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1.
Ann. afr. méd. (En ligne) ; 16(2): 5031-5041, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1425717

ABSTRACT

Context and objective. Chronic dietary reliance on improperly processed cyanogenic toxic cassava is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of the present study was to screen for neurocognition impairments and daily-life functioning in adults with dietary dependency on cyanogenic cassava as the main source of food. Methods. A cross-sectional design enrolled heads of households (in couples) in the rural district of Kahemba, Democratic Republic of Congo. Participants were screened for neurocognitive impairments using the Community Screening Interview for Dementia (CSID). Detailed neuropsychiatric evaluations were performed and disease entities classified according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV) criteria when applicable. Cassava cyanogenic exposure was ascertained by urinary concentrations of thiocyanate (SCN). Regression models were used to identify predictors of CSID performance at the 0.05 significance level. Results. For hundred and six households (203 couples, mean age 38.4 ± 11. 4 years) were involved. One hundred thirty-six subjects (33.5 %) [69 women and 67 men, mean age 39 ± 14.4 years)] and 13 (3.2 %) [7 women and 6 men, mean age: 32 ± 2.6 years] fulfilled the criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Major Neurocognitive disorder (MNCD), respectively. The overall mean urinary concentration of SCN was 949.5+518.3 mol/l after adjusting Context and objective. Chronic dietary reliance on improperly processed cyanogenic toxic cassava is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of the present study was to screen for neurocognition impairments and daily-life functioning in adults with dietary dependency on cyanogenic cassava as the main source of food. Methods. A cross-sectional design enrolled heads of households (in couples) in the rural district of Kahemba, Democratic Republic of Congo. Participants were screened for neurocognitive impairments using the Community Screening Interview for Dementia (CSID). Detailed neuropsychiatric evaluations were performed, and disease entities classified according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV) criteria when applicable. Cassava cyanogenic exposure was ascertained by urinary concentrations of thiocyanate (SCN). Regression models were used to identify predictors of CSID performance at the 0.05 significance level. Results. For hundred and six households (203 couples, mean age 38.4 ± 11. 4 years) were involved. One hundred thirty-six subjects (33.5 %) [69 women and 67 men, mean age 39 ± 14.4 years)] and 13 (3.2 %) [7 women and 6 men, mean age: 32 ± 2.6 years] fulfilled the criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Major Neurocognitive disorder (MNCD), respectively. The overall mean urinary concentration of SCN was . for age, gender, nutritional status, and history of konzo, neurocognition domain-specific deficits were independently associated with either hypertension or USCN (350mol / l incremental increase in excretion Functional impairments in daily-life activities increased as subjects poorly performed at the CSID screening (Spearman r = - .2, p < 0.01). Conclusion. Neurocognitive deficits in adults are common in Congolese adults relying on cyanogenic cassava as the main source of food. Our study findings warrant further studies to elucidate the overall lifespan brain/behavioral burden and mechanisms of cassava toxicity among adults with dietary dependency on cyanogenic cassava as the main source of food


Subject(s)
Humans , Starch and Fecula , Hypertension , Periodicity , Cognitive Dysfunction
2.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 23(3): 201-207, 12 de Diciembre del 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411240

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los trastornos del sueño en niños, tienen un impacto en el desarrollo, afecta el comportamiento, el estado de ánimo, las funciones cognitivas, disminuyendo la atención selectiva y la memoria. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar las alteraciones del sueño en niños con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA), su afectación individual y familiar en el Centro Regional de Autismo Delicias Chihuahua. Métodos: El presente estudio transversal, incluye niños con TEA en quienes se determinó alguna alteración del sueño y se buscó su relación con la afectación individual y familiar, además se evaluaron, edad, sexo, grado escolar, nivel funcional de TEA, afectaciones familiares. Se aplicó el cuestionario de cribado del sueño en niños con TEA, el cuestionario adaptado para niños con TEA -BRUNI y el cuestionario de satisfacción sobre las actividades de los padres, cuidadores primarios y familiares de primera línea. Se usa estadística descriptiva y en un segundo análisis se usa Razón de Momios de Prevalencia (RMP). Resultados: Se analizan 57 pacientes, 43 (75.4%) hombres, 28 (49.1%) en grado 1 de nivel funcional TEA, 16 (28.1%) tenían mal desempeño individual, 56 (98.2%) sus familiares referían mal desempeño, 43 (75.4%) tenían alteraciones del sueño. Los niños preescolares tienen 2.5 veces riesgo de tener afec-tación individual. Los pacientes en nivel funcional TEA grado 3 tienen 2.15 veces riesgo de tener afectación individual. Los que despiertan cansados tienen 5.93 veces riesgo de tener afectación individual. Conclusión: La afectación familiar del desempeño es mucho mayor a la afectación individual de los niños con TEA, lo cual genera alteraciones en la dinámica familiar.


Introduction: Sleep disorders in children impact development, affecting behavior, mood, and cognitive functions and decreasing selective attention and memory. This study aimed to determine sleep disturbances in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their individual and family involvement at the Delicias Chihuahua Regional Autism Center. Methods: This cross-sectional study included children with ASD in whom some sleep disturbance was determined, and its relationship with individual and family affectation was sought; in addition, age, sex, school grade, functional level of ASD, and family affectations were evaluated. The sleep screening questionnaire for children with ASD, the adapted questionnaire for children with ASD -BRUNI, and the satisfaction questionnaire on the activities of parents, primary caregivers, and first-line family members were applied. Descriptive statistics were used, and the prevalence odds ratio (MPR) was used in a second analysis. Results: A total of 57 patients were analyzed; 43 (75.4%) were men, 28 (49.1%) were at the grade 1 ASD functional lev-el, 16 (28.1%) had poor individual performance, 56 (98.2%) their relatives reported poor performance, and 43 (75.4%) had sleep disturbances. Preschool children have a 2.5 times higher risk of having individual involvement. Patients in functional level ASD grade 3 have a 2.15 times higher risk of having individual involvement. Those who wake up tired have a 5.93 times higher risk of having individual involvement. Conclusion: The family affectation of performance is much greater than the personal affectation of children with ASD, which generates changes in family dynamics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Autistic Disorder , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Night Terrors , Cognitive Dysfunction
3.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 60(4): 403-412, dic. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423703

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la pandemia COVID-19 ha tenido un gran impacto en la vida y en especial en las personas mayores. El objetivo del presente estudio fue explorar un protocolo de cribado online para detectar tempranamente Deterioro Cognitivo Leve en personas mayores. Métodos: fue de tipo cuantitativo y cualitativo. La muestra fue de 22 personas mayores de las comunas de Coronel y Lota, Región del Bio-bio. El protocolo estaba compuesto por: Cuestionario sociodemográfico, Test del Reloj Versión Cacho, Moca versión validada en Chile, Escala Depresión Yesavage y Test Acentuación de Palabras. El procedimiento consistió en la aplicación del protocolo a través de un Tablet o Laptop. Resultados: se encontró que la mayoría no presentaba deterioro cognitivo, pero si depresión. Conclusiones: se discute sobre la aplicación de un protocolo de diagnóstico online en personas mayores y los indicadores de depresión que podrían estar dado por la situación actual de pandemia.


The COVID-19 pandemic has had a great impact in the world, more so in the lives of elderly people. The objective of this study was to explore an online screening protocol to detect early Mild Cognitive Impairment. The method was both quantitative and qualitative, the sample included 22 elderly people from the Coronel y Lota, Biobio region. The protocol was integrated with a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Clock Drawing Test (Cacho Version), MOCA (validated in Chile version), Yesavage Depression Scale (Reduced version) and the Word Accentuation Test. The evaluation involved applying the protocol online in a tele neuropsychological assessment. The results showed that most of the elder people evaluated did not present cognitive impairment but did have depression. The application of an online diagnostic protocol in older people and the indicators of depression that could be given by the current pandemic situation are discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Depression , Pandemics , Cognitive Dysfunction , Telescreening, Medical , COVID-19
4.
Rev. Univ. Ind. Santander, Salud ; 54: e316, Dec. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407015

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El mercurio circula por el aire; persiste en suelos, sedimentos y agua, y causa efectos en la salud humana. Las mujeres en edad fértil y los neonatos son la población más vulnerable. Objetivo: Analizar las evidencias sobre la carga de enfermedad ocasionada por la exposición a mercurio, así como el impacto económico sobre el sistema de salud. Metodología: Revisión de alcance de la literatura, de las bases de datos PUBMED y EPISTEMONIKOS, búsqueda manual de documentos técnicos de entidades oficiales de diferentes continentes. Resultados: Se identificaron 311 registros en bases de datos y 4 en búsqueda manual en entidades oficiales; 19 artículos fueron incluidos. Discusión: Predomina la afectación del desarrollo neurológico y cognitivo en niños de madres expuestas y lactantes. Los costos se midieron por la pérdida del coeficiente intelectual. Conclusión: Efectos en salud por la exposición a metilmercurio se traducen en gastos para la sociedad y los sistemas de salud.


Abstract Introduction: Mercury circulates through the air, persists in soils, sediments and water, and can affect human health. Women of childbearing age and newborns are the most vulnerable population. Objective: To analyze the evidence on the burden of disease caused by mercury exposure, as well as the economic impact on the health system. Methodology: Review of the literature, PUBMED and EPISTEMONIKOS databases, manual search of technical documents of official entities from different continents. Results: A total of 311 records were identified in databases and four in manual searches from official entities; 19 articles were included. Discussion: Neurological and cognitive development in children of exposed mothers and infants are more predominant. Costs were measured by IQ loss. Conclusion: Health effects of methylmercury exposure translate into costs for society and health systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Health Care Costs , Cognitive Dysfunction , Global Burden of Disease , Intellectual Disability , Mercury
5.
Psico USF ; 27(4): 735-749, Oct.-Dec. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422341

ABSTRACT

Cognitive deficits are common among post-stroke patients. Cognitive impairments of this sort are mediated by age and education. In Brazil, the only specific cognitive screening tool designed for post-stroke patients is the Cognitive Screening Test (Triagem Cognitiva - TRIACOG). The goal of this study was to investigate validity evidence related to external variables for the TRIACOG. Our sample included 153 adults and elderly people (M = 60.08, SD = 9.61) from Porto Alegre and metropolitan area, comprising 87 post-stroke patients and 66 healthy individuals. Three-way ANOVAs were used to assess main effects and interactions between the variables group (clinical/control), age and education. An influence of group and age on scores in the TRIACOG was found. We emphasize the relevance of these results to the selection of cut-off points for the tasks and cognitive functions assessed by the instrument, considering education and age, so as to allow more accurate identification of deficits in post-stroke patients. (AU)


Déficits cognitivos são comuns em pacientes após acidente vascular cerebral (AVC). O prejuízo cognitivo causado por esse evento é mediado por variáveis etárias e de escolaridade. No Brasil, o único instrumento de rastreio cognitivo específico para o pós-AVC é a Triagem Cognitiva (TRIACOG). O objetivo deste estudo é investigar evidências de validade relacionadas a variáveis externas da TRIACOG. Participaram do estudo 153 adultos e idosos (M = 60,08; DP = 9,61) de Porto Alegre e região metropolitana, sendo 87 pacientes pós-AVC e 66 saudáveis. Three-way ANOVA foi utilizada para indicar os efeitos e interações entre variáveis de grupo, etárias e educacionais. Observou-se a influência dos fatores de grupo e idade nos escores da TRIACOG. Ressalta-se a relevância dos resultados para a construção de pontos de corte para tarefas e funções do instrumento, considerando aspectos educacionais e etários, aumentando a precisão na identificação de déficits em pacientes pós-AVC. (AU)


Los déficits cognitivos son comunes en pacientes después de un accidente cerebrovascular. El deterioro cognitivo causado por este evento está mediado por variables de edad y educación. En Brasil, la única herramienta de detección cognitiva específica para después de un accidente cerebrovascular es el Cribado de Deterioro Cognitivo (TRIACOG). El propósito de este estudio fue investigar evidencias de validez relacionadas con las variables externas de TRIACOG. Participaron en el estudio un total de 153 adultos y ancianos (M = 60.08; DS= 9.61) de Porto Alegre y región metropolitana, de los cuales, 87 eran pacientes posictus y 66 eran sanos. Se utilizó Three-way ANOVA para indicar los efectos y las interacciones entre las variables de grupo, edad y escolarización. Se observó la influencia de factores de grupo y edad en las puntuaciones del TRIACOG. Se enfatiza la relevancia de los resultados para la construcción de puntos de corte para tareas y funciones del instrumento, teniendo en cuenta aspectos educativos y de edad, aumentando la precisión en la identificación de déficits en pacientes posictus. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Stroke/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Age Distribution , Educational Status , Sociodemographic Factors , Neuropsychological Tests
6.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 82(3): 343-345, sept. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1409944

ABSTRACT

Resumen El síndrome de mal de desembarque es un cuadro clínico de mareo y oscilaciones corporales persistente, descrito siglos atrás cuando los marineros llegaban a tierra después de navegar. Actualmente, se sabe que este cuadro clínico ocurre también al bajarse de cualquier medio de transporte, ya sea marítimo, aéreo o terrestre. Cuando el cuadro clínico tiene una duración de tres o más días, se denomina mal de desembarque persistente, y se asocia a cefalea y mayores niveles de ansiedad y síntomas depresivos. A continuación, presentamos el cuadro clínico de un paciente que consultó por mareo persistente posterior a un paseo en bote en el mar. Se discute diagnóstico y manejo terapéutico.


Abstract Mal de Debarquement is a clinical syndrome characterized by persistent self-motion dizziness and increased oscillatory body sway, that was described centuries ago after sailors landed in port. Nowadays, it is known that mal de debarquement could appear after any travel in a motion vehicle, including airplanes, ships and cars. When the duration of the symptoms lasts longer than three days, a persistent mal de debarquement is diagnosed, and it is associated with headache and higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Here, we present a clinical case of a persistent mal de debarquement that attended to the Otolaryngology clinics at the Clinical Hospital of the University of Chile after a boat trip in the sea. We discuss diagnosis and clinical management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Vertigo/etiology , Vertigo/therapy , Motion Sickness/etiology , Motion Sickness/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Syndrome
7.
Av. psicol. latinoam ; 40(3): 1-16, sep.-dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1428033

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del estudio fue investigar las funciones ejecutivas (fe) y los trastornos neuropsiquiátricos (tn) en pacientes con enfermedad de Alzheimer (ea), en función del grado de severidad, en comparación con sujetos sin deterioro cognitivo (ssdc). Se estudia-ron 50 pacientes con ea y 60 ssdc en un estudio no experimental-transversal con un muestreo no probabilístico basado en una serie de criterios de inclusión. Se aplicó la batería de evaluación frontal y el inventario neuropsiquiátrico, y los resultados mostraron que existe una relación negativa de intensidad moderada entre las fe y lostn, con independencia del grado de severidad de la ea. Se puede concluir que, en fase leve, la euforia se relaciona tanto con la sensibilidad hacia la interferencia como con el control inhibitorio; en fase moderada, la irritabilidad se relaciona de manera positiva con la sensibilidad hacia la interferencia, y en la fase moderadamente grave, la programación motora se relaciona de manera negativa con la agitación.


The aim of the study was to investigate executive func-tions (ef) and neuropsychiatric disorders (nd) in pa-tients with Alzheimer's disease (ad) according to the degree of severity, compared to subjects without cognitive impairment (swci). Fifty patients with ad and 60 swci were studied in a non-experimental-cross-sectional study with non-probabilistic sampling based on a series of inclusion criteria. The frontal evaluation battery and the neuropsychiatric inventory were applied and the results showed that there is a negative relationship of moderate intensity between ef and nd, regardless of the degree of severity of ad. It can be concluded that, in the mild phase, euphoria is related both to sensitivity towards interference and to inhibitory control; in moderate phase irritability is positively related to sensitivity towards interference; and in the moderately severe phase, motor programming is nega-tively related to agitation.


O objetivo do estudo foi investigar as funções executivas (fe) e os transtornos neuropsiquiátricos (tn) em pacien-tes com doença de Alzheimer (da) de acordo com o estágio de gravidade, em comparação com sujeitos sem comprometimento cognitivo (sscc). Foram avaliados 50 pacientes com da e 60 sscc em um estudo transversal não experimental com amostragem não probabilística baseada em uma série de critérios de inclusão. A bateria de avaliação frontal e o inventário neuropsiquiátrico foram aplicados e os resultados mostraram que existe uma relação negativa de intensidade moderada entre a fe e os tn, independente do estágio de gravidade da da. Pode-se concluir que, na fase leve, a euforia está rela-cionada tanto à sensibilidade à interferência quanto ao controle inibitório; na fase moderada, a irritabilidade está positivamente relacionada à sensibilidade à inter-ferência e; na fase moderadamente grave, a programação motora está negativamente relacionada à agitação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Patients , Training Support , Disease , Sensitivity and Specificity , Alzheimer Disease , Cognitive Dysfunction
8.
Rev. chil. ter. ocup ; 23(1): 27-35, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1398783

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los procesos de atención a personas mayores han presentado cambios debido al confinamiento sanitario causado por el COVID-19, por esta razón la telerehabilitación se impulsa como una estrategia para continuar los procesos de rehabilitación cognitiva a personas mayores. Objetivo: evaluar la percepción de la calidad de vida de personas mayores con deterioro cognitivo que se encuentran en telerehabilitación, comparado con la calidad de vida de personas mayores con deterioro cognitivo sin telerehabilitación. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo para identificar los cambios en la calidad de vida de personas mayores con procesos de telerehabilitación. Se emplearon los instrumentos Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease y la escala GENCAT. Resultados: el estudio descriptivo mostró cambios favorables en la calidad de vida de las personas mayores que estuvieron en el proceso de telerehabilitación, mientras que el grupo control presentó cambios negativos. Conclusiones: este estudio permite evidenciar los cambios en la calidad de vida de personas mayores con deterioro cognitivo que participa en un proceso de telerehabilitación durante el confinamiento sanitario. Estos cambios favorables se presentaron en las dimensiones de bienestar emocional, bienestar material, inclusión social y derechos.


Introduction: the processes of care for elderly have presented changes, due to the sanitary confinement caused by COVID-19 pandemic. For this reason, telerehabilitation is promoted as a strategy to continue the processes of cognitive rehabilitation for the elderly. Aim: To evaluate quality of life perceptions among older people with cognitive impairment, who received telerehabilitation, compared with quality of life of older people with cognitive impairment without Telerehabilitation. Method: a descriptive study to identify changes in quality of life of older people receiving tele-rehabilitation processes. Assessment instruments used were: Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease and the GENCAT scale. Results: this descriptive study showed favorable changes in quality of life of the elderly who were in the telerehabilitation process, while the control group presented negative changes. Conclusions: this study offers evidence on the changes in the quality of life for elderly people with cognitive impairment who participate in a telerehabilitation process during sanitary confinement. These favorable changes occurred in the dimensions of emotional well-being, material well-being, social inclusion and rights.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Quality of Life , Occupational Therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/rehabilitation , Telerehabilitation , Pilot Projects , Alzheimer Disease
9.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(3): 364-372, May-June 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375640

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Among the various pathologies that affect the elderly, Heart Failure (HF) stands out. Recently, an attempt has been made to verify the existence of cognitive impairment associated with HF. Objectives: To compare the cognitive performance of elderly people with heart failure with that of age-matched individuals without this pathology. Check the existence of marked impairment in some cognitive functions in the clinical group. Methods: The sample consisted of 78 elderly people, whose inclusion criterion was the presence of HF and no HF (control group); age over 60 years, both sexes, and any level of education. The control group consisted of 37 individuals (with a median age of 68 years - Interquartile range of 12) and the HF group, with 41 individuals (with a median age of 67 years - Interquartile range of 11). The subjects were matched in terms of education level, with a predominance of elderly people with 0 to 4 years of education (65.9% in the Clinical Group and 59.5% in the Control Group). Eleven neuropsychological tests covering cognitive functions were used: attention, language, memory, mood, and executive function. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, version 23, with a significance level of 5%. The Chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney test were applied. Results: The results showed significant differences between the groups, mainly in executive functions, which include the ability to plan, switch, and recall previously stored information. Conclusion: Our study showed differences between the cognitive performance of elderly people with HF and elderly people without HF. The main alteration was found in the so-called executive functions, attention, and memory.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Attention , Aging , Executive Function , Cognitive Dysfunction , Heart Failure , Memory , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Nervous System Diseases , Neuropsychology
10.
Distúrb. comun ; 34(2): e55278, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396702

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a literatura relata a associação entre o desequilíbrio e o comprometimento cogntivo, porém não é clara sobre quais habilidades cognitivas estão envolvidas com o sistema vestibular. Objetivo: avaliar quais habilidades cognitivas então envolvidas na avaliação e reabilitação vestibular em indivíduos jovens adultos e idosos. Estratégia de pesquisa: trata-se de uma revisão integrativa de literatura realizada entre julho e outubro de 2020, os artigos foram selecionados por meio das principais bases de dados da saúde MEDLINE via PubMed, LILACS via Portal Regional da BVS; Cochrane, Scopus, Web of Science, e CINAHL acesso via Portal CAPES, utilizando os descritores "Cognition" OR "Cognitive Dysfunction" AND "Vestibular Function Tests" AND "Vertigo" AND "Vestibular Rehabilitation" e seus correlatos em português e espanhol. Critérios de seleção: Foram incluídos artigos publicados até 2020 que investigaram a cognição com avaliação e reabilitação vestibular (tradicional e/ou com tecnologias) em indivíduos acima de 18 anos. Foram excluídos artigos que não possuíam texto completo disponível ou que utilizaram outra forma de tratamento. Resultados: dos 6965 artigos resultantes da busca inicial, 16 foram incluídos na presente revisão por satisfazerem os critérios de inclusão. Destes, 12 são estudos transversais, e quatro, estudos longitudinais. Conclusão: observou-se relação entre disfunção vestibular uni e bilateral com a memória de trabalho, funções executivas, navegação espacial e atenção. Nos estudos que realizaram a reabilitação vestibular encontrou-se melhora das habilidades cognitivas em geral, capacidade visuoespacial, atenção, funções executivas, memória de trabalho espacial, aumento do ganho do reflexo vestíbulo-ocular, do controle postural e uma diminuição do sofrimento psicológico.


Introduction: The literature reports an association between imbalance and cognitive impairment. However, it is not yet clear which cognitive skills are involved with the vestibular system. Objective: To evaluate which cognitive skills are involved in vestibular assessment and rehabilitation in young and older adults. Research strategy: This is an integrative review of the literature, conducted between July and October 2020. The articles were selected through search in the main health databases - MEDLINE via PubMed, LILACS via Regional Portal of VHL, Cochrane, Scopus, Web of Science, and CINAHL, accessed via Portal CAPES, using the following descriptors "Cognition" OR "Cognitive Dysfunction" AND "Vestibular Function Tests" AND "Vertigo" AND "Vestibular Rehabilitation", and their equivalent terms in Portuguese and Spanish. Selection criteria: Articles published until 2020, investigating cognition with vestibular assessment or traditional and/or technology rehabilitation in subjects aged 18 years or older were included. Articles not available in full text or that used other types of treatment were excluded. Results: 16 out of the 6,965 articles initially retrieved met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review; 12 of them are cross-sectional, and four longitudinal studies. Conclusion: There was a relationship between uni- and bilateral vestibular dysfunction and working memory, executive functions, spatial navigation, and attention. The studies that conducted vestibular rehabilitation found improved overall cognitive skills, visuospatial capacity, attention, executive functions, spatial working memory, increased vestibulo-ocular reflex, postural control gains, and diminished psychological suffering.


Introducción: la literatura reporta la asociación entre desequilibrio y deterioro cognitivo, pero no está claro qué habilidades cognitivas están involucradas con el sistema vestibular. Objetivo: evaluar qué habilidades cognitivas están involucradas en la evaluación y rehabilitación vestibular en adultos jóvenes y ancianos. Estrategia de búsqueda: se trata de una revisión integradora de la literatura realizada entre julio y octubre de 2020, los artículos fueron seleccionados a través de las principales bases de datos en salud MEDLINE vía PubMed, LILACS vía Portal Regional BVS; Acceso a Cochrane, Scopus, Web of Science y CINAHL a través del Portal CAPES, utilizando los descriptores "Cognición" O "Disfunción cognitiva" Y "Pruebas de función vestibular" Y "Vértigo" Y "Rehabilitación vestibular" y sus correlatos en portugués y español. Criterios de selección: Se incluyeron artículos publicados hasta 2020 que investigaban la cognición con valoración vestibular y rehabilitación (tradicional y / o con tecnologías) en mayores de 18 años. Se excluyeron los artículos que no tenían el texto completo disponible o que usaban otra forma de tratamiento. Resultados: de los 6965 artículos resultantes de la búsqueda inicial, 16 se incluyeron en esta revisión por cumplir con los criterios de inclusión. De estos, 12 son estudios transversales y cuatro estudios longitudinales. Conclusión: hubo relación entre la disfunción vestibular uni y bilateral con la memoria de trabajo, funciones ejecutivas, navegación espacial y atención. En estudios que realizaron rehabilitación vestibular se encontró una mejora en las habilidades cognitivas en general, capacidad visuoespacial, atención, funciones ejecutivas, memoria de trabajo espacial, aumento de ganancia en el reflejo vestibular-ocular, control postural y una disminución del malestar psicológico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Vestibular Diseases/diagnosis , Vestibular Diseases/rehabilitation , Cognition , Vestibular Function Tests , Vertigo , Cognitive Dysfunction
11.
Rev. urug. enferm ; 17(1): 1-16, jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1369117

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Identificaros fatores relacionados à adesão ao tratamento farmacológico em idosos. Método: trata-se de estudo bibliográfico, tipo revisão integrativa, realizado nas bases de dados LILACS, PubMed, Scopus, Web Of Science e na Biblioteca Virtual SciELO. Consideraram-se os estudos originais, disponíveis na íntegra e publicados no período de 2013 a 2018. Resultado: Localizou-se 1789 publicações, sendo que 352 eram duplicadas, permanecendo 1437. Após leitura dos títulos e resumos encontrou-se 20 artigos para leitura na íntegra e que representou a amostra final. Conclusão: A adesão ao tratamento por idosos sofre a influência de múltiplos fatores, entre eles socioeconômicos e demográficos, relacionados à condição de saúde, sistema e profissionais, relacionados ao tratamento farmacológico e de estilo de vida e comportamento. O suporte de familiares, amigos e grupos sociais de apoio mostrou-se associada à adesão, assim como percepção positiva da visão e audição, ausência de fragilidade e de declínio cognitivo.


Objetivo: Identificar factores relacionados con la adherencia al tratamiento farmacológico en ancianos. Método: se trata de un estudio bibliográfico, tipo de revisión integradora, realizado en las bases de datos LILACS, PubMed, Scopus, Web Of Science y en la Biblioteca Virtual SciELO. Se consideraron los estudios originales, disponibles íntegramente y publicados en el período de 2013 a 2018. Resultado: se encontraron 1789 publicaciones, de las cuales 352 fueron duplicadas, restando 1437. Luego de la lectura de títulos y resúmenes, se encontraron 20 artículos para lectura en el que representó la muestra final. Conclusión: La adherencia al tratamiento por parte de los ancianos está influenciada por múltiples factores, incluidos los socioeconómicos y demográficos, relacionados con la condición, sistema y profesionales de salud, relacionados con el tratamiento farmacológico y el estilo de vida y la conducta. Se demostró que el apoyo de familiares, amigos y grupos de apoyo social está asociado con la adherencia, así como con la percepción positiva de la visión y la audición, la ausencia de fragilidad y el deterioro cognitivo.


Objective: To identify factors related to adherence to pharmacological treatment in the aged. Method: this is a bibliographic study, type of integrative review, carried out in the databases LILACS, PubMed, Scopus, Web Of Science and in the Virtual Library SciELO. The original studies were considered, available in full and published in the period from 2013 to 2018. Result: 1789 publications were found, of which 352 were duplicated, remaining 1437. After reading the titles and abstracts, 20 articles were found for reading in the that represented the final sample. Conclusion: Adherence to treatment by the aged is influenced by multiple factors, including socioeconomic and demographic factors, related to the health condition, system and professionals, related to pharmacological treatment and lifestyle and behavior. The support of family, friends and social support groups was shown to be associated with adherence, as well as positive perception of vision and hearing, absence of fragility and cognitive decline.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Medication Adherence , Socioeconomic Factors , Behavior , Health Profile , Family Relations , Cognitive Dysfunction , Life Style
12.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 42(supl.1): 116-129, mayo 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394000

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La enfermedad de Alzheimer constituye un problema de salud pública que tiende a agravarse en el tiempo. Entre los factores genéticos de predisposición más importantes, se encuentra la presencia del alelo ε4 del gen APOE que codifica para la apoproteína E. Objetivo. Determinar las frecuencias alélicas y genotípicas de las isoformas de APOE en adultos mayores de 60 años con memoria cognitiva disminuida y Alzheimer, en la gran Caracas y en la comunidad indígena pemón de la zona Kamarata-Kanaimö, Estado Bolívar. Materiales y métodos. Se estudiaron 267 pacientes: 96 controles, 40 con memoria cognitiva disminuida y 108 con Alzheimer procedentes de Caracas, y 23 individuos de Kamarata-Kanaimö. Las isoformas de APOE se determinaron con el estuche AP1210Z: Seeplex ApoE genotyping™. Resultados. El alelo ε4 mostró asociación significativa con la memoria cognitiva disminuida (OR=5,03; IC95% 0,98-25,70) y la enfermedad de Alzheimer (OR=5,78; IC95% 1,24-26,85). Las frecuencias genotípicas de los grupos de control y con memoria cognitiva disminuida, fueron:ε3/ε3> ε3/ε4> ε2/ε4> ε3/ε2> ε4/ε4, y las del grupo con Alzheimer: ε3/ε3> ε3/ε4> ε4/ε4> ε2/ε4> ε3/ε2. En Kamarata-Kanaimö, el orden fue ε3/ε3> ε3/ε4> ε4/ε4 y no se encontró el alelo ε2. Conclusiones. Las frecuencias alélicas y genotípicas de APOE en la muestra tuvieron una distribución similar a la de otros estudios en Venezuela y las Américas. La ausencia del alelo ε2 en la comunidad indígena de Kamarata-Kanaimö amerita mayor investigación. Se constató la asociación positiva del alelo ε4 en personas con la enfermedad de Alzheimer y con memoria cognitiva disminuida. Conocer precozmente los pacientes portadores de este alelo puede ayudar a establecer medidas preventivas en nuestra población.


Introduction: Alzheimer's disease represents a serious public health problem that tends to worsen over time. Among the most important genetic predisposing factors is the presence of the ε4 allele of the apoprotein E gene (APOE). Objective: To determine the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the APOE isoforms in adults over 60 years old with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease in Gran Caracas and in the indigenous Pemón community of the Kamarata-Kanaimö area, Bolívar State. Materials and methods: We studied 267 patients: 96 controls, 40 with mild cognitive impairment, 108 with Alzheimer's from Caracas, and 23 individuals from Kamarata-Kanaimö. The APOE isoforms were determined with the AP1210Z: Seeplex® ApoE Genotyping kit. Results: The allele ε4 showed a significant association with mild cognitive impairment (OR=5.03; 95% CI: 0.98-25.70) and EA (OR=5.78; 95% CI: 1.24-26.85). The genotype frequencies for the control and mild cognitive impairment groups were ε3/ε3> ε3/ε4> ε2/ε4> ε3/ε2> ε4/ε4, and for the Alzheimer's group, ε3/ε3> ε3/ε4> ε4/ε4> ε2/ε4> ε3/ε2 In Kamarata-Kanaimö, the order was ε3/ε3> ε3/ε4> ε4/ε4; the allele ε2 was not found in this group. Conclusions:APOE allelic and genotypic frequencies in our sample showed a similar distribution to those found in other studies in Venezuela and the Americas. The absence of the ε2 allele in the indigenous community of Kamarata-Kanaimö warrants further investigation. The positive association of the ε4 allele with both Alzheimer's and mild cognitive impairment was reinforced. The early determination of the ε4 allele carriers can help establish preventive measures in our population.


Subject(s)
Apolipoprotein E4 , Alzheimer Disease , Venezuela , Dementia , Cognitive Dysfunction
13.
Av. psicol. latinoam ; 40(1): 1-16, ene.-abr. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1427984

ABSTRACT

La participación en actividades de ocio puede prevenir el deterioro cognitivo. El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar a través de un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales, el peso relativo que tiene la participación en actividades del tiempo libre en cuatro dominios cognitivos: memoria episódica verbal, lenguaje, funciones ejecutivas y funciones atencionales en adultos mayo-res autoválidos. Para ello, se llevó a cabo un análisis de senderos, utilizando el procedimiento de ecuaciones estructurales (sem) en 167 participantes mayores (m= 72.34 años, de= 5.07 años) independientes en actividades de la vida diaria. Todos fueron evaluados con cuestionario de datos sociodemográficos, cuestionario de participación social y una batería neuro-psicológica de pruebas de uso frecuente en el ámbito clínico para memoria, lenguaje, funciones atencionales y funciones ejecutivas. Los resultados obtenidos indican que el factor de actividades muestra efectos significativos sobre el factor de funciones ejecutivas (ß = .45, p < .001, R2 = .20), también sobre el factor de memoria (ß = .38, p < .001, R2 = .14), al igual que con el factor de lenguaje (ß = .45, p < .001, R2 = .20) y el factor funciones atencionales (ß = .44, p = .03, R2 = .20). Estos resultados concuerdan con los de otros estudios que indican que las actividades de ocio podrían desempeñaron papel diferencial e importante en la construcción de la reserva cognitiva a lo largo del ciclo de vida, conformando un posible factor de protección cognitiva en el proceso de envejecimiento


Participation in cognitively demanding leisure activities can prevent cognitive decline. The objective of the present work is to analyze through a structural equation model (sem) the relative weight that partici-pation in leisure time activities has in three cognitive domains: episodic verbal memory, language execu-tive functions, and attentional functions in self-validated seniors. A path analysis was carried out using the semin 167 elderly participants (m=72.34 years, sd=5.07 years), independent in activities of daily living. All the participants were evaluated with a sociodemographic data questionnaire, a social participation questionnaire, and a neuropsychological battery of neuropsycho-logical tests frequently used in the clinical setting for memory, language, attentional functions, and executive functions. The results obtained indicate that the activities factor shows significant effects on the executive functions factor (ß=.45, p<.001, R2=.20), also on the memory factor (ß=.38, p<.001, R2=.14), as well as on the language factor (ß=.45, p<.001, R2=.20) and the attentional functions factor (ß=.44, p=.03, R2=.20). These results coincide with those of other studies that indicate that leisure activities could play a differential and important role in the construction of cognitive reserve throughout the life cycle, forming a possible cognitive protection factor in the aging process.


A participação em atividades de lazer pode prevenir o declínio cognitivo. O objetivo do presente trabalho é analisar, por meio de um modelo de equações estruturais, o peso relativo que a participação em atividades de lazer exerce em quatro domínios cognitivos: memória verbal episódica, linguagem, funções executivas e funções atencionais em idosos autovalidados. Foi realizada uma análise de trilha por meio do procedimento de equações estruturais (sem) em 167 idosos (m= 72.34 anos, dp = 5.07 anos), independentes nas atividades de vida diária. Todos os participantes foram avaliados com: questionário de dados sociodemográficos, questionário de participação social e uma bateria neurop-sicológica de testes neuropsicológicos frequentemente utilizados em âmbito clínico para: memória, linguagem, funções atencionais e funções executivas. Os resultados obtidos indicam que o fator atividade apresenta efeitos significativos sobre o fator funções executivas (ß = 0.45, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.20), também sobre o fator memória (ß = 0.38, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.14), assim como no fator linguagem (ß = 0.45, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.20) e sobre o fator funções atencionais (ß = 0.44, p < 0.03, R2 = 0.20). Estes resultados são corroborados por outros estudos que indicam que as atividades de lazer podem desempenhar um papel diferencial e importante na construção da reserva cognitiva ao longo do ciclo vital, constituindo um possível fator de proteção cognitiva no processo de envelhecimento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Play and Playthings , Work , Aging , Memory, Episodic , Cognitive Dysfunction , Memory , Methods
14.
Ciudad de México; s.n; 20220401. 124 p.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1381064

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: el insomnio es uno de los trastornos del sueño más prevalentes en adultos mayores, provocando un impacto físico, psicológico y social. Estudios reportan que el insomnio se asocia con somnolencia, disfuncionalidad física diurna, depresión, ansiedad, deterioro cognitivo y una mala percepción de bienestar subjetivo, representando un grave problema en el primer nivel de atención. Objetivo: determinar la relación entre el insomnio con deterioro cognitivo y bienestar subjetivo en una población de adultos mayores. Método: se llevó a cabo un estudio analítico y comparativo en una población de 107 adultos mayores de la Ciudad de México. Se aplicaron instrumentos de valoración gerontológica: la Escala Atenas de insomnio, el Índice de calidad del sueño de Pittsburgh, el Mini-examen del estado mental de Folstein, la Escala de Satisfacción con la vida de Diener y la Escala de Afecto positivo y Afecto negativo. En el análisis estadístico se calcularon frecuencias y porcentajes, χ² y t de Student, y como estimador de riesgo se empleó razón de momios con IC del 95%, así mismo, se realizaron pruebas de correlación de Pearson. Resultados: se encontró una prevalencia de insomnio del 57%, mala calidad del sueño del 76% y deterioro cognitivo del 24%. De los adultos mayores insomnes, 31% presentaron deterioro cognitivo (p=0.045) y 31% baja satisfacción con la vida (p=0.001). En relación con la dimensión afectiva del bienestar subjetivo, tuvieron puntajes menores de afecto positivo (33±9 vs 37±9, p=0.020) y puntaciones más altas de afecto negativo (21±9vs 16±6, p=0.002). De los adultos mayores con mala calidad del sueño, 30% presentaron deterioro cognitivo (p=0.017) y 27% baja satisfacción con la vida (p=0.001), y presentaron puntuaciones menores en el afecto positivo (33±9vs 39±8, p=0.005)en comparación con los adultos mayores con buena calidad del sueño. Se observó que 28% de los adultos mayores con sueño ≤6 horas presentaron baja satisfacción con la vida (p=0.042). También se encontró que el insomnio y la mala calidad del sueño fueron factores de riesgo para el deterioro cognitivo con una razón de momios de 1.52 y 4.05, respectivamente. En las pruebas de correlación se encontró que el insomnio y la mala calidad del sueño tuvieron correlaciones negativas con la funcionalidad cognitiva, la satisfacción con la vida y el afecto positivo, por otro lado, se observaron correlaciones positivas con el afecto negativo. La duración del sueño se correlacionó negativamente con la satisfacción con la vida. Conclusiones. nuestros resultados sugieren una relación entre el insomnio con deterioro cognitivo y baja satisfacción con la vida. Asimismo, los adultos mayores con insomnio tienen menor afecto positivo y mayor afecto negativo.


Background: insomnia is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders in older adults, causing physical, psychological and social impact. Studies report that insomnia is associated with sleepiness, daytime physical dysfunction, depression, anxiety, cognitive impairment and a poor perception of subjective well-being, representing a serious problem at the first level of care. Objective: to determine the relationship between insomnia with cognitive impairment and subjective well-being in a population of older adults. Methods: an analytical and comparative study was carried out in a population of 107 older adults in Mexico City. Gerontological assessment instruments were applied: the Athens Insomnia Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Folstein's Mini-Mental State Examination, the Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale. In the statistical analysis, frequencies and percentages, χ² and Student's t test were calculated, and odds ratios with 95% CI were used as risk estimators, as well as Pearson correlation tests. Results: a prevalence of insomnia of 57%, poor sleep quality of 76% and cognitive impairment of 24% was found. Of the insomniac older adults, 31% presented cognitive impairment (p=0.045) and 31% low life satisfaction (p=0.001). In relation to the affective dimension of subjective well-being, they had lower scores of positive affect (33±9 vs 37±9, p=0.020) and higher scores of negative affect (21±9 vs 16±6, p=0.002). Of the older adults with poor sleep quality, 30% had cognitive impairment (p=0.017) and 27% low life satisfaction (p=0.001), and had lower scores on positive affect (33±9 vs 39±8, p=0.005) compared to older adults with good sleep quality. It was observed that 28% of older adults with sleep ≤6 hours presented low life satisfaction (p=0.042). Insomnia and poor sleep quality were also found to be risk factors for cognitive impairment with odds ratios of 1.52 and 4.05, respectively. Correlation tests found that insomnia and poor sleep quality had negative correlations with cognitive functioning, life satisfaction and positive affect, on the other hand, positive correlations were observed with negative affect. Sleep duration was negatively correlated with life satisfaction. Conclusions: our results suggest a relationship between insomnia with cognitive impairment and low life satisfaction. Also, older adults with insomnia have lower positive affect and higher negative affect.


Introdução: A insônia é um dos distúrbios do sono mais prevalentes em idosos, causando impactos físicos, socias e psicológicos. Estudos reportam que a insônia está relacionada à sonolência, disfuncionalidade física diurna, depressão, ansiedade, deterioro cognitivo e uma má percepção do bem-estar subjetivo, representando um grave problema no primeiro nível de atenção. Objetivo: Determinar a relação entre a insônia com o comprometimento cognitivo e o bem-estar subjetivo em uma população de idosos. Método: Foi realizado um estudo analítico e comparativo em uma população de 107 idosos da Cidade do México. Foram usados instrumentos de valoração gerontológica como a Escala de Insônia de Atenas, o Índice de Qualidade do Sono de Pittsburgh, a Mini Exame do Estado Mental de Folstein, a Escala da Satisfação com a Vida de Diener e a Escala de Afeto Positivo e Negativo. Na análise estatística foram calculadas frequências e porcentagens, χ² e t de student, e como estimador de risco, foi usada a razão de chance (OR) com IC do 95%, bem como provas de correlação de Pearson. Resultados: Foi descoberta uma prevalência de insônia de 57%, má qualidade do sono de 76% e déficit cognitivo de 24%. Dos idosos insones 31% apresentaram déficit cognitivo (p=0,045) e 31% baixa satisfação com a vida (p=0,001). Em relação à dimensão afetiva do bem-estar subjetivo, tiveram pontuações menores de afeto positivo (33±9 vs 37±9, p=0,020), e pontuações mais altas de afeto negativo (21±9 vs 16±6, p=0,002). Dos idosos com má qualidade do sono, 30% apresentaram deterioro cognitivo (p=0,017) e 27% baixa satisfação com a vida (p=0,001) apresentaram pontuações menores no afeto positivo (33±9 vs 39±8, p=0,005) em comparação com os idosos com boa qualidade do sono. Observou-se que, 28% dos idosos com sono ≤6 horas apresentaram baixa satisfação com a vida (p=0,042). Também se descobriu, que a insônia e a má qualidade do sono foram fatores de déficit cognitivo, com uma razão de chance (OR) de 1,52 e 4,05 respectivamente. Nas provas de correlação, encontrou-se que a insônia e a má qualidade do sono tiveram correlações negativas com a funcionalidade cognitiva, a satisfação com a vida e o afeto positivo, por outro lado, foram observadas correlações positivas com o efeito negativo. A duração do sono foi correlacionada negativamente com a satisfação com a vida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Personal Satisfaction , Aged , Nursing , Cognitive Dysfunction , Mexico
15.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(1): 13-21, Jan-Abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362662

ABSTRACT

O objetivo desse artigo é relatar os resultados de um programa de exercícios para indivíduos adultos com deficiências cognitivas e transtornos, utilizando diferentes exergames como ferramentas pedagógicas. A intervenção foi realizada com a participação de 26 indivíduos adultos com deficiências cognitivas e transtornos com idades entre 25 e 59 anos. A pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, de cunho exploratória, a qual foram utilizados a entrevista semiestruturada e o diário de campo como instrumentos de pesquisa. Para interação com os exergames, foram utilizados os consoles Xbox 360 com Kinect, Xbox One com Kinect e Nintendo Wii U. As intervenções foram realizadas no Exergame Lab Brazil, na Escola Superior de Educação Física da UFPel, por um período de duas horas, uma vez por semana, totalizando 25 encontros. A utilização de Exergames tem grande potencial, tanto nos aspectos relacionados à viabilidade, por ser uma tecnologia de baixo custo e de fácil implementação, quanto nos resultados esperados. O Just Dance e o Kinect Sports foram os games que mais contribuíram nesta pesquisa. Os participantes da pesquisa ganharam independência e socialização, bem como melhoraram as habilidades específicas em cada game. Além disso, a possibilidade de utilização dos Exergames em casa também poderá auxiliar pais e responsáveis a melhorar aspectos da vida diária de adultos com deficiências cognitivas e transtornos.


The purpose of this article is to report the results of an exercise program for adults with cognitive disabilities and disorders using different exergames as pedagogical tools. The intervention was carried out with the participation of 26 individuals with cognitive disabilities and disorders aged between 25 and 59 years old. The exploratory, qualitative research used a semi-structured interview and a field diary as research instruments. The Xbox 360 with Kinect, Xbox One with Kinect and Nintendo Wii U consoles were used for the interactions with the exergames. The interventions were carried out at Exergame Lab Brazil, at the Physical Education School at UFPel, for a period of two hours, once a week, totaling 25 meetings. The use of Exergames presents great potential, both in relation to feasibility, since it is a low-cost, easy-to-implement technology, and in terms of expected results. Just Dance and Kinect Sports were the games that contributed most to this research. Research participants gained independence and socialization, as well as the improvement of specific skills in each game. In addition, the possibility of using Exergames at home can also help parents and guardians to improve aspects of the daily life of adults with cognitive disabilities and disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Digital Inclusion , Health Promotion , Socialization , Syndrome , Teaching , Behavior , Exercise , Early Intervention, Educational , Video Games , Exercise Therapy/education , Virtual Reality , Mental Disorders/therapy
16.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408684

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La hipertensión arterial, por su influencia y afectación multisistémica, surge como un factor de riesgo potencial para el deterioro progresivo de las funciones cognitivas. Objetivo: Identificar las principales alteraciones cognitivas asociadas a la hipertensión arterial, específicamente en la atención y la memoria. Métodos: Se realizó revisión bibliográfica retrospectiva de 34 estudios, teniendo en cuenta los criterios de inclusión. Se estableció una ventana temporal en el período 2002 al 2019, incluyendo las bases de datos Pubmed, Scopus, Medline y SciELO. Los textos completos se sometieron a una lectura crítica y análisis documental mediante una matriz de rastreo. Conclusiones: Una de las consecuencias más importantes de esta enfermedad es la afectación en las funciones cognitivas particularmente la atención y la memoria, con una incidencia en el deterioro cognitivo leve, profundo y medio. Sin embargo, su impacto en la cognición es un área que recientemente ha despertado el interés en la neuropsicología y la neurociencia cognitiva. La hipertensión arterial está considerada como una de las enfermedades cardiovasculares que está vinculada con la demencia, proporciona en un 50 por ciento el desarrollo de dicha enfermedad(AU)


Introduction: Arterial hypertension, due to its influence and multisystemic involvement, emerges as a potential risk factor for the progressive deterioration of cognitive functions. Objective: To identify the main cognitive alterations associated with arterial hypertension, specifically in attention and memory. Methods: A retrospective literature review of 34 studies was carried out, taking into account inclusion criteria. A time window was established from 2002 to 2019, including the PUBMED, SCOPUS, MEDLINE and SCIELO databases. The full texts were subjected to critical reading and documental analysis using a tracking matrix. Conclusions: One of the most important consequences of this disease is the negative impact on cognitive functions, particularly attention and memory, with an incidence in mild, profound and medium cognitive impairment. However, its impact on cognition is an area that has recently aroused interest in neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience. Arterial hypertension is considered one of the cardiovascular diseases linked to dementia, since it causes the development of this disease in 50 percent of cases(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
17.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(1): 23-29, Jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360138

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Validation of cognitive instruments for detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on correlation with diagnostic biomarkers allows more reliable identification of the disease. Objectives: To investigate the accuracy of the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery (BCSB) in the differential diagnosis between AD, non-AD cognitive impairment (both defined by cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] biomarkers) and healthy cognition, and to correlate CSF biomarker results with cognitive performance. Methods: Overall, 117 individuals were evaluated: 45 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia within the AD continuum defined by the AT(N) classification [A+T+/-(N)+/]; 27 non-AD patients with MCI or mild dementia [A-T+/-(N)+/-]; and 45 cognitively healthy individuals without CSF biomarker results. All participants underwent evaluation using the BCSB. Results: The total BCSB and delayed recall (DR) scores of the BCSB memory test showed high diagnostic accuracy, as indicated by areas under the ROC curve (AUC): 0.89 and 0.87, respectively, for discrimination between AD and non-AD versus cognitively healthy controls. Similarly, total BCSB and DR displayed high accuracy (AUC-ROC curves of 0.89 and 0.91, respectively) for differentiation between AD and controls. BCSB tests displayed low accuracy for differentiation between AD and non-AD. The CSF levels of biomarkers correlated significantly, though weakly, with DR. Conclusions: Total BCSB and DR scores presented good accuracy for differentiation between patients with a biological AD diagnosis and cognitively healthy individuals, but low accuracy for differentiating AD from non-AD patients.


RESUMO Antecedentes: A validação de testes cognitivos para identificação da doença de Alzheimer (DA) definida por biomarcadores aumenta a confiabilidade diagnóstica. Objetivos: Investigar a acurácia da Bateria Breve de Rastreio Cognitivo (BBRC) no diagnóstico diferencial entre DA, comprometimento cognitivo não-DA (ambos diagnósticos definidos por biomarcadores no líquido cefalorraquidiano-LCR) e indivíduos cognitivamente saudáveis, e investigar correlações entre desempenho nos testes e concentrações dos biomarcadores no LCR. Métodos: No total, 117 indivíduos foram avaliados. Quarenta e cinco pacientes com comprometimento cognitivo leve (CCL) ou demência leve com diagnóstico do continuum de DA definido pela classificação AT(N) [A+T+/-(N)+/-], 27 pacientes com CCL ou demência leve não-DA [A-T+/-(N)+/-], e 45 controles cognitivamente saudáveis sem estudo de biomarcadores no LCR. Os participantes foram submetidos à BBRC. Resultados: O escore total da BBRC e a evocação tardia (ET) no teste de memória da BBRC apresentaram elevada acurácia diagnóstica na diferenciação entre DA e não-DA versus controles, indicada pelas áreas sob a curva ROC (AUC) de 0,89 e 0,87, respectivamente. De modo semelhante, o escore total da BBRC e a ET mostraram elevadas acurácias (AUC-ROC de 0,89 e 0,91, respectivamente) para o diagnóstico diferencial entre DA e controles. A acurácia da BBRC foi baixa na diferenciação entre DA e não-DA. Os níveis dos biomarcadores no LCR se correlacionaram de forma significativa, embora fraca, com ET. Conclusões: Os escores totais da BCSB e a ET apresentaram boa acurácia na diferenciação entre pacientes com diagnóstico biológico de DA e controles cognitivamente saudáveis, mas baixa acurácia para diferenciar DA de não-DA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dementia/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , Case-Control Studies , Amyloid beta-Peptides , tau Proteins/cerebrospinal fluid , Cognition
18.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(1): 62-68, Jan. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360130

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS) has been recently developed as a brief, practical, and feasible tool for cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective: This study aimed to provide continuous and discrete normative values for the BICAMS in the Brazilian context. Methods: Normatization was achieved using six hundred and one healthy controls from the community assessed at five Brazilian geopolitical regions. Results: Mean raw scores, T scores, percentiles, and Z scores for each BICAMS measure are provided, stratified by age and educational level. Regression-based norms were provided by converting raw scores to scaled scores, which were regressed on age, gender, and education, yielding equations that can be used to calculate the predicted scores. Regression analyses revealed that age, gender, and education significantly influenced test results, as in previous studies. Conclusions: The normative data of the BICAMS to the Brazilian context presented good representativeness, improving its use in daily clinical practice.


RESUMO Antecedentes: O BICAMS foi desenvolvido como uma ferramenta breve, prática e confiável para avaliar o comprometimento cognitivo na esclerose múltipla (EM). Objetivo: Neste estudo, objetivamos fornecer dados normativos para o BICAMS. Métodos: Normatização foi realizada com seiscentos e um controles saudáveis​​ da comunidade avaliados das cinco regiões geopolíticas brasileiras. Resultados: Escores brutos médios, escore T, percentil e escore Z para cada medida do BICAMS são fornecidos e estratificados por idade e nível educacional. Normas baseadas em regressão foram obtidas através da conversão dos pontos brutos em pontos ponderados, produzindo parâmetros de regressão que podem ser usados para calcular os escores preditos. As análises de regressão revelaram que idade, gênero e educação influenciaram significativamente nos resultados do teste, assim como em estudos prévios. Conclusão: Normas do BICAMS para o contexto brasileiro apresentaram boa representatividade, contribuindo para a utilização na prática clínica diária.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Multiple Sclerosis/psychology , Brazil , Reproducibility of Results , Cognition , Neuropsychological Tests
19.
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 21: e2022656, 01 jan 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1400468

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: verificar associação do declínio cognitivo e dos fatores socioeconômicos com o risco cardiovascular em idosos com Alzheimer. MÉTODO: estudo transversal, em que se incluíram 75 idosos com Alzheimer. Verificaram-se pressão de pulso, risco cardiovascular, Miniexame do Estado Mental, Miniavaliação Nutricional e exames bioquímicos. RESULTADOS: 92% dos pacientes apresentaram declínio cognitivo, com média de três anos de escolaridade. Houve prevalência entre as mulheres (62,3%) e idosos com duas ou mais comorbidades (62,3%). Eram hipertensos (65,2%), estavam com a pressão de pulso elevada (85%), com sobrepeso (49%) e em risco nutricional (78%). Média diária de dois anti-hipertensivos, e a classe medicamentosa mais utilizada foi bloqueador do receptor da angiotensina. CONCLUSÃO: a população estudada apresentou risco cardiovascular aumentado. A consulta de enfermagem foi importante para o reconhecimento dos dados clínicos, como declínio cognitivo, risco cardiovascular, risco nutricional e análise bioquímica.


OBJECTIVE: To verify the association between cognitive decline, socioeconomic factors, and cardiovascular risk in older adults with Alzheimer's disease. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 75 older adults with Alzheimer's disease. Pulse pressure, cardiovascular risk, Mini-Mental State Examination, Mini-Nutritional Assessment, and biochemical tests were performed. RESULTS: Ninety-two percent of patients had cognitive decline, with an average of three years of schooling. There was a predominance of women (62.3%) and older adults with two or more comorbidities (62.3%). Most participants had arterial hypertension (65.2%), had elevated pulse pressure during the examination (85%), were overweight (49%), and were at nutritional risk (78%). The daily average of antihypertensive drugs was 2, and angiotensin receptor blockers were the most used drugs. CONCLUSION: The population studied had an increased cardiovascular risk. The nursing consultation was important for recognizing clinical data, such as cognitive decline, cardiovascular risk, nutritional risk, and altered biochemical results.


OBJETIVO: Verificar la asociación entre deterioro cognitivo, factores socioeconómicos y riesgo cardiovascular en ancianos con enfermedad de Alzheimer. MÉTODO: Se realizó un estudio transversal con 75 ancianos con enfermedad de Alzheimer. Se realizaron pruebas de presión de pulso, riesgo cardiovascular, Mini-Examen del Estado Mental, Mini-Evaluación Nutricional y pruebas bioquímicas. RESULTADOS: El 92% de los pacientes presentó deterioro cognitivo, con un promedio de tres años de escolaridad. Hubo predominio de mujeres (62,3%) y ancianos con dos o más comorbilidades (62,3%). La mayoría de los participantes tenía hipertensión arterial (65,2%), presión de pulso elevada durante el examen (85%), sobrepeso (49%) y riesgo nutricional (78%). El promedio diario de fármacos antihipertensivos fue de 2, siendo los bloqueadores de los receptores de angiotensina los más utilizados. CONCLUSIÓN: La población estudiada presentaba riesgo cardiovascular aumentado. La consulta de enfermería fue importante para el reconocimiento de datos clínicos, como deterioro cognitivo, riesgo cardiovascular, riesgo nutricional y análisis bioquímico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Socioeconomic Factors , Health of the Elderly , Alzheimer Disease , Cognitive Dysfunction , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
20.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 111 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425825

ABSTRACT

Introdução: As terapias antirretrovirais (TARV) foram imprescindíveis para o aumento da expectativa de vida das pessoas que vivem com o HIV (PVHIV). Entretanto, ações residuais do vírus, combinadas com efeitos colaterais da TARV, mantêm um estado de imunoativação e, consequentemente, um quadro de inflamação sistêmica de baixo grau nessas pessoas. Nesse contexto, comprometimentos cognitivos são ainda presentes e podem evoluir para demências e incapacidades. Em 2007 foi estabelecida a denominação de HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND) às alterações cerebrais decorrentes da infecção pelo HIV. Essas desordens são categorizadas em: Comprometimento Neurocognitivo Assintomático (ANI), Comprometimento Neurocognitivo Leve/moderado (MND) e Demência Associada ao HIV (HAD). O atendimento clínico das PVHIV por profissionais de saúde, e particularmente pelo nutricionista, demanda o rastreio desses comprometimentos, uma vez que a presença deles pode contribuir com uma baixa compreensão ou não adesão ao plano dietético, o que aumenta o risco nutricional dessas pessoas. Desta forma, estudos que indiquem as ferramentas mais adequadas para rastreio dos HAND contribui para o trabalho da equipe multiprofissional. Objetivos: o presente estudo tem como objetivo identificar estudos que compararam diferentes ferramentas utilizadas para rastreio do HAND com o procedimento considerado "padrão-ouro", a bateria de testes neuropsicológicos. Métodos: Este estudo consiste em uma revisão sistemática (RS) com registro no PROSPERO CRD42021227122. Foram incluídos estudos epidemiológicos ou clínicos com adultos PVHIV, publicados a partir de 2007, que tenham estudado a validação de ferramentas de rastreio para HAND frente a uma bateria neuropsicológica. As buscas foram realizadas em seis bases de dados (LILACS, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus e Scielo). Resultados: a busca gerou 1.505 artigos. Após aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, 15 estudos, em sua maioria classificados como de boa qualidade metodológica, fizeram parte da RS. Dentre esses estudos, cinco testaram a validação para a pontuação geral do HAND, e outros 10 testaram a validação de acordo com as três categorias do HAND. As ferramentas testadas pelos estudos foram: Escala Internacional de Demência do HIV (IHDS) , Escala de Demência do HIV (HDS) , Mini Exame do Estado Mental (MEEM), Avaliação Cognitiva de Montreal (MoCA), Questões de sintomas de Simioni (SSQ), Quatro perguntas-chave propostas pelo Conselho Consultivo HAND da Ásia, Austrália, África e Oriente Médio (AAAME), Questionário de sintomas cognitivos do HIV (HCSQ). Além disso, dois estudos dois estudos utilizaram como rastreio um teste integrante da bateria neurocognitiva, o Trail making Test A. As melhores combinações entre sensibilidade (Se) e especificidade (Sp) foram atribuídas às seguintes ferramentas de rastreio: HDS isoladamente (ponto de corte=14: Se= 88% e SP= 67%); IHDS+ Trail making test A (ponto de corte 10: Se= 86% e Sp =79%); MoCA (ponto de corte 26: Se=66% e Sp= 55%). Com relação ao MEEM, nenhuma combinação adequada de sensibilidade e especificidade foi indicada pelos estudos. Nenhum desses resultados foram considerados suficientemente sensíveis e específicos para rastreio das formas leves do HAND. Conclusão: Os resultados desta RS apontam que ainda é necessário o desenvolvimento de ferramentas mais apropriadas para o rastreio do HAND, principalmente das formas leve e moderada. Das ferramentas existentes, o HDS a que mostrou os resultados mais próximos de adequação.


Introduction: Antiretroviral therapies (ART) have been essential for increasing the life expectancy of people living with HIV (PLHIV). However, residual effects of the virus, combined with the side effects of ART, provoke a state of immune activation and, consequently, a low-grade and systemic inflammation status. In this context, cognitive disorders are present and can progress to dementia and disabilities. In 2007, the nomenclature "HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND)" was established for these HIV-related consequences. These disorders are categorized as follows: Symptomatic Neurocognitive Disorders (ANI), Mild/Moderate Neurocognitive Disorders (MND), and HIV-Associated Dementia (HAD). The clinical care of PLHIV by health professionals, including nutritionists, demands identifying these disorders since they can contribute to poor adherence to dietary plans. Poor adherence increases the nutritional risk of these people. Therefore, studies searching for most the appropriate tools for screening HAND can contribute to the work of the multidisciplinary team. Objectives: This study aimed to identify different HAND screening tools, and their comparison with the "gold standard" method", the neuropsychological battery. Methods: This study consists of a systematic review (SR) registered in PROSPERO CRD42021227122. We included epidemiological or clinical studies with PLHIV adults, published from 2007 onwards, which have studied the validation of screening tools for HAND against a neuropsychological battery. Studies were searched in six databases (LILACS, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and Scielo). Main Results: The search generated 1,505 articles; after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 studies, mostly classified as having good methodological quality, took part in the RS. Five studies performed the validation for the overall HAND score and another 10 tested the validation according to the three HAND categories. The tools tested were: the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), HIV Dementia Scale (HDS), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Simioni Symptom Questions (SSQ), Four key questions proposed by the HAND Advisory Council of Asia, Australia, Africa, and the Middle East (AAAME), HIV Cognitive Symptoms Questionnaire (HCSQ). In addition, two studies tested as a screening tool, a test which is part of the neurocognitive battery (Trail making Test A). From these tools, the best combinations between sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) were attributed to: HDS alone (cut-off point=14: Se=88% and SP=67%); IHDS+ Trail making test A (cut-off 10: Se=86%, and Sp=79%); and MoCA (cut-off point 26: Se=66% and Sp=55%). For the MMSE, no suitable combination of sensitivity was found according to the studies. None of these tools were considered sensitive enough for screening mild forms of HAND. Conclusion: The results of this SR indicate that it is still necessary to develop more appropriate tools for adequate HAND screening, especially in mild and moderate forms. Of the existing tools, HDS showed slightly satisfactory results.


Subject(s)
Patient Care Team , HIV , Cognition , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Cognitive Dysfunction , Systematic Review , Nutritional Sciences
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