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1.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(3): 363-370, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126173

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: La inflamación asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) se relaciona con la pro gresión de las lesiones precancerosas gástricas. Las infecciones por helmintos podrían modular la respuesta proinflamatoria a la infección por H. pylori desde un perfil tipo LTCD4+ Th1 hacia una respuesta menos perjudicial tipo LTCD4+ Th2. Objetivo: Caracterizar la polarización de la respuesta inmune tipo LTCD4+ Th1/Th2 de pacientes coinfectados por H. pylori y helmintiasis procedentes de áreas de bajo riego para el desarrollo de cáncer gástrico. Pacientes y Método: Se analizaron 63 pacientes, 40 adultos y 23 niños infectados con H. pylori. La determinación de los perfiles séricos de las interleucinas asociadas con la polarización de la respuesta inmune tipo LTCD4+ Th1 (IL-1Β, INF-γ y TNF-α) y tipo LTCD4+ Th2 (IL-4, IL-10 e IL-13) se realizó con Análisis Multiplex (xMAP). La relación entre el estado de coinfección por helmintos en pacientes infectados con H. pylori y la polarización de la respuesta inmune mediada por LTCD4+ Th1 y LTCD4+ Th2, se estudió con un modelo de regresión logístico de efectos mixtos. Resultados: La frecuencia de helmintos fue similar en adultos (15%) y niños (17%). La polarización de la respuesta inmune fue más prevalente hacia el tipo LTCD4+ Th1. Los valores séricos de las interleucinas asociadas con la polarización de la respuesta inmune tipo LTCD4+ Th1 (IL-1 Β, INF-γ y TNF-α) y tipo LTCD4+ Th2 (IL-4, IL-10 e IL-13) fueron independientes del estado de infestación por helmintos. Conclusión: La prevalencia de infección por parasitismo intestinal fue alta y la polarización de la respuesta inmune fue predominantemente hacia un perfil tipo LTCD4 + Th1.


Abstract: Introduction: Inflammation associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is linked to the development of a gastric precancerous lesion. Helminth infections could influence the pro-inflam matory response to such infection from LTCD4+ Th1 to a less harmful LTCD4+ Th2 response. Ob jective: To characterize the polarization of the LTCD4+ Th2 immune response in co-infected pa tients with H. pylori and helminths from low-risk areas for developing gastric cancer. Patients and Method: We analyzed 63 patients infected by H. pylori (40 adults and 23 children). Through the Multiplex Analysis technology (xMAP), we determined the serum profiles of the interleukins asso ciated with the polarization of the immune response of LTCD4+ Th1 (IL-1Β, INF-γ, TNF-α) as well as the LTCD4+ Th2 (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13). The ratio between helminths co-infection status in H. pylori-infected patients and the polarization of the immune response mediated by LTCD4+ Th1 and LTCD4+ Th2 was assessed using a Mixed Effects Logistic Regression Model. Results: The frequency of helminths was similar between adults (15%) and children (17%). The polarization of the immu ne response was more prevalent in LTCD4+ Th1. Serum values of interleukins associated with the immune response polarization of LTCD4+ Th1 (IL-1Β, INF-γ, and TNF-α) and LTCD4+ Th2 (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13) were independent of helminths infection status. Conclusion: The prevalence of in testinal parasitic infection was high and the immune response polarization was mainly LTCD4 + Th1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Helicobacter pylori/immunology , Helicobacter Infections/immunology , Th1-Th2 Balance , Coinfection/immunology , Helminthiasis/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Logistic Models , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Helicobacter Infections/pathology , Helicobacter Infections/blood , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/pathology , Coinfection/blood , Helminthiasis/diagnosis , Helminthiasis/pathology , Helminthiasis/blood
2.
S. Afr. med. j. (Online) ; 110(6): 473-475, 2020.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1271261

ABSTRACT

The first critically ill patient admitted to our hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, during the COVID-19 pandemic was co-infected with HIV and SARS-CoV-2. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) and other respiratory opportunistic infections share many clinical features with severe COVID-19. Our understanding of the nuances of co-management of HIV and COVID-19 is evolving. We describe the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges presented by this case


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection/diagnosis , South Africa
3.
Rev. pesqui. cuid. fundam. (Online) ; 11(2, n. esp): 358-362, jan. 2019.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-969295

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência de coinfecção HIV/TB em pacientes submetidos a tratamento de TBMR em um hospital de referência do Rio de Janeiro. Método: Uma investigação transversal, cuja população foi composta por 40 pacientes em tratamento para TBMR, no período de março a dezembro de 2016. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o programa estatístico SPSS. Resultados: No período em estudo foram diagnosticados 40 casos de TBMR, dos quais 9 mostraram sorologia positiva para HIV, o que representou uma taxa de coinfecção de 22,5%. Nesse grupo predominou o sexo masculino (85,29%) e a média 37,5 anos. O diagnóstico de TB nos coinfectados prevaleceu a forma clínica pulmonar (80%). No teste do esfregaço, (66,6%) apresentaram resultado positivo, (74,9%) radiologia sugestiva e 100% dos pacientes apresentaram resistência a rifampicina no teste do Gene Xpert. Conclusão: As drogas que apresentaram-se mais resistentes neste grupo foram rifampicina, isoniazida e estreptomicina (87,5%)


Objective: The study's purpose has been to estimate the prevalence of HIV/TB coinfection in patients submitted to treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) at a referral hospital in Rio de Janeiro city. Methods: It is a cross-sectional study that was carried out over the period from March to December 2016, whose population was composed of 40 patients undergoing treatment for MDR-TB. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS statistical program. Results: During the study time frame, 40 cases of MDR-TB were diagnosed, out of which 9 cases showed positive serology for HIV, representing a coinfection rate of 22.5%. In this group, the male gender predominated (85.29%) and with average age of 37.5 years old. The diagnosis of TB in coinfected patients occurred in the pulmonary clinical form (80%). In the smear test, (66.6%) presented a positive result, (74.9%) suggestive radiology and 100% of the patients presented resistance to rifampicin in the GeneXpert TB test. Conclusion: The drugs that presented the most resistance in this group were rifampicin, isoniazid and streptomycin (87.5%)


Objetivo: Estimar la prevalencia de coinfección VIH/TB en pacientes sometidos a tratamiento de TBMR en un hospital de referencia de Río de Janeiro. Método: Una investigación transversal, cuya población fue compuesta por 40 pacientes en tratamiento para TBMR, en el período de marzo a diciembre de 2016. Para análisis estadístico se utilizó el programa estadístico SPSS. Resultados: En el período en estudio se diagnosticaron 40 casos de TBMR, de los cuales 9 mostraron serología positiva para el VIH, lo que representó una tasa de coinfección del 22,5%. En ese grupo predominó el sexo masculino (85,29%) y la media 37,5 años. El diagnóstico de TB en los coinfectados prevaleció la forma clínica pulmonar (80%). En la prueba del frotis, (66,6%) presentaron un resultado positivo, (74,9%) radiología sugestiva y el 100% de los pacientes presentaron resistencia a rifampicina en la prueba del Gene Xpert. Conclusión: Las drogas que se presentaron más resistentes en este grupo fueron rifampicina, isoniazida y estreptomicina (87,5%)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/diagnosis
4.
Medisan ; 22(7)jul.-ago. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-955056

ABSTRACT

Se describe el caso clínico de un paciente de 34 años de edad, quien acudió a consulta de Dermatología por presentar máculas eritematosas pruriginosas generalizadas. A los 3 meses con tratamiento específico comenzó a presentar febrículas vespertinas y adenopatías cervicales dolorosas, por lo que se indicó una baciloscopia en ambos codos y pabellones auriculares, pero no se halló el Mycobacterium leprae; además se realizó biopsia por aspiración con aguja fina de un ganglio cervical, cuyo resultado reveló una tuberculosis ganglionar. Finalmente se diagnosticó una coinfección por lepra y tuberculosis ganglionar, dos enfermedades producidas por el Mycobacterium, cuya coexistencia es rara.


The case report of a 34 year-old patient is described who came to the Dermatology Service due to disseminated pruritic erythematous stains. After 3 months with specific treatment he began to present evening low fevers and painful cervical adenopathies, reason why a baciloscopy was indicated in both elbows and ear pavilions, but the Mycobacterium leprae was not found; besides aspiration biopsy with fine needle of a cervical ganglion was also carried out, which result revealed a ganglionar tuberculosis. Finally a leprosy and tuberculosis ganglionar coinfection was diagnosed, two diseases emerging due to the Mycobacterium, which coexistence is strange.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node/diagnosis , Coinfection/diagnosis , Leprosy/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node/drug therapy , Leprosy/drug therapy , Mycobacterium
5.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(6): 658-668, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990849

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los virus del dengue y chikungunya son transmitidos por la hembra de los mosquitos Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus, ampliamente distribuidos en zonas tropicales y subtropicales, lo que facilita la co-infección. Objetivo: Determinar la magnitud, la distribución geográfica y el cuadro clínico de la co-infección por dengue y chikungunya. Material y Métodos: Revisión narrativa. Búsqueda en las bases de datos PubMed y Lilacs, utilizando los términos MeSH "Chikungunya", "CHIKV", "DENV", "Dengue" y "coinfection. Se incluyeron los artículos de los últimos 20 años. Resultados: Se incluyeron 45 artículos. El mayor reporte de co-infección fue en Asia seguido de África. En las Américas la información es limitada por la reciente circulación del chikungunya. La magnitud de la co-infección varió entre 0 y 31,9%. No se encontraron diferencias en la distribución de la co-infección por sexo y edad. El cuadro clínico de la mono-infección y la co-infección fue similar. Algunos reportes de caso exponen cuadros graves con afección del sistema nervioso central, manifestaciones hemorrágicas y enfermedad de Still. Conclusión: Las manifestaciones clínicas de la co-infección por dengue y chikungunya son similares a la mono-infección, situación que dificulta el diagnóstico y la medición de su magnitud.


Background: Dengue and chikungunya viruses are transmitted by the female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, which are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas, facilitating coinfection. Aim: To determine the magnitude, geographical distribution and clinical picture of dengue and chikungunya coinfection. Material and Methods: Narrative review. A search in the PubMed and Lilacs databases was made, using the MeSH terms "Chikungunya", "CHIKV", "DENV", "Dengue" and "coinfection. The articles of the last 20 years were included. Results: A total of 45 articles were included. The largest coinfection report was in Asia followed by Africa. In the Americas, the information is limited because of the recent circulation of chikungunya. The magnitude of coinfection varies between 0% and 31.9%. No differences were found in the distribution of coinfection by sex and age. The clinical picture of monoinfection and coinfection was similar. Some case reports show severe cases with central nervous system involvement, hemorrhagic manifestations and Still's disease. Conclusion: The clinical manifestations of coinfection by dengue and chikungunya viruses are similar to those due to monoinfection, which difficult the diagnosis and measurement of its magnitude.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dengue/virology , Coinfection/virology , Chikungunya Fever/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Chikungunya virus/genetics , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/mortality , Dengue/transmission , Dengue Virus/genetics , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/mortality , Coinfection/transmission , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/mortality , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Mosquito Vectors , Genotype , Geography
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(4): 255-259, Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841784

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Porto Alegre is the Brazilian state capital with second highest incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and the highest proportion of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among patients with TB. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increases the risk of anti-TB drug-induced hepatotoxicity, which may result in discontinuation of the therapy. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was (i) to estimate prevalence of HCV and HIV in a group of patients newly diagnosed with active TB in a public reference hospital in Porto Alegre and (ii) to compare demographic, behavioural, and clinical characteristics of patients in relation to their HCV infection status. METHODS One hundred and thirty-eight patients with TB were tested for anti-HCV antibody, HCV RNA, and anti-HIV1/2 antibody markers. HCV RNA from real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive samples was submitted to reverse transcription and PCR amplification. The 5′ non-coding region of the HCV genome was sequenced, and genotypes of HCV isolates were determined. FINDINGS Anti-HCV antibody, HCV RNA, and anti-HIV antibodies were detected in 27 [20%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 13-26%], 17 (12%; 95% CI, 7-18%), and 34 (25%; 95% CI, 17-32%) patients, respectively. HCV isolates belonged to genotypes 1 (n = 12) and 3 (n = 4). Some characteristics were significantly more frequent in patients infected with HCV. Among them, non-white individuals, alcoholics, users of illicit drugs, imprisoned individuals, and those with history of previous TB episode were more commonly infected with HCV (p < 0.05). MAIN CONCLUSIONS HCV screening, including detection of anti-HCV antibody and HCV RNA, will be important to improving the management of co-infected patients, given their increased risk of developing TB treatment-related hepatotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , HIV Antibodies/blood , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/blood , Polymerase Chain Reaction
7.
São Paulo, SP; s.n; 2016. 134 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-CTDPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-TESESESSP, SES-SP | ID: biblio-983536

ABSTRACT

Desde a década de 90 o Instituto Adolfo Lutz de São Paulo (IAL) tem realizado o diagnóstico da infecção por Vírus Linfotrópicos de Células T Humanas dos tipos 1 e 2 (HTLV-1 e HTLV-2) e, desde então, têm sido reportadas as dificuldades principalmente no diagnóstico de HTLV-2, em especial em pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar várias técnicas de diagnóstico disponíveis no momento atual (kits comerciais e testes in house) e estabelecer o melhor algoritmo para ser empregado no diagnóstico de pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1. A população analisada foi composta por dois grupos provenientes de Serviços de Assistência Especializados em HIV/AIDS de São Paulo: um pioneiro [Grupo 1 (G1), n=1.608] e outro com histórico mais recente [Grupo 2 (G2), n=1.383]. Ambos os grupos foram formados, na maioria, por indivíduos do sexo masculino...


Since the 90 decade, the Instituto Adolfo Lutz (IAL) has performed the diagnosis of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus type 1 and type 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2), and thenceforth the difficulties in diagnosing HTLV-2 have been reported, mostly in HIV-infected patients. The present study aimed at evaluating the several diagnostic techniques currently available (commercial kits and in-house assays), and to establish the best algorithm to be employed for diagnosing HTLV-1/-2 in patients infected with HIV-1. The study population was composed by two patient groups attended at HIV/AIDS specialized services care in São Paulo: the pioneer one [Group 1 (G1), n=1,608], and the other with the most recent historical health setting [Group 2 (G2), n=1,383. The majority of the both groups were composed by male patients...


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , HIV-1 , Algorithms , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coinfection/complications , Coinfection/diagnosis , HIV Infections , HTLV-I Infections , HTLV-II Infections , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1
9.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 47(2): 148-151, June 2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147325

ABSTRACT

La infección de los búfalos de agua (Bubalus bubalis) con los virus de la diarrea viral bovina (BVDV) ha sido confirmada mediante técnicas serológicas y moleculares en trabajos anteriores. Con el fin de determinar la presencia de animales persistentemente infectados y las especies y subtipos circulantes de BVDV en esta especie animal se realizó un estudio sobre una manada de búfalos de producción mixta con ganado bovino (Bossp.). Nuestros resultados serológicos mostraron un alto nivel de positividad frente a BVDV-1 y BVDV-2 dentro de la manada de búfalos. El análisis molecular sobre muestras de sangre de los animales serológicamente negativos reveló la presencia de ácido nucleico viral, lo que confirma la existencia de búfalos persistentemente infectados. El clonado y la secuenciación de la región 5 'UTR de algunas de las muestras obtenidas de búfalo reveló la presencia de coinfección natural con al menos dos subtipos diferentes de BVDV (1a y 1b) y con las especies virales BVDV-1 y BVDV-2


Infection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) has been confirmed in several studies by serological and molecular techniques. In order to determine the presence of persistently infected animals and circulating species and subtypes of BVDV we conducted this study on a buffalo herd, whose habitat was shared with bovine cattle (Bossp.). Our serological results showed a high level of positivity for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 within the buffalo herd. The molecular analyses of blood samples in serologically negative animals revealed the presence of viral nucleic acid, confirming the existence of persistent infection in the buffaloes. Cloning and sequencing of the 5' UTR of some of these samples revealed the presence of naturally mix-infected buffaloes with at least two different subtypes (1a and 1b), and also with both BVDV species (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Buffaloes/immunology , Serologic Tests/methods , Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral/isolation & purification , Coinfection/diagnosis , Buffaloes/blood
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(1): 21-28, 02/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703648

ABSTRACT

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for the diagnosis of malaria infection are expected to accurately identify submicroscopic parasite carriers. Although a significant number of PCR protocols have been described, few studies have addressed the performance of PCR amplification in cases of field samples with submicroscopic malaria infection. Here, the reproducibility of two well-established PCR protocols (nested-PCR and real-time PCR for the Plasmodium 18 small subunit rRNA gene) were evaluated in a panel of 34 blood field samples from individuals that are potential reservoirs of malaria infection, but were negative for malaria by optical microscopy. Regardless of the PCR protocol, a large variation between the PCR replicates was observed, leading to alternating positive and negative results in 38% (13 out of 34) of the samples. These findings were quite different from those obtained from the microscopy-positive patients or the unexposed individuals; the diagnosis of these individuals could be confirmed based on the high reproducibility and specificity of the PCR-based protocols. The limitation of PCR amplification was restricted to the field samples with very low levels of parasitaemia because titrations of the DNA templates were able to detect < 3 parasites/µL in the blood. In conclusion, conventional PCR protocols require careful interpretation in cases of submicroscopic malaria infection, as inconsistent and false-negative results can occur.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Carrier State/parasitology , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Malaria/parasitology , Plasmodium/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Chi-Square Distribution , Carrier State/diagnosis , Coinfection/diagnosis , Genes, rRNA/genetics , Microscopy , Malaria/diagnosis , Parasitemia/diagnosis , Parasitemia/parasitology , Plasmodium/classification , Reproducibility of Results , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124057

ABSTRACT

While imported falciparum malaria has been increasingly reported in recent years in Korea, clinicians have difficulties in making a clinical diagnosis as well as in having accessibility to effective anti-malarial agents. Here we describe an unusual case of imported falciparum malaria with severe hemolytic anemia lasting over 2 weeks, clinically mimicking a coinfection with babesiosis. A 48-year old Korean man was diagnosed with severe falciparum malaria in France after traveling to the Republic of Benin, West Africa. He received a 1-day course of intravenous artesunate and a 7-day course of Malarone (atovaquone/proguanil) with supportive hemodialysis. Coming back to Korea 5 days after discharge, he was readmitted due to recurrent fever, and further treated with Malarone for 3 days. Both the peripheral blood smears and PCR test were positive for Plasmodium falciparum. However, he had prolonged severe hemolytic anemia (Hb 5.6 g/dl). Therefore, 10 days after the hospitalization, Babesia was considered to be potentially coinfected. A 7-day course of Malarone and azithromycin was empirically started. He became afebrile within 3 days of this babesiosis treatment, and hemolytic anemia profiles began to improve at the completion of the treatment. He has remained stable since his discharge. Unexpectedly, the PCR assays failed to detect DNA of Babesia spp. from blood. In addition, during the retrospective review of the case, the artesunate-induced delayed hemolytic anemia was considered as an alternative cause of the unexplained hemolytic anemia.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Hemolytic/chemically induced , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Artemisinins/adverse effects , Atovaquone/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Babesiosis/complications , Benin , Blood/parasitology , Coinfection/diagnosis , Drug Combinations , France , Humans , Korea , Malaria, Falciparum/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Proguanil/therapeutic use , Travel , Treatment Outcome
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70515

ABSTRACT

Microscopy is considered as the gold standard for malaria diagnosis although its wide application is limited by the requirement of highly experienced microscopists. PCR and serological tests provide efficient diagnostic performance and have been applied for malaria diagnosis and research. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of nested PCR and a recently developed an ELISA-based new rapid diagnosis test (RDT), NovaLisa test kit, for diagnosis of malaria infection, using microscopic method as the gold standard. The performance of nested-PCR as a malaria diagnostic tool is excellent with respect to its high accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and ability to discriminate Plasmodium species. The sensitivity and specificity of nested-PCR compared with the microscopic method for detection of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and P. falciparum/P. vivax mixed infection were 71.4 vs 100%, 100 vs 98.7%, and 100 vs 95.0%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA-based NovaLisa test kit compared with the microscopic method for detection of Plasmodium genus were 89.0 vs 91.6%, respectively. NovaLisa test kit provided comparable diagnostic performance. Its relatively low cost, simplicity, and rapidity enables large scale field application.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Coinfection/diagnosis , Endemic Diseases , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Malaria, Vivax/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods , Thailand/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 50(4): 277-280, Oct-Dec/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697584

ABSTRACT

Context The occurrence of HIV and hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) virus associations is of great concern since co-infected patients respond poorly to antiviral treatment and usually progress to chronic and more complicated hepatic disease. In Brazil, these co-infections prevalence is not well known since published data are few and sometimes demonstrate conflicting results. Also, a significant number of co-infected individuals are HBV/HCV asymptomatic carriers, leading to under notification. Objectives The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of the HBV and HCV infection in a recently diagnosed HIV population in the state of Ceará/Brazil. Methods Retrospective cohort, with >18yo patients diagnosed HIV+ from 2008-2010. First year medical attention information was collected. Results A total of 1.291 HIV+ patients were included. HBV serologies were collected in 52% (23% had previous hepatitis B, 3.7% were co-infected) and HCV in 25.4% (1.5% had previous hepatitis C, 5.4% co-infection). The majority of HBV/HIV patients referred multiple sexual partners/year, 28% homosexualism and 20% bisexualism. In the HCV/HIV group 38.8% individuals had > one sexual partner/year and 22.2% used intravenous drugs. Conclusion The study reinforce the need for better training healthcare workers and providing laboratory support for a prompt hepatitis diagnosis and adequate medical management to avoid complications and decrease viral spread. .


Contexto A ocorrência da associação de HIV com a hepatite por vírus B (HVB) e C (HVC) é preocupante visto que os pacientes coinfectados tendem a ter uma resposta pior à terapia antiviral e uma chance maior de progredirem para a cronificação da doença hepática e suas complicações. No Brasil, os estudos publicados sobre a prevalência dessas coinfecções ainda são escassos e, muitos deles, com resultados conflitantes entre si. Além disso, muitos pacientes coinfectados são portadores assintomáticos dos vírus das hepatites o que causa um atraso no seu diagnóstico, com consequente subnotificação de casos. Objetivos Este estudo objetiva determinar a prevalência da infecção pelo HVB e HVC em pacientes recém-diagnosticados com HIV no Ceará/Brasil. Métodos Coorte retrospectivo com pacientes >18 anos, diagnosticados HIV+ de 2008-2010. Foram coletados dados referentes ao primeiro ano de acompanhamento desses pacientes através de revisão de prontuário: fatores de risco para HIV, HBV e HCV e resultados de provas sorológicas para esses vírus. Resultados Foram acompanhados 1291 pacientes HIV+. Testes sorológicos para HBV foram realizados em 52% dos casos: 23% apresentavam hepatite B prévia e 3,7% eram coinfectados. Apenas 25,4% tinham testes sorológicos para HCV: 1,5% tinham hepatite C prévia e 5,4% eram coinfectados. A maioria dos pacientes HBV/HIV referia ter múltiplos parceiros sexuais em um ano. Homossexualismo e bissexualismo estavam presentes em 28% e 20% respectivamente. No grupo HCV/HIV 38,8% referia múltiplos parceiros sexuais em um ano e o uso de drogas endovenosas ocorreu em 22,2% dos casos. Conclusão O estudo reforça a necessidade de um treinamento dos profissionais de saúde e de facilitação do acesso do paciente ...


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Coinfection/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Coinfection/diagnosis , Epidemiologic Methods , HIV Infections/complications , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/diagnosis
14.
Article in French | IMSEAR | ID: sea-159970

ABSTRACT

Background: The dual epidemic of tuberculosis and HIV is a significant problem in the developed and developing countries. Tuberculosis is the most common human immunodeficiency virus related opportunistic infection in India and caring for patients with both diseases is a major public health challenge. Aim: The aim of the present study was to record the different clinical patterns of tuberculosis in HIV co-infected patients as a function of CD4+T cell count. Material and Methods: The study was a retrospective analysis of the HIV-TB co-infected patients admitted in the Chest and TB Hospital, Government Medical College, Amritsar (Punjab) during the calender year 2011. Results: Out of total 47 HIV sero-positive patients (n=47), 36 were males (76.59%) and 11 females (23.41%) of age group 14 to 51 years. Cough was the most common presenting symptom (72.34%).A large number of patients were diagnosed as having pulmonary tuberculosis (48.94%). The other diagnoses were tubercular meningitis (n=4), pleural effusion (n=4), tubercular lymphadenopathy (n=2), pneumothorax (n=2), hydropneumothorax (n=2) and abdominal tuberculosis (n=2). A total of 34 (72.34%) patients were having a CD4+T cell count of < 200. Conclusion: The manifestations of tuberculosis in HIV infected patients are quite varied and generally show a different pattern as a function of CD4+ T cell count. Co-infection with HIV infection leads to difficulties in both diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis. High degree of suspicion of tuberculosis, with astute clinical and laboratory evaluation is the key for early diagnosis and management.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/therapy , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/therapy , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Tertiary Care Centers , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/therapy
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(2): 156-160, Mar-Apr/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-674642

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection with Leishmania infantum or Leishmania donovani, the agents of visceral leishmaniasis (or kala-azar), has become a fatal public health problem in the tropics where kala-azar is endemic. METHODS: The clinical presentation of patients with HIV and L. infantum coinfection is described using two unique databases that together produce the largest case series of patients with kala-azar infected with HIV in South America. First, a retrospective study paired the list of all patients with kala-azar from 1994 to 2004 with another of all patients with HIV/AIDS from the reference hospital for both diseases in the City of Teresina, State of Piauí, Brazil. Beginning in 2005 through to 2010 this information was prospectively collected at the moment of hospitalization. RESULTS: During the study, 256 admissions related to 224 patients with HIV/L. infantum coinfection were registered and most of them were males between 20-40 years of age. Most of the 224 patients were males between 20-40 years of age. HIV contraction was principally sexual. The most common symptoms and signs were pallor, fever, asthenia and hepatosplenomegaly. 16.8% of the cohort died. The primary risk factors associated to death were kidney or respiratory failure, somnolence, hemorrhagic manifestations and a syndrome of systemic inflammation. The diagnosis of HIV and kala-azar was made simultaneously in 124 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The urban association between HIV and kala-azar coinfection in South America is worrisome due to difficulty in establishing the diagnosis and higher mortality among the coinfected then those with either disease independently. HIV/L. infantum coinfection exhibits some singular characteristics and due to its higher mortality it requires immediate assistance to patients and greater research on appropriate combination therapy. .


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Coinfection/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Urban Population
16.
IJB-Iranian Journal of Biotechnology. 2013; 11 (2): 74-79
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-133103

ABSTRACT

Due to some limitations of serological methods in diagnosis of patients infected with HIV-1 [human immunodeficiency virus] and HCV [hepatitis C virus], it is profoundly important to use molecular methods for the detecting of these infectious agents. However, the most significant problems are the exorbitant cost of these methods and the need of a thermocycler which is an expensive instrument. The current research recruits a multiplex nucleic acid sequence base amplification [NASBA] in order to simultaneously detect HIV-1 and HCV genomes in patients' plasma samples. Sensitivity and specificity of this method have been evaluated using clinical samples. A multiplex NASBA assay for simultaneous detection of HCV and HIV-1 by the use of specific primers were designed and validated. A well-conserved region in the HIV-1 pol gene and 5'-NCR of HCV genome were used. A total of 40 samples of HIV-1 [20 samples] and HCV [20 samples] were used in the NASBA assay. The specificity and sensitivity of the assay were evaluated. Our results have demonstrated that the primers used in the assay had no interrelation with each other and other possible interfering agents in the assay. The analytical sensitivity of the assay for both HIV-1 and HCV was determined to be 1000 copies/mL and the clinical sensitivity and specificity were 93.3% and 100%, respectively. By exploiting this multiplex NASBA assay, it is possible to detect HIV-1 and HCV infection/co-infection in patients' plasma with a suitable sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, due to its simplicity and multiplexing feature, it could be used in limited access laboratories in a cost-effective manner.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coinfection/diagnosis , Hepacivirus/isolation & purification , HIV/isolation & purification , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Self-Sustained Sequence Replication , Research
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 45(4): 453-456, July-Aug. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-646917

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, studies have shown that HTLV seroprevalence among pregnant women varies from 0 to 1.8%. However, this seroprevalence was unknown in the State of Pará, Brazil. The present study describes, for the first time, the HTLV seroprevalence among pregnant women from the State of Pará, Northern Brazil. METHODS: 13,382 pregnant women were submitted to HTLV screening during prenatal care, and those with non-seronegative results to anti-HTLV were submitted to Western blot (WB) test to confirm and separate HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 carriers. RESULTS: HTLV seroprevalence in the population of pregnant women was 0.3%, and HTLV-1 was identified in 95.3% of patients. The demographic profile of HTLV carriers was as follows: women with age between 20 and 40 years old (78.4%); residing in the metropolitan region of Belém, Pará (67.6%); and with educational level of high school (56.8%). Other variables related to infection were as follows: beginning of sexual intercourse between the age of 12 and 18 years old (64.9%) and have being breastfed for more than 6 months (51.4%). Most of the women studied had at least two previous pregnancies (35.1%) and no abortion (70.3%). Coinfections (syphilis and HIV) were found in 10.8% (4/37) of these pregnant women. CONCLUSIONS: Seroprevalence of HTLV infection in pregnant women assisted in basic health units from the State of Pará, Northern Brazil, was 0.3% similar to those described in other Brazilian studies. The variables related to infection were important indicators in identifying pregnant women with a higher tendency to HTLV seropositivity, being a strategy for disease control and prevention, avoiding vertical transmission.


INTRODUÇÃO: No Brasil, estudos mostram que a soroprevalência do HTLV entre gestantes varia de 0 a 1,8%. Contudo, esta soroprevalência era desconhecida no Estado do Pará, Brasil. O presente estudo descreve, pela primeira vez, a soroprevalência do HTLV entre gestantes do Estado do Pará, Norte do Brasil. MÉTODOS: 13,382 gestantes foram submetidas à triagem para HTLV durante o pré-natal, e aquelas com sorologia alterada para anti-HTLV foram submetidas ao teste de Western Blot (WB), para confirmar e discriminar portadoras do HTLV-1 e do HTLV-2. RESULTADOS: A soroprevalência do HTLV na população de gestantes foi de 0,3%, sendo o HTLV-1 identificado em 95,3% das pacientes. O perfil demográfico das portadoras do HTLV foi de: mulheres com idade entre 20-40 anos (78,4%); residentes na região metropolitana de Belém (67,6%) e com nível educacional igual ao ensino médio (56,8%). Outras variáveis relacionadas à infecção foram: início das relações sexuais compreendido entre 12-18 anos (64,9%), e ter sido aleitada mais de 6 meses (51,4%). A maior parte das mulheres estudadas teve ao menos duas gestações anteriores (35,1%); e nenhum aborto (70,3%). Co-infecções (sífilis e HIV) foram descritas em 10,8% (4/37) das gestantes. A soroprevalência da infecção pelo HTLV em gestantes atendidas em Unidades Básicas de Saúde do Estado do Pará, Norte do Brasil foi de 0,3% semelhante à descrita em outros estudos brasileiros. As variáveis relacionadas com a infecção são indicadores importantes na identificação de gestantes com maior tendência a soropositividade pelo HTLV, sendo uma estratégia de controle e prevenção, evitando a transmissão vertical.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Coinfection/epidemiology , HTLV-I Infections/epidemiology , HTLV-II Infections/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Syphilis/epidemiology , Blotting, Western , Brazil/epidemiology , Coinfection/diagnosis , Educational Status , HTLV-I Infections/diagnosis , HTLV-II Infections/diagnosis , Prenatal Diagnosis , Prevalence , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Syphilis/diagnosis
19.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 54(3): 123-130, May-June 2012. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-625271

ABSTRACT

The seroprevalence and geographic distribution of HTLV-1/2 among blood donors are extremely important to transfusion services. We evaluated the seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 infection among first-time blood donor candidates in Ribeirão Preto city and region. From January 2000 to December 2010, 1,038,489 blood donations were obtained and 301,470 were first-time blood donations. All samples were screened with serological tests for HTLV-1/2 using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). In addition, the frequency of coinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Chagas disease (CD) and syphilis was also determined. In-house PCR was used as confirmatory test for HTLV-1/2. A total of 296 (0.1%) first-time donors were serologically reactive for HTLV-1/2. Confirmatory PCR of 63 samples showed that 28 were HTLV-1 positive, 13 HTLV-2 positive, 19 negative and three indeterminate. Regarding HTLV coinfection rates, the most prevalent was with HBV (51.3%) and HCV (35.9%), but coinfection with HIV, CD and syphilis was also detected. The real number of HTLV-infected individual and coinfection rate in the population is underestimated and epidemiological studies like ours are very informative.


A soroprevalência e a distribuição geográfica do HTLV-1/2 entre os doadores de sangue são extremamente importantes para os serviços de transfusão. Neste trabalho, foi determinada a soroprevalência da infecção pelo HTLV-1/2 entre os doadores de sangue de primeira vez da cidade de Ribeirão Preto e região. No período de Janeiro de 2000 a Dezembro de 2010, 1.038.489 doações de sangue foram obtidas sendo 301.470 doações de primeira vez. Todas as amostras foram avaliadas com testes sorológicos para HTLV-1/2 usando ensaio imunoenzimático (EIA). Adicionalmente, a frequência de coinfecção com o vírus da hepatite B (HBV), vírus da hepatite C (HCV), vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV), doença de Chagas (CD) e sífilis também foi determinada. Adicionalmente, foi utilizada uma reação de PCR in-house como teste confirmatório para HTLV-1/2. Um total de 296 (0,1%) doadores de primeira vez foram sorologicamente reativos para HTLV-1/2. O PCR confirmatório de 63 amostras mostrou que 28 eram HTLV-1 positivas, 13 HTLV-2 positivas, 19 negativas e três indeterminadas. Em relação às taxas de coinfecção com HTLV1/2, a maior prevalência foi com HBV (51,3%) e HCV (35,9%), mas a coinfecção com HIV, CD e sífilis também foram detectadas. O número real de indivíduos infectados pelo HTLV-1 e a taxa de coinfecção na população é subestimado e estudos epidemiológicos como esse são muito informativos.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Coinfection/epidemiology , HTLV-I Infections/epidemiology , HTLV-II Infections/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Coinfection/diagnosis , HTLV-I Infections/diagnosis , HTLV-II Infections/diagnosis , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1/genetics , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1/immunology , /genetics , /immunology , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Seroepidemiologic Studies
20.
J. bras. pneumol ; 38(2): 264-268, mar.-abr. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-623406

ABSTRACT

La incidencia de las micosis pulmonares en Uruguay es muy baja, y estas usualmente aparecen en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Se discute el caso de un paciente inmunocompetente proveniente de área rural, que presenta tos, disnea y fiebre de dos meses de evolución. La imagenología mostró una neumonitis extensa y fibrosis pulmonar. Los test micológicos directos, cultivo y serológicos muestran histoplasmosis y paraccocidioidomicosis en forma concomitante. El paciente presentó hipotensión arterial diagnosticándose una insuficiencia suprarrenal. A pesar de que la extensa fibrosis pulmonar y la neumonitis no fueron reversibles, el paciente mejoró clínicamente con el tratamiento antifúngico. Se trata de un caso excepcional de dos micosis pulmonares en un mismo paciente.


The incidence of pulmonary fungal infections is very low in Uruguay, and such infections typically affect immunocompromised patients. We report the case of an immunocompetent patient presenting with a two-month history of cough, dyspnea, and fever. The patient resided in a rural area. Imaging tests revealed extensive pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. On the basis of direct mycological examination, culture, and serological testing, we made a diagnosis of concomitant histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis. The patient presented arterial hypotension that was diagnostic of adrenocortical insufficiency. Although the pulmonary fibrosis and pneumonia were irreversible, the clinical condition of the patient improved after antifungal treatment. This was an exceptional case of two pulmonary fungal infections occurring simultaneously in the same patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Coinfection/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Fungal/diagnosis , Paracoccidioidomycosis/diagnosis , Uruguay
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