísico del habla en audiencias difíciles y resolución temporal. Resultados: Cuando se compararon por grupo de edad, las pruebas psicoacústicas mostraron diferencias significativas en las condiciones: 1) SSI / OD - S / R 0 (p = 0,001), 2) SSI / OD - S / R -15 (p = 0,000), 3 ) HINT/ OE S / R -10 (p = 0.03), 5) HINT / OE S / R -15 (p = 0.02) cuando se aplicó la prueba Mann Whitney U. Las pruebas GIN y TDD no mostraron diferencias significativas. Cuando se compararon las pruebas psicoacústicas independientemente del grupo de edad, los sujetos con MoCA normal y alterado no presentaron diferencias significativas (p = 0,280). Conclusión: De la muestra estudiada, se observó que los aspectos cognitivos no contribuyeron al desempeño de la percepción del habla con estímulos competitivos al comparar los grupos de adultos y ancianos. Por otro lado, los aspectos auditivos evaluados mostraron que los ancianos tienen mayores dificultades para comprender el habla en ruido en comparación con los más jóvenes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Auditory Perception/physiology , Aging , Cognition/physiology , Speech Perception , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Voice Recognition , Hearing , Noise
9.
Ciênc. cogn ; 26(2): 340-348, 31 dez. 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353862

ABSTRACT

O aumento da população idosa mundial em torno de 600% nos últimos 50 anos trouxe vários desafios. O principal é a adoção de políticas que possam oferecer um envelhecimento saudável, preservando a autonomia dos sujeitos. Entre essas estratégias, a estimulação cognitiva é uma que possui baixo custo operacional e pode otimizar as funções que ainda se encontram preservadas. O objetivo desse estudo piloto retrospectivo foi avaliar o impacto protetivo das práticas de estimulação cognitiva em octogenários da cidade de São João del Rei. Para tanto foram aplicados dois instrumentos de avaliação: o Mini-Mental e um Questionário de Práticas Cognitivas. Os resultados preliminares indicam uma tendência de as práticas cognitivas impactarem positivamente no desempenho no Mini-Mental dos octogenários (p<0.01). Tais resultados têm implicações diretas, sobretudo nas estratégias de baixo custo a serem implementadas com o objetivo de se construírem reservas cognitivas na população recém adentrada na 3ª idade, visando uma maior autonomia na 4ª idade.


The increase in the world's elderly population of around 600% in the last 50 years has brought many challenges. The main one is adopting policies that can offer healthy aging, preserving the subjects' autonomy. Among these strategies, the cognitive stimulation is one that has a low operational cost and can optimize the functions which are still preserved. This retrospective pilot study aimed at evaluating the impact of cognitive stimulation practices on octogenarian elderly in the city of São João del Rei. Therefore, two evaluation instruments were applied: Mini-Mental and a Cognitive Practice Questionnaire. The preliminary results indicate a tendency that the cognitive practices impact positively on the octogenarians' cognitive performance(p<0.01). Such results have direct implications especially on the low-coststrategies to be implemented aiming at building cognitive reserves in the population of the recent 3rd age viewing a bigger autonomy in the 4th age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Cognition/physiology , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Pilot Projects , Retrospective Studies
10.
Ciênc. cogn ; 26(2): 266-276, 31 dez. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353869

ABSTRACT

O fenômeno de aceleração social, intimamente ligado a nossa modernização tecnológica e os sistemas políticos e sociais que adotamos, vem sendo alvo de questionamentos por parte da teoria crítica por diversos filósofos e sociólogos, principalmente em relação a se tal "aceleração" seja algo que, possa ser justificável pelo bem comum da sociedade. De fato, as rápidas mudanças que ocorreram no último século causaram uma tremenda mudança em nossos estilos-de-vida, e na maneira como experienciamos o mundo. Que a nossa sociedade mudou e continua a mudar é um fato evidente quando olhamos criticamente para o passado e presente, e comparamos diferentes épocas da história humana. Neste ensaio tentaremos explorar algumas possíveis hipóteses que fundamentem o comportamento aceleracionista em certos fatores e mecanismo biológicos que caracterizam os sistemas de motivação e saciação humanos. Também tentaremos mostrar como certos fenômenos sociais podem auxiliar em fortalecer este tipo de comportamento, e suas possíveis origens evolutivas. Este estudo tem como objetivo principal fundamentar a Tese Aceleracionista em evidências neurofisiológicas, cognitivo-comportamentais, evolutivas e sociais.


The phenomenon of social acceleration is closely linked to our technological modernization and the political and social systems we have adopted, and it has been questioned by several philosophers and sociologists, especially in relation to whether such acceleration is something that can be justified for the common good of society. In fact, the rapid changes that have occurred in the last century have caused a tremendous change in our lifestyles, and in the way we experience the world. That society have changed and continues to change is an evident fact when we look critically to the past and our present and compare different times in human history. In this essay we will try to explore some possible hypotheses that underpin accelerated behavior, in certain biological factors and mechanisms that characterize human motivation and satiation systems. We will also try to show how certain social phenomena can help to strengthen this type of behavior, and its possible evolutionary origins. The main objective of this study is to base the Accelerationist Thesis on neurophysiological, cognitive-behavioral, evolutionary and also social evidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Reward , Satiation/physiology , Social Change , Cognition/physiology , Neurotransmitter Agents/physiology , Motivation/physiology
11.
Distúrb. comun ; 33(2): 187-194, jun. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400810

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O processamento temporal é um dos mais importantes aspectos a ser analisado por sua forte ligação com a linguagem e cognição; sendo assim, dificuldades de compreensão da linguagem podem estar presentes nos parkinsonianos. Objetivo: Avaliar as habilidades auditivas temporais de indivíduos com doença de Parkinson. Métodos: Estudo do tipo observacional, transversal, no qual foram avaliados 14 indivíduos (média de idade de 64 anos), sendo sete do grupo estudo com diagnóstico de DP, e o grupo controle composto por sete indivíduos sem a doença. Os indivíduos realizaram o Mini-Exame do Estado Mental e avaliação audiológica básica para excluir indício de demência e presença de perda auditiva com grau elevado. Para avaliar as habilidades auditivas foram selecionados os seguintes testes especiais do processamento auditivo central: Teste Dicótico de Dígitos, Teste de Padrão de Frequência e teste de detecção de Gaps in Noise. A análise estatística foi realizada por meio dos testes Mann-Whitney. Resultados: Os indivíduos do grupo estudo tiveram pior desempenho que o grupo controle em todos os testes do PAC avaliados. Houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos para o teste padrão de frequência (p-valor: 0,041) e para o teste GIN na orelha esquerda (p-valor: 0,015). Conclusão: Foi possível concluir que os indivíduos com DP apresentam maior comprometimento das habilidades auditivas de ordenação e resolução temporal em relação ao grupo de idosos saudáveis. Sugere-se que indivíduos com DP realizem avaliação das habilidades auditivas, pois a reabilitação envolvendo os aspectos temporais da audição pode melhorar a comunicação e sociabilização desses indivíduos.


Introduction: Temporal processing is one of the most important aspects to be analyzed due to its strong connection with language and cognition, thus, language comprehension difficulties may be present in parkinsonians. Objective: To assess the auditory temporal abilities of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: An observational, cross-sectional study in which 14 individuals (mean age 64 years) were evaluated, seven in the study group with PD diagnosis, and seven in the control group with healthy individuals. The individuals underwent the Mini-Mental State Examination and basic audiological evaluation to exclude evidence of dementia and the presence of high hearing loss. To assess auditory abilities, the following special tests of central auditory processing (CAP) were selected: Dichotic Digit Test, Frequency Pattern Test and Gaps in Noise Detection Test (GIN). Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests. Results: The individuals in the study group had worse performance than the control group in all evaluated CAP tests. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups for the standard frequency test (p-value: 0.041) and for the GIN test in the left ear (p-value: 0.015). Conclusion: It was possible to conclude that individuals with PD present a greater impairment of the auditory abilities of ordering and temporal resolution in relation to the group of healthy elderly people. It is suggested that individuals with PD perform an assessment of their auditory abilities, since rehabilitation involving the temporal aspects of hearing can improve communication and socialization of these individuals.


Introduccion: El procesamiento temporal es uno de los aspectos más importantes a analizar debido a su fuerte conexión com el lenguaje y la cognición, por lo que las dificultades em La comprensión Del lenguaje pueden estar presentes em los parkinsonianos. Objetivo: Evaluar la habilidade auditiva temporal de las personas com Enfermedad de Parkinson (EP). Metodos: Estudio observacional, transversal e nel que se evaluaron 14 individuos (edad media 64 años), siete del grupo de estudio con diagnóstico de EP, y grupo control de siete indivíduos sanos. Los individuos se sometieron a un Mini Examen del Estado Mental y una evaluación audiológica básica para excluir evidencia de demencia y la presencia de hipoacusia alta. Para evaluar las habilidades auditivas, se seleccionaron las siguientes pruebas especiales de procesamiento auditivo central (PAC): Prueba dicótica de dígitos, prueba de padrón de frecuencia y prueba de detección de Gaps in Noise (GIN). El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante las pruebas de Mann -Whitney y Chi-cuadrado. Resultados: Los indivíduos del grupo de estudio se desempeñaron peor que el grupo de control en todas las pruebas PAC evaluadas. Hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los grupos para la prueba de frecuencia estándar (valor p: 0.041) y para la prueba GIN em el oído izquierdo (valor p: 0.015). Conclusión: Se pudo concluir que los indivíduos con EP presentan um mayor deterioro de las habilidades auditivas de ordenamiento y resolución temporal em relación al grupo de ancianos. Se sugiere que las personas con EP realicen una evaluación de las habilidades auditivas porque la rehabilitación que involucra aspectos temporales de la audición puede mejorar la comunicación y socialización de estas personas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Parkinson Disease/complications , Auditory Perception/physiology , Hearing Tests , Auditory Perceptual Disorders/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Cognition/physiology
12.
Fisioter. Bras ; 22(1): 25-36, Mar 19, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284010

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Crianças com paralisia cerebral hemiplégica (PCH) exibem dificuldades funcionais na utilização do membro superior hemiparético, repercutindo negativamente no desempenho em realizar atividades de vida diária. Atualmente, os déficits motores nessa população são acompanhados por distúrbios sensoriais, dificuldades na aprendizagem, alterações de comportamento e comunicação e défices cognitivos gerais. Objetivo: Investigar a possível associação entre os déficits motores e cognitivos de crianças com PCH, verificando ainda a influência da lateralidade da hemiplegia. Métodos: Participaram do estudo 30 crianças com PCH (idade média = 10,48 ± 2,46 anos). Os participantes foram submetidos aos seguintes testes: Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA), Matrizes Progressivas Coloridas de Raven, o Subteste cubos do Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children fourth Edition - WISC IV e a fluência verbal semântica de animais. Resultados: Os grupos foram homogêneos em relação ao sexo e idade (p > 0.05). Os grupos não diferiram em relação ao nível de desempenho motor, memória de trabalho, inteligência e fluência verbal (p > 0,05). O desempenho motor correlacionou com todas as variáveis cognitivas. Conclusão: Em crianças com PCH o desempenho motor correlacionou fortemente com funções cognitivas. Além disso, a lateralidade da lesão cerebral não influenciou o desempenho em tarefas motoras e cognitivas. (AU)


Introduction: Children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) exhibit functional difficulties in using the hemiparetic upper limb, negatively impacting their performance in carrying out activities of daily living. Currently, motor deficits in this population are accompanied by sensory disorders, learning difficulties, changes in behavior and communication and general cognitive deficits. Objective: To investigate the possible association between motor and cognitive deficits in children with PCH, also verifying the influence of laterality in hemiplegia. Methods: Thirty children with PCH participated in the study (mean age = 10.48 ± 2.46 years). Participants were subjected to the following tests: Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA), Raven's Colorful Progressive Matrices, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children fourth Edition - WISC IV Subtest and the semantic verbal fluency of animals. Results: The groups were homogeneous in relation to sex and age (p > 0.05). The groups did not differ in relation to the level of motor performance, working memory, intelligence and verbal fluency (p> 0.05). Motor performance correlated with all cognitive variables. Conclusion: In children with PCH, motor performance correlated strongly with cognitive functions. In addition, the laterality of the brain injury did not influence performance in motor and cognitive tasks. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Psychomotor Performance/physiology , Cerebral Palsy/physiopathology , Cognition/physiology , Hemiplegia/physiopathology , Functional Laterality/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
13.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(1): 1-13, mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151562

ABSTRACT

Este trabajo busca verificar la relación entre la calidad de vida y los aspectos sociodemográficos y cognitivos de las personas mayores participantes de grupos sociales. El método utilizado para estos fines es el estudio epidemiológico, cuantitativo, de diseño transversal, realizado en grupos de personas mayores residentes en una capital del sur de Brasil. Se utilizaron cuatro cuestionarios referentes a caracterización sociodemográfica, calidad de vida, aspectos cognitivos y queja de memoria subjetiva. Los resultados arrojaron datos respecto a la diferencia significativa en la calidad de vida y sus dominios en términos de edad, educación, ingresos y región de residencia y aspectos cognitivos. Las respuestas obtenidas en las preguntas generales del instrumento mostraron que la calidad de vida fue considerada buena por 176 de los encuestados, equivalentes al 54,83% y 151 encuenstados que representan el 47,04% se consideraron satisfechos en términos de salud en general. Por lo tanto, las conclusiones dan luces sobre los aspectos sociodemográficos, así como los cognitivos, están asociados con la calidad de vida de las personas mayores activas del municipio. Se enfatiza la queja de memoria subjetiva, que mostró relación con todos los aspectos analizados de la calidad de vida. Los datos obtenidos pueden servir como insumos para ampliar las posibilidades de promover la salud y la calidad de vida de la población envejecida.


Objective: To verify the relationship between the quality of life and the socio-demographic and cognitive aspects of the participating elderly people from social groups. Methods: Epidemiological, quantitative, cross-sectional design study, carried out in groups of elderly people living in a capital city in southern Brazil. Four questionnaires were used concerning sociodemographic characterization, quality of life, cognitive aspects and subjective memory complaints. Results: There were significant differences in the quality of life and its domains in terms of age, education, income and region of residence, and cognitive aspects. The answers obtained in the general questions of the instrument showed that the quality of life was considered good by 176 (54.83%) of the respondents and 151 (47.04%) were considered satisfied in terms of overall health. Conclusion: Socio-demographic aspects, as well as cognitive aspects, are associated with the quality of life of active elderly people in the municipality. The complaint of subjective memory is emphasized, which showed a relationship with all the analyzed aspects of the quality of life. The data obtained can serve as inputs to expand the possibilities of promoting the health and quality of life of the elderly population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Quality of Life , Cognition/physiology , Cognitive Aging , Social Support , Brazil/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Memory/physiology
14.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292282

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Declines in physical and cognitive functioning often co-exist through aging. Gait-related parameters have been related to cognitive function, although it is unclear whether other measures of physical functioning are similarly related to cognition. Here, we analyzed the relationship between physical functioning with cognition in older adults. METHODS: In total, baseline data of 116 dementia-free older adults recruited from two separated clinical trials (RCT) were included (M age = 69 years, SD = 6; 71% women). We quantified cognitive functioning using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and executive functioning tasks (Digit Span Forward minus Backward and verbal fluency ­ FAS and animal naming). Physical function measures included gait speed, Short-physical Performance Battery (SPPB), five-times Sit-to-Stand Test, the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, the Six-minute Walk Test (6MWT), and lower extremity muscle strength. We used multiple linear regression analyses to explore the association between cognitive measures and each measure of physical functioning, adjusting for age, sex, education, and RCT. Regression coeficients (b), standard error (SE) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to summarize main results. RESULTS: We observed a positive association between muscle strength and the MoCA (b = 0.84, SE = 0.40, 95%CI 0.05­1.64) after controlling for covariates. Significant associations were also found between the five-times-sit-to-stand test (b = -0.63, SE = 0.26, 95%CI -1.15­-0.12), TUG (b = -1.13, SE = 0.57, 95%CI -2.26­-0.01), 6MWT (b = 0.04, SE = 0.02, 95%CI 0.01­0.07), and lower extremity muscle strength (b = 1.92, SE = 0.93, 95%CI 0.09­3.77) with the FAS verbal fluency test, and between the TUG (b = -0.62, SE = 0.24, 95%CI -1.11­-0.14) with animal naming. CONCLUSION: In community-dwelling older adults, higher levels of muscle strength, dynamic balance and cardiorespiratory fitness were positively related with global cognition and executive control measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Exercise , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Cognition/physiology , Cognition Disorders/diagnosis , Muscle Strength/physiology , Gait/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
15.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 74(1): e20200649, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1288334

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: to analyze activity limitations in patients with leprosy and their association to cognition and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Methods: this cross-sectional design study included sixty patients with multibacillary leprosy assisted at a reference center. Participants were divided according to their physical disability and submitted to instruments assessing daily activities (basic and instrumental), cognitive functions, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. The order of the instruments was random to avoid any interference of test sequence on the results. Results: fifty-five percent of the participants presented physical disabilities. All patients were independent in performing basic activities but sixty-six percent presented difficulties in performing instrumental activities. Cognitive decline and neuropsychiatric symptoms were seen in advanced stages of the disease, but they were more associated to patient age than to leprosy. Conclusions: leprosy patients presented physical disabilities and difficulties in performing instrumental daily activities. Cognitive decline and neuropsychiatric symptoms were more associated to aging than to leprosy itself.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar limitaciones de tarea en pacientes con Lepra y su relación con cognición y síntomas neuropsiquiátricos. Métodos: este estudio transversal incluyó 60 pacientes con Lepra multibacilar atendidos en centro de referencia. Participantes fueron divididos segundo la disfunción física y evaluados cuanto a las actividades diarias (básicas y instrumentales), funciones cognitivas y síntomas neuropsiquiátricos. Orden de aplicación de los instrumentos aleatoria para evitar interferencia de la secuencia de tests sobre los resultados. Resultados: de los participantes, 55% presentaron disfunción física. Todos pacientes eran independientes en las actividades básicas, pero 66% mostraron dificultades en las actividades instrumentales. Declive cognitivo y síntomas neuropsiquiátricos fueron observados en etapas avanzadas de la enfermedad, pero estos estaban más relacionados a la edad del paciente que a la Lepra. Conclusiones: pacientes con Lepra evidenciaron disfunción física y dificultades en las actividades instrumentales. Declive cognitivo y síntomas neuropsiquiátricos están más relacionados al envejecimiento que a la Lepra.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar as limitações de tarefa em pacientes com hanseníase e sua associação com cognição e sintomas neuropsiquiátricos. Métodos: este estudo transversal incluiu 60 pacientes com hanseníase multibacilar atendidos em um centro de referência. Os participantes foram divididos segundo a disfunção física e avaliados quanto às atividades diárias (básicas e instrumentais), às funções cognitivas e aos sintomas neuropsiquiátricos. A ordem de aplicação dos instrumentos foi aleatória para evitar interferência da sequência dos testes sobre os resultados. Resultados: dos participantes, 55% apresentaram disfunção física. Todos os pacientes eram independentes nas atividades básicas, mas 66% mostraram dificuldades nas atividades instrumentais. Declínio cognitivo e sintomas neuropsiquiátricos foram observados em estágios avançados da doença, porém estes estavam mais associados à idade do paciente do que à hanseníase. Conclusões: pacientes com hanseníase evidenciaram disfunção física e dificuldades nas atividades diárias instrumentais. Declínio cognitivo e sintomas neuropsiquiátricos estão mais associados ao envelhecimento do que à hanseníase.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Behavioral Symptoms/epidemiology , Activities of Daily Living , Cognition/physiology , Cognition Disorders/epidemiology , Leprosy/complications , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Neuropsychological Tests
18.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 58(4): 431-437, dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388364

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la trombosis de seno longitudinal superior es una enfermedad de difícil detección a causa de sus diferentes causas y debido al polimorfismo de sus manifestaciones neurológicas; además es común en el sexo femenino relacionado a los estímulos estrogénicos y otros factores hormonales, pero poco probable en menor de 40 años. PACIENTE: paciente menor de 40 años posterior a presentar dos episodios de accidentes cerebrovasculares isquémicos, se evalúa un año después de la lesión el estado cognitivo y funcional mediante la batería Neuropsi Atención y Memoria y el Inventario de Adaptabilidad Mayo-Portland; los procesos cognitivos afectados en un nivel de clasificación leve fueron la atención y concentración, el funcionamiento ejecutivo; en el estado funcional reportado por el cónyuge sugiere afectación de síntomas clínicos como irritabilidad, ira agresividad, dolores de cabeza, cansancio y reacciones a síntomas menores e interacción inadecuada, estos síntomas no fueron reportados por la paciente sugiriendo posible anosognosia en su proceso de adaptabilidad CONCLUSIÓN: Tras un proceso de lesión cerebral por afectación trombótica, las secuelas cognitivos y funcionales permanecen posterior a la recuperación espontanea, llevando a emplear procesos de rehabilitación.


INTRODUCTION: the superior longitudinal sinus thrombosis is a disease difficult to detect because of its different causes and because of the polymorphism of its neurological manifestations; It is also common in females related to estrogen stimuli and other hormonal factors, but unlikely in younger than 40 years. PATIENT: a patient younger than 40 years after having two episodes of ischemic strokes, cognitive and functional status is assessed one year after the injury using the neuropsi battery attention and memory and the mayo-portland adaptability inventory; Cognitive processes affected at a slight level of classification were attention and concentration, executive functioning; In the functional status reported by the spouse suggests involvement of clinical symptoms such as irritability, anger, aggression, headaches, fatigue and reactions to minor symptoms and inadequate interaction, these symptoms were not reported by the patient suggesting possible anosognosia in her process of adaptability CONCLUSIÓN: After a process of brain injury due to thrombotic involvement, the cognitive and functional sequelae remain after spontaneous recovery, suggesting the import of rehabilitation processes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Cognition/physiology , Stroke/physiopathology , Intracranial Thrombosis/physiopathology , Neurobehavioral Manifestations/physiology , Neuropsychology
19.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 15(1): 06-11, oct. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353760

ABSTRACT

La esclerosis múltiple (EM) es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica que cursa con la desmielinización y la neurodegeneración a nivel del sistema nervioso central. Existen tres tipos de EM en función de la progresión de la enfermedad, pero la mayor parte de los pacientes tienden a presentar déficits cognitivos. Por lo tanto, resulta imprescindible el desarrollo de programas de entrenamiento cognitivos dirigidos a la mejora de estos déficits y, en definitiva, a la mejora de la calidad de vida de estos pacientes. En este sentido, el objetivo principal de este estudio fue la puesta en marcha de un programa de entrenamiento cognitivo dirigido a un paciente con esclerosis múltiple progresiva primaria (EMPP) a lo largo de un año. Los resultados pusieron de manifiesto que algunos de los déficits cognitivos que presentó inicialmente el paciente mejoraron tras varios meses de intervención. En este sentido, el paciente presentó notables mejoras en el control inhibitorio y la flexibilidad cognitiva. No obstante, los déficits en la velocidad de procesamiento se mantuvieron constantes a lo largo de toda la intervención. Asimismo, aparecieron otros déficits a lo largo de la intervención que remitieron tras la adecuación de los objetivos de intervención. Por todo ello, nuestro estudio reforzó la importancia de la puesta en marcha de los programas de rehabilitación cognitiva dirigidos a pacientes con enfermedades desmielinizantes para paliar las secuelas cognitivas derivadas de las mismas. Además, es importante que estos programas de entrenamiento cognitivo sean revisados periódicamente para adecuar los objetivos del tratamiento.


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves demyelination and neurodegeneration at the level of the central nervous system. Despite the different characteristics of each of the three types of MS, most patients with this disease present significant cognitive deficits. Therefore, it is essential to develop cognitive training programs to improve these deficits and, ultimately, increase the quality of life of these patients. Thus, the main objective of this study was to implement a one-year cognitive training program with a patient with progressive primary multiple sclerosis (PPMS). The results showed that some of the cognitive deficits the patient initially presented improved after several months of intervention. In this regard, the patient presented noteworthy improvements in inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility. However, deficits in processing speed remained constant throughout the intervention. Likewise, other deficits appeared during the intervention that remitted after adapting the intervention objectives to the patient's needs. Therefore, our study reinforces the importance of implementing cognitive rehabilitation programs for patients with demyelinating diseases to alleviate the cognitive sequelae they produce. In addition, it is important to evaluate these cognitive training programs periodically in order to adapt the objectives and improve the patient's functionality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/rehabilitation , Quality of Life , Demyelinating Diseases , Treatment Outcome , Cognition/physiology , Executive Function/physiology , Memory/physiology , Multiple Sclerosis/physiopathology
20.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(3): 284-292, Jul.-Sep. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131045

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El deterioro cognitivo leve es una alteración de la función cognitiva que no afecta de manera negativa a las actividades diarias de la persona. Factores de riesgo modificables como la hipertensión arterial podrían intervenir en el aceleramiento de este proceso y afectar a personas menores de 65 años. Una detección temprana del deterioro cognitivo leve por medio del Montreal Cognitive Assesment (MoCA) en personas con hipertensión arterial ayudaría a idear medidas para su control eficaz. Materiales y métodos: Se diseñó un estudio de tipo observacional transversal. La población se integra con pacientes hipertensos de 45 a 65 años de Guayaquil. De una base de datos de 570 pacientes, se realizó un llamado a sujetos que cumplieran los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, para la evaluación de la función cognitiva por medio del MoCA. Resultados: El 93.3% de los participantes sometidos a la prueba MoCA presentó un puntaje menor de 26. El promedio del puntaje total fue de 18.9 y el 51.6% de los participantes reveló deterioro cognitivo leve. Se obtuvo una correlación negativa del 40% (-0.40) con una p = 0.0015 entre años con hipertensión arterial y el resultado total de la prueba MoCA. Conclusiones: Por medio del MoCA se pudo cuantificar la magnitud del deterioro cognitivo en estos pacientes. Se identificó que la mayoría de los participantes examinados presentaba un puntaje promedio menor del intervalo normal. Las cifras obtenidas de los valores de correlación de Pearson muestran una actividad tendencial y relación de la hipertensión arterial con el deterioro de la función cognitiva.


Abstract Introduction: Mild cognitive impairment is an alteration of cognitive function that does not negatively affect the daily activities of the person. Modifiable risk factors such as hypertension could be involved in the acceleration of this process affecting people under 65 years of age. Early detection of mild cognitive impairment through the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in people with high blood pressure, would help to formulate strategies for its effective control. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional observational study was designed. The population is hypertensive patients between 45 and 65 years old in Guayaquil. From a database of 570 patients, a call was made to patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, for the evaluation of cognitive function through MoCA. Results: 93.3% of the participants who underwent the MoCA test had a score lower than 26. The average of the total score was 18.9, with 51.6% of the participants suffering from mild cognitive impairment. A negative correlation of 40% (-0.40) was obtained with a p = 0.0015 between years with arterial hypertension and the total result of the MoCA test. Conclusions: Through MoCA, the magnitude of cognitive deterioration in these patients could be quantified. It was detected that the majority of the examined participants had a lower average score of the normal range. The figures obtained from the Pearson correlation values show trend activity, relating arterial hypertension and deterioration of cognitive function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Cognition/physiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Hypertension/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Ecuador , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology
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