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1.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(1): 23-29, Jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360138

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Validation of cognitive instruments for detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on correlation with diagnostic biomarkers allows more reliable identification of the disease. Objectives: To investigate the accuracy of the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery (BCSB) in the differential diagnosis between AD, non-AD cognitive impairment (both defined by cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] biomarkers) and healthy cognition, and to correlate CSF biomarker results with cognitive performance. Methods: Overall, 117 individuals were evaluated: 45 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia within the AD continuum defined by the AT(N) classification [A+T+/-(N)+/]; 27 non-AD patients with MCI or mild dementia [A-T+/-(N)+/-]; and 45 cognitively healthy individuals without CSF biomarker results. All participants underwent evaluation using the BCSB. Results: The total BCSB and delayed recall (DR) scores of the BCSB memory test showed high diagnostic accuracy, as indicated by areas under the ROC curve (AUC): 0.89 and 0.87, respectively, for discrimination between AD and non-AD versus cognitively healthy controls. Similarly, total BCSB and DR displayed high accuracy (AUC-ROC curves of 0.89 and 0.91, respectively) for differentiation between AD and controls. BCSB tests displayed low accuracy for differentiation between AD and non-AD. The CSF levels of biomarkers correlated significantly, though weakly, with DR. Conclusions: Total BCSB and DR scores presented good accuracy for differentiation between patients with a biological AD diagnosis and cognitively healthy individuals, but low accuracy for differentiating AD from non-AD patients.


RESUMO Antecedentes: A validação de testes cognitivos para identificação da doença de Alzheimer (DA) definida por biomarcadores aumenta a confiabilidade diagnóstica. Objetivos: Investigar a acurácia da Bateria Breve de Rastreio Cognitivo (BBRC) no diagnóstico diferencial entre DA, comprometimento cognitivo não-DA (ambos diagnósticos definidos por biomarcadores no líquido cefalorraquidiano-LCR) e indivíduos cognitivamente saudáveis, e investigar correlações entre desempenho nos testes e concentrações dos biomarcadores no LCR. Métodos: No total, 117 indivíduos foram avaliados. Quarenta e cinco pacientes com comprometimento cognitivo leve (CCL) ou demência leve com diagnóstico do continuum de DA definido pela classificação AT(N) [A+T+/-(N)+/-], 27 pacientes com CCL ou demência leve não-DA [A-T+/-(N)+/-], e 45 controles cognitivamente saudáveis sem estudo de biomarcadores no LCR. Os participantes foram submetidos à BBRC. Resultados: O escore total da BBRC e a evocação tardia (ET) no teste de memória da BBRC apresentaram elevada acurácia diagnóstica na diferenciação entre DA e não-DA versus controles, indicada pelas áreas sob a curva ROC (AUC) de 0,89 e 0,87, respectivamente. De modo semelhante, o escore total da BBRC e a ET mostraram elevadas acurácias (AUC-ROC de 0,89 e 0,91, respectivamente) para o diagnóstico diferencial entre DA e controles. A acurácia da BBRC foi baixa na diferenciação entre DA e não-DA. Os níveis dos biomarcadores no LCR se correlacionaram de forma significativa, embora fraca, com ET. Conclusões: Os escores totais da BCSB e a ET apresentaram boa acurácia na diferenciação entre pacientes com diagnóstico biológico de DA e controles cognitivamente saudáveis, mas baixa acurácia para diferenciar DA de não-DA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dementia/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , Case-Control Studies , Amyloid beta-Peptides , tau Proteins/cerebrospinal fluid , Cognition
2.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(1): 62-68, Jan. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360130

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS) has been recently developed as a brief, practical, and feasible tool for cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective: This study aimed to provide continuous and discrete normative values for the BICAMS in the Brazilian context. Methods: Normatization was achieved using six hundred and one healthy controls from the community assessed at five Brazilian geopolitical regions. Results: Mean raw scores, T scores, percentiles, and Z scores for each BICAMS measure are provided, stratified by age and educational level. Regression-based norms were provided by converting raw scores to scaled scores, which were regressed on age, gender, and education, yielding equations that can be used to calculate the predicted scores. Regression analyses revealed that age, gender, and education significantly influenced test results, as in previous studies. Conclusions: The normative data of the BICAMS to the Brazilian context presented good representativeness, improving its use in daily clinical practice.


RESUMO Antecedentes: O BICAMS foi desenvolvido como uma ferramenta breve, prática e confiável para avaliar o comprometimento cognitivo na esclerose múltipla (EM). Objetivo: Neste estudo, objetivamos fornecer dados normativos para o BICAMS. Métodos: Normatização foi realizada com seiscentos e um controles saudáveis​​ da comunidade avaliados das cinco regiões geopolíticas brasileiras. Resultados: Escores brutos médios, escore T, percentil e escore Z para cada medida do BICAMS são fornecidos e estratificados por idade e nível educacional. Normas baseadas em regressão foram obtidas através da conversão dos pontos brutos em pontos ponderados, produzindo parâmetros de regressão que podem ser usados para calcular os escores preditos. As análises de regressão revelaram que idade, gênero e educação influenciaram significativamente nos resultados do teste, assim como em estudos prévios. Conclusão: Normas do BICAMS para o contexto brasileiro apresentaram boa representatividade, contribuindo para a utilização na prática clínica diária.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Multiple Sclerosis/psychology , Brazil , Reproducibility of Results , Cognition , Neuropsychological Tests
3.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 57(3): 11-15, jul.-set. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342507

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A insuficiência cardíaca (IC) é uma síndrome resultante de defeitos estruturais e funcionais da bomba cardíaca, mais de 80% dos pacientes são idosos, com diversas comorbidades associadas. A demência é definida por qualquer desordem onde o declínio significativo do nível prévio de cognição do paciente interfere em sua independência e funcionamento social, doméstico ou ocupacional. A relação entre o comprometimento cognitivo leve e a IC já é bem estabelecida na literatura, porém estudos recentes apontam uma possível relação da IC na patogênese e no agravo da demência. OBJETIVOS: Classificar a limitação funcional de voluntários com IC com fração de ejeção preservada (FEp) e realizar o teste Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) de memória para analisar se há associação entre as limitações funcionais da IC e o deterioramento cognitivo do paciente. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo observacional transversal, foram avaliados 27 pacientes com história de ICFEp no ambulatório de Insuficiência Cardíaca do Hospital da Universidade Luterana do Brasil. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 27 pacientes, com idade média de 72.4 anos, sendo 18 (66.6%) do sexo feminino, 24 (88.8%) obtiveram escore no MoCA inferior a 26, sendo a média da escala 20.4. Entre os 27 pacientes, quatro apresentavam classe funcional NYHA I, 15 NYHA II, 3 NYHA III e 5 NYHA IV. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo mostra uma tendência de pior desempenho no MoCA entre pacientes com pior classe funcional de IC (NYHA I-II: MoCA 21.4 +/- 4.9 e NYHA III-IV MoCA: 18 +/- 4.2 p:0. 0.087)


INTRODUCTION: Heart failure (HF) is a syndrome resulting from structural and functional defects of cardiac pump, more than 80% of the patients are elderly with diverse associated comorbidities. The dementia is defined by any disorder where the significant decline of the previous cognition level of the patient intervene on his independence and social, domestic or occupational functioning. The link between light cognitive impairment and HF is already well documented in literature, however recent studies point a possible relation of HF in pathogenesis and deteriorating of dementia. OBJETIVE: Rank functional limitation of volunteers with HF with preserved ejection fraction and to apply the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) memory test to analyse if there is a association between HF functional limitations and dementia onset/worsening. METHODS: Transversal observational study, 27 patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction were assessed in Universidade Luterana do Brasil's heart failure clinic. RESULTS: Assessing 27 patients, with average age of 72.4 years (+/-7.3), being 18 (66.6%) female, we found 24 (88.8%) with MoCA score lower to 26, being the average score 20.4. Between the 27 patients, 4 had functional class NYHA I, 15 NYHA II, 3 NYHA III and 5 NYHA IV. CONCLUSION: The present study shows a tendency to lower performance in MoCA on patients with worse HF functional classification (NYHA I-II: MoCA 21.4 +/- 4.9 e NYHA III-IV MoCA: 18 +/- 4.2 p:0. 0.087)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Dementia/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Memory , Neuropsychological Tests
4.
Horiz. enferm ; 32(2): 118-128, 20210831. "tab"
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1290746

ABSTRACT

El deterioro cognitivo es un problema de salud a nivel mundial, el cual se ha convertido en uno de las mayores demandas de atención médica en las personas mayores. Con el objetivo de determinar la prevalencia del deterioro cognitivo en las personas mayores de 60 años, se realizó un estudio descriptivo, con carácter retrospectivo de corte transversal a 323 adultos mayores en el Consultorio Médico de la Familia # 20, ubicado en la región de Altahabana, perteneciente al Policlínico Universitario "Federico Capdevila" del Municipio Boyeros (Cuba). El estudio se realizó entre enero y diciembre de 2020. Se encontró que el 31% de las personas mayores, pertenecen al grupo de edades de 65 a 69 años, con un predominio del género femenino en un 61%. El nivel de escolaridad universitario estuvo presente en un 57,5%. El deterioro cognitivo de las personas mayores prevaleció en un 14%; la hipertensión arterial, en un 64,8% fue la enfermedad crónica no transmisible que más se asoció al deterioro cognitivo.


Cognitive impairment is a global health problem, which has become one of the greatest demands for medical care in older people. In order to determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment in people over 60 years of age, a descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out on 323 older adults in the Family Medical Clinic # 20, located in the Altahabana region, belonging to the "Federico Capdevila" University Polyclinic of the Boyeros Municipality (Cuba). The study was carried out between January and December 2020. It was found that 31% of the elderly belong to the 65 to 69 age group, with a 61% predominance of the female gender. The level of university education was present in 57.5%. Cognitive impairment in the elderly prevailed in 14%; arterial hypertension, in 64.8%, was the chronic non-communicable disease that was most associated with cognitive deterioration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Physicians' Offices , Chronic Disease , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Population Dynamics , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cuba , Hypertension
5.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(5): 520-534, May 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290262

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Growth in aging of the population has led to increasing numbers of elderly people presenting cognitive impairment and evolution to dementia. There is still no consensus within primary care on the best strategy for screening for cognitive impairment among elderly people. Standardization of a simple but reasonably accurate instrument for a brief cognitive test, in primary care environments, would enable healthcare professionals to identify individuals who require a more in-depth assessment of cognition. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the instruments used by healthcare professionals in studies conducted worldwide and ascertain the most suitable instruments for screening for cognitive impairment among individuals aged 60 years or over, in the Brazilian population. DESIGN AND SETTING: Scoping review developed at Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo, Brazil. METHOD: A systematic search of the literature was conducted for primary studies using instruments to screen for cognitive impairment among individuals aged 60 years or over, in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central and LILACS databases. RESULTS: A total of 983 articles were identified by two independent reviewers, from which 49 were selected for full-text reading, based on the criteria defined for this review. From this, 16 articles adhering to the theme of screening for cognitive impairment among the elderly were selected for in-depth analysis. CONCLUSION: The Mini-Mental State Examination was the instrument most cited in these studies. The Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire and the Verbal Fluency Test (semantic category) present characteristics favoring further studies, for testing as screening instruments for cognitive impairment among elderly people in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Dementia , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Mass Screening , Neuropsychological Tests
6.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(3): 238-247, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285347

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is a perception that is not objectively measured in screening tests. Although many tools are available for evaluating SCD, no single gold standard is available for classifying individuals as presenting SCD, in the Portuguese-speaking population. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature for tools used to evaluate SCD in the Portuguese-speaking population. Methods: Four databases (Web of Science, SciELO, LILACS and MEDLINE) were primarily utilized in this study (Phase 1). Subsequently, we conducted a manual search of the literature (Phase 2). We then retrieved tools for critical evaluation (Phase 3). Studies that matched the inclusion criteria were analyzed. We summarized the features of each tool in terms of the number of questions, scoring system, benefits and deficiencies, translation and validity. Results: A total of 30 studies utilizing four questionnaires and seven different single questions were found. The tools retrieved were the Memory Assessment Questionnaire (MAC-Q; 12/30 studies), single-question methods (7/30 studies), Subjective Memory Complaint Scale (SMC scale; 5/30 studies), Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ; 3/30 studies) and Memory Complaint Scale (MCS; 3/30 studies). Only two were formally translated and validated for the Portuguese speaking population (PRMQ and MCS). Conclusions: In summary, SCD is still underinvestigated in Portuguese-speaking countries. The MAC-Q was the most commonly used tool in Portuguese, despite its lack of formal translation and validation for the Portuguese-speaking population. Further studies are required in order to develop and validate a screening tool that includes questions for detecting SCD-plus features and affective symptoms, so as to improve its predictive value.


RESUMO Introdução: Declínio cognitivo subjetivo (DCS) é uma percepção não objetivamente mensurada em testes de rastreio. Apesar de muitos instrumentos estarem disponíveis para avaliação de DCS, nenhum padrão-ouro único é capaz de classificar um indivíduo com DCS em população falante de português. Este estudo objetivou revisar sistematicamente a literatura para instrumentos usados, para avaliar DCS em falantes de português. Métodos: Quatro bases de dados (Web of Science, SciELO, LILACS e MEDLINE) foram inicialmente usadas neste estudo (Fase 1). Em seguida, conduzimos uma busca manual (Fase 2) e os instrumentos coletados foram criticamente avaliados (Fase 3). Estudos que correspondiam aos critérios de inclusão foram analisados. Nós resumimos as características de cada instrumento em termos de números de questões, sistema de pontuação, vantagens e desvantagens, tradução e validação. Resultados: O total de 30 estudos utilizou 4, questionários e 7 diferentes questões para avaliar DCS. Os instrumentos avaliados foram Memory Assessment Questionnaire (MAC-Q, 12/30 estudos), método de questão única (7/30 estudos), Subjective Memory Complaint Scale (SMC-scale, 5/30 estudos), Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ, 3/30 estudos) e Memory Complaint Scale (MCS, 3/30 estudos). Apenas dois instrumentos foram formalmente traduzidos e validados para falantes de português (PRMQ e MCS). Conclusões: Em suma, DCS é ainda sub-representado em países lusofônicos. O MAC-Q foi o instrumento mais utilizado em português, apesar de sua falta de tradução e validação formal para a população falante de português. Mais estudos são necessários para desenvolver e validar um instrumento de rastreio que inclua questões sobre DCS-plus e sintomas afetivos, para aumentar seu poder preditivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Portugal , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Retrospective Studies , Cognition , Neuropsychological Tests
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879263

ABSTRACT

With the wide application of deep learning technology in disease diagnosis, especially the outstanding performance of convolutional neural network (CNN) in computer vision and image processing, more and more studies have proposed to use this algorithm to achieve the classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal cognition (CN). This article systematically reviews the application progress of several classic convolutional neural network models in brain image analysis and diagnosis at different stages of Alzheimer's disease, and discusses the existing problems and gives the possible development directions in order to provide some references.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neural Networks, Computer
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879248

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a common neurodegenerative disease, is still unknown. It is difficult to determine the atrophy areas, especially for patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at different stages of AD, which results in a low diagnostic rate. Therefore, an early diagnosis model of AD based on 3-dimensional convolutional neural network (3DCNN) and genetic algorithm (GA) was proposed. Firstly, the 3DCNN was used to train a base classifier for each region of interest (ROI). And then, the optimal combination of the base classifiers was determined with the GA. Finally, the ensemble consisting of the chosen base classifiers was employed to make a diagnosis for a patient and the brain regions with significant classification capability were decided. The experimental results showed that the classification accuracy was 88.6% for AD


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neural Networks, Computer , Neurodegenerative Diseases
9.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 573-582, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155780

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The present study investigated the association between Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction (POCD) and increased serum S100B level after Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy (RALRP). Methods: The study included 82 consecutive patients who underwent RALRP. Serum S100B levels were determined preoperatively, after anesthesia induction, and at 30 minutes and 24 hours postoperatively. Cognitive function was assessed using neuropsychological testing preoperatively, and at 7 days and 3 months postoperatively. Results: Twenty four patients (29%) exhibited POCD 7 days after surgery, and 9 (11%) at 3 months after surgery. Serum S100B levels were significantly increased at postoperative 30 minutes and 24 hours in patients displaying POCD at postoperative 7 days (p = 0.0001 for both) and 3 months (p = 0.001 for both) compared to patients without POCD. Duration of anesthesia was also significantly longer in patients with POCD at 7 days and 3 months after surgery compared with patients without POCD (p = 0.012, p = 0.001, respectively), as was duration of Trendelenburg (p = 0.025, p = 0.002, respectively). Composite Z score in tests performed on day 7 were significantly correlated with duration of Trendelenburg and duration of anesthesia (p = 0.0001 for both). Conclusions: S100B increases after RALRP and this increase is associated with POCD development. Duration of Trendelenburg position and anesthesia contribute to the development of POCD. Trial Registry Number: Clinicaltrials.gov (N° NCT03018522).


Resumo Introdução: O presente estudo investigou a associação entre Disfunção Cognitiva Pós-Operatória (DCPO) e aumento do nível sérico de S100B após Prostatectomia Radical Laparoscópica Assistida por Robô (PRLAR). Métodos: O estudo incluiu 82 pacientes consecutivos submetidos à PRLAR. Os níveis séricos de S100B foram determinados: no pré-operatório, após indução anestésica, e aos 30 minutos e 24 horas do pós-operatório. A função cognitiva foi avaliada com testes neuropsicológicos no pré-operatório, no 7° dia pós-operatório (7 DPO) e aos 3 meses após a cirurgia (3 MPO). Resultados: Observamos 24 pacientes (29%) com DCPO no 7 DPO e 9 pacientes com DCPO (11%) após 3 meses da cirurgia. Quando comparados com os pacientes sem DCPO, os níveis séricos de S100B estavam significantemente aumentados aos 30 minutos e às 24 horas do pós-operatório nos pacientes que apresentaram DCPO no 7 DPO (p= 0,0001 para os dois momentos) e 3 meses após a cirurgia (p= 0,001 para os dois momentos) A duração anestésica também foi significantemente maior em pacientes com DCPO no 7 DPO e 3 MPO em comparação com pacientes sem DCPO (p= 0,012, p= 0,001, respectivamente), assim como a duração da posição de Trendelenburg (p= 0,025, p= 0,002, respectivamente). O escore Z composto nos testes realizados no 7 DPO foi significantemente correlacionado com a duração da posição de Trendelenburg e a duração da anestesia (p= 0,0001 para ambos). Conclusão: S100B aumenta após PRLAR e o aumento está associado ao desenvolvimento de DCPO. A duração anestésica e o tempo decorrido em posição de Trendelenburg contribuem para o desenvolvimento de DCPO. Número de registro do estudo: Clinicaltrials.gov (n° NCT03018522)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Postoperative Complications/blood , Prostatectomy/adverse effects , Cognitive Dysfunction/blood , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit/blood , Robotic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Prostatectomy/methods , Time Factors , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Head-Down Tilt/adverse effects , Area Under Curve , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Operative Time , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(11): 713-723, Nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142366

ABSTRACT

Abstract Spatial disorientation has been observed in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and is associated with a higher risk of progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is no gold standard assessment for spatial orientation and paper-and-pencil tests lack ecological validity. Recently, there has been an increasing number of studies demonstrating the role of spatial disorientation as a cognitive marker of pathological decline, shedding new light on its importance for MCI. This systematic review aimed to investigate the accuracy of spatial orientation tasks for the diagnosis of MCI by comparison with cognitively healthy elderly. The search was conducted in the databases Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE/PubMed), Web of Science, Scopus, Excerpta Medica Database (Embase), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). Only original studies reporting spatial orientation assessment in MCI patients compared to a healthy control group were included. Studies were excluded if the MCI classification did not follow well described criteria and/or if accuracy results of spatial orientation assessment were not provided. Seven studies met the eligibility criteria, describing a variety of spatial orientation assessments including questionnaires, paper-and-pencil, office-based route learning, and computer-based and virtual reality tasks. Spatial orientation tasks demonstrated moderate to high accuracy in detecting elderly with MCI compared to cognitively healthy elderly, with areas under the curve (AUC) ranging from 0.77 to 0.99. However, important methodological issues were found in the selected studies which should be considered when interpreting results. Although the inclusion of spatial orientation assessments in MCI evaluations seems to have significant value, further studies are needed to clarify their true capacity to distinguish pathological from non-pathological aging.


RESUMO A ocorrência de desorientação espacial foi observada no comprometimento cognitivo leve (CCL) e está associada a um maior risco de progressão para a doença de Alzheimer (DA). No entanto, não há um padrão ouro para avaliação da orientação espacial e os testes em papel e caneta não apresentam validade ecológica. Recentemente, um número cada vez maior de estudos têm apontado o papel da desorientação espacial como um marcador cognitivo do declínio patológico, lançando uma nova luz sobre sua importância para o CCL. Esta revisão sistemática teve como objetivo investigar a acurácia de tarefas de orientação espacial para se estabelecer o diagnóstico de CCL entre idosos cognitivamente saudáveis. A pesquisa foi realizada através das bases de dados Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, Lilacs e Scielo. Apenas artigos originais que reportassem avaliação da orientação espacial em idosos CCL comparados a um grupo controle saudável foram incluídos. Foram excluídos os estudos que não utilizassem a classificação de CCL segundo critérios bem descritos e/ou que não reportassem resultados de acurácia da avaliação da orientação espacial. Sete estudos atenderam aos critérios de elegibilidade, descrevendo uma variedade de formas de avaliação da orientação espacial, incluindo questionários, tarefas em papel e lápis, tarefas de aprendizado de rotas no escritório, tarefas baseadas em computador e com realidade virtual. As tarefas de orientação espacial demonstraram acurácia moderada a alta na detecção de CCL em comparação com idosos cognitivamente saudáveis, com áreas sob a curva (area under the curve — AUC) variando de 0,77 a 0,99. No entanto, um viés metodológico importante foi identificado nos estudos selecionados, o que deve ser levado em consideração na interpretação dos resultados. Apesar da inclusão da orientação espacial na avaliação cognitiva em CCL parecer ter um valor significativo, mais estudos são necessários para esclarecer sua verdadeira capacidade de distinguir o envelhecimento patológico do não patológico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Disease Progression , Orientation, Spatial
12.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(3): 284-292, Jul.-Sep. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131045

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El deterioro cognitivo leve es una alteración de la función cognitiva que no afecta de manera negativa a las actividades diarias de la persona. Factores de riesgo modificables como la hipertensión arterial podrían intervenir en el aceleramiento de este proceso y afectar a personas menores de 65 años. Una detección temprana del deterioro cognitivo leve por medio del Montreal Cognitive Assesment (MoCA) en personas con hipertensión arterial ayudaría a idear medidas para su control eficaz. Materiales y métodos: Se diseñó un estudio de tipo observacional transversal. La población se integra con pacientes hipertensos de 45 a 65 años de Guayaquil. De una base de datos de 570 pacientes, se realizó un llamado a sujetos que cumplieran los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, para la evaluación de la función cognitiva por medio del MoCA. Resultados: El 93.3% de los participantes sometidos a la prueba MoCA presentó un puntaje menor de 26. El promedio del puntaje total fue de 18.9 y el 51.6% de los participantes reveló deterioro cognitivo leve. Se obtuvo una correlación negativa del 40% (-0.40) con una p = 0.0015 entre años con hipertensión arterial y el resultado total de la prueba MoCA. Conclusiones: Por medio del MoCA se pudo cuantificar la magnitud del deterioro cognitivo en estos pacientes. Se identificó que la mayoría de los participantes examinados presentaba un puntaje promedio menor del intervalo normal. Las cifras obtenidas de los valores de correlación de Pearson muestran una actividad tendencial y relación de la hipertensión arterial con el deterioro de la función cognitiva.


Abstract Introduction: Mild cognitive impairment is an alteration of cognitive function that does not negatively affect the daily activities of the person. Modifiable risk factors such as hypertension could be involved in the acceleration of this process affecting people under 65 years of age. Early detection of mild cognitive impairment through the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in people with high blood pressure, would help to formulate strategies for its effective control. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional observational study was designed. The population is hypertensive patients between 45 and 65 years old in Guayaquil. From a database of 570 patients, a call was made to patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, for the evaluation of cognitive function through MoCA. Results: 93.3% of the participants who underwent the MoCA test had a score lower than 26. The average of the total score was 18.9, with 51.6% of the participants suffering from mild cognitive impairment. A negative correlation of 40% (-0.40) was obtained with a p = 0.0015 between years with arterial hypertension and the total result of the MoCA test. Conclusions: Through MoCA, the magnitude of cognitive deterioration in these patients could be quantified. It was detected that the majority of the examined participants had a lower average score of the normal range. The figures obtained from the Pearson correlation values show trend activity, relating arterial hypertension and deterioration of cognitive function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Cognition/physiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Hypertension/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Ecuador , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology
13.
Prensa méd. argent ; 106(6): 386-391, 20200000. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1367194

ABSTRACT

Deficiency in vitamin D and cognitive dysfunction commonly are associated together in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD) in both dialysis and non-dialysis patients, vitamin D develop new protective regulatory roles in the functions of CNS. Combination of low levels of vitamin D and CKD can be enrolled for devastating and lead to sever cognitive dysfunction. Patients with CKD mostly associated with Hypovitaminosisand moreover common in elderly patients and related with cognitive decline, one of the hypotheses that CKD patients commonly have a low level of vitamin D and have potential experience in accelerated cognitive decline which rarely link on this topic. Most of CKD patients particularly sensitive for developing in the deficiency of vitamin D. Reduce vitamin D intake, male absorption in compromised GIT patients, loosing of vitamin D binding protein with urine, and α-hydroxylase enzyme reduction in the kidney all are the risk factors included in the causes of 25(OH) D vitamin decrease production. Aim of study: assess cognitive function by using one validated score: trial making test B in patients with CKD in both dialysis and non-dialysis. Patients and methods: a total of 54 patients with CKD and 57 patients with ESRD on hemodialysis enrolled in this study, where CKD defined as GFR < 60 ml/min by MDRD study. Exclusion criteria include CVA, deaf and blind, and low education patients. Cognitive functions assessment done for patients who are on hemodialysis and non- dialysis by using trial B testing, this second assess spatial scanning concentration and executive function by time measuring that needed to connect the series of numbered that are sequentially and littered circles. Catastrophic shorter time completion with a maximum of 300 second indicates better performance. 25 (OH) D vitamins has assessed from each patients using direct immunoassay method, with assay at 4-110 ng/ml. Results: for patients on hemodialysis 27 (39.7%) has deficient 25(OH) D vitamin status 25 (36.7%) insufficient,20 (29.4%) had sufficient vitamin D levels, significant low level in patients on hemodialysis in comparison to those with non-hemodialysis. Trial making test B score was significantly lower in dialysis patients, significant correlation between cognitive function assessment (trial making test B) and low vitamin D level. Conclusions: the prevalence of deficiency in vitamin D in CKD especially hemodialysis patients associated with cognitive decline.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/pathology , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/pathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/pathology
14.
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 36(1): e1138, ene.-mar. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1099075

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La demencia es una enfermedad crónica, y la enfermedad de Alzheimer su causa más frecuente, ambas asociadas a factores genéticos y ambientales. La enfermedad de Alzheimer es un trastorno exclusivo del sistema nervioso central en el que se produce una lenta destrucción y atrofia de la corteza cerebral. Objetivo: Caracterizar los principales factores de riesgo asociados a los pacientes con enfermedad de Alzheimer y a sus cuidadores principales. Métodos: Se realizó un trabajo de revisión bibliográfica, que se llevó a cabo en la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas General Calixto García, entre mayo y junio del 2019, para lo cual se tuvieron en cuenta criterios de inclusión que delimitaron la búsqueda en relación a la enfermedad de Alzheimer. La pesquisa se inició a través de las plataformas virtuales (Scielo, Medline y Google Schrome). Se seleccionaron 31 artículos, de ellos, 18 artículos originales, 11 trabajos de revisión, una carta al editor y un debate. Los artículos fueron publicados en idioma español y/o en portugués. Conclusiones: Es de gran importancia el conocimiento de los factores de riesgo que están asociados a la enfermedad de Alzheimer y sus cuidadores, lo que permitirá evitarlos mediante acciones de salud que promuevan estilos de vida saludables y así intentar prevenir y controlar la evolución de esta enfermedad que cada día afecta de forma dramática a más personas(AU)


Introduction: Dementia is a chronic disease, and Alzheimer's disease is its most frequent cause, both associated with genetic and environmental factors. Alzheimer's disease is a disorder only manifested in the central nervous system and in which a slow destruction and atrophy of the cerebral cortex appears. Objective: To characterize the main risk factors associated with patients with Alzheimer's disease and their main caregivers. Methods: A literature review was carried out in General Calixto García School of Medical Sciences, between May and June 2019, and for which inclusion criteria were taken into account that delimited the search in relation to Alzheimer's disease. The research began through virtual platforms (SciELO, Medline, and Google Scholar). 31 articles were selected, of which 18 were original articles, 11 were review papers, there was one letter to the editor, and one debate. The articles were published in Spanish or Portuguese. Conclusions: Knowledge about the risk factors associated with Alzheimer's disease and its caregivers is of great importance, which will allow avoiding them by means of health actions that promote healthy lifestyles and thus trying to prevent and controlling the evolution of this disease, which dramatically affects more people every day(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Risk Factors , Caregivers , Alzheimer Disease/prevention & control , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Healthy Lifestyle
15.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4752, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039735

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the epidemiological profile of patients seen at a dementia outpatient clinic. Methods A retrospective study conducted by medical record review searching data on sex, race, age, schooling level, and diagnosis of patients seen from 2008 to 2015. Results A total of 760 patients were studied, with a predominance of female (61.3%; p<0.0001). The mean age was 71.2±14.43 years for women and 66.1±16.61 years for men. The most affected age group was 71 to 80 years, accounting for 29.4% of cases. In relation to race, 96.3% of patients were white. Dementia was diagnosed in 68.8% of patients, and Alzheimer's disease confirmed in 48.9%, vascular dementia in 11.3%, and mixed dementia in 7.8% of cases. The prevalence of dementia was 3% at 70 years and 25% at 85 years. Dementia appeared significantly earlier in males (mean age 68.5±15.63 years). As to sex distribution, it was more frequent in women (59.6%) than in men (40.4%; p<0.0001; OR=2.15). People with higher schooling level (more than 9 years) had a significantly younger age at onset of dementia as compared to those with lower schooling level (1 to 4 years; p=0.0007). Conclusion Most patients seen in the period presented dementia, and Alzheimer was the most prevalent disease. Women were more affected, and men presented young onset of the disease. Individuals with higher schooling level were diagnosed earlier than those with lower level.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar o perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes atendidos em um ambulatório de demência. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo realizado pela revisão de prontuários com busca de dados sobre sexo, raça, idade, escolaridade e diagnóstico de pacientes atendidos de 2008 a 2015. Resultados Foram estudados 760 pacientes, com predomínio do sexo feminino (61,3%; p<0,0001). A média de idade foi 71,2±14,43 anos, para as mulheres, e de 66,1±16,61 anos, para os homens. A faixa etária mais acometida foi de 71 a 80 anos, representando 29,4% dos casos. Em relação à etnia, 96,3% dos pacientes eram brancos. O quadro de demência foi diagnosticado em 68,8% dos pacientes, tendo sido a doença de Alzheimer confirmada em 48,9% dos casos, demência vascular em 11,3% e mista em 7,8%. A prevalência de demência foi de 3% aos 70 anos e de 25% aos 85 anos. O quadro demencial apareceu significativamente mais cedo no sexo masculino (média de idade 68,5±15,63 anos). A distribuição entre os sexos mostrou demência mais frequente em mulheres (59,6%) do que em homens (40,4%; p<0,0001; RC=2,15). Pessoas com maior escolaridade (acima de 9 anos) apresentaram idade de aparecimento da demência significativamente menor que aquelas de menor escolaridade (1 a 4 anos; p=0,0007). Conclusão Os pacientes atendidos no período apresentaram demência na maioria dos casos, sendo Alzheimer a doença mais prevalente. Mulheres foram mais acometidas, entretanto homens apresentaram a doença mais precocemente. Indivíduos com maior escolaridade foram diagnosticados mais cedo que aqueles com menor escolaridade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Dementia/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Medical Records , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals, Private/statistics & numerical data , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Dementia/diagnosis , Educational Status , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Middle Aged
16.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(11): 4355-4366, nov. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039513

ABSTRACT

Resumo Com o objetivo de efetuar o rastreio do perfil cognitivo dos residentes em Estruturas Para Idosos no Concelho de Miranda do Corvo, avaliaram-se 174 participantes recorrendo ao Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (n=96) e ao diagnóstico de demência reportado nos prontuários dos pacientes (n=78). Verificou-se, através do MMSE, que 41,7% dos inquiridos apresentavam pontuações sugestivas de déficit cognitivo. Adicionando a este resultado o diagnóstico de demência reportado nos prontuários dos pacientes, a percentagem subiu para 67,8% (n=118). A comparação dos nossos resultados com os obtidos a nível nacional revelou que essa percentagem foi significativamente superior (p<0,001). A escolaridade foi um fator preditivo da pontuação do MMSE (p=0,001). Conclui-se que a elevada prevalência de suspeita de déficit cognitivo e de demência revelada no nosso estudo deve remeter para a reflexão sobre a adequação dos cuidados prestados e sobre a ausência/escassez de programas de estimulação cognitiva nas estruturas residenciais para idosos. Nesse sentido, torna-se imperativo implementar avaliação cognitiva regular e instituir programas de intervenção que promovam a conservação e melhoria do funcionamento cognitivo em pessoas idosas institucionalizadas de zonas desfavorecidas.


Abstract This study aimed to screen the cognitive profile elderly people living in long-term care institutions in the municipality of Miranda do Corvo by evaluating 174 participants with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) (n=96) and the clinical dementia diagnosis (n=78). According to the MMSE, 41.7% of respondents had scores suggestive of cognitive impairment. The percentage rose to 67.8% (n=118) by adding the diagnosis of dementia reported in individual medical records to this result. The comparison of our results with those obtained nationwide showed that this proportion was significantly higher (p<0.001). The educational level was a predictive factor for MMSE scores (p=0.001). We can conclude that the high prevalence of suspected cognitive impairment and dementia revealed in our study should lead us to reflect on the quality of care provided and on the lack/scarcity of cognitive stimulation programs in long-term care institutions for seniors. Thus, it is imperative to implement regular cognitive assessment and to apply intervention programs for the preservation and improvement of the cognitive functioning of institutionalized elderly of deprived areas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Mass Screening , Cognition/physiology , Dementia/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Portugal , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Long-Term Care , Dementia/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Homes for the Aged
17.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(11): 775-781, Nov. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055190

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) has been described as a good tool to detect cognitive impairment. The ideal MoCA cutoff score is still under debate. The aim was to provide MoCA norms and accuracy data for seniors with a lower education level, including illiterates. Methods: Data originated from an epidemiological study conducted in the municipality of Tremembe, Brazil. The Brazilian MoCA test was applied as part of the cognitive assessment in all participants. Of the 630 participants, 385 were classified as cognitively normal (CN) and were included in the normative data set, 110 individuals were diagnosed with dementia and 135 were classified as having cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND). Results: The total scores varied significantly according to age and education among the three diagnostic groups: CN, CIND and dementia (p < 0.001). To distinguish participants with CN from dementia, the best MoCA cutoff was 15 points (sensitivity 90%, specificity 77%) and to differentiate those with CN from CIND, the MoCA cutoff was 19 points (sensitivity 84%, specificity 49%). Those scores varied according to education level. Conclusions: The MoCA test did not have a high accuracy for detecting CIND in the population with a low educational level. Nevertheless, this tool may be used to detect dementia, especially in individuals with more than five years of education, if a lower cutoff score is adopted.


RESUMO O Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) foi descrito como uma boa ferramenta para detectar comprometimento cognitivo. A nota de corte ideal do MoCA ainda está em debate. O objetivo é fornecer normas do MoCA e dados de acurácia para idosos dentro de uma faixa educacional mais baixa, incluindo analfabetos. Métodos: Os dados foram provenientes do estudo epidemiológico realizado no município de Tremembé, Brasil. A versão brasileira do MoCA foi aplicada como parte da avaliação cognitiva em todos os participantes. Dos 630 participantes, 385 foram classificados como cognitivamente normais (CN) e foram incluídos no conjunto de dados normativos, 110 indivíduos foram diagnosticados com demência e 135 foram classificados como tendo comprometimento cognitivo sem demência (CCSD). Resultados: Os escores totais variaram significativamente de acordo com a idade e escolaridade entre os três grupos diagnósticos: CN, CCSD e demência (p < 0,001). Para distinguir CN de demência, a melhor nota de corte do MoCA foi de 15 pontos (sensibilidade 90%, especificidade 77%) e para diferenciar o grupo CN de CCSD, a nota de corte do MoCA foi de 19 pontos (sensibilidade 84%, especificidade 49%). Essas notas de corte variaram conforme o nível de escolaridade. Conclusões: O teste MoCA não teve alta acurácia para detectar CCSD nesta população de baixa escolaridade. No entanto, esta ferramenta poderia ser usada para detectar demência, especialmente em indivíduos com mais de 5 anos de escolaridade, se uma menor nota de corte fosse adotada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Dementia/diagnosis , Educational Status , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Mental Status and Dementia Tests/standards , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales/standards , Reference Values , Brazil , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Sensitivity and Specificity , Age Factors , Data Accuracy
18.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(10): 727-735, oct 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1026057

ABSTRACT

The Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a multisystemic disorder. It is considered a neuromuscular disease but also involves cognitive (executive functions, social cognition, attention, memory and language), emotional or behavior changes in over 50% of the reported cases and to of frontotemporal diagnosis lobar degeneration of behavioral variant in up to 15% of the cases. For this reason, the presence of cognitive and motivational problems was analysed in a Spanish sample of ALS patients through the prefrontal symptoms inventory (PSI) to determine applicability in this disease STI. A sample of 31 patients with a potential ALS or definitive diagnostic criteria according to El Escorial was used. Obtained results ISP were compared with a sample of 31 healthy people in the same proportions of gender, age and education level. Obtained results showed a not significant difference between the two populations in the motivational factor problems, related to the depression symptomatology frequently associated with ALS. A significant positive correlation between age at diagnosis and the scale of the motivational problems was observed, with a not significant trend related to problems in the executive control and in social the behavior control and with the age at diagnosis, in the same sense with age at diagnosis. Therefore, it can be concluded that, despite the results obtained, emotional and behavioral deficits in ALS patients and symptoms related to frontotemporal dementia (among others, anosognosia or lack of consciousness symptoms) could have interfered in patient perception about their symptomatology


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Case-Control Studies , Cognition Disorders , Affective Symptoms/diagnosis , Frontotemporal Dementia/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , Mental Disorders/diagnosis
19.
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 46(5): 120-124, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054911

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Current evidence suggests that upregulation of polyamines system plays a role both in cognitive deficit and synaptic loss observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Objective The aim of this study was to determine the plasmatic concentration of polyamines in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD patients in comparison with healthy controls (HC). Methods Plasmatic polyamines were quantified using the AbsoluteIDQ® p180 and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). Results The study group comprised 34 AD patients, 20 MCI and 25 HC. All individuals were followed for 4 years. During this period 8 amnestic MCI patients (40% of the MCI sample at baseline) converted to AD. Spermidine level was lower in both patient groups (AD; MCI) compared to HC (p = 0.007). Plasma levels of spermine were higher in the MCI group (p < 0.001), but decreased in the sub-sample of MCI patients who converted to AD (p = 0.043). No statistically significant differences were found in ornithine and putrescine levels (p = 0.056 and p = 0.126, respectively). Discussion Our results suggest dynamic changes in the expression of polyamines in the MCI-AD continuum.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Polyamines/blood , Spermine/blood , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Ornithine/blood , Polyamines/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Putrescine/blood , Spermidine/blood , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Metabolomics/methods , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis
20.
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 46(3): 72-79, May.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011151

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a disorder in which the patient presents a cognitive decline, but without negative impact on the activities of daily living. Objective To carry out a systematic review of published studies that analyzed the prevalence of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in older adults living in the community, and the criteria used for the diagnosis of this disorder. Methods A search was carried out in May 2017 using the descriptors: "epidemiology" or "prevalence", "mild cognitive impairment", and "community" in the PubMed, PsycInfo, SciELO, Web of Science, and Scopus databases. Two independent researchers extracted and documented the data. We used a random effect model to calculate pooled prevalence of MCI for overall studies and for each subgroup divided by diagnostic criteria. Results We found initially 1996 articles, and we selected 35 studies. The prevalence of MCI in the selected studies ranged from 0.5% to 41.8%. The overall pooled prevalence of MCI was 17.3% (CI 95%, 13.8-20.8), with significant heterogeneity between estimates (I2 = 99.6%). Discussion The standardization of the diagnostic criteria for MCI, as well as the tests used in the cognitive evaluation, could allow the comparison between the studies and would be an important step in the researches of this area.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , Prevalence
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