Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 107
Filter
1.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 41(2): 149-158, Apr.-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1014733

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction This study developed Brazilian psychodynamic psychotherapy (PDT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) prototypes for children with internalizing disorders (ID) and externalizing disorders (ED). Method Eighteen Brazilian experts in PDT (n = 9) and CBT (n = 9) rated the 100 items of the Child Psychotherapy Q-Set (CPQ) describing a hypothetical typical session based on their respective theoretical backgrounds for children with ID. They then rated the same items describing a hypothetical typical session for children with ED. A Q-type factor analysis with varimax rotation was performed. Results Expert correlations were high within each theoretical approach and each diagnostic category. The factor analysis identified three independent factors. CBT ratings concentrated on one factor, while PDT ratings loaded onto one factor describing treatment of children with ID and another factor describing treatment of children with ED. Conclusion The sole CBT prototype reflected a general conceptualization of this approach and was undifferentiated regarding treatment of children with ID and ED. The PDT prototype for children with ID provided evidence of a process focused on interpretation, while the PDT prototype for children with ED characterized a supportive process with attention to the therapeutic relationship. This infers greater variation in the PDT setting for children with different conditions.


Resumo Introdução Este estudo desenvolveu protótipos brasileiros de psicoterapia psicodinâmica (PP) e terapia cognitivo-comportamental (TCC) para crianças com transtornos internalizantes (TI) e externalizantes (TE). Método Dezoito experts brasileiros em PP (n = 9) e TCC (n = 9) classificaram os 100 itens do Child Psychotherapy Q-Set (CPQ) descrevendo uma sessão hipotética típica de acordo com suas respectivas abordagens teóricas para crianças com TI. Depois, eles classificaram os mesmos itens descrevendo uma sessão hipotética típica para crianças com TE. Foi realizada uma análise fatorial do tipo Q com rotação varimax. Resultados As correlações dos experts foram altas, considerando ambas as abordagens teóricas e as duas categorias diagnósticas. A análise fatorial gerou três fatores independentes. As avaliações da TCC concentraram-se em um fator, enquanto as avaliações da PP geraram um fator que descreveu o tratamento de crianças com TI e um outro fator que descreveu o tratamento de crianças com TE. Conclusão O protótipo único da TCC refletiu uma conceptualização geral dessa abordagem, indiscriminada em relação aos sintomas da criança. O protótipo da PP para crianças com TI evidenciou um processo focado na interpretação, enquanto o protótipo da PP para crianças com TE caracterizou um processo suportivo com atenção à relação terapêutica. Infere-se uma maior variação no processo em PP para crianças com diferentes sintomatologias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Psychotherapy, Psychodynamic/methods , Mental Disorders/therapy , Brazil , Mental Disorders/psychology
2.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(1 (Supl)): 78-81, jan.-mar. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1015128

ABSTRACT

Os jogos recreativos são aliados fundamentais do envelhecimento humano e podem auxiliar o indivíduo a desenvolver melhores condições de saúde física e mental. Este trabalho apresenta o projeto de extensão "Educação em Saúde no Esporte", desenvolvido na cidade de Jataí-GO, no decorrer das atividades do curso de Enfermagem da Universidade Federal de Goiás. O objetivo deste projeto foi a promoção da saúde mental e cardiovascular por meio da realização de atividades físicas e jogos recreativos. Os jogos oferecem um momento de lazer, comunicação e diversão ao público e permitem, também, que os idosos possam trabalhar as funções psicomotoras e cognitivas. Este projeto de extensão empregou metodologia pautada na abordagem quanti-qualitativa e os instrumentos de coleta de dados foram preenchidos em fichas de exames físicos, colhidos antes da recreação devido ao consumo de medicamentos após o início dos jogos. Os resultados demonstram que houve mudanças discretas, porém positivas, na redução da pressão arterial sistólica, pressão de pulso e perda de peso e, além disso, notou-se, por meio das entrevistas, que os participantes tinham notável consciência da necessidade de maiores cuidados com a própria saúde. As atividades lúdicas aliadas à atividade física mostram-se efetivas para o envelhecimento saudável, com melhora da qualidade de vida, participação social, saúde mental e cardiovascular, ressaltando a importância de ações interprofissionais para a promoção da saúde


Recreational games are of the utmost importance in human aging and can help the individual improve their physical and mental health. This work presents the extension project "The Importance of Sports to Health", developed in the city of Jataí-GO, during the activities of the Nursing course of Universidade Federal de Goiás. The objective of this project was to promote mental and cardiovascular health through physical activity and recreational games. Games represent leisure time for the public with the opportunity for communication and entertainment, and also allow the elderly to perform psychomotor and cognitive functions. This extension project used methodology based on the quantitative and qualitative approach and the data collection instruments were completed on physical examination forms, collected prior to the recreational activities due to the intake of drug products after the beginning of the games. The results show slight yet positive changes in the reduction of systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure along with weight loss. In addition, the interviews showed that the subjects had a remarkable awareness of the need for greater care with their own health. Leisure activities combined with physical activity have proved effective for healthy aging, with an improvement in quality of life, social participation, mental and cardiovascular health, emphasizing the importance of interprofessional actions for the promotion of health


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases , Mental Health , Games, Recreational , Quality of Life , Exercise , Body Mass Index , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Arterial Pressure , Healthy Aging , Health Promotion/methods
3.
Rev. inf. cient ; 98(1): 88-97, 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1016504

ABSTRACT

Se presentó el estudio de una familia del área de salud del Policlínico Comunitario de Palma Soriano con el objetivo de socializar la experiencia de la estimulación cognitiva temprana de un adulto mayor con deterioro cognitivo a través del apoyo familiar. El estudio concluyó en 2015, en Palma Soriano. Se empleó el diseño de investigación no experimental estudio de caso instrumental desde la metodología cualitativa. El estudio incluyó una familia, se sustentó en el trabajo de grupo focal y se auxilió en técnicas estandarizadas. Se concluyó que el apoyo familiar brindado al paciente con deterioro cognitivo impacta positivamente en su condición física, bienestar psicológico y relaciones sociales. Asimismo, se reconoció al apoyo familiar como una vía necesaria, emocionalmente importante y coherente con la situación sociodemográfica cubana, que posibilita la estimulación cognitiva precoz del adulto mayor con deterioro cognitivo(AU)


The study of a family of the health area of the Community Polyclinic of Palma Soriano was presented with the aim of socializing the experience of the early cognitive stimulation of an older adult with cognitive deterioration through family support. The study concluded in 2015, in Palma Soriano. The non-experimental research design was used, instrumental case study from the qualitative methodology. The study included a family, was based on the work of the focus group and assisted in standardized techniques. It was concluded that the family support provided to the patient with cognitive impairment positively impacts their physical condition, psychological well-being and social relationships. Likewise, family support was recognized as a necessary, emotionally important and coherent path with the Cuban sociodemographic situation, which enables early cognitive stimulation of the elderly with cognitive impairment(AU)


O estudo de uma família da área da saúde da Policlínica Comunitária de Palma Soriano foi apresentado com o objetivo de socializar a experiência da estimulação cognitiva precoce de um idoso com deterioração cognitiva através do apoio familiar. O estudo concluiu em 2015, em Palma Soriano. Utilizou-se o delineamento de pesquisa não experimental, estudo de caso instrumental a partir da metodologia qualitativa. O estudo incluiu uma família, foi baseado no trabalho do grupo focal e auxiliou em técnicas padronizadas. Concluiu-se que o apoio familiar fornecido ao paciente com comprometimento cognitivo impacta positivamente sua condição física, bem-estar psicológico e relações sociais. Da mesma forma, o apoio familiar foi reconhecido como um caminho necessário, emocionalmente importante e coerente com a situação sociodemográfica cubana, que possibilita a estimulação cognitiva precoce de idosos com comprometimento cognitivo(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Frail Elderly , Family Health
5.
Rev. salud pública (Córdoba) ; 23(3): 49-55, 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1049693

ABSTRACT

Contexto: El conocimiento sobre los mecanismos intrínsecos que explican aspectos cognitivos del constructo psicológico de la satisfacción del usuario de servicios sanitarios podría promover cambios en el enfoque del estudio, diseño e implementación de nuevas políticas públicas sobre la satisfacción. Objetivo: Generar una síntesis sobre las teorías cognitivas que explican el concepto del constructo psicológico de la satisfacción del usuario de servicios sanitarios. Métodos: Revisión de literatura, realizada mediante recopilación de publicaciones de autores que originaron las bases que más han influenciado el estudio de la satisfacción del usuario desde las teorías psicológicas y mercadotecnia hasta la gestión de servicios sanitarios. Resultados: Se obtienen inicialmente resúmenes del tema, capítulos de libros, enciclopedias de ciencias sociales en Science Direct™, PROQUEST CENTRAL™, utilizando términos de búsqueda como "Consumer" AND "Services" AND "Satisfaction", así como "Healthcare" AND "User" AND "Satisfaction" se incluyeron para el período 2013-2017, obteniéndose 322 referencias de texto completo, de las cuales se selecciona la literatura relacionada con el origen y explicación del constructo psicológico de la satisfacción (N=13). Conclusión: La descripción de las bases del constructo de la satisfacción del usuario, así como la síntesis sobre modelos teóricos explicativos aplicables al mundo real abren un nuevo horizonte de posibilidades en la gestión dinámica de aplicaciones de comunicación social que incluyan transparencia e inclusión del usuario, aunque es necesaria más investigación.


Knowing about intrinsic mechanisms that explain cognitive aspects of the psychological construct of health services user satisfaction could promote changes in the approach to the study, design and implementation of new public policies regarding user satisfaction. Objective: To produce a summary of the cognitive theories which explain the concept of psychological construct of health service user satisfaction. Methods: Literature review of publications which served as the bases that have influenced the most the study of user sat-isfaction from psychological theories and marketing to the management of health services. Results: Abstracts, book chapters, social sciences encyclopedia in ScienceDirect™, PRO-QUEST CENTRAL™ were initially obtained using search terms such as "Consumer" AND "Services" AND "Satisfaction", as well as "Healthcare" AND "User" AND "Sat-isfaction" which were included for the period 2013-2017; 322 full text references were obtained and literature related to the origin and explanation of satisfaction psychological construct was selected (N=13). Conclusion: The description of the bases of user satisfac-tion construct, as well as the summary of theoretical explanatory models applicable to the real world open a new range of possibilities in the management of social communication applications, including transparency and user inclusion; however, more research is still necessary.


O conhecimento dos mecanismos intrínsecos que explicam os aspectos cognitivos do constructo psicológico da satisfação do usuário dos serviços de saúde pode promover mudanças no foco do estudo, desenho e implementação de novas políticas públicas de satisfação. Objetivo: Gerar uma síntese sobre teorias cognitivas que expliquem o conceito do constructo psicológico da satisfação do usuário dos serviços de saúde. Métodos: Revi-são de literatura, realizada por meio da compilação de publicações de autores que origina-ram as bases que mais influenciaram o estudo da satisfação do usuário a partir de teorias psicológicas e marketing para a gestão dos serviços de saúde. Resultados: Inicialmente, são obtidos resumos do tópico, capítulos de livros, enciclopédias de ciências sociais no ScienceDirect ™, PROQUEST CENTRAL ™, usando termos de pesquisa como «Consu-mer¼ AND «Services¼ AND «Satisfaction¼, bem como «Healthcare¼ AND «User¼ AND "Satisfaction", foram incluídos para o período 2013-2017, obtendo-se 322 referências em texto completo, das quais foi selecionada literatura relacionada à origem e explicação do constructo psicológico da satisfação (N = 13). Conclusão: A descrição das bases do constructo satisfação do usuário e a síntese de modelos teóricos explicativos aplicáveis ao mundo real abrem um novo horizonte de possibilidades no gerenciamento dinâmico de aplicativos de comunicação social que incluem transparência e inclusão do usuário, embora maiores pesquisas sejam necessárias.


Subject(s)
Consumer Behavior , Health Services Research/trends , Acting Out , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods
6.
Pensando fam ; 22(2): 20-36, jul.-dez. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1002739

ABSTRACT

Famílias adotantes estão em evidência nos contextos midiático e científico, havendo necessidade de atenção da psicologia para estes sujeitos. A terapia cognitivo-comportamental pode ser aplicada em diferentes situações, sendo uma abordagem de intervenção possível nas demandas dessas famílias. Utiliza-se de um conjunto de técnicas de intervenção diversificado, entre elas, a técnica de role-play, que consiste na dramatização de situações do cotidiano com fins terapêuticos. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as possíveis aplicações da técnica de role-play no atendimento a famílias adotantes. Optou-se por uma pesquisa qualitativa exploratória descritiva de caráter bibliográfico. Os dados coletados foram registrados em fichas de catalogação e analisados por meio da síntese integradora. Constatou-se a possibilidade do uso da técnica de role-play em diferentes momentos do processo de adoção, auxiliando na construção e aprendizagem de estratégias adaptativas no enfrentamento das demandas de pais, filhos e profissionais. Sugerem-se novos estudos, explorando possibilidades dessa técnica.(AU)


Adoptive families are in evidence in the media and scientific contexts, requiring psychologist's attention. Cognitive behavioral therapy can be applied in different situations, being utilized as a support to the adoptive families. Among its diversified intervention techniques, is the role-play, which consists in the dramatization of daily situations with therapeutic purposes. The aim of this study was to describe possible applications of the role-play technique with adoptive families. It was designed as a bibliographic descriptive exploratory qualitative research. The data were registered in cataloging sheets and analyzed through integrative synthesis The possibility of using the role-play technique in different moments of the adoption process was verified, assisting in the construction and learning of adaptive coping strategies of parents, children and professionals. Further studies are suggested, exploring possibilities of this technique.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Child, Adopted , Family , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Family Therapy
7.
Pensando fam ; 22(2): 172-186, jul.-dez. 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1002748

ABSTRACT

A Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental utiliza de uma formulação de caso específica (Conceitualização Cognitiva). Esse método de avaliação permite, a partir de um modelo baseado em evidências, compreender o funcionamento do indivíduo sob termos cognitivo-comportamentais. Atualmente, o diagrama de Conceitualização Cognitiva ainda avalia sujeitos individualmente sem um modelo específico para a relação conjugal. Todavia, ao se trabalhar com o casal, é fundamental verificar como a díade interage e como os conflitos são instalados nesta interação formulando um modo de processamento cognitivo do casal. Este estudo teórico teve como objetivo fornecer um modelo de Conceitualização Cognitiva para Casais e dar suporte a terapeutas e clientes sobre a compreensão dos conflitos e estratégias que são utilizados para resolução de problemas na conjugalidade. Para isso, explanou, de modo didático, a descrição de cada elemento do modelo e ilustrou o processo de conceitualização com um caso clínico fictício.(AU)


Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy uses a specific case formulation (Cognitive Conceptualization). This method of evaluation allows, from an evidence-based model, to understand the functioning of the individual under cognitive-behavioral terms. Currently, the Cognitive Conceptualization Diagram still evaluates subjects individually without a specific model for the conjugal relationship. However, when working with couple, it is fundamental to verify how the dyad interacts and how the conflicts are installed in this interaction, formulating a model of cognitive processing of the couple. This theoretical study aimed to provide a model of Cognitive Conceptualization for Couples and to support therapists and clients on understanding the conflicts and strategies that are used to solve problems in conjugality. To do this, he explained, in a didactic way, the description of each element of the model and illustrated the process of conceptualization with a fictious clinical case.(AU)


Subject(s)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Cognition , Couples Therapy/methods , Family Relations/psychology
8.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(4): 361-366, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-959258

ABSTRACT

Objective: To correlate neurotrophic factors - brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and beta-nerve growth factor (beta-NGF) - and severity of depressive symptoms in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) undergoing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, participants were selected by convenience and received 16 sessions of CBT. The outcomes of interest were severity of depressive symptoms and changes in neurotrophic factor levels after CBT. The differences between variables before and after treatment (deltas) were analyzed. Results: Patients had significant changes in symptom severity after treatment. No significant associations were found between Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) scores and any independent variable. No correlations were observed between BDNF or GDNF levels and BDI scores before or after treatment, although there was a trend toward significant differences in beta-NGF levels. Conclusion: BDNF, beta-NGF, and GDNF were not influenced by the effects of CBT on depressive symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/blood , Nerve Growth Factor/blood , Depressive Disorder, Major/blood , Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/blood , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Socioeconomic Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/psychology , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Nerve Growth Factors/blood
9.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(4): 420-423, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-959265

ABSTRACT

Objective: The beneficial effects of psychopharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on the brain are not well understood. In a previous study, we found smaller pituitary volumes in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of CBT on pituitary gland volume. Methods: A total of 81 patients with various anxiety disorders and the same number of healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging, and their pituitary gland volumes were compared at baseline. Pituitary gland volumes were also measured before and after CBT in the patient group. Results: OCD patients had smaller pituitary gland volumes at baseline than healthy controls (0.54±0.29 cm3 for OCD patients vs. 0.82±0.30 cm3 for healthy controls; p < 0.001). We found no significant changes in OCD patient pituitary gland volume after the 16-week treatment period, with mean pre- and post-treatment values of 0.54±0.29 cm3 and 0.56±0.32 cm3, respectively (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Our results indicate an absence of post-CBT volumetric changes in the pituitary gland of OCD patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Pituitary Gland/anatomy & histology , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/instrumentation , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/therapy , Organ Size/physiology , Pituitary Gland/diagnostic imaging , Severity of Illness Index , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Treatment Outcome
10.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 40(3): 226-231, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-963105

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Few studies have evaluated positive measures for therapeutic response. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the effects of resilience on severity of depressive and anxious symptoms after brief cognitive psychotherapy for depression. Methods This was a clinical follow-up study nested in a randomized clinical trial of cognitive therapies. The Resilience Scale was applied at baseline. The Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were used at baseline, post-intervention, and at six-month follow-up. Results Sixty-one patients were assessed at baseline, post-intervention and at six-month follow-up. Resilience scores were significantly different between baseline and post-intervention assessments (p<0.001), as well as at baseline and at six-month follow-up (p<0.001). We observed a weak negative correlation between baseline resilience scores and HDRS scores at post-intervention (r=-0.295, p=0.015) and at six-month follow-up (r=-0.354, p=0.005). Furthermore, we observed a weak negative correlation between resilience scores and HARS scores at post-intervention (r=-0.292, p=0.016). Conclusion Subjects with higher resilience scores at baseline showed a lower severity of symptoms at post-intervention and at six-month follow-up.


Resumo Introdução Poucos estudos têm avaliado medidas positivas de resposta terapêutica. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar os efeitos da resiliência na severidade dos sintomas depressivos e ansiosos após psicoterapia cognitiva breve para depressão. Métodos Trata-se de um estudo de intervenção clínica aninhado a um ensaio clínico com dois diferentes modelos de terapia cognitiva. A Resilience Scale foi aplicada no baseline, enquanto que a Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale e a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale foram utilizadas no baseline, após a intervenção e no acompanhamento de seis meses. Resultados Sessenta e um pacientes foram avaliados no baseline, no pós-intervenção e no acompanhamento de seis meses. Os escores de resiliência foram significativamente diferentes entre as avaliações de baseline e pós-intervenção (p<0,001), bem como no baseline vs. acompanhamento de seis meses (p<0,001). Observamos uma correlação negativa fraca entre os escores de resiliência no baseline e os escores de sintomas depressivos no pós-intervenção (r=-0,295; p=0,015) e em seis meses de acompanhamento (r=-0,354; p=0,005). Além disso, observamos uma correlação negativa fraca entre os escores de resiliência e sintomas ansiosos no pós-intervenção (r=-0,292; p=0,016). Conclusão Indivíduos com maiores escores de resiliência na avaliação pré-tratamento apresentaram uma menor severidade de sintomas no pós-intervenção e no acompanhamento de seis meses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Depressive Disorder, Major/psychology , Depressive Disorder, Major/therapy , Resilience, Psychological , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Double-Blind Method , Follow-Up Studies , Depression/psychology , Depression/therapy
11.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 44(3)jul.-set. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), CUMED | ID: biblio-960668

ABSTRACT

La atención integral a los adultos mayores con demencia constituye un reto importante para las dependencias de salud gubernamental encargadas de proponer políticas públicas. En México, se plantea una iniciativa para afrontar la enfermedad y dar un seguimiento a los pacientes que la padecen. Consecuentemente, el propósito de esta comunicación es informar acerca del beneficio de la estimulación cognitiva como una estrategia preventiva, económica y efectiva para el abordaje psicogerontológico de los pacientes con demencia en la atención primaria de salud. Se propone desde una perspectiva integral y centrada en la persona e involucrar las necesidades biopsicosociales del usuario. La estimulación cognitiva mejorará la calidad de vida de los adultos mayores con demencia y propiciara el afrontamiento individual y familiar ante la enfermedad(AU)


Comprehensive care for the elderly with dementia constitutes a major challenge for government health agencies responsible for proposing public policies. In Mexico, an initiative is proposed to confront the disease and to follow up the patients who suffer it. Consequently, the purpose of this communication is to inform about the benefit of cognitive stimulation as a preventive, economic and effective strategy for the psychogerontological approach to patients with dementia in the primary health care. It is proposed from a comprehensive perspective, centered on the person, involving the biopsychosocial needs of the user. It is expected that cognitive stimulation would improve the life quality of the elderly with dementia and will encourage individual and family coping with the disease(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Alzheimer Disease , Mexico
12.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 40(3): 316-319, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1039090

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of a group therapy based on cognitive-behavioral techniques customized for intermittent explosive disorder (IED). The current report presents the preliminary results of a clinical trial comparing pre- and post-intervention scores in different anger dimensions. Methods: The studied sample consisted of 84 treatment-seeking subjects. The mean (standard deviation) age was 43.0 (11.9) years, and 78% were male. The therapeutic group program consisted of 15 weekly sessions plus three maintenance sessions. The sessions lasted approximately 90 minutes each. Results: No differences were found in demographic profile and pre-treatment status between subjects who completed treatment (n=59) and dropouts (n=25). Comparison of State-Trait Anger Expression Scale (STAXI) scores pre- and post-treatment showed statistically significant changes in all anger scales and subscales of the questionnaire. Conclusion: This preliminary report is a significant addition to currently scarce clinical data. Our findings provide further evidence that structured cognitive-behavioral group therapy, with a focus on anger management and cognitive coping, may be a promising approach to the treatment of IED.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Psychotherapy, Group/methods , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Aggression/physiology , Anger Management Therapy/methods , Disruptive, Impulse Control, and Conduct Disorders/therapy , Anger/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Controlled Before-After Studies , Preliminary Data , Disruptive, Impulse Control, and Conduct Disorders/psychology
13.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(3): 195-201, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-954559

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of two cognitive behavioral therapy-based smoking cessation interventions initiated during hospitalization and to evaluate the factors related to relapse after discharge. Methods: This was a prospective randomized study involving 90 smokers hospitalized in a university hospital. We collected data related to sociodemographic characteristics, reasons for admission, smoking-related diseases, smoking history, the degree of nicotine dependence (ND), and the level of craving. Patients were divided into two treatment groups: brief intervention (BrInter, n = 45); and intensive intervention with presentation of an educational video (InInterV, n=45). To assess relapse, all patients were assessed by telephone interview in the first, third, and sixth months after discharge. Abstinence was confirmed by measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO). Results: Of the 90 patients evaluated, 55 (61.1%) were male. The mean age was 51.1 ± 12.2 years. The degree of ND was elevated in 39 (43.4%), and withdrawal symptoms were present in 53 (58.9%). The mean eCO at baseline was 4.8 ± 4.5 ppm. The eCO correlated positively with the degree of ND (r = 0.244; p = 0.02) and negatively with the number of smoke-free days (r = −0.284; p = 0.006). There were no differences between the groups in terms of the variables related to socioeconomic status, smoking history, or hospitalization. Of the 81 patients evaluated at 6 months, 33 (40.7%) remained abstinent (9 and 24 BrInter and InInterV group patients, respectively; p = 0.001), and 48 (59.3%) had relapsed (31 and 17 BrInter and InInterV group patients, respectively; p= 0.001). Moderate or intense craving was a significant independent risk factor for relapse, with a relative risk of 4.0 (95% CI: 1.5-10.7; p < 0.00001). Conclusions: The inclusion of an educational video proved effective in reducing relapse rates. Craving is a significant risk factor for relapse.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar a eficácia de duas intervenções de cessação de tabagismo baseadas na terapia cognitivo-comportamental em pacientes internados e avaliar os fatores relacionados à recaída após a alta hospitalar. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo, randomizado, com 90 tabagistas internados em um hospital universitário. Foram coletados dados relacionados a características sociodemográficas, motivo da internação, doenças relacionadas ao tabagismo, carga tabágica, grau de dependência de nicotina (DN) e grau de fissura. Os pacientes foram distribuídos em dois grupos de tratamento: intervenção breve (InB; n = 45) e intervenção intensiva com apresentação de um vídeo educativo (InIV; n = 45). Para avaliar recaídas, todos os pacientes foram entrevistados por contato telefônico no primeiro, terceiro e sexto mês após a alta. A abstinência foi confirmada pela medida de monóxido de carbono no ar expirado (COex). Resultados: Dos 90 pacientes avaliados, 55 (61,1%) eram homens. A média de idade foi de 51,1 ± 12,2 anos. O grau de DN foi elevado em 39 (43,4%), e sintomas de abstinência estavam presentes em 53 (58,9%). A média de COex inicial foi de 4,8 ± 4,5 ppm. O COex se correlacionou positivamente com o grau de DN (r = 0,244; p = 0,02) e negativamente com o número de dias sem fumar (r = −0,284; p = 0,006). Não houve diferenças entre os grupos quanto a variáveis relacionadas com nível socioeconômico, carga tabágica ou internação. Dos 81 pacientes avaliados após 6 meses de segmento, 33 (40,7%) continuaram abstinentes (9 e 24 nos grupos InB e InIV, respectivamente; p = 0,001) e 48 (59,3%) recaíram (31 e 17 nos grupos InB e InIV, respectivamente; p = 0,001). O grau de fissura (moderado ou intenso) foi um fator de risco independente significativo para a recaída, com um risco relativo de 4,0 (IC95%: 1,5-10,7; p < 0,00001). Conclusões: A inclusão de um vídeo educativo provou ser eficaz na redução das taxas de recaída. O grau de fissura foi um fator de risco significativo para a recaída.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Smoking Cessation/methods , Smoking Prevention/methods , Inpatients/psychology , Patient Discharge , Recurrence , Socioeconomic Factors , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome , Time Factors , Logistic Models , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , ROC Curve , Smoking Cessation/psychology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Hospitalization
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(6): e7070, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-889098

ABSTRACT

Insomnia is highly prevalent in children and adolescents. However, the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-i) in children and adolescents remains controversial. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the efficacy of CBT-i in children and adolescents. We conducted a search of PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, and PsycINFO to select primary studies evaluating CBT-i in children and adolescents that were primarily diagnosed through standardized diagnostic criteria. The primary outcomes of the meta-analysis included sleep onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), total sleep time (TST), and sleep efficiency (SE%). Six randomized controlled trials and four open-label trials met all inclusion criteria. A total of 464 participants (ranging from 5-19 years of age) were included. Based on the results from sleep logs, a significant pooled effect size was observed for SOL and SE%. However, no significant pooled effect size was found for WASO or TST. Results from actigraphy were consistent with the sleep logs. A significant pooled effect size was observed for SOL and SE%, and no significant pooled effect size was found for WASO or TST. CBT-i might be effective in the treatment of children and adolescents with insomnia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome
15.
Ter. psicol ; 35(3): 247-258, Dec. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-904198

ABSTRACT

Los trastornos del espectro autista (TEA) son alteraciones del neurodesarrollo caracterizados por dificultades en interacción social, con principal hincapié en la comunicación, sea esta verbal y no verbal. La investigación y desarrollo aplicada en TEA se centra en hallar estrategias terapéuticas adecuadas y que sean focalizadas en el individuo, valiéndose de todos los recursos que estén al alcance (interfaces virtuales, realidad virtual, entornos 3D, robótica, etc). Así, el uso de tecnologías para mejorar y estimular particularmente la comunicación de los niños con TEA ha aumentado en los últimos tiempos de manera exponencial. Estas herramientas en contextos terapéuticos posibilitan una generalización del comportamiento hacia contextos naturales del niño. Por lo tanto, el uso de un software personalizado en dispositivos móviles permitirá que se avance con su tratamiento fuera del ámbito clínico pudiendo utilizarlo en su casa/escuela para comunicarse con sus vínculos sociales cercanos.


Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to neurodevelopmental problems characterized by difficulties in social interaction, especially verbal or nonverbal communication. Research on ASD focuses in finding appropriate solutions for a patient, using all available resources (virtual interfaces, virtual reality, 3D environments, robotics, etc.) in order to develop therapeutic strategies. Therefore, the use of technologies to improve and stimulate communication, particularly in children with ASD, has increased exponentially in recent years. When used in therapeutic contexts, these tools allow a generalization of a child's behavior towards a natural context. Hence, the use of customized softwares for mobile devices will allow progress in treating ASD beyond a clinical setting and may be used at home/school to communicate with their close social peers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autistic Disorder/therapy , Technology , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Robotics , Software , Cell Phone , Virtual Reality
16.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 39(3): 207-215, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-904588

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The objective of this study was to conduct a review of the literature covering the use of different mindfulness-based therapy approaches in treatment of mood and anxiety disorders, including mindfulness skills and mindfulness linked to emotional regulation and fear of negative appraisal. Methods A review was conducted of literature identified by searching the scientific databases PubMed and PsycINFO with the following keywords: mindfulness, mood disorders, and anxiety disorders. The search covered the past 10 years. The search returned 532 articles, 24 were selected, their full texts were read, and 16 were included in this review. Results Six articles about mindfulness-based stress reduction, four about mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, and three about fear of negative appraisal and emotional regulation were reviewed. All of the articles covered mindfulness in relation to mood and anxiety disorders. Conclusions The literature in this field suggests that mindfulness is an effective strategy for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders and is effective in therapy protocols with different structures including virtual modalities. Use of mindfulness in scientific models continues to expand.


Resumo Introdução O objetivo deste estudo foi fazer uma revisão da literatura abrangendo o uso das diferentes abordagens da terapia baseada em mindfulness no tratamento dos transtornos de humor e ansiedade, incluindo suas habilidades e sua relação com a regulação emocional e com o medo da avaliação negativa. Métodos Uma revisão de literatura foi realizada através de busca pelas bases científicas PubMed e PsycINFO, com as seguintes palavras-chave: mindfulness, transtornos do humor e transtornos de ansiedade. A pesquisa abrangeu os últimos 10 anos. A busca resultou em 532 artigos, sendo 24 selecionados e 16 incluídos nesta revisão. Resultados Foram revisados seis artigos sobre programa de redução de estresse baseado em mindfulness, quatro artigos sobre terapia cognitiva baseada em mindfulness, e três sobre medo da avaliação negativa e regulação emocional. Todos os artigos abordaram mindfulness com relação aos transtornos de humor e ansiedade Conclusão A literatura nessa área sugere que mindfulness é uma estratégia eficaz no tratamento dos transtornos de humor e ansiedade e é eficaz no protocolo de terapia em diferentes formatos, incluindo virtual. O uso de mindfulness continua a se expandir nos modelos científicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anxiety Disorders/therapy , Mood Disorders/therapy , Mindfulness , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods
17.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 39(3): 244-251, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-899350

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral therapy-based intervention (Superwellness Program) on weight gain compared with a treatment-as-usual (TAU) approach in patients treated with antipsychotics, and to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) variation and clinical variables. Method: Eighty-five patients treated with antipsychotics were allocated across two groups, experimental (n=59) and control (n=26). The Superwellness Program (experimental group) consisted of 32 twice-weekly 1-hour sessions, conducted by a psychologist and a nutritionist/nurse, concurrently with moderate food intake and moderate physical activity plans. Sociodemographic, clinical, and biological variables were collected at baseline, at the end of intervention (16 weeks), and after 6 months. Results: BMI change from baseline differed significantly between the experimental and control groups, with a larger decrease in the experimental group (F = 5.5, p = 0.021). Duration of illness moderated the effect of treatment on BMI (p = 0.026). No significant (p = 0.499) effect of intervention during the follow-up period was found. Interestingly, the intervention indirectly induced a significant (p = 0.024) reduction in metabolic risk by reducing BMI. Conclusion: A cognitive-behavioral therapy-based intervention could be useful in reducing weight in a clinical population taking antipsychotics, with consequent benefit to physical and mental health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Psychotherapy, Group/methods , Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Weight Reduction Programs/methods , Health Promotion/methods , Schizophrenia/therapy , Body Mass Index , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/therapy
18.
MedicalExpress (São Paulo, Online) ; 4(2)Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-841475

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of a treatment for Internet addiction and anxiety disorders, using cognitive behavioral therapy combined with medication, and to analyze the relationship between anxiety and Internet addiction. METHOD: An open clinical trial included 84 patients (42 in the "comorbidities" group; 42 in the "no comorbidities" group) seeking treatment for anxiety symptoms and/or Internet Addiction. The subjects responded to The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0; the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A), the Hamilton Depression Scale (HDRS), Clinical Global Impressions Severity and Improvement (CGI-S and CGI-I) and the Young Internet Addiction Scale (IAT). Patients who had only Internet addiction received psychoeducation on conscious internet use and bibliotherapy; they were defined as the group without comorbidities; patients diagnosed with Internet addiction and anxiety disorder (the group with comorbidities) were forwarded for pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. RESULTS: Both Internet Addiction and anxiety decreased after treatment; the average of Hamilton Anxiety Scale of the "comorbidities" group at the beginning was 33.9 ± 7.6, suggesting severe anxiety, and at the end of treatment it was 15.0 ± 5.1, suggesting mild anxiety and a significant improvement. The average Internet Addiction score at the beginning was 67.8 ± 9.0; at the end of the psychotherapy an average score of 37.7 ± 11.4 was registered, indicating a notable and highly significant improvement. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between anxiety and Internet Addiction existed and was strong. Treatment significantly improved both.


OBJETIVO: Investigar a eficácia de tratamento para dependência de internet e transtornos de ansiedade, utilizando terapia cognitivo comportamental combinada com medicação, e analisar a relação entre ansiedade e dependência de internet. MÉTODO: Ensaio clínico aberto realizado no Laboratório de Pânico e Respiração no Instituto de Psiquiatria da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IPUB/UFRJ) com 84 pacientes (42 do grupo com comorbidades e 42 do grupo sem comorbidades) que procuravam tratamento para transtornos de ansiedade e/ou dependência de internet. Os sujeitos responderam ao MINI Entrevista Neuropsiquiátrica Internacional 5.0; a Escala Hamilton de Ansiedade (HAM-A), a Escala Hamilton de Depressão (HDRS), a Escala Clínica de Impressão Global de Severidade e de Melhora (CGI-S e CGI-I) e a Escala de Dependência de Internet de Young (IAT). Os pacientes com apenas dependência de internet receberam psicoeducação sobre o uso consciente da internet e biblioterapia, e foram considerados o grupo sem comorbidades, enquanto que, os pacientes com transtornos de ansiedade e dependência de internet foram encaminhados para o tratamento medicamentoso e psicoterapia. RESULTADOS: Tanto a dependência de internet quanto a ansiedade diminuíram após o tratamento, a média da HAM-A no grupo com comorbidades no início foi de 33,9 ± 7,6, sugerindo ansiedade grave e ao final do tratamento foi de 15 ± 5,1, sugerindo uma significativa melhora. A media de dependência de internet obtida na IAT no início do tratamento foi de 67.8 ± 9.0 e ao final da psicoterapia a maioria dos participantes apresentou média de 37.7 ± 11.4 indicando uma melhora notável. CONCLUSÃO: A relação entre ansiedade e dependência de internet existe e é forte.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/therapy , Behavior, Addictive/therapy , Bibliotherapy , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Treatment Outcome , Dependency, Psychological
19.
Psico USF ; 22(2): 197-205, maio-ago. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-878190

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is to present the Brazilian version of the instrument APQ (Adolescent Psychotherapy Q-Set), including its translation and initial adaptation, followed by the construction of psychotherapy prototypes for psychoanalytic and cognitivebehavioral approaches. A total of 10 psychoanalytic and 10 cognitive-behavioral therapists were asked to classify the APQ items in relation to relevance to their theoretical model. Data were analyzed with factor analysis. The extraction of two factors explained 48.07% of the total variance. The Cronbach's alpha for the psychoanalytic factor was 0.85 and for the cognitivebehavioral factor, 0.86. The former presented factor loadings ranging from .61 to .73, whilst the latter from .49 to .80. The prototypes were developed through linear regression calculations of each APQ item's contribution to each of the factors. It was observed that the two prototypes adequately discriminated psychoanalytic and cognitive behavioral approaches, indicating thatthe APQ is an appropriate tool for research in psychotherapy.AU)


O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar a versão brasileira do instrumento APQ (Adolescent Psychotherapy Q-Set), incluindo sua tradução e adaptação inicial, seguida da construção de protótipos de psicoterapia na adolescência de orientação psicanalítica e cognitivo-comportamental. Solicitou-se a dez psicoterapeutas psicanalíticos e dez cognitivo-comportamentais que classificassem os itens do APQ, considerando sua relevância ao seu modelo teórico. Os dados foram submetidos à análise fatorial. A extração de dois fatores explicou 48,07% da variância total. O alpha de Cronbach do fator psicanalítico foi 0,85 e do cognitivo--comportamental foi 0,86. O primeiro fator apresentou cargas fatoriais entre 0,61 a 0,73 e o segundo entre 0,49 a 0,80. Cálculos de regressão linear identificaram os escores da contribuição de cada item do APQ para cada fator, desenvolvendo-se assim os protótipos. Observou-se que as abordagens psicanalítica e cognitivo-comportamental foram discriminadas, indicando que o instrumento é apropriado para o desenvolvimento de pesquisas em psicoterapia.AU)


El objetivo de este artículo es presentar la versión brasileña del instrumento APQ (Adolescent Psychotherapy Q-Set), incluyendo su traducción y adaptación inicial, y la construcción de prototipos de psicoterapia en la adolescencia de orientación psicoanalítica y cognitivo-conductual. Se solicitó a diez psicoterapeutas psicoanalíticos y diez cognitivo-conductuales que clasificasen los ítems del APQ, teniendo en cuenta su relevancia para el modelo teórico. Los datos fueron sometidos a análisis factorial y la extracción de dos factores explicó 48,07% de la varianza total. El alfa de Cronbach del factor psicoanalítico fue 0,85, y del cognitivo-conductual 0,86. El primer factor presentó cargas factoriales entre 0,61 y 0,73 y el segundo entre 0,49 y 0,80. Cálculos de regresión lineal identificaron los resultados de contribución de cada ítem del APQ para cada factor, desarrollándose así los prototipos. Se observó que el enfoque psicoanalítico y cognitivo-conductual fueron discriminados, indicando que el instrumento es apropriado para el desarrollo de investigaciones en psicoterapia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Adolescent , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Psychotherapy/methods , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Translating
20.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 54(4): 299-308, dic. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-844469

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The differences in the scores observed in the attention, memory and executive functions regarding the use of a cognitive rehabilitation program in patients with long-standing schizophrenia are analysed. Method: The participants were selected through a nonprobability sampling with a purposive sample ofcritical cases (n = 31). It is a causal research, which considers a quasi-experimental design of two groups (experimental and control) with pre and postintervention measures. To measure the variables, the TMTA & B, WAIS, ROCF and the Stroop P & C tests were administered. Results: The intervention had a clinically significant impact on the domains of visual spatial attention and the executive function (speed of verbal information processing), given by the differences caused by the post-intervention means. There were only statistically significant differences of means in the post-test scores for the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, in the Memory-Time variable, whose treatment has a low impact and false negative rates higher than initially expected. At the same time, regarding the variability of the scores, there were not statistically significant differences for any of the variables analysed. Conclusions: Training the identification of symbols, using memories of details of projected images and simple words association, in a group-competition context with playful elements, have a clinically relevant impact on the rehabilitation of the visual spatial attention and the speed of verbal information processing of patients with long-standing schizophrenia. The statistically significant differences of means require to be considered with care.


Introducción: Se analizan las diferencias en las puntuaciones observadas en atención, memoria y función ejecutiva en función de un programa de rehabilitación cognitiva en pacientes con esquizofrenia de larga data. Método: Los participantes fueron seleccionados mediante un muestreo noprobabilístico con una muestra intencional de casos críticos (n = 31). Investigación explicativa, con diseño cuasi experimental de dos grupos (experimental y control) y medidas pre y post intervención. Para medir las variables se administraron los test TMT A y B, WAIS, F.C. de Rey, STROOP P y C. Resultados: La intervención tuvo un impacto clínicamente significativo en el Dominio de la Atención focalizada visual y en el Dominio Ejecutivo (velocidad de procesamiento de información verbal) dado por las diferencias de medias post intervención. Sólo existieron diferencias de medias estadísticamente significativas en los puntajes post test para la Figura Compleja de Rey en la variable Memoria-Tiempo, cuyo tratamiento tiene un impacto bajo y tasas de falsos negativos superiores a las esperadas. A su vez, respecto a la variabilidad de las puntuaciones, no se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas para ninguna de las variables analizadas. Conclusiones: Entrenar identificando símbolos, recuerdos de detalles de imágenes proyectadas, asociación de palabras simples, en contextos de competición entre grupo con elementos lúdicos, tiene un impacto clínicamente relevante en la rehabilitación de la atención focalizada visual y en la velocidad de procesamiento de información verbal en sujetos con esquizofrenia de larga data. Las diferencias de medias estadísticamente significativas detectadas requerirían ser consideradas con precaución.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Attention/physiology , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Executive Function , Memory/physiology , Schizophrenia/rehabilitation
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL