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Ethiop. Med. j ; 62(1): 25-31, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1524623


Background: Given the improvement in life expectancy of people living with HIV (PLWH) in sub-Saharan Africa, the risk of asymptomatic HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) has increased. The study objectives were to investigate the prevalence of HAND and associated factors among treatment experienced adults in Ethiopia. Methods: A single-center observational cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2019 and June2020 to investigate HAND. International HIV dementia scale (IHDS) was used to screen for the disorder. Both descriptive and analytical statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: Total of 324 PLWH (63% females) who were on combination antiretroviral therapy for median of 144months (IQR: 108-168) were investigated. The mean age was 42.5 years (1SD=12.2). The prevalence of HAND was 75.3% and the difference was significantly more in those above 40 years of age (65.8% vs. 80.7%, p=0.003). Age is the only risk factor identified with multivariable logistic regression analysis. A linear decrement in the total score of cognitive performance was observed as the patient's age increase; age was responsible for 9.4% variation observed in IHDS score (r= -0.31, R2=0.094, p<0.0001). Although statistically not-significant, the trend for cardio-metabolic and behavioral risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, alcohol and khat use) was higher in the group diagnosed with HAND. Conclusion: The occurrence of neurocognitive impairment was more pronounced in individuals aged 40 years and above who were HIV positive, compared to those below 40 years. Age was found to be an independent predictor of HAND. Cardiovascular and behavioral risk factors were observed more among patients with HAND compared to no-HAND

Humans , Male , Female , Cognitive Dysfunction
Cambios rev. méd ; 22 (2), 2023;22(2): 915, 16 octubre 2023. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526592


INTRODUCCIÓN: La enfermedad cerebral de pequeño vaso es una causa principal de pérdida funcional, discapacidad y deterioro cognitivo. OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de la enfermedad de pequeño vaso y características clínicas que se asocian a mayor deterioro funcional, cognitivo y afectivo en adultos mayores con enfermedad cerebrovascular atendidos en el Servicio de Neurología del Hospital Carlos Andrade Marín en el período 2020 ­ 2021. METODOLOGÍA: Estudio observacional, analítico transversal con 80 pacientes mayores de 65 años con enfermedad cerebrovascular previamente diagnosticada. Se determinó cuáles presentaban enfermedad cerebral de pequeño vaso. Se compararon los dos grupos el de enfermedad cerebro vascular isquémico con y sin enfermedad cerebral de pequeño vaso. Se midió el grado de deterioro funcional con escala de Barthel; Lawton y Brody. El deterioro cognitivo con test de Montreal Cognitive Assessment ­Basic, estado afectivo con escala de Yesavage. Se utilizó razón de momios y se consideró significativo un valor p <0,05. Se utilizó el programa Statistical Package for Social Sciences versión 25. RESULTADOS: Los hombres representaron el 51,2%. La edad promedio fue 76,2 años. Prevalencia de enfermedad cerebral de pequeño vaso (87,5%). Escala de Fazekas grado 1 (46,3%), Factores asociados con enfermedad cerebral de pequeño vaso: tabaquismo [RR: 7,27; IC 95%: 1,69-31,3); enfermedad renal crónica [RR: 4,0; IC 95%: 1,01-15,7]. Dependencia moderada [RR: 6,42; IC 95%: 1,02-40,3]. Factores asociados con pérdida funcionalidad: gravedad del ictus. Factores asociados con deterioro cognitivo: infarto con doble territorio. Factores asociados con deterioro afectivo: infarto con doble territorio y síndrome metabólico (p<0,05). CONCLUSIÓN: La enfermedad cerebral de pequeño vaso tiene una elevada prevalencia entre los adultos mayores con enfermedad cerebrovascular y representó un deterioro cognitivo, funcional y afectivo considerable, en relación a los pacientes sin esta enfermedad.

INTRODUCTION: Cerebral small vessel disease is a leading cause of functional loss, disability, and cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of small vessel disease and clinical characteristics associated with greater functional, cognitive and affective impairment in older adults with cerebrovascular disease attended at the Neurology Service of the Carlos Andrade Marín Hospital in the period 2020 - 2021. METHODOLOGY: Observational, analytical cross-sectional study with 80 patients over 65 years of age with previously diagnosed cerebrovascular disease. It was determined which patients had cerebral small vessel disease. The two groups of ischemic cerebrovascular disease with and without cerebral small vessel disease were compared. The degree of functional impairment was measured with the Barthel, Lawton and Brody scales. Cognitive impairment was measured with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Basic test, and affective state with the Yesavage scale. Odds ratio was used and a p value <0,05 was considered significant. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 25 was used. RESULTS: Males represented 51,2%. Mean age was 76,2 years. Prevalence of cerebral small vessel disease (87,5%). Fazekas scale grade 1 (46,3%), Factors associated with cerebral small vessel disease: smoking [RR: 7,27; 95% CI: 1,69-31,3); chronic kidney disease [RR: 4,0; 95% CI: 1,01-15,7]. Moderate dependence [RR: 6,42; 95% CI: 1,02-40,3]. Factors associated with loss of function: severity of stroke. Factors associated with cognitive impairment: infarction with double territory. Factors associated with affective impairment: dual territory infarction and metabolic syndrome (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Cerebral small vessel disease has a high prevalence among older adults with cerebrovascular disease and represented a considerable cognitive, functional and affective deterioration, in relation to patients without this disease.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Brain Diseases , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction , Porencephaly , Ischemic Stroke , Functional Status , Ecuador , Geriatrics
Med. infant ; 30(3): 289-292, Septiembre 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1516000


Las funciones ejecutivas generalmente se conceptualizan como un conjunto de procesos generales de control de orden superior que trabajan juntos para dirigir y gestionar las funciones cognitivas, emocionales y conductuales, especialmente durante la resolución activa de problemas. Su disfunción es frecuente de ser detectada como comorbilidad de otros trastornos del neurodesarrollo, causa o efecto? La detección precoz de la disfunción ejecutiva y su abordaje terapéutico temprano, mejora el pronóstico global madurativo en el periodo infantojuvenil. Esta sucinta revisión de las funciones ejecutivas intenta resaltar su importancia para el pediatra y su mirada de los trastornos del neurodesarrollo (AU)

Executive functions are typically understood as a set of general higher-order control processes that collectively direct and manage cognitive, emotional, and behavioral functions, especially during active problem solving. Their dysfunction is often detected as a comorbidity of other neurodevelopmental disorders; cause or effect? Early detection of executive dysfunction and a prompt therapeutic approach improves the overall developmental prognosis in childhood and adolescence. This brief review of executive functions aims to highlight their importance for the pediatrician and his/her view of neurodevelopmental disorder (AU)

Humans , Attention/physiology , Cognition/physiology , Executive Function/physiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/diagnosis
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 811-818, jun. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514286


SUMMARY: The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of prenatal stress on the cognitive function of offspring, and clarify the change of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) expression in hippocampal neurons of offspring. 16 pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into control group and stress group, with eight rats in each group. The stress group received restrained stress from 15 to 21 days of pregnancy, while the control group did not receive any treatment. Anxiety-like behavior and spatial memory, learning and memory ability were detected in open field, elevated plus maze, novel object recognition test, and Barnes maze. Nissl staining was used to detect the function of hippocampal neurons. Western blot was used to detect the expression of HDAC2 protein in hippocampal neurons of adult offspring. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of HDAC2 protein and hippocampal neurogenesis. The learning and memory ability of adult offspring was decreased. The prenatal stress damaged the function of hippocampal neurons , the expression of HDAC2 was down-regulated, and the number of neurons was reduced. Maternal prenatal stress can down- regulate the expression of HDAC2 in the hippocampus of offspring, inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis and impairs the cognitive function.

El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el mecanismo del estrés prenatal en la función cognitiva de la descendencia y aclarar el cambio de la expresión de la histona desacetilasa 2 (HDAC2) en las neuronas del hipocampo de la descendencia. 16 ratas SD preñadas se dividieron aleatoriamente en un grupo de control y un grupo de estrés, con ocho ratas en cada grupo. El grupo de estrés recibió estrés durante 15 a 21 días de pre, preñez, mientras que el grupo de control no recibió ningún tratamiento. El comportamiento similar a la ansiedad y la memoria espacial, el aprendizaje y la capacidad de memoria se detectaron en campo abierto, laberinto en cruz elevado, prueba de reconocimiento de objetos novedosos y laberinto de Barnes. La tinción de Nissl se utilizó para detectar la función de las neuronas del hipocampo. Se utilizó Western blot para detectar la expresión de la proteína HDAC2 en las neuronas del hipocampo de la descendencia adulta. La tinción de inmunofluorescencia se utilizó para detectar la expresión de la proteína HDAC2 y la neurogénesis del hipocampo. La capacidad de aprendizaje y memoria de la descendencia adulta se redujo. El estrés prenatal dañó la función de las neuronas del hipocampo, se reguló negativamente la expresión de HDAC2 y se redujo el número de neuronas. El estrés prenatal materno puede regular a la baja la expresión de HDAC2 en el hipocampo de la descendencia, inhibe la neurogénesis del hipocampo y deteriora la función cognitiva.

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Stress, Psychological , Histone Deacetylase 2/metabolism , Cognitive Dysfunction , Immunohistochemistry , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Neurogenesis , Epigenomics , Open Field Test , Elevated Plus Maze Test , Hippocampus , Learning , Memory
Acta neurol. colomb ; 39(1): 51-56, ene.-mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429574


RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN: El diagnóstico oportuno del trastorno neurocognitivo es de los principales retos en la atención de los trastornos neurocognitivos. Por esto, se han generado estrategias para la detección preclínica de la enfermedad, entre ellas las destinadas a evaluar síntomas neuropsiquiátricos (NPS) como la escala Mild Behavior Impairment - Checklist (MBI-C). MÉTODOS: Inicialmente se realizó una búsqueda en BVSalud, Medline y PsycNet, luego se realizó una búsqueda en bola de nieve. Se incluyeron términos referentes a deterioro comportamental leve (abarcando los NPS en etapas tempranas), deterioro cognitivo leve y términos específicos del MBI-C. RESULTADOS: La presencia de NPS se asocia con un aumento en la incidencia anual de demencia. Al evaluarlos con MBI-C, su puntuación se correlaciona con biomarcadores como una mayor atrofia cortical, la presencia de la proteína β-amiloide, así como disminución en funciones ejecutivas como la capacidad de enfocar la atención y la memoria de trabajo. DISCUSIÓN: Los hallazgos en la literatura sugieren la utilidad de MBI-C como marcador de neurodegeneración en estadios previos a la demencia, esto mediante la evaluación de su capacidad predictiva de forma independiente y al compararla con otros biomarcadores. CONCLUSIONES: MBI-C supone ser un instrumento de fácil aplicabilidad e interpretación, sostenible e incluyente. Sin embargo, quedan vacíos sobre la pertinencia de esta escala, por lo que surge la necesidad de investigar este tema.

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Early diagnosis of neurocognitive disorder is the main challenge of dementia health attention. Therefore, strategies for preclinical detection of the disease have been created, like those intended to evaluate neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), like the Mild Behavior Impairment - Checklist (MBI-C). METHODS: Research was performed in BVSalud, Medline, and Psynet. Then a snowball sampling was done. The terms included were mild behavioral impairment (included NPS in initial stages), mild cognitive impairment, and specific terms of MBI-C. RESULTS: The presence of NPS increase the incidence of dementia, with an annual conversion rate of 9%. About MBI-C, the score has been related to biomarkers like worse brain atrophy in patients with Parkinson's Disease and a positive relationship with the presence of B-amyloid protein. Also, Creese and cols. show that mild behavioral impairment (measured by MBI-C) is associated with a faster decrease in attention and working memory. DISCUSSION: MBI-C utility as a neurodegenerative marker has been demonstrated to detect cognitive, neuropsychiatry, and functional symptoms that may precede dementia by evaluating its predictive capacity alone and comparing it to other biomarkers. CONCLUSION: MBI-C is easy to apply and interpret, is sustainable and inclusive. However, there are still gaps in the relevance of the scale, so there is the need to continue investigating this topic.

Behavioral Symptoms , Dementia , Cognitive Dysfunction , Signs and Symptoms , Neuropsychiatry , Forecasting
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1508253


Introducción: En el curso del envejecimiento es conocida la existencia de un patrón complejo de cambios estructurales cerebrales, conductuales y cognitivos, en ocasiones relacionados con enfermedades neurológicas y psiquiátricas. Objetivo: Determinar la posible relación de causalidad de la atrofia cerebral en la aparición del deterioro cognitivo en el curso del envejecimiento normal. Métodos: Se desarrolló un estudio retrospectivo, transversal, descriptivo y observacional. El universo estuvo conformado por el total de los pacientes de ambos sexos con edades comprendidas entre 35-74 años de edad, con indicaciones previas de tomografía computarizada de cráneo y cuyos resultados fueron informados con signos de atrofia cerebral, cuya cifra ascendió a 733. Resultados: El grupo de edad que predomino fue el de 45-54 años (35,3 por ciento), así como las pacientes del sexo femenino (66,3 por ciento). El 27,7 por ciento tenía como nivel de escolaridad el técnico medio superior y 36,2 por ciento fueron pacientes amas de casa. El 99,7 por ciento fueron diestros. Un total de 368 voluntarios presentaron deterioro cognitivo y 365 sujetos no evidenciaron declive en las funciones exploradas. Las funciones de atención y cálculo y retención verbal a corto plazo fueron las que se vieron más afectadas, seguidas de orientación espacial y memoria verbal de fijación. Conclusiones: No se logró establecer una relación de causalidad significativa entre el diagnóstico radiológico de atrofia cerebral y la presencia de deterioro cognitivo(AU)

Introduction: In the course of aging, the existence of a complex pattern of behavioral, cognitive and cerebral structural changes is known, sometimes related to neurological and psychiatric diseases. Objective: To determine the possible causal relationship of cerebral atrophy with the onset of cognitive impairment in the course of normal aging. Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive and observational study was carried out. The study universe consisted of all patients of both sexes aged 35-74 years, with previous indications for cranial computed tomography and whose results were reported with signs of cerebral atrophy, which numbered 733. Results: The predominant age group was 45-54 years old (35.3percent), as well as female patients (66.3percent). The educational level of 27.7percent of the patients was technical high school and 36.2percent were housewife patients. A total of 99.7percent were right-handed. A total of 368 volunteers showed cognitive impairment and 365 subjects showed no decline in the tested functions. The functions of attention and calculation, as well as short-term verbal retention, were the most affected, followed by spatial orientation and speech retention memory. Conclusions: No significant causal relationship was established between the radiological diagnosis of cerebral atrophy and the presence of cognitive impairment(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aging , Tomography, Emission-Computed/methods , Pick Disease of the Brain/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Observational Study
Dement. neuropsychol ; 17: e20220027, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430256


ABSTRACT Motor-action verbs (MAVs) production and comprehension are compromised in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize the sequential production of three subtypes of MAVs in PD patients: whole body (e.g., run), specific body part (e.g., kick), and instrumental (e.g., saw). This study also aimed to identify the production characteristics for each of the two main phases in fluency performance: selection (initial abundant item production) and retrieval (more paced and scarce production). Methods: This study involved a group of 20 nondemented, on-medication PD patients, with an average age of 66.59 years (standard deviation = 4.13), and a comparison group (CG) of 20 normal elderly individuals, matched by years of education and controlled for cognitive performance and depression. Both groups performed a classical verb fluency task. Sequential word-by-word analyses were conducted. Results: Significant differences were found at the initial production of whole-body MAVs and the overall production of instrumental verbs (both measures were lower in the PD group). A repeated-measures analysis of variance confirmed the linear CG performance and the quadratic PD performance. Conclusions: PD patients present altered production of whole-body and instrumental MAVs. This proposal for the semantic sequential analysis of motor verbs deserves further investigation, as a new methodology for the evaluation of fluency performance in motor-related disease.

RESUMO A produção e a compreensão das ações motoras (MAVs) estão comprometidas em pacientes com doença de Parkinson (DP). Objetivos: Caracterizar a produção sequencial de três subtipos de verbos de MAVs: corpo inteiro (por exemplo, corre), parte corporal específica (por exemplo, chute) e instrumental (por exemplo, serra) em pacientes com DP. Identificar as características de produção para cada uma das duas principais fases em desempenho de fluência: seleção (produção inicial abundante de itens) e recuperação (produção mais acelerada e escassa). Métodos: Um grupo de 20 pacientes com DP não demência, com idade média de 66,59 (desvio padrão — DP= 4,13), e um grupo de comparação (GC) de 20 idosos normais, dísticos com anos de estudo e controle para desempenho cognitivo e depressão. Ambos os grupos realizaram uma tarefa clássica de fluência de verbo. Foram realizadas análises sequenciais palavra por palavra. Resultados: Diferenças significativas foram encontradas na produção inicial de MAVs de corpo inteiro e na produção global de verbos instrumentais (ambas as medidas foram menores no grupo PD). Uma medida repetida na análise de variância (ANOVA) confirmou o desempenho linear de CG e o desempenho quadrático de DP. Conclusões: Os pacientes com DP apresentam produção alterada de MAVs corporais inteiras e instrumentais. Esta proposta para a análise sequencial semântica dos verbos motores merece uma nova investigação, como uma nova metodologia para a avaliação do desempenho da fluência em doenças motoras.

Humans , Aged , Executive Function , Cognitive Dysfunction
Dement. neuropsychol ; 17: e20220044, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430259


ABSTRACT The frequency of psychotic symptoms in older adults is high, mainly in neurocognitive cognitions of the most varied etiologies. Objectives: This study aimed to review the studies that analyze the frequency of the types of delusions, hallucinations, and misidentifications in dementia conditions of different etiologies. Methods: A systematic review was conducted on August 9, 2021, in the PubMed, PsycInfo, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus databases with the following descriptors: (dementia OR alzheimer disease OR dementia with Lewy bodies OR frontotemporal dementia OR mixed dementia OR vascular dementia OR major neurocognitive disorder OR parkinson disease dementia) AND (psychotic symptoms OR psychosis OR hallucinations OR delusions OR psychopathology OR misidentification) AND (prevalence OR epidemiology). Results: A total of 5,077 articles were found, with a final inclusion of 35. The overall frequency of psychotic symptoms ranged from 34 to 63% in dementia conditions of the most varied etiologies. Alzheimer's disease (AD) presents more delusions and hallucinations and has a higher frequency regarding the presence of misidentifications. On the contrary, Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) seems to present more hallucinations, even auditory, when compared to the other dementias, concomitantly with delusions. Vascular and frontotemporal dementia present fewer psychotic symptoms than DLB and AD. Conclusions: We identified a gap in the literature on the description of the psychotic symptoms of dementia, mainly in those of non-AD etiologies. Studies that assess the neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementias deeply might contribute in a more definite manner to the causal diagnosis of dementia.

RESUMO A frequência de sintomas psicóticos em idosos é alta, principalmente em cognições neurocognitivas das mais variadas etiologias. Objetivos: Revisar os estudos que analisam a frequência dos tipos de delírios, alucinações e erros de identificação em quadros demenciais de diferentes etiologias. Métodos: Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática em 9 de agosto de 2021, nas bases de dados PubMed, PsycInfo, Embase, Web of Science e Scopus, com os seguintes descritores: (demência OR doença de alzheimer OR demência com corpos de Lewy OR demência frontotemporal OR demência mista OR vascular demência OU transtorno neurocognitivo maior OU demência da doença de Parkinson) E (sintomas psicóticos OU psicose OU alucinações OU delírios OU psicopatologia OU identificação errônea) E (prevalência OU epidemiologia). Resultados: Foram encontrados 5.077 artigos, com inclusão final de 35. A frequência geral de sintomas psicóticos foi de 34 a 63% em quadros demenciais das mais variadas etiologias. A doença de Alzheimer (DA) apresenta mais delírios, alucinações e maior frequência quanto à presença de erros de identificação. Por outro lado, a demência com corpos de Lewy (DCL) parece apresentar mais alucinações, inclusive auditivas, quando comparada às demais demências, concomitantemente aos delírios. As demências vascular e frontotemporal apresentam menos sintomas psicóticos do que a DCL e a DA. Conclusões: Identificamos lacuna na literatura quanto à descrição dos sintomas psicóticos das demências, principalmente naquelas de etiologia não DA. Estudos que aprofundem os sintomas neuropsiquiátricos das demências podem contribuir de forma mais definitiva para o diagnóstico causal da demência.

Humans , Cognitive Dysfunction
Dement. neuropsychol ; 17: e20220008, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439966


ABSTRACT. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, low levels of physical fitness (PF) and cognitive status are associated with high rates of depression. However, this condition can be improved through physical training. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of multimodal exercise training (MET) on aerobic endurance, muscular strength, agility, dynamic balance, cognitive status, and depressive symptoms in men with mild-to-moderate AD. Methods: A total of 25 elderly men with a diagnosis of mild-to-moderate AD were randomly categorized into an MET or a control group. The subjects in the MET group participated in a 12-week, three sessions per week MET program that included resistance, balance, and aerobic exercises. While the participants in the control group did not perform any regular exercise training during this period. Patients' cognitive status and depressive symptoms were assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination and the Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15) questionnaires. PF indicators such as aerobic endurance, muscular strength, agility, and dynamic balance, as well as cognitive status and depressive symptoms, were taken from all the subjects before and after MET. Results: The participants in the MET group improved handgrip, upper and lower body strength, agility, dynamic balance, and depressive symptoms (p<0.05). The intervention had no significant effect on aerobic endurance and cognitive status (p>0.05). Conclusions: MET is an effective strategy to improve muscular strength, agility, dynamic balance, and depressive symptoms in men with mild-to-moderate AD. It is recommended for AD patients to engage in this type of exercise to reduce AD complications.

RESUMO. Em pacientes com Alzheimer, baixos níveis de aptidão física (AF) e estado cognitivo estão associados a altas taxas de depressão. Essa condição, no entanto, pode ser melhorada através do treinamento físico. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar o efeito do treinamento multimodal (TMM) de resistência aeróbica, força muscular, agilidade, equilíbrio dinâmico, estado cognitivo e sintomas depressivos em homens com doença de Alzheimer (DA) leve a moderada. Métodos: 25 homens idosos com diagnóstico de DA leve a moderada foram divididos aleatoriamente em um grupo TMM ou controle. Os indivíduos do grupo TMM participaram de um programa de TMM de 12 semanas, três sessões/semana, que incluía exercícios de resistência, equilíbrio e aeróbicos, enquanto os participantes do grupo controle não realizaram nenhum treinamento regular de exercícios durante esse período. O estado cognitivo e os sintomas depressivos dos pacientes foram avaliados pelos questionários Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) e Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15). Indicadores de AF, como resistência aeróbica, força muscular, agilidade e equilíbrio dinâmico, bem como estado cognitivo e sintomas depressivos, foram obtidos de todos os sujeitos antes e depois do TMM. Resultados: Os participantes do grupo TMM melhoraram a preensão manual e força de membros superiores e inferiores, agilidade, equilíbrio dinâmico e sintomas depressivos (p<0,05). A intervenção não teve efeito significativo na resistência aeróbica e no estado cognitivo (p>0,05). Conclusões: O TMM é uma estratégia eficaz para melhorar a força muscular, agilidade, equilíbrio dinâmico e sintomas depressivos em homens com DA leve a moderada. Recomenda-se que os pacientes com Alzheimer pratiquem esse tipo de exercício para reduzir as complicações da DA.

Humans , Male , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction
Dement. neuropsychol ; 17: e20220080, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439968


ABSTRACT. COVID-19 is an infection, primarily respiratory, caused by the SARS-CoV-2, which can also affect the central nervous system, causing neuropsychological damage. There are studies describing post-COVID-19 cognitive deficits, but it is important to know this outcome in populations with different social, biological, and cultural characteristics. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the self-perception of cognitive sequelae in post-COVID-19 individuals and identify whether there is a possible relationship between the outcome of the participants' self-perception and sociodemographic and clinical data. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study, carried out through an online questionnaire on the Google Forms platform, in which sociodemographic data, general health data, clinical manifestations of COVID-19, and post-COVID-19 self-perception of the cognitive domains of memory, attention, language, and executive functions were collected. Results: The final sample consisted of 137 participants, and it was possible to identify that memory and attention were the domains with the highest impression of worsening post-COVID-19, followed by executive functions and language. In addition, it was identified that being female may be related to a worse self-perception of all cognitive functions and that having depression or other psychiatric diseases and obesity can significantly affect at least half of the cognitive domains evaluated. Conclusions: This study pointed to a post-COVID-19 cognitive worsening of the participants.

RESUMO. A COVID-19 é uma infecção, primariamente respiratória, causada pelo vírus SARS-CoV-2, mas que também pode atingir o sistema nervoso central, ocasionando danos neuropsicológicos. Há estudos que descrevem os déficits cognitivos pós-COVID-19, mas é importante conhecer esse desfecho em populações com diferentes características sociais, biológicas e culturais. Objetivo: Avaliar a autopercepção de sequelas cognitivas em indivíduos pós-COVID-19 e identificar se há uma possível relação entre o desfecho da autopercepção dos participantes e dados sociodemográficos e clínicos. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, realizado com o uso de um questionário online na plataforma Google Forms, no qual foram identificados dados sociodemográficos, dados de saúde geral, manifestações clínicas da COVID-19 e a autopercepção dos domínios cognitivos de memória, atenção, linguagem e funções executivas pós-COVID-19. Resultados: A amostra final foi composta de 137 participantes, e pôde-se observar que memória e atenção foram os domínios com maior impressão de piora pós-COVID-19, seguidos por funções executivas e linguagem. Além disso, constatou-se que ser do gênero feminino pode estar relacionado com uma pior autopercepção de todas as funções cognitivas pós-COVID-19 e que ter depressão ou outras doenças psiquiátricas e obesidade pode afetar significativamente pelo menos metade dos domínios cognitivos avaliados. Conclusões: Este trabalho apontou para a piora cognitiva pós-COVID-19 dos participantes.

Humans , Cognitive Dysfunction , COVID-19 , Pandemics , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Neuropsychology
Dement. neuropsychol ; 17: e20220072, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439971


ABSTRACT. Population-level studies investigating the incidence of memory complaints during the COVID-19 pandemic are scarce. Objective: This study aimed to examine the incidence of memory complaints over 15 months during the COVID-19 pandemic in adults from Southern Brazil. Methods: Data from the PAMPA (Prospective Study about Mental and Physical Health in Adults) cohort, a longitudinal study with adults residing in Southern Brazil, were analyzed. An online-based, self-administered questionnaire was used to assess self-rated memory. Participants rated their memories as excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor. Incident memory complaints were defined as worse memory perception from baseline to follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify factors associated with the increased risk of memory complaints. Results: During follow-up, a cumulative incidence of 57.6% for memory complaints was observed. Female sex (hazard ratio [HR] 1.49; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.16-1.94), lack of access to prescribed medicine (HR: 1.54; 95%CI 1.06-2.23), and worsened anxiety symptoms (HR: 1.81; 95%CI 1.49-2.21) were associated with an increased risk of memory complaints. Regular practice of physical activity was associated with a reduced risk of memory complaints (HR: 0.65; 95%CI 0.57-0.74). Conclusion: Since the COVID-19 pandemic, 6 in 10 adults in Southern Brazil have developed memory complaints. Factors including sex and lack of medications increased the risk of incident memory complaints. Physical activity reduced the risk of incident memory complaints during the COVID-19 pandemic.

RESUMO. Estudos em nível populacional que investiguem a incidência de queixa na memória durante a pandemia de COVID-19 são escassos. Objetivo: Nosso objetivo foi examinar a incidência de queixa na memória, ao longo de 15 meses durante a pandemia de COVID-19, em adultos do Sul do Brasil. Métodos: Foram analisados dados da coorte Estudo Prospectivo sobre Saúde Mental e Física em Adultos (PAMPA), um estudo longitudinal com adultos residentes no Sul do Brasil. Um questionário autoadministrado online foi usado para avaliar a memória autorreferida. Os participantes classificaram sua memória como excelente, muito boa, boa, regular ou ruim. A queixa na memória incidente foi definida como pior percepção de memória desde a linha de base até o acompanhamento. Modelos de risco proporcional de Cox foram usados para identificar fatores associados ao aumento do risco de queixa na memória incidente. Resultados: Durante o seguimento, observou-se incidência cumulativa de 57,6% para queixa na memória. Sexo feminino (hazard ratio — HR 1,49; intervalo de confiança — IC 95% 1,16-1,94), falta de acesso ao medicamento prescrito (HR: 1,54; IC95% 1,06-2,23) e sintomas de ansiedade (HR: 1,81; IC95% 1,49-2,21) foram associados a risco aumentado de queixa na memória incidente. A prática regular de atividade física foi vista como fator protetor (HR: 0,65; IC95% 0,57-0,74). Conclusões: Desde a pandemia de COVID-19, seis em cada dez adultos no Sul do Brasil desenvolveram queixa na memória. Fatores como sexo e falta de medicamentos aumentaram o risco de queixa na memória incidente. A atividade física reduziu o risco de queixa na memória incidente durante a pandemia de COVID-19.

Humans , Adult , Pandemics , Cognitive Dysfunction , Memory and Learning Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
Journal of Apoplexy and Nervous Diseases ; (12): 14-19, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984368


Gait characteristics of middle-aged and eldrlypeople with mild cognitive impairmentin in community@#Objective To explore the change of gait of middle-aged and elderly people with mild cognitive impairment in the community,the correlation between gait and cognitive domain,and the role of gait in early recognition of cognitive decline. Methods 140 people over 40 years old in Tongxing Village,Yancheng City,Jiangsu Province were enrolled.The subjects were divided into normal cognitive group (n=64) and mild cognitive impairment group(n=76)through the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Minimum Mental State Examination,and gait tests were conducted at the same time.The data were collected and statistically analyzed to explore the difference of gait indicators between the two groups,the relationship between gait indicators and cognitive domains,and the ability of gait indicators to recognize mild cognitive impairment. Results The gait of the mild cognitive impairment group was worse than that of the normal cognitive group in terms of space (stride length,step height,step width) and time (step speed,stride speed,swing speed).Partial correlation analysis showed that step width was negatively correlated with delayed recall;Step size,step width and delayed recall,step height and naming were positively correlated.The logistic regression model constructed by step speed,stride length,stride speed,swing speed,step height and step width can reliably identify the existence of MCI (AUC=0.761,95%CI 0.683-0.840,P<0.05). Conclusion In the middle-aged and elderly community,the spatial and temporal performance of gait of patients with mild cognitive impairment is worse than that of the normal cognitive population.There is a close relationship between spatial indicators and delayed recall and naming.The temporal and spatial characteristics of gait have the potential to identify cognitive decline at an early stage.

Cognitive Dysfunction
Philippine Journal of Neurology ; : 42-53, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005183


Background@#Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Studies showed conflicting results regarding presence of cancer, cancer treatment, and its association with dementia. Likewise, depression is often associated with cognitive problems. @*Objectives@#This study aims to determine the prevalence and association of cognitive impairment and depression among breast cancer patients@*Methods@#This is a prospective cross-sectional study utilizing Montreal Cognitive Assessment – Philippines (MOCA-P) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) Filipino version questionnaires through face-to-face interview. In analyzing the presence of cognitive impairment and depression, Chi-square was performed; all significant factors from this test underwent binary logistic regression to ascertain the statistical effect size for the presence of cognitive impairment and depression. @*Results@#Results showed that 80.8% (97 out of 120 patients) have cognitive impairment while 27.5% of the patients have depression. Among the patients with cognitive impairment, 24.2% of them had depression. Results also showed significant association between the level of education and MOCA-P score suggesting that the higher the level of education, the better the MOCA-P score. This study showed no significant association between presence of cognitive impairment and depression. @*Conclusion@#In analyzing and managing patients with cognitive impairment, the level of educational attainment should be put into consideration since it is correlated significantly with MOCA-P results. As such, concomitant depression should be addressed accordingly since it may affect the patients’ overall health status.

Cognitive Dysfunction , Depression , Breast Neoplasms , Mental Status and Dementia Tests
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 186-191, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971341


Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a senile brain lesion caused by the abnormal structure and function of arterioles, venules and capillaries in the aging brain. The etiology of CSVD is complex, and disease is often asymptomatic in its early stages. However, as CSVD develops, brain disorders may occur, such as stroke, cognitive dysfunction, dyskinesia and mood disorders, and heart, kidney, eye and systemic disorders. As the population continues to age, the burden of CSVD is increasing. Moreover, there is an urgent need for better screening methods and diagnostic markers for CSVD, in addition to preventive and asymptomatic- and mild-stage treatments. Integrative medicine (IM), which combines the holistic concepts and syndrome differentiations of Chinese medicine with modern medical perspectives, has unique advantages for the prevention and treatment of CSVD. In this review, we summarize the biological markers, ultrasound and imaging features, disease-related genes and risk factors relevant to CSVD diagnosis and screening. Furthermore, we discuss IM-based CSVD prevention and treatment strategies to stimulate further research in this field.

Humans , Integrative Medicine , Brain/pathology , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases/pathology , Stroke/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2023. 33 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1435264


The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is essential in the execution of cognitive tasks, however very little is known on how these neurons are modulated during specific tasks and which subtype of neurons are responsible for so. Therego, with the intention of addressing this issue, we recorded mPFC gabaergic and glutamatergic activation patterns through fiber photometry (FIP) in mice, while simultaneously performing the Barnes Maze (BM) cognitive task (4 day behavioral trial). In addition, an altered structural and procedural protocol for BM was validated in this study due to necessary modifications allowing FIP and BM to happen simultaneously. A successful protocol validation was followed by our preliminary results, which showed that both glutamatergic and gabaergic neurons presented significant change in activation intensity and number of events in specific contexts throughout the task days. In addition, when stratified and crossed with BM performance parameters, such as latency to complete tasks and adopted strategy, glutamatergic and gabaergic neurons presented a significant decline in both activation patterns and number of activation events throughout the days. This data suggest not only an important role of glutamatergic and gabaergic mPFC neurons in learning, memory and decision making, but also that activation patterns of each of these groups may serve as markers for cognitive progression and/or dysfunction. KEY-WORDS: Memory, Learning, Decision Making, Medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC), Fiber Photometry (FIP), Barnes Maze (BM), Glutamatergic, Gabaergic, Neuronal Activity, Neuronal Activation Patterns, Neuronal Dynamics.

O córtex pré-frontal medial (mPFC) é essencial na execução de tarefas cognitivas, no entanto, pouco se sabe sobre como esses neurônios são modulados durante tarefas específicas e qual subtipo de neurônios é responsável por isso. Portanto, com a intenção de abordar essa questão, registramos os padrões de ativação de neurônios gabaérgicos e glutamatérgicos do mPFC por meio de fotometria de fibra (FIP) em camundongos, enquanto realizávamos simultaneamente a tarefa cognitiva do Labirinto de Barnes (BM) (ensaio comportamental de 4 dias). Além disso, um protocolo estrutural e procedimental alterado para o BM foi validado neste estudo devido a modificações necessárias que permitiram a realização simultânea de FIP e BM. Uma validação bem-sucedida do protocolo foi seguida pelos nossos resultados preliminares, que mostraram que tanto os neurônios glutamatérgicos quanto os gabaérgicos apresentaram mudanças significativas na intensidade de ativação e no número de eventos em contextos específicos ao longo dos dias da tarefa. Além disso, quando estratificados e cruzados com parâmetros de desempenho do BM, como latência para completar as tarefas e estratégia adotada, os neurônios glutamatérgicos e gabaérgicos apresentaram uma diminuição significativa nos padrões de ativação e no número de eventos de ativação ao longo dos dias. Esses dados sugerem não apenas um papel importante dos neurônios glutamatérgicos e gabaérgicos do mPFC na aprendizagem, memória e tomada de decisões, mas também que os padrões de ativação de cada um desses grupos podem servir como marcadores de progressão e/ou disfunção cognitiva. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Memória, Aprendizagem, Tomada de Decisões, Córtex Pré-Frontal Medial (mPFC), Fotometria de Fibra (FIP), Labirinto de Barnes (BM), Glutamatérgico, Gabaérgico, Atividade Neuronal, Padrões de Ativação Neuronal, Dinâmica Neuronal.

Humans , Male , Female , Photometry , Prefrontal Cortex , Glutamic Acid , GABA Agents , Decision Making , Learning , Memory , GABAergic Neurons , Cognitive Dysfunction , Neurons
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 89-98, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971645


OBJECTIVE@#The study explores the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at the governing vessel (GV) on proteomic changes in the hippocampus of rats with cognitive impairment.@*METHODS@#Healthy male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham, model and EA. Cognitive impairment was induced by left middle cerebral artery occlusion in the model and EA groups. Rats in the EA group were treated with EA at Shenting (GV24) and Baihui (GV20) for 7 d. Neurological deficit was scored using the Longa scale, the learning and memory ability was detected using the Morris water maze (MWM) test, and the proteomic profiling in the hippocampus was analyzed using protein-labeling technology based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). The Western blot (WB) analysis was used to detect the proteins and validate the results of iTRAQ.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the model group, the neurological deficit score was significantly reduced, and the escape latency in the MWM test was significantly shortened, while the number of platform crossings increased in the EA group. A total of 2872 proteins were identified by iTRAQ. Differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified between different groups: 92 proteins were upregulated and 103 were downregulated in the model group compared with the sham group, while 142 proteins were upregulated and 126 were downregulated in the EA group compared with the model group. Most of the DEPs were involved in oxidative phosphorylation, glycolipid metabolism and synaptic transmission. Furthermore, we also verified 4 DEPs using WB technology. Although the WB results were not exactly the same as the iTRAQ results, the expression trends of the DEPs were consistent. The upregulation of heat-shock protein β1 (Hspb1) was the highest in the EA group compared to the model group.@*CONCLUSION@#EA can effect proteomic changes in the hippocampus of rats with cognitive impairment. Hspb1 may be involved in the molecular mechanism by which acupuncture improves cognitive impairment.

Rats , Male , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Electroacupuncture , Proteomics , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Hippocampus
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 303-314, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971576


Aging is a major risk factor for many human diseases, including cognitive impairment, which affects a large population of the elderly. In the past few decades, our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the changes associated with aging and age-related diseases has expanded greatly, shedding light on the potential role of these changes in cognitive impairment. In this article, we review recent advances in understanding of the mechanisms underlying brain aging under normal and pathological conditions, compare their similarities and differences, discuss the causative and adaptive mechanisms of brain aging, and finally attempt to find some rules to guide us on how to promote healthy aging and prevent age-related diseases.

Humans , Aged , Aging/pathology , Brain , Cognitive Dysfunction , Risk Factors
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 611-619, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986969


OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the spatial distribution of the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction and its risk factors in Chinese population aged 45 years and above to provide evidence for formulating regional prevention and control strategies.@*METHODS@#The study subjects with complete cognitive function data were selected from the follow-up data of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) Phase IV. ArcGis 10.4 software was used for spatial analysis of the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction in the population aged 45 years and above for each province based on the geographic information system (GIS) technology.@*RESULTS@#In 2018, the overall prevalence of cognitive dysfunction was 33.59% (5951/17716) in individuals aged 45 and above in China. Global spatial autocorrelation analysis indicated a spatial clustering and a positive autocorrelation (P < 0.001) of the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction in the study subjects, with a Moran's I value of 0.333085. The results of local spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that the southwestern region of China was the main aggregation area of patients with cognitive dysfunction. Geographically weighted regression analysis suggested that a male gender, an advanced age, and illiteracy were the major risk factors for cognitive dysfunction (P < 0.05). These 3 risk factors showed a spatial distribution heterogeneity with greater impact in the northern, western, and northwestern regions of China, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#The prevalence of cognitive dysfunction is relatively high in individuals aged 45 years and above in China. A male gender, an advanced age, and illiteracy are the major risk factors for cognitive dysfunction and show different spatial distribution patterns, with the northern, western and northwestern regions of China as the key areas for prevention and control, where the prevention and control measures should be designed based on local conditions.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , China/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , East Asian People , Longitudinal Studies , Risk Factors
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1068-1072, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985634


Objective: To understand the distribution characteristics of age of Alzheimer's disease (AD) onset and influencing factors. Methods: Based on the follow-up data of Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative from 2005 to 2022, participants with normal cognition (CN) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at baseline survey, and those with progression to AD during follow-up period were selected as study subjects. Univariate analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to explore the associations of gender, race, number of ApoE ε4 genes carried, family history, years of education and marital status with the age of AD onset. Results: A total of 405 participants, with an average age of (74.0±6.9) years at baseline survey, progressed to AD during follow up period. The age of AD onset was (76.6±7.5) years, and age of onset in men was about 1.9 years later than women. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that for each increase in ApoE ε4 gene number, the age of AD onset was about 0.344 years earlier. The age of AD onset was 4.007 years earlier for those with MCI at baseline survey compared with those with CN. Years of education were not significantly associated with the age of onset of AD (P>0.05). Conclusion: Those who carry ApoE ε4 gene, and have MCI at baseline survey might have earlier age of AD onset.

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Apolipoprotein E4/genetics , Cognition , Cognition Disorders , Cognitive Dysfunction/genetics
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 849-856, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985486


Objective: To identify the main metals involved in cognitive impairment in the Chinese oldest old, and explore the association between these metal exposures and cognitive impairment. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1 568 participants aged 80 years and older from Healthy Aging and Biomarkers Cohort Study (2017 to 2018). Fasting venous blood was collected to measure the levels of nine metals (selenium, lead, cadmium, arsenic, antimony, chromium, manganese, mercury, and nickel). The cognitive function of these participants was evaluated by using the Chinese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (CMMSE). The random forest (RF) was applied to independently identify the main metals that affected cognitive impairment. The multivariate logistic regression model and restricted cubic splines (RCS) model were used to further verify the association of the main metals with cognitive impairment. Results: The age of 1 568 study subjects was (91.8±7.6) years old, including 912 females (58.2%) and 465 individuals (29.7%) with cognitive function impairment. Based on the RF model (the out-of-bag error rate was 22.9%), the importance ranking of variables was conducted and the feature screening of five times ten-fold cross-validation was carried out. It was found that selenium was the metal that affected cognitive function impairment, and the other eight metals were not included in the model. After adjusting for covariates, the multivariate logistic regression model showed that with every increase of 10 μg/L of blood selenium levels, the risk of cognitive impairment decreased (OR=0.921, 95%CI: 0.889-0.954). Compared with the lowest quartile(Q1) of blood selenium, the ORs (95%CI) of Q3 and Q4 blood selenium were 0.452 (0.304-0.669) and 0.419 (0.281-0.622) respectively. The RCS showed a linear dose-response relationship between blood selenium and cognitive impairment (Pnonlinear>0.05). Conclusion: Blood selenium is negatively associated with cognitive impairment in the Chinese oldest old.

Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Selenium , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Metals/analysis , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , China/epidemiology