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Med. infant ; 30(3): 289-292, Septiembre 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1516000


Las funciones ejecutivas generalmente se conceptualizan como un conjunto de procesos generales de control de orden superior que trabajan juntos para dirigir y gestionar las funciones cognitivas, emocionales y conductuales, especialmente durante la resolución activa de problemas. Su disfunción es frecuente de ser detectada como comorbilidad de otros trastornos del neurodesarrollo, causa o efecto? La detección precoz de la disfunción ejecutiva y su abordaje terapéutico temprano, mejora el pronóstico global madurativo en el periodo infantojuvenil. Esta sucinta revisión de las funciones ejecutivas intenta resaltar su importancia para el pediatra y su mirada de los trastornos del neurodesarrollo (AU)

Executive functions are typically understood as a set of general higher-order control processes that collectively direct and manage cognitive, emotional, and behavioral functions, especially during active problem solving. Their dysfunction is often detected as a comorbidity of other neurodevelopmental disorders; cause or effect? Early detection of executive dysfunction and a prompt therapeutic approach improves the overall developmental prognosis in childhood and adolescence. This brief review of executive functions aims to highlight their importance for the pediatrician and his/her view of neurodevelopmental disorder (AU)

Humans , Attention/physiology , Cognition/physiology , Executive Function/physiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/diagnosis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981562


The recurrent neural network architecture improves the processing ability of time-series data. However, issues such as exploding gradients and poor feature extraction limit its application in the automatic diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This paper proposed a research approach for building an MCI diagnostic model using a Bayesian-optimized bidirectional long short-term memory network (BO-BiLSTM) to address this problem. The diagnostic model was based on a Bayesian algorithm and combined prior distribution and posterior probability results to optimize the BO-BiLSTM network hyperparameters. It also used multiple feature quantities that fully reflected the cognitive state of the MCI brain, such as power spectral density, fuzzy entropy, and multifractal spectrum, as the input of the diagnostic model to achieve automatic MCI diagnosis. The results showed that the feature-fused Bayesian-optimized BiLSTM network model achieved an MCI diagnostic accuracy of 98.64% and effectively completed the diagnostic assessment of MCI. In conclusion, based on this optimization, the long short-term neural network model has achieved automatic diagnostic assessment of MCI, providing a new diagnostic model for intelligent diagnosis of MCI.

Humans , Bayes Theorem , Neural Networks, Computer , Algorithms , Brain , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981532


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disease. Neuroimaging based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most intuitive and reliable methods to perform AD screening and diagnosis. Clinical head MRI detection generates multimodal image data, and to solve the problem of multimodal MRI processing and information fusion, this paper proposes a structural and functional MRI feature extraction and fusion method based on generalized convolutional neural networks (gCNN). The method includes a three-dimensional residual U-shaped network based on hybrid attention mechanism (3D HA-ResUNet) for feature representation and classification for structural MRI, and a U-shaped graph convolutional neural network (U-GCN) for node feature representation and classification of brain functional networks for functional MRI. Based on the fusion of the two types of image features, the optimal feature subset is selected based on discrete binary particle swarm optimization, and the prediction results are output by a machine learning classifier. The validation results of multimodal dataset from the AD Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) open-source database show that the proposed models have superior performance in their respective data domains. The gCNN framework combines the advantages of these two models and further improves the performance of the methods using single-modal MRI, improving the classification accuracy and sensitivity by 5.56% and 11.11%, respectively. In conclusion, the gCNN-based multimodal MRI classification method proposed in this paper can provide a technical basis for the auxiliary diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

Humans , Alzheimer Disease/diagnostic imaging , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Neural Networks, Computer , Neuroimaging/methods , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 60(4): 403-412, dic. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423703


Introducción: la pandemia COVID-19 ha tenido un gran impacto en la vida y en especial en las personas mayores. El objetivo del presente estudio fue explorar un protocolo de cribado online para detectar tempranamente Deterioro Cognitivo Leve en personas mayores. Métodos: fue de tipo cuantitativo y cualitativo. La muestra fue de 22 personas mayores de las comunas de Coronel y Lota, Región del Bio-bio. El protocolo estaba compuesto por: Cuestionario sociodemográfico, Test del Reloj Versión Cacho, Moca versión validada en Chile, Escala Depresión Yesavage y Test Acentuación de Palabras. El procedimiento consistió en la aplicación del protocolo a través de un Tablet o Laptop. Resultados: se encontró que la mayoría no presentaba deterioro cognitivo, pero si depresión. Conclusiones: se discute sobre la aplicación de un protocolo de diagnóstico online en personas mayores y los indicadores de depresión que podrían estar dado por la situación actual de pandemia.

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a great impact in the world, more so in the lives of elderly people. The objective of this study was to explore an online screening protocol to detect early Mild Cognitive Impairment. The method was both quantitative and qualitative, the sample included 22 elderly people from the Coronel y Lota, Biobio region. The protocol was integrated with a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Clock Drawing Test (Cacho Version), MOCA (validated in Chile version), Yesavage Depression Scale (Reduced version) and the Word Accentuation Test. The evaluation involved applying the protocol online in a tele neuropsychological assessment. The results showed that most of the elder people evaluated did not present cognitive impairment but did have depression. The application of an online diagnostic protocol in older people and the indicators of depression that could be given by the current pandemic situation are discussed.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Telescreening, Medical , COVID-19 , Early Diagnosis , Depression/diagnosis , Pandemics , Life Style , Neuropsychological Tests
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(1): 62-68, Jan. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360130


ABSTRACT Background: The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS) has been recently developed as a brief, practical, and feasible tool for cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective: This study aimed to provide continuous and discrete normative values for the BICAMS in the Brazilian context. Methods: Normatization was achieved using six hundred and one healthy controls from the community assessed at five Brazilian geopolitical regions. Results: Mean raw scores, T scores, percentiles, and Z scores for each BICAMS measure are provided, stratified by age and educational level. Regression-based norms were provided by converting raw scores to scaled scores, which were regressed on age, gender, and education, yielding equations that can be used to calculate the predicted scores. Regression analyses revealed that age, gender, and education significantly influenced test results, as in previous studies. Conclusions: The normative data of the BICAMS to the Brazilian context presented good representativeness, improving its use in daily clinical practice.

RESUMO Antecedentes: O BICAMS foi desenvolvido como uma ferramenta breve, prática e confiável para avaliar o comprometimento cognitivo na esclerose múltipla (EM). Objetivo: Neste estudo, objetivamos fornecer dados normativos para o BICAMS. Métodos: Normatização foi realizada com seiscentos e um controles saudáveis​​ da comunidade avaliados das cinco regiões geopolíticas brasileiras. Resultados: Escores brutos médios, escore T, percentil e escore Z para cada medida do BICAMS são fornecidos e estratificados por idade e nível educacional. Normas baseadas em regressão foram obtidas através da conversão dos pontos brutos em pontos ponderados, produzindo parâmetros de regressão que podem ser usados para calcular os escores preditos. As análises de regressão revelaram que idade, gênero e educação influenciaram significativamente nos resultados do teste, assim como em estudos prévios. Conclusão: Normas do BICAMS para o contexto brasileiro apresentaram boa representatividade, contribuindo para a utilização na prática clínica diária.

Humans , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Multiple Sclerosis/psychology , Brazil , Reproducibility of Results , Cognition , Neuropsychological Tests
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(1): 23-29, Jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360138


ABSTRACT Background: Validation of cognitive instruments for detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on correlation with diagnostic biomarkers allows more reliable identification of the disease. Objectives: To investigate the accuracy of the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery (BCSB) in the differential diagnosis between AD, non-AD cognitive impairment (both defined by cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] biomarkers) and healthy cognition, and to correlate CSF biomarker results with cognitive performance. Methods: Overall, 117 individuals were evaluated: 45 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia within the AD continuum defined by the AT(N) classification [A+T+/-(N)+/]; 27 non-AD patients with MCI or mild dementia [A-T+/-(N)+/-]; and 45 cognitively healthy individuals without CSF biomarker results. All participants underwent evaluation using the BCSB. Results: The total BCSB and delayed recall (DR) scores of the BCSB memory test showed high diagnostic accuracy, as indicated by areas under the ROC curve (AUC): 0.89 and 0.87, respectively, for discrimination between AD and non-AD versus cognitively healthy controls. Similarly, total BCSB and DR displayed high accuracy (AUC-ROC curves of 0.89 and 0.91, respectively) for differentiation between AD and controls. BCSB tests displayed low accuracy for differentiation between AD and non-AD. The CSF levels of biomarkers correlated significantly, though weakly, with DR. Conclusions: Total BCSB and DR scores presented good accuracy for differentiation between patients with a biological AD diagnosis and cognitively healthy individuals, but low accuracy for differentiating AD from non-AD patients.

RESUMO Antecedentes: A validação de testes cognitivos para identificação da doença de Alzheimer (DA) definida por biomarcadores aumenta a confiabilidade diagnóstica. Objetivos: Investigar a acurácia da Bateria Breve de Rastreio Cognitivo (BBRC) no diagnóstico diferencial entre DA, comprometimento cognitivo não-DA (ambos diagnósticos definidos por biomarcadores no líquido cefalorraquidiano-LCR) e indivíduos cognitivamente saudáveis, e investigar correlações entre desempenho nos testes e concentrações dos biomarcadores no LCR. Métodos: No total, 117 indivíduos foram avaliados. Quarenta e cinco pacientes com comprometimento cognitivo leve (CCL) ou demência leve com diagnóstico do continuum de DA definido pela classificação AT(N) [A+T+/-(N)+/-], 27 pacientes com CCL ou demência leve não-DA [A-T+/-(N)+/-], e 45 controles cognitivamente saudáveis sem estudo de biomarcadores no LCR. Os participantes foram submetidos à BBRC. Resultados: O escore total da BBRC e a evocação tardia (ET) no teste de memória da BBRC apresentaram elevada acurácia diagnóstica na diferenciação entre DA e não-DA versus controles, indicada pelas áreas sob a curva ROC (AUC) de 0,89 e 0,87, respectivamente. De modo semelhante, o escore total da BBRC e a ET mostraram elevadas acurácias (AUC-ROC de 0,89 e 0,91, respectivamente) para o diagnóstico diferencial entre DA e controles. A acurácia da BBRC foi baixa na diferenciação entre DA e não-DA. Os níveis dos biomarcadores no LCR se correlacionaram de forma significativa, embora fraca, com ET. Conclusões: Os escores totais da BCSB e a ET apresentaram boa acurácia na diferenciação entre pacientes com diagnóstico biológico de DA e controles cognitivamente saudáveis, mas baixa acurácia para diferenciar DA de não-DA.

Humans , Dementia/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , Case-Control Studies , Amyloid beta-Peptides , tau Proteins/cerebrospinal fluid , Cognition
Rev. chil. fonoaudiol. (En línea) ; 21(1): 1-7, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437238


La evaluación cognitiva en personas adultas con esclerosis múltiple (EM) es un área fundamental a tener en cuenta en el proceso de intervención, debido a la alta prevalencia de deterioro cognitivo. En la actualidad, se ha recomendado la evaluación cognitiva por medio de la BICAMS (del inglés Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS), que es una batería específica para evaluar a personas con EM, pero que no cuenta con validación en nuestro país. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo identificar el impacto de algunos factores clínicos (meses de evolución de la enfermedad y nivel de discapacidad) y personales (sexo, años de escolaridad y edad) que influyen en las medidas cognitivas de la BICAMS, a fin de contar con información relevante y precisa en un futuro proceso de validación. La muestra estuvo constituida por 38 personas con Esclerosis Múltiple Remitente Recurrente (EMRR). Los resultados mostraron que de los cinco factores clínicos observados, solo edad y sexo influyeron de manera significativa sobre los puntajes de las tres pruebas de la BICAMS. Por lo tanto, la validación de esta batería para la población chilena debiera incluir y/o controlar ambas variables de edad y sexo.

The evaluation of cognitive aspects among individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) is key when considering intervention, because of high prevalence of cognitive impairments. At present, cognitive evaluation has been recommended by means of BICAMS (Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS), which is a battery specifically constructed to assess individuals with MS. However, the battery has not been validated in Chile.The present study aims atdetermining the impact of clinical factors (months since condition's diagnosis and severeness level) and individual factors (sex, age, and years of schooling), which is expected to be accurate and valuable input for future validation processes. Sample consisted of 38 people with remittent-recurrent multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Results showed that only age and gender do significantly impact cognitive performance on all of three BICAMs subtests. Therefore, when validating this battery for Chilean individuals, both age and gender should be included and or controlled.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Cognition Disorders/diagnosis , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/complications , Neuropsychological Tests , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Hospitals, Public , Memory
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 37(3): 203-210, sept. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388148


La apnea obstructiva del sueño (AOS) se ha asociado a deterioro cognitivo. OBJETIVO: Identificar factores asociados a bajo rendimiento cognitivo (BRC) en adultos con sospecha de AOS. MÉTODO: Se realizó evaluación cognitiva empleando la Evaluación Cognitiva de Montreal (MoCA); se consideró BRC un puntaje inferior a 21. El diagnóstico de AOS fue mediante poligrafía respiratoria de 5 canales, según índice de apnea-hipopnea (IAH). Se evaluó también calidad de sueño, síntomas depresivos, entre otros. RESULTADOS: En 91,5% de 320 pacientes consecutivos se confirmó el diagnóstico de AOS. El promedio de MoCA fue 20,6 puntos. El grupo con BRC tenía mayor edad, menor escolaridad; mayor frecuencia de hipertensión arterial y diabetes mellitus, y desaturaciones de la oxihemoglobina de mayor magnitud. No hubo diferencias de gravedad según IAH entre ambos grupos. COMENTARIO: Los pacientes con BRC presentan factores de riesgo asociados a deterioro cognitivo, y mayor magnitud de desaturaciones de la oxihemoglobina.

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with low cognitive performance (LCP) in adults with suspected OSA. MATHOD: Cognitive evaluation was performed using Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and scores lower than 21 were considered LCP. The diagnosis of OSA was made using 5-channel respiratory polygraphy, according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Sleep quality, depressive symptoms, among others, were also evaluated. RESULTS: In 91.5% of 320 consecutive patients the diagnosis of OSA was confirmed. The MoCA average was 20.6 points. The group with LCP was older, less educated, were more likely to have hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and with more severe oxyhemoblobin desaturations. There were no differences in severity according to AHI between both groups. COMMENT: Patients with LCP have risk factors associated with cognitive impairment, besides more severe oxyhemoglobin desaturations.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Oxyhemoglobins/analysis , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Polysomnography , Depression/diagnosis , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Sleep Quality
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 59(3): 176-184, sept. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388396


Resumen Los conocimientos actuales sobre la salud de las personas mayores permiten afirmar que es posible mejorar su calidad de vida, especialmente a través del uso de técnicas no farmacológicas de carácter preventivo. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar una aplicación piloto de un Programa de Reminiscencia Positiva (REMPOS) que en otros países como España y México han demostrado ser efectivo en personas mayores con deterioro cognitivo leve y en población normal institucionalizadas. La población fue de 60 personas mayores pertenecientes a un centro de Larga Estudia del Gran Concepción. La muestra estuvo constituida por 5 personas mayores que aceptaron participar y que cumplían los criterios de inclusión. Instrumentos: se usó el MOCA y Mini Mental para evaluar deterioro leve y normalidad. Procedimiento: se seleccionaron sesiones del REMPOS que podrían tener un sesgo transcultural. Resultados: se encontró que varias de las sesiones necesitaban cambios especialmente con relación a la presencia de analfabetismo funcional, limitación motora y sensorial (vista y oído) en las personas mayores. Se discute la adaptación del programa y las implicaciones derivadas de la institucionalización.

Current knowledge about the health of older people, allows us to affirm that it is possible to improve their quality of life, especially with preventive non-pharmacological techniques. The objective of this article is to present a pilot Application of a Positive Reminiscence Program (REMPOS) which in other countries such as Spain and Mexico have been shown to be effective in older people with mild cognitive impairment and in normal institutionalized populations. The population was 60 older adults belonging to a Long Study center of the Great Conception. The sample consisted of 5 older adults who agreed to participate and who met the inclusion criteria. Instruments MOCA and Mini Mental were used to assess mild impairment and normality. Procedure REMPOS sessions were selected that could have a cross-cultural bias. Results It was found that several of the sessions needed changes especially in relation to the presence of functional illiteracy, motor and sensory limitation (sight and hearing) in older people. Program adaptation and institutionalization are discussed.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Mental Recall , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Homes for the Aged , Pilot Projects , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Institutionalization
Rev. bras. neurol ; 57(3): 11-15, jul.-set. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342507


INTRODUÇÃO: A insuficiência cardíaca (IC) é uma síndrome resultante de defeitos estruturais e funcionais da bomba cardíaca, mais de 80% dos pacientes são idosos, com diversas comorbidades associadas. A demência é definida por qualquer desordem onde o declínio significativo do nível prévio de cognição do paciente interfere em sua independência e funcionamento social, doméstico ou ocupacional. A relação entre o comprometimento cognitivo leve e a IC já é bem estabelecida na literatura, porém estudos recentes apontam uma possível relação da IC na patogênese e no agravo da demência. OBJETIVOS: Classificar a limitação funcional de voluntários com IC com fração de ejeção preservada (FEp) e realizar o teste Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) de memória para analisar se há associação entre as limitações funcionais da IC e o deterioramento cognitivo do paciente. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo observacional transversal, foram avaliados 27 pacientes com história de ICFEp no ambulatório de Insuficiência Cardíaca do Hospital da Universidade Luterana do Brasil. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 27 pacientes, com idade média de 72.4 anos, sendo 18 (66.6%) do sexo feminino, 24 (88.8%) obtiveram escore no MoCA inferior a 26, sendo a média da escala 20.4. Entre os 27 pacientes, quatro apresentavam classe funcional NYHA I, 15 NYHA II, 3 NYHA III e 5 NYHA IV. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo mostra uma tendência de pior desempenho no MoCA entre pacientes com pior classe funcional de IC (NYHA I-II: MoCA 21.4 +/- 4.9 e NYHA III-IV MoCA: 18 +/- 4.2 p:0. 0.087)

INTRODUCTION: Heart failure (HF) is a syndrome resulting from structural and functional defects of cardiac pump, more than 80% of the patients are elderly with diverse associated comorbidities. The dementia is defined by any disorder where the significant decline of the previous cognition level of the patient intervene on his independence and social, domestic or occupational functioning. The link between light cognitive impairment and HF is already well documented in literature, however recent studies point a possible relation of HF in pathogenesis and deteriorating of dementia. OBJETIVE: Rank functional limitation of volunteers with HF with preserved ejection fraction and to apply the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) memory test to analyse if there is a association between HF functional limitations and dementia onset/worsening. METHODS: Transversal observational study, 27 patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction were assessed in Universidade Luterana do Brasil's heart failure clinic. RESULTS: Assessing 27 patients, with average age of 72.4 years (+/-7.3), being 18 (66.6%) female, we found 24 (88.8%) with MoCA score lower to 26, being the average score 20.4. Between the 27 patients, 4 had functional class NYHA I, 15 NYHA II, 3 NYHA III and 5 NYHA IV. CONCLUSION: The present study shows a tendency to lower performance in MoCA on patients with worse HF functional classification (NYHA I-II: MoCA 21.4 +/- 4.9 e NYHA III-IV MoCA: 18 +/- 4.2 p:0. 0.087)

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Dementia/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Memory , Neuropsychological Tests
Horiz. enferm ; 32(2): 118-128, 20210831. "tab"
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1290746


El deterioro cognitivo es un problema de salud a nivel mundial, el cual se ha convertido en uno de las mayores demandas de atención médica en las personas mayores. Con el objetivo de determinar la prevalencia del deterioro cognitivo en las personas mayores de 60 años, se realizó un estudio descriptivo, con carácter retrospectivo de corte transversal a 323 adultos mayores en el Consultorio Médico de la Familia # 20, ubicado en la región de Altahabana, perteneciente al Policlínico Universitario "Federico Capdevila" del Municipio Boyeros (Cuba). El estudio se realizó entre enero y diciembre de 2020. Se encontró que el 31% de las personas mayores, pertenecen al grupo de edades de 65 a 69 años, con un predominio del género femenino en un 61%. El nivel de escolaridad universitario estuvo presente en un 57,5%. El deterioro cognitivo de las personas mayores prevaleció en un 14%; la hipertensión arterial, en un 64,8% fue la enfermedad crónica no transmisible que más se asoció al deterioro cognitivo.

Cognitive impairment is a global health problem, which has become one of the greatest demands for medical care in older people. In order to determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment in people over 60 years of age, a descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out on 323 older adults in the Family Medical Clinic # 20, located in the Altahabana region, belonging to the "Federico Capdevila" University Polyclinic of the Boyeros Municipality (Cuba). The study was carried out between January and December 2020. It was found that 31% of the elderly belong to the 65 to 69 age group, with a 61% predominance of the female gender. The level of university education was present in 57.5%. Cognitive impairment in the elderly prevailed in 14%; arterial hypertension, in 64.8%, was the chronic non-communicable disease that was most associated with cognitive deterioration.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Physicians' Offices , Chronic Disease , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Population Dynamics , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cuba , Hypertension
São Paulo med. j ; 139(5): 520-534, May 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290262


BACKGROUND: Growth in aging of the population has led to increasing numbers of elderly people presenting cognitive impairment and evolution to dementia. There is still no consensus within primary care on the best strategy for screening for cognitive impairment among elderly people. Standardization of a simple but reasonably accurate instrument for a brief cognitive test, in primary care environments, would enable healthcare professionals to identify individuals who require a more in-depth assessment of cognition. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the instruments used by healthcare professionals in studies conducted worldwide and ascertain the most suitable instruments for screening for cognitive impairment among individuals aged 60 years or over, in the Brazilian population. DESIGN AND SETTING: Scoping review developed at Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo, Brazil. METHOD: A systematic search of the literature was conducted for primary studies using instruments to screen for cognitive impairment among individuals aged 60 years or over, in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central and LILACS databases. RESULTS: A total of 983 articles were identified by two independent reviewers, from which 49 were selected for full-text reading, based on the criteria defined for this review. From this, 16 articles adhering to the theme of screening for cognitive impairment among the elderly were selected for in-depth analysis. CONCLUSION: The Mini-Mental State Examination was the instrument most cited in these studies. The Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire and the Verbal Fluency Test (semantic category) present characteristics favoring further studies, for testing as screening instruments for cognitive impairment among elderly people in Brazil.

Humans , Aged , Dementia , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Mass Screening , Neuropsychological Tests
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(3): 238-247, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285347


ABSTRACT Background: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is a perception that is not objectively measured in screening tests. Although many tools are available for evaluating SCD, no single gold standard is available for classifying individuals as presenting SCD, in the Portuguese-speaking population. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature for tools used to evaluate SCD in the Portuguese-speaking population. Methods: Four databases (Web of Science, SciELO, LILACS and MEDLINE) were primarily utilized in this study (Phase 1). Subsequently, we conducted a manual search of the literature (Phase 2). We then retrieved tools for critical evaluation (Phase 3). Studies that matched the inclusion criteria were analyzed. We summarized the features of each tool in terms of the number of questions, scoring system, benefits and deficiencies, translation and validity. Results: A total of 30 studies utilizing four questionnaires and seven different single questions were found. The tools retrieved were the Memory Assessment Questionnaire (MAC-Q; 12/30 studies), single-question methods (7/30 studies), Subjective Memory Complaint Scale (SMC scale; 5/30 studies), Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ; 3/30 studies) and Memory Complaint Scale (MCS; 3/30 studies). Only two were formally translated and validated for the Portuguese speaking population (PRMQ and MCS). Conclusions: In summary, SCD is still underinvestigated in Portuguese-speaking countries. The MAC-Q was the most commonly used tool in Portuguese, despite its lack of formal translation and validation for the Portuguese-speaking population. Further studies are required in order to develop and validate a screening tool that includes questions for detecting SCD-plus features and affective symptoms, so as to improve its predictive value.

RESUMO Introdução: Declínio cognitivo subjetivo (DCS) é uma percepção não objetivamente mensurada em testes de rastreio. Apesar de muitos instrumentos estarem disponíveis para avaliação de DCS, nenhum padrão-ouro único é capaz de classificar um indivíduo com DCS em população falante de português. Este estudo objetivou revisar sistematicamente a literatura para instrumentos usados, para avaliar DCS em falantes de português. Métodos: Quatro bases de dados (Web of Science, SciELO, LILACS e MEDLINE) foram inicialmente usadas neste estudo (Fase 1). Em seguida, conduzimos uma busca manual (Fase 2) e os instrumentos coletados foram criticamente avaliados (Fase 3). Estudos que correspondiam aos critérios de inclusão foram analisados. Nós resumimos as características de cada instrumento em termos de números de questões, sistema de pontuação, vantagens e desvantagens, tradução e validação. Resultados: O total de 30 estudos utilizou 4, questionários e 7 diferentes questões para avaliar DCS. Os instrumentos avaliados foram Memory Assessment Questionnaire (MAC-Q, 12/30 estudos), método de questão única (7/30 estudos), Subjective Memory Complaint Scale (SMC-scale, 5/30 estudos), Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ, 3/30 estudos) e Memory Complaint Scale (MCS, 3/30 estudos). Apenas dois instrumentos foram formalmente traduzidos e validados para falantes de português (PRMQ e MCS). Conclusões: Em suma, DCS é ainda sub-representado em países lusofônicos. O MAC-Q foi o instrumento mais utilizado em português, apesar de sua falta de tradução e validação formal para a população falante de português. Mais estudos são necessários para desenvolver e validar um instrumento de rastreio que inclua questões sobre DCS-plus e sintomas afetivos, para aumentar seu poder preditivo.

Humans , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Portugal , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Retrospective Studies , Cognition , Neuropsychological Tests
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 118 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437613


A Doença de Alzheimer (DA) é a principal forma de demência e um dos grandes desafios no sistema de saúde do século 21. O Comprometimento Cognitvo Leve (CCL) é um estágio que antecede a DA e que compartilha algumas vias metabólicas em comum. A fisiopatologia da DA é caracterizada pela ampla morte neuronal e pela presença de placas neuríticas e emaranhados neurofibrilares, respectivamente relacionadas ao acúmulo de peptídeo beta amiloide (Aß) em tecidos cerebrais e alterações no citoesqueleto que se originam da hiperfosforilação da proteína tau nos neurônios. Algumas linhas de evidência sustentam a hipótese de que o estresse oxidativo, nitrosativo e a inflamação tenham um papel importante na patogênese tanto do DA como do CCL. O selênio, mineral essencial ao ser humano, encontra-se incorporado ao sítio ativo de 25 selenoproteínas, das quais pelo menos um terço apresenta papel antioxidante, além de potencialmente modularem o sistema inflamatório. Deste modo, o estado nutricional adequado dos indivíduos relativo ao selênio, parece exercer efeito neuroprotetor, reduzindo o risco para o CCL e DA e retardando a progressão destas doenças. A entrega de selênio para o cérebro se dá pela interação da selenoproteína P (SELENOP) com o receptor de apolipoproteína E2 (ApoER2). A apolipoproteína E (ApoE) também interage com o ApoER2 no metabolismo de lipídeos. Assim, pode-se pensar que indivíduos portadores do polimorfismo do gene da apolipoproteína E ε4 (APOE ε4), o principal polimorfismo genético para o aumento no risco de desenvolvimento de DA, possam ter essa entrega de selênio prejudicada para o cérebro uma vez que os receptores ApoER2 dos portadores do polimorfismo de APOE ε4 são sequestrados para compartimentos intracelulares, sendo menos expressos na membrana plasmática e portanto diminuindo a interação com a SELENOP. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar se a distribuição do selênio no plasma e líquor de indivíduos portadores de CCL e DA é afetada pelo alelo APOE ε4, avaliar se o estado nutricional do indivíduo em relação ao selênio afeta marcadores de assinatura biológica para DA (peptídeo beta amilóide, proteína tau e proteína tau fosforilada) e concentrações de citocinas inflamatórias. Para tanto, foram selecionadas amostras de plasma e líquor do banco de material biológico do Instituto de Psiquiatria da FMUSP, sendo 14 indivíduos do grupo CCL, 28 indivíduos do grupo DA e 28 indivíduos controles, de ambos os gêneros, com idade acima de 60 anos e residentes na cidade de São Paulo. Foram avaliados os seguintes marcadores: concentrações de selênio no plasma e líquor, concentrações SELENOP no plasma e líquor, citocinas inflamatórias, fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro (BDNF) e marcadores de assinatura biológica para DA. Não foi evidenciada diferença entre os três diferentes grupos em relação ao selênio e a SELENOP da mesma forma que não houve influência do genótipo APOE ε4 nas concentrações de selênio e SELENOP, porém houve uma tendência de menores concentrações de selênio plasmático nos carreadores do alelo APOE ε4. Também houve uma tendência a uma menor pontuação nos testes MMSE e CAMCOG em indivíduos com menores concentrações plasmáticas de selênio. Não se evidenciou que o estado nutricional dos indivíduos em relação ao selênio influencie as concentrações de marcadores para assinatura biológica para DA e de citocinas inflamatórias, com exceção da IL-10 que apresentou correlação positiva com SELENOP plasmática. A partir desses resultados, conclui-se que o estado nutricional dos indivíduos relativo ao selênio parece não ter influencia significativa em aspectos do CCL e DA e que sua distribuição não é alterada pelo genótipo APOE ε4

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main form of dementia and one of the major challenges in the healthcare system of the 21st century. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a stage that precedes AD and shares common metabolic pathways. The pathophysiology of AD is characterized by extensive neuronal death, presence of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, respectively related to the accumulation of amyloid beta peptide (Aß) in brain tissues and changes in the cytoskeleton that originate from hyperphosphorylation of the Tau protein in neurons. Some lines of evidence support the hypothesis that oxidative, nitrosative stress and inflammation play an important role in the pathogenesis of both AD and MCI. Selenium, an essential mineral to humans, is incorporated into the active site of 25 selenoproteins, of which at least one third has an antioxidant role, in addition to its potential in modulating the inflammatory system. Therefore, the appropriate nutritional status related to selenium seems to exert a neuroprotective effect, reducing the risk for MCI and AD and decreasing the progression of these diseases. Selenium is delivered to the brain by the interaction of selenoprotein P (SELENOP) with the ApoE2 receptor (ApoER2). Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) also interacts with ApoER2 in lipid metabolism. Thus, it can be speculated that individuals that carry apolipoprotein E ε4 gene (APOE ε4), the main genetic polymorphism that increases the risk of AD, may have impaired selenium delivery to the brain since ApoER2 receptors of the APOE ε4 carriers are sequestered to intracellular compartments, being less expressed in the plasma membrane decreasing its interaction with SELENOP. This study aimed to assess whether the distribution of selenium in the plasma and CSF of subjects with MCI and AD is affected by the APOE ε4 allele, evaluate whether the nutritional status of selenium affects biological signature markers for AD (amyloid beta peptide, tau protein and phosphorylated tau protein) and to asses the concentrations of inflammatory cytokines. For this purpose, plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were selected from the biological material bank of the Institute of Psychiatry of FMUSP, with 14 subjects from the MCI group, 28 from the DA group and 28 from control subjects, both genders, aged over 60 years and São Paulo residents. The following markers were evaluated: selenium concentrations in plasma and CSF, SELENOP concentrations in plasma and CSF, inflammatory cytokines, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and biological signature for AD. There was no difference between the three different groups in relation to selenium and SELENOP; in addition, there was no influence of the APOE ε4 genotype on selenium and SELENOP concentrations, but there was a tendency towards lower plasma selenium concentrations in the APOE ε4 carriers. There was also a tendency for lower scores on the MMSE and CAMCOG tests in subjects with lower plasma selenium concentrations. It was not shown that selenium nutritional status influences the concentrations of biological signature for AD and inflammatory cytokines, with the exception of IL-10 which showed a positive correlation with plasma SELENOP. From these results, we concluded that selenium nutritional status does not seem to have a significant influence in aspects of MCI and DA and that its distribution is not altered by the APOE genotype ε4

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Selenium/analysis , Nutritional Status/genetics , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/pathology , Persons/classification , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/agonists , Selenoprotein P/adverse effects , Apolipoprotein E4/agonists , Nerve Growth Factors/adverse effects
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 19(3): 191-198, set 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391965


A doença renal crônica é uma condição clínica caracterizada pela queda progressiva da função renal, interferindo na homeostase de todo o corpo, incluindo o sistema nervoso central. Nesses pacientes, o comprometimento cognitivo é um achado comum, em comparação com a população geral, e mais frequente nos pacientes em diálise. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar, por meio de revisão integrativa, se há diferença entre a modalida- de dialítica (hemodiálise e diálise peritoneal) e a presença de comprometimento cognitivo nesses pacientes. Foi feito levan- tamento bibliográfico nas plataformas PubMed® e Bireme, com buscas padronizadas de 2014 até abril de 2019, utilizando-se pa- lavras-chave. Para a seleção e a avaliação dos estudos científicos levantados, foram estabelecidos critérios, contemplando os seguintes aspectos: autor, ano/local, grau de recomendação/ nível de evidência científica, amostra, faixa etária, média de idade em anos, métodos de avaliação, resultados e conclusão. Dos 561 artigos encontrados, 365 foram excluídos pela data de publicação, 87 foram excluídos pelo título, 17 pelo resumo, 49 pela leitura do artigo, 36 eram repetidos e oito foram selecio- nados para o estudo. Os pacientes em diálise peritoneal apre- sentaram menor comprometimento cognitivo e menor risco para demência que os pacientes em hemodiálise.

Chronic kidney disease is a clinical condition characterized by progressive decline in renal function, interfering with whole-bo- dy homeostasis, including the central nervous system. Cognitive impairment is a common finding in these patients, compared to the general population, besides being more frequent in dialysis patients. The objective of this study was to identify, through an integrative review, if there is difference between the dialysis mo- dality (hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis) and the presence of cognitive impairment in these patients. A bibliographic search on the PubMed® and Bireme platforms, with standard searches from 2014 to April 2019, using keywords, was conducted. For the selection and evaluation of scientific studies found in the sear- ch, criteria have been established, considering the following as- pects: author, year/location, grade of recommendation/level of evidence, sample, age, mean age in years, evaluation methods, results, and conclusion. Among 561 articles found, 365 were ex- cluded based on the date of publication, 87 based on the title, 17 on the abstract, 48 on the article reading, 36 were repeated, and eight were selected for the study. Patients on peritoneal dialysis have less cognitive impairment and lower risk for dementia than patients on hemodialysis.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Renal Dialysis/methods , Dementia/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis/psychology , Dementia/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Mental Status and Dementia Tests
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879263


With the wide application of deep learning technology in disease diagnosis, especially the outstanding performance of convolutional neural network (CNN) in computer vision and image processing, more and more studies have proposed to use this algorithm to achieve the classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal cognition (CN). This article systematically reviews the application progress of several classic convolutional neural network models in brain image analysis and diagnosis at different stages of Alzheimer's disease, and discusses the existing problems and gives the possible development directions in order to provide some references.

Humans , Alzheimer Disease/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neural Networks, Computer
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879248


The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a common neurodegenerative disease, is still unknown. It is difficult to determine the atrophy areas, especially for patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at different stages of AD, which results in a low diagnostic rate. Therefore, an early diagnosis model of AD based on 3-dimensional convolutional neural network (3DCNN) and genetic algorithm (GA) was proposed. Firstly, the 3DCNN was used to train a base classifier for each region of interest (ROI). And then, the optimal combination of the base classifiers was determined with the GA. Finally, the ensemble consisting of the chosen base classifiers was employed to make a diagnosis for a patient and the brain regions with significant classification capability were decided. The experimental results showed that the classification accuracy was 88.6% for AD

Humans , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neural Networks, Computer , Neurodegenerative Diseases
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 573-582, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155780


Abstract Background: The present study investigated the association between Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction (POCD) and increased serum S100B level after Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy (RALRP). Methods: The study included 82 consecutive patients who underwent RALRP. Serum S100B levels were determined preoperatively, after anesthesia induction, and at 30 minutes and 24 hours postoperatively. Cognitive function was assessed using neuropsychological testing preoperatively, and at 7 days and 3 months postoperatively. Results: Twenty four patients (29%) exhibited POCD 7 days after surgery, and 9 (11%) at 3 months after surgery. Serum S100B levels were significantly increased at postoperative 30 minutes and 24 hours in patients displaying POCD at postoperative 7 days (p = 0.0001 for both) and 3 months (p = 0.001 for both) compared to patients without POCD. Duration of anesthesia was also significantly longer in patients with POCD at 7 days and 3 months after surgery compared with patients without POCD (p = 0.012, p = 0.001, respectively), as was duration of Trendelenburg (p = 0.025, p = 0.002, respectively). Composite Z score in tests performed on day 7 were significantly correlated with duration of Trendelenburg and duration of anesthesia (p = 0.0001 for both). Conclusions: S100B increases after RALRP and this increase is associated with POCD development. Duration of Trendelenburg position and anesthesia contribute to the development of POCD. Trial Registry Number: (N° NCT03018522).

Resumo Introdução: O presente estudo investigou a associação entre Disfunção Cognitiva Pós-Operatória (DCPO) e aumento do nível sérico de S100B após Prostatectomia Radical Laparoscópica Assistida por Robô (PRLAR). Métodos: O estudo incluiu 82 pacientes consecutivos submetidos à PRLAR. Os níveis séricos de S100B foram determinados: no pré-operatório, após indução anestésica, e aos 30 minutos e 24 horas do pós-operatório. A função cognitiva foi avaliada com testes neuropsicológicos no pré-operatório, no 7° dia pós-operatório (7 DPO) e aos 3 meses após a cirurgia (3 MPO). Resultados: Observamos 24 pacientes (29%) com DCPO no 7 DPO e 9 pacientes com DCPO (11%) após 3 meses da cirurgia. Quando comparados com os pacientes sem DCPO, os níveis séricos de S100B estavam significantemente aumentados aos 30 minutos e às 24 horas do pós-operatório nos pacientes que apresentaram DCPO no 7 DPO (p= 0,0001 para os dois momentos) e 3 meses após a cirurgia (p= 0,001 para os dois momentos) A duração anestésica também foi significantemente maior em pacientes com DCPO no 7 DPO e 3 MPO em comparação com pacientes sem DCPO (p= 0,012, p= 0,001, respectivamente), assim como a duração da posição de Trendelenburg (p= 0,025, p= 0,002, respectivamente). O escore Z composto nos testes realizados no 7 DPO foi significantemente correlacionado com a duração da posição de Trendelenburg e a duração da anestesia (p= 0,0001 para ambos). Conclusão: S100B aumenta após PRLAR e o aumento está associado ao desenvolvimento de DCPO. A duração anestésica e o tempo decorrido em posição de Trendelenburg contribuem para o desenvolvimento de DCPO. Número de registro do estudo: (n° NCT03018522)

Humans , Male , Aged , Postoperative Complications/blood , Prostatectomy/adverse effects , Cognitive Dysfunction/blood , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit/blood , Robotic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Prostatectomy/methods , Time Factors , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Head-Down Tilt/adverse effects , Area Under Curve , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Operative Time , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(11): 713-723, Nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142366


Abstract Spatial disorientation has been observed in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and is associated with a higher risk of progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is no gold standard assessment for spatial orientation and paper-and-pencil tests lack ecological validity. Recently, there has been an increasing number of studies demonstrating the role of spatial disorientation as a cognitive marker of pathological decline, shedding new light on its importance for MCI. This systematic review aimed to investigate the accuracy of spatial orientation tasks for the diagnosis of MCI by comparison with cognitively healthy elderly. The search was conducted in the databases Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE/PubMed), Web of Science, Scopus, Excerpta Medica Database (Embase), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). Only original studies reporting spatial orientation assessment in MCI patients compared to a healthy control group were included. Studies were excluded if the MCI classification did not follow well described criteria and/or if accuracy results of spatial orientation assessment were not provided. Seven studies met the eligibility criteria, describing a variety of spatial orientation assessments including questionnaires, paper-and-pencil, office-based route learning, and computer-based and virtual reality tasks. Spatial orientation tasks demonstrated moderate to high accuracy in detecting elderly with MCI compared to cognitively healthy elderly, with areas under the curve (AUC) ranging from 0.77 to 0.99. However, important methodological issues were found in the selected studies which should be considered when interpreting results. Although the inclusion of spatial orientation assessments in MCI evaluations seems to have significant value, further studies are needed to clarify their true capacity to distinguish pathological from non-pathological aging.

RESUMO A ocorrência de desorientação espacial foi observada no comprometimento cognitivo leve (CCL) e está associada a um maior risco de progressão para a doença de Alzheimer (DA). No entanto, não há um padrão ouro para avaliação da orientação espacial e os testes em papel e caneta não apresentam validade ecológica. Recentemente, um número cada vez maior de estudos têm apontado o papel da desorientação espacial como um marcador cognitivo do declínio patológico, lançando uma nova luz sobre sua importância para o CCL. Esta revisão sistemática teve como objetivo investigar a acurácia de tarefas de orientação espacial para se estabelecer o diagnóstico de CCL entre idosos cognitivamente saudáveis. A pesquisa foi realizada através das bases de dados Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, Lilacs e Scielo. Apenas artigos originais que reportassem avaliação da orientação espacial em idosos CCL comparados a um grupo controle saudável foram incluídos. Foram excluídos os estudos que não utilizassem a classificação de CCL segundo critérios bem descritos e/ou que não reportassem resultados de acurácia da avaliação da orientação espacial. Sete estudos atenderam aos critérios de elegibilidade, descrevendo uma variedade de formas de avaliação da orientação espacial, incluindo questionários, tarefas em papel e lápis, tarefas de aprendizado de rotas no escritório, tarefas baseadas em computador e com realidade virtual. As tarefas de orientação espacial demonstraram acurácia moderada a alta na detecção de CCL em comparação com idosos cognitivamente saudáveis, com áreas sob a curva (area under the curve — AUC) variando de 0,77 a 0,99. No entanto, um viés metodológico importante foi identificado nos estudos selecionados, o que deve ser levado em consideração na interpretação dos resultados. Apesar da inclusão da orientação espacial na avaliação cognitiva em CCL parecer ter um valor significativo, mais estudos são necessários para esclarecer sua verdadeira capacidade de distinguir o envelhecimento patológico do não patológico.

Humans , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Disease Progression , Orientation, Spatial