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1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(2): 167-173, abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388354

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El nuevo coronavirus ha continuado propagándose por todo el mundo donde existen otras enfermedades endémicas que han sido una carga para la salud pública durante muchos años. Como cualquier infección, se habría esperado encontrar en coinfección con algunas de éstas. Específicamente, los países tropicales y subtropicales han venido manejando la carga del dengue a medida que aumentan los picos con períodos de tiempo más cortos. OBJETIVO: Resumir la evidencia que existe en la coinfección relacionada con el SARS-CoV-2 y el virus del dengue. METODOLOGÍA: Se realizó una revisión narrativa en bases de datos sobre reportes de coinfección y diagnóstico erróneo de SARS-CoV-2 y el dengue dado que la temporada de lluvias cada año aumenta la prevalencia de infecciones virales en países endémicos. Informes recientes incluso han descrito casos positivos en uno de estas infecciones que luego resultaron en falso positivo. Una prueba positiva para COVID-19 o fiebre del dengue en áreas endémicas no debe excluir la otra infección. CONCLUSIÓN: A partir de ahora, estos dos deberían ser considerados como un diagnóstico diferencial y esto debe generar preocupación de salud pública por su coinfección en países endémicos para reforzar la promoción y prevención a las comunidades y mitigar estas enfermedades.


BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus has continued to spread throughout the world where there are other endemic diseases that have been a burden to public health for many years. As any infection, it was expected there could be coinfection between these. Tropical and subtropical countries are currently managing with dengue as peaks increase with shorter periods of time. AIM: To summarize the evidence that exists in the co-infection related to SARS-CoV-2 and the dengue virus. METHOD: We conducted a narrative review in data bases about reports of coinfection and misdiagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 and dengue virus given the fact that rainy season every year increase the prevalence of viral infections in endemic countries. Recent reports have even described positive cases in one of these infections that later resulted in false positive. A positive test for COVID-19 or dengue fever in endemic areas should not exclude the other infection. CONCLUSION: From now on, these two should be considered as a differential diagnosis and this should raise public health concern for COVID-19 and dengue coinfection in endemic countries to reinforce promotion and prevention to communities to prevent these diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/epidemiology , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 59, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1390028

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with HIV/syphilis co-infection in people initiating antiretroviral therapy in Belo Horizonte, capital of the state of Minas Gerais. METHODS A sectional section of a prospective cohort study was carried out with people living with HIV, treatment-naive, initiating antiretroviral therapy, older than 16 years, and in follow-up treatment at specialized HIV/Aids care services in Belo Horizonte. Sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, laboratory and pharmacological treatment-related data were obtained through interviews, medical records, and information systems for logistical control of antiretroviral medications and laboratory tests. The dependent variable was the first episode of active syphilis, recorded by the physician in clinical records, within 12 months after beginning of the antiretroviral therapy. Factors associated with HIV/syphilis co-infection were assessed using binary multiple logistic regression. RESULTS Among the 459 individuals included, a prevalence of 19.5% (n = 90) of sexually transmitted infections (STI) was observed, with syphilis (n = 49) being the most frequent STI in these individuals. The prevalence of HIV/syphilis co-infection was 10.6% (n = 49), and the associated independent factors were alcohol use (OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.01-5.26), and having a diagnosis of other sexually transmitted infections (OR = 3.33; 95%CI: 1.24-8.95). CONCLUSIONS There was a high prevalence of HIV/syphilis co-infection in people living with HIV initiating antiretroviral therapy in Belo Horizonte. HIV/syphilis co-infection was associated with behavioral and clinical factors, such as alcohol use and diagnosis of other sexually transmitted infections. Prior knowledge about the factors associated with this co-infection may support the decisions of health professionals engaged in the care to people living with HIV, with regard to timely diagnosis, guidance, follow-up and adequate treatment, both for syphilis and HIV.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar a prevalência e os fatores associados à coinfecção HIV/sífilis em pessoas no início da terapia antirretroviral no município de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. MÉTODOS Foi realizado um corte seccional de um estudo de coorte prospectivo, com pessoas vivendo com HIV, sem tratamento prévio da infecção, em início da terapia antirretroviral, maiores de 16 anos e em acompanhamento em serviços de assistência especializada em HIV/aids de Belo Horizonte. Dados sociodemográficos, comportamentais, clínicos, laboratoriais e relacionados ao tratamento farmacológico foram obtidos por meio de entrevistas, coleta em prontuários clínicos e nos sistemas de informação de controle de medicamentos antirretrovirais e exames laboratoriais. A variável dependente foi o primeiro episódio de sífilis ativa, registrado pelo médico em prontuário clínico, em um período de 12 meses após início da terapia antirretroviral. Os fatores associados à coinfecção HIV/sífilis foram avaliados por meio de regressão logística binária múltipla. RESULTADOS Dentre os 459 indivíduos avaliados, observou-se uma prevalência de 19,5% (n = 90) de infecções sexualmente transmissíveis, sendo a sífilis (n = 49) a infecção sexualmente transmissível mais frequente nesses indivíduos. A prevalência da coinfecção HIV/sífilis foi de 10,6% (n = 49) e os fatores independentes associados foram o uso de álcool (OR = 2,30; IC95% 1,01-5,26) e ter diagnóstico de outras infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (OR = 3,33; IC95% 1,24-8,95). CONCLUSÕES Houve alta prevalência de coinfecção HIV/sífilis em pessoas vivendo com HIV em início de terapia antirretroviral em Belo Horizonte. A coinfecção HIV/sífilis foi associada a fatores comportamentais e clínicos, como uso de álcool e diagnóstico de outras infecções sexualmente transmissíveis. O conhecimento prévio sobre os fatores associados à essa coinfecção pode subsidiar as decisões dos profissionais de saúde inseridos no cuidado às pessoas vivendo com HIV, no que diz respeito ao diagnóstico oportuno, orientações, acompanhamento e tratamento adequado, tanto da sífilis quanto do HIV.


Subject(s)
Syphilis , HIV Infections , Risk Factors , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Coinfection/epidemiology
3.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(5): 613-621, oct. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388288

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Elizabethkingia es un género de bacterias gramnegativas cuya relevancia como patógeno oportunista en hospederos inmunocomprometidos y pacientes críticos ha sido reconocida progresivamente en los últimos años. Este género está compuesto principalmente por E. meningoseptica, E. anophelis y E. miricola. Si bien inicialmente E. meningoseptica fue considerada la especie patógena más relevante, gracias a los avances en las técnicas de identificación microbiológica se ha reconocido a E. anophelis como el principal patógeno de este grupo. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar los casos de infecciones por Elizabethkingia spp. en una red de salud y realizar una breve revisión de esta infección. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó una revisión de los cultivos positivos para Elizabethkingia spp. en el Laboratorio de Microbiología de la Red de Salud UC-CHRISTUS (Chile) entre los años 2017 y 2021. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvo 17 cultivos positivos correspondientes a siete casos clínicos, todos procedentes de un hospital universitario. Todos los casos poseían factores de riesgo conocidos de infección por Elizabethkingia spp. incluyendo uso de antimicrobianos recientes, por ejemplo, el uso previo de carbapenémicos en 85,7% de los pacientes. Cuatro casos se presentaron en pacientes con neumonía por SARS-CoV-2, una coinfección no previamente reportada en la literatura. Elizabethkingia anophelis fue identificada mediante secuenciación de ARN ribosomal en 80% de las cepas recuperadas, lo que corresponde al primer reporte de esta especie en Chile CONCLUSIÓN: Comunicamos la experiencia clínica de infecciones por este género en un hospital universitario de Chile, incluyendo los primeros casos de coinfección en pacientes cursando neumonía por SARS-CoV-2 y la primera identificación de Elizabethkingia anophelis en Chile.


BACKGROUND: Elizabethkingia is a genus of gramnegative bacteria whose relevance as an opportunistic pathogen in immunosuppressed hosts and critically ill patients has been progressively recognized in recent years. This genus is mainly composed of E. meningoseptica, E. anophelis, and E. miricola. Although E. meningoseptica was initially reported as the most relevant pathogenic species, thanks to advances in microbiological identificaron techniques E. anophelis has been recognized as the main pathogen of this group. AIM: To characterize Elizabethkingia spp.'s infections in a health network and make a brief review of this infection. METHOD: We conducted a review of clinical cultures that were positive for Elizabethkingia sp. in the Microbiology Laboratory of the UC-CHRISTUS Health Network (Chile), between 2017 and 2021. RESULTS: Seventeen positive cultures were obtained corresponding to seven clinical cases, all originating from a university hospital. All cases had known risk factors for Elizabethkingia sp. infection, including recent use of antibiotics. Notably, previous use of carbapenems was present in 85.7% of the patients. Four cases occurred in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, a coinfection not previously reported in the literature. Elizabethkingia anophelis was identified by ribosomal RNA sequencing in 80% of the recovered strains, which corresponds to the first report of this species in Chile. CONCLUSION: We report the clinical experience of a university hospital with infections by Elizabethkingia spp., including the first cases of coinfection in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonía and the first identification of Elizabethkingia anophelis in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Flavobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Flavobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Flavobacteriaceae , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitals, University
5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(1): 1-5, mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287233

ABSTRACT

Resumen La principal infección viral transmisible por sangre es actualmente la debida al virus de hepatitis C (VHC). Uno de los mayores obstáculos para el logro de su control en la Argentina se relaciona con las dificultades de acceso al diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno de las personas infectadas. Este estudio se realizó con el objetivo de caracterizar a los pacientes infectados con VHC que iniciaron tratamiento con antivirales de acción directa (AAD) y describir la experiencia vinculada al tratamiento. Se seleccionaron las historias clínicas de 82 pacientes, 44 (53.7%) de sexo masculino, 37 (45.1%) de sexo femenino, y uno (1.2%) transgénero. La media de edad fue de 49 años. Se halló una frecuencia de cirrosis de 39%, 32 pacientes, coinfección con HIV en 48 (58.5%) y con VHB en 27 (32.9%). En 52 (63.4%) no se observó ningún factor de riesgo claramente asociado a infección. Todos completaron la terapia, de ellos 72 (87.8%) efectuaron el control para confirmar respuesta viral sostenida (RVS), que fue de 98.6%. Concluimos que el testeo universal debe implementarse por sobre el testeo con enfoque de riesgo, y que debe promoverse un criterio de atención simplificado y descentralizado, reservando la atención especializada para pacientes con cirrosis descompensada y cáncer de hígado.


Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is currently the main blood-borne viral infection. One of the main obstacles to achieving its control in Argentina is related to difficulties in accessing the diagnosis and timely treatment of infected people. We carried out this study with the aim of characterizing the HCV-infected patients who started treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) and to describe the experience related to treatment. The medical records of 82 patients, 44 (53.7%) male, 37 (45.1%) female, and one (1.2%) transgender, were selected. The mean age was 49 years. We report a frequency of cirrhosis, 39%, in 32 patients, coinfection with HIV in 48 (58.5%) and with HBV in 27 (32.9%). In 52 patients (63.4%), no risk factor clearly associated with infection was observed. All completed the therapy, of them 72 (87.8%) carried out the control to confirm sustained viral response (SVR), that attained 98.6%. We conclude that universal testing should be implemented over testing based on a risk approach, and that a simplified and decentralized care criterion should be promoted, reserving specialized care for patients with decompensated cirrhosis and liver cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Hepacivirus , Liver Cirrhosis
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e07952021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288069

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The association of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a concern worldwide, and this co-infection is linked to increased lethality. The Northeast is the region that mostly reports cases of VL in Brazil. The knowledge of risk factors associated with VL/HIV co-infection and its impact on lethality is extremely important. METHODS: The present study analyzed the epidemiologic features of cases with VL/HIV co-infection in the state of Pernambuco, Northeast of Brazil, from 2014 to 2018. RESULTS: There were 858 and 11,514 reported cases of VL and HIV infection, respectively. The average incidences of VL and HIV infection were 1.82 and 24.4/100,000 inhabitants, respectively. Of all reported cases of VL, 4.9% (42/858) also had HIV infection. There was an inverse spatial association between VL and HIV infection incidences. The lethality rates of VL, HIV infection, and co-infection were 9.9%, 26.1%, and 16.6%, respectively. Most of the patients were males and lived in urban areas. The cases of VL mostly occurred in children aged below 10 years, whereas the cases of HIV infection and VL/HIV co-infection were primarily observed in adults between 20 years and 39 years old. CONCLUSIONS: We defined the profile and areas with most cases of co-infection and found that the lethality of VL with co-infection increased in the current period. These findings contribute to applying efforts with a greater focus in these identified populations to prevent future deaths.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , HIV
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(8): 593-597, Aug. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135667

ABSTRACT

Reproductive tests in cattle are of great economic importance, given the impact it can have on the production system and may be caused by agents. Neospora caninum and Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus (BVDV) are considered of great importance as reproductive and should be considered responsible for keeping animals persistently infected. The present study included 479 calf serum samples for export in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS). All samples were screened for BVDV by an ELISA antigen. BVDV antigen-positive ELISA samples were isolated from BVDV in cell culture. An indirect immunofluorescence (IFT) technique was used to detect anti-N. caninum antibodies. Of the 479 export-treated serum samples, 361 were positive for BVDV antigens by ELISA and/or viral isolation test (361/479-75.36%), and 109 IFT-positive samples for N. caninum (109/479-22.75%). Despite detection of antibodies anti-N. caninum did not differ statistically between naturally infected BVDV and non-BVDV infected animals suggesting that there is no interference of BVDV infection on infection or detection rate of animals with N. caninum, positive animals in viral isolation and high DO in BVDV-Ag ELISA. may present active disease and consequent immunosuppression, contributing to a potential reactivation of N. caninum.(AU)


Testes reprodutivos em bovinos são de grande importância econômica, dado o impacto que podem ter no sistema de produção e podem ser causados por agentes. O Neospora caninum e o vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina (BVDV) são considerados de grande importância como reprodutivos e devem ser considerados responsáveis por manter os animais persistentemente infectados. O presente estudo incluiu 479 amostras de soro de bezerro para exportação no estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS). Todas as amostras foram rastreadas para BVDV por um antígeno ELISA. As amostras de ELISA positivas para o antigénio BVDV foram isoladas a partir de BVDV em cultura de células. Uma técnica de imunofluorescência indireta (IFT) foi utilizada para detectar anticorpos anti-N caninum. Das 479 amostras de soro tratadas para exportação, 361 foram positivas para antígenos de BVDV por ELISA e/ou teste de isolamento viral (361/479-75,36%) e 109 amostras positivas para IFT para N. caninum (109/479-22,75%). Apesar da detecção de anticorpos anti-N. caninum não diferiu estatisticamente entre animais infectados naturalmente BVDV e não BVDV sugerindo que não há interferência da infecção pelo BVDV na infecção ou taxa de detecção de animais com N. caninum, animais positivos em isolamento viral e alta DO em BVDV-Ag ELISA, pode apresentar doença ativa e consequente imunossupressão, contribuindo para uma potencial reativação de N. caninum.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral/isolation & purification , Neospora/isolation & purification , Coinfection/veterinary , Coinfection/epidemiology
8.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(4): 263-269, Jul.-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249909

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Acute respiratory infections are the second cause of mortality in children younger than five years, with 150.7 million episodes per year. Human orthopneumovirus (hOPV) and metapneumovirus (hMPV) are the first and second causes of bronchiolitis; type 2 human orthorubulavirus (hORUV) has been associated with pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. Objective: To define hOPV, hMPV and hORUV geographical distribution and circulation patterns. Method: An observational, prospective cross-sectional pilot study was carried out. Two-hundred viral strains obtained from pediatric patients were genotyped by endpoint reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: One-hundred and eighty-six positive samples were typed: 84 hOPV, 43 hMPV, two hORUV and 57 co-infection specimens. Geographical distribution was plotted. hMPV, hOPV, and hORUV cumulative incidences were 0.215, 0.42, and 0.01, respectively. Cumulative incidence of hMPV-hORUV and hMPV-hOPV coinfection was 0.015 and 0.23; for hOPV-hMPV-hORUV, 0.035; and for hORUV-hOPV, 0.005. The largest number of positive cases of circulating or co-circulating viruses occurred between January and March. Conclusions: This study successfully identified circulation and geographical distribution patterns of the different viruses, as well as of viral co-infections.


Resumen Introducción: Las infecciones respiratorias agudas constituyen la segunda causa de mortalidad en los niños menores de cinco años, con 150.7 millones de episodios anuales. Entre los principales agentes etiológicos están Orthopneumovirus (hOPV) y metapneumovirus (hMPV) humanos como primera y segunda causa de bronquiolitis, respectivamente; Orthorubulavirus humano tipo 2 (hORUV) se ha asociado a neumonía en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Objetivo: Definir patrones de distribución geográfica y de circulación de hOPV, hMPV y hORUV. Método: Se llevó a cabo un estudio piloto transversal prospectivo observacional. Se genotipificaron 200 aislamientos virales de pacientes pediátricos mediante transcripción inversa seguida de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en punto final (RT-PCR). Resultados: Se tipificaron 186 muestras positivas: 84 de hOPV, 43 de hMPV, dos de hORUV y 57 de coinfecciones. Se trazó la distribución geográfica. Las incidencias acumuladas de hMPV, hOPV y hORUV fueron de 0.215, 0.42 y 0.01, respectivamente. Las incidencias acumuladas de la coinfección de hMPV-hORUV y hMPV-hOPV fueron de 0.015 y 0.23; de hOPV-hMPV-hORUV, de 0.035; y de hORUV-hOPV, de 0.005. El mayor número de casos positivos de virus circulantes o cocirculantes se presentó entre enero y marzo. Conclusiones: Fue posible identificar patrones de circulación y distribución geográfica de los diferentes virus, así como de las coinfecciones virales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Pneumovirus Infections/epidemiology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Pilot Projects , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Pneumovirus Infections/virology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/virology , Rubulavirus Infections/virology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Genotype
9.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(5): 618-625, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139346

ABSTRACT

Background: Tuberculosis (TB)/HIV coinfection has a high mortality rate. Aim: To describe socio-epidemiological characteristics of tuberculosis (TB)-HIV coinfection, and aspects associated with its prevalence, from 2005 to 2018. Material and Methods: Analysis of the registry of the tuberculosis control and elimination program of three public health services of metropolitan Santiago. The variables considered were: TB/HIV coinfection, age, sex, location of tuberculosis, bacteriological confirmation, incarceration, commune of residence, country of origin and effectiveness of the tuberculosis therapy. Results: We analyzed 7507 TB cases, of whom 12% corresponded to cases of coinfection. The number of coinfections doubled in the last 6 years. In 2018, 45% of coinfection cases occurred in migrants. Of the total cases evaluated, 53% were successfully treated and 28% died. Conclusions: The remarkable increase in TB/HIV coinfection, urgently demands new prevention and control strategies, aimed at the most vulnerable groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cities/epidemiology
10.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 44: e43, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101758

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective. To inform about the most recent epidemiological trends and integrated programmatic response to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV coinfection in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Methods. A descriptive review analyzed the most relevant indicators on TB/HIV coinfection in 33 countries in LAC with a cross-sectional and time-trend approach. Data were obtained from publicly available databases and analyzed through simple proportions, weighted means, and risk ratios. Results. In LAC, during 2017, 80.8% of TB patients were actively screened for HIV, with a 25.6% increase between 2011 and 2017. In the same year, the proportion of TB patients with HIV-positive status was 11.2%, with a small but progressive reduction of 5% since 2011. The provision of antiretroviral therapy and anti-TB medication among TB/HIV coinfected patients for 2017 was at 60%. Only one-third of people living with HIV had access to isoniazid preventive therapy. Overall, the mortality in the TB/HIV cohort has not changed since 2012, hovering at around 20%. Conclusions. TB/HIV collaborative activities, as the backbone to address TB/HIV coinfection, are being scaled up in LAC and some indicators show a tendency toward improvement; nevertheless, our review shed light on the need to keep strengthening integration of service delivery, joint monitoring and evaluation, and data quality.(AU)


RESUMEN Objetivo. Informar sobre las tendencias epidemiológicas más recientes y la respuesta programática integrada frente a la coinfección por tuberculosis (TB) y VIH en América Latina y el Caribe. Métodos. En una revisión descriptiva se analizaron los indicadores más pertinentes sobre la coinfección por TB y VIH en 33 países de América Latina y el Caribe, por medio de un enfoque transversal y de tendencias en el tiempo. Los datos se obtuvieron de bases de datos disponibles públicamente y se analizaron mediante proporciones sencillas, medias ponderadas y cociente de riesgos. Resultados. En el 2017, en América Latina y el Caribe se sometió a 80,8% de los pacientes con TB a un tamizaje activo del VIH, lo que representó un aumento de 25,6% entre el 2011 y el 2017. En ese mismo año, la proporción de pacientes con TB e infección por el VIH fue de 11,2%, lo cual demuestra una pequeña reducción, aunque progresiva, de 5% desde el 2011. El suministro de tratamiento antirretroviral y de fármacos contra la TB a los pacientes con la coinfección en el 2017 fue del 60%. Solo un tercio de las personas con VIH tuvieron acceso al tratamiento preventivo con isoniacida. En términos generales, la tasa de mortalidad de las personas con coinfección por TB y VIH no ha cambiado desde el 2012, y ha permanecido en torno al 20%. Conclusiones. Se está aumentando la escala de las actividades de colaboración entre los servicios de TB y VIH en América Latina y el Caribe, como el tratamiento de base para abordar los casos de coinfección, y algunos indicadores muestran una tendencia positiva. No obstante, nuestra revisión muestra la necesidad de seguir fortaleciendo la integración de la prestación de servicios, las actividades conjuntas de seguimiento y evaluación, y la comprobación de la calidad de los datos.(AU)


RESUMO Objetivo. Informar sobre as últimas tendências epidemiológicas e a resposta programática integrada à coinfecção por tuberculose (TB) e HIV na América Latina e Caribe (ALC). Métodos. Uma revisão descritiva analisou os indicadores mais relevantes sobre a coinfecção por TB/HIV em 33 países da ALC, usando uma abordagem transversal e de tendências temporais. Os dados foram obtidos em bases de dados disponíveis publicamente e analisados através de proporções simples, médias ponderadas e razões de risco. Resultados. Na ALC, em 2017, 80,8% dos pacientes com TB realizaram o rastreamento ativo para HIV, o que representou um aumento de 25,6% entre 2011 e 2017. No mesmo ano, a proporção de pacientes com TB com status HIV positivo foi de 11,2%, demonstrando uma pequena redução progressiva de 5% desde 2011. Em 2017, a oferta de terapia antirretroviral e medicação anti-TB aos pacientes coinfectados por TB/HIV foi de 60%. Somente um terço das pessoas que vivem com HIV teve acesso à terapia preventiva com isoniazida. A mortalidade geral na coorte coinfectada por TB/HIV não mudou desde 2012, oscilando em torno de 20%. Conclusões. As atividades colaborativas para TB/HIV, que são a espinha dorsal para combater esta coinfecção, estão sendo ampliadas na ALC, e alguns indicadores mostram uma tendência positiva; no entanto, a nossa revisão destaca a necessidade de continuar fortalecendo a integração da prestação de serviços, as atividades conjuntas de monitoramento e avaliação e a qualidade dos dados.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Health Policy , Latin America/epidemiology
11.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRC6048, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142875

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We report the clinical case of an infant with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection with gastrointestinal signs and symptoms, predominantly vomiting. The patient also had colic, poor feeding, mild diarrhea and mild rhinorrhea without fever. The child had evidence of altered coagulation, increased interleukin 10, moderate dehydration and she was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. Simultaneously, the patient was diagnosed as Clostridioides difficile infection, which possibly may have facilitated the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in feces, for more than 27 days, even after the nasopharyngeal test turned negative. This coinfection might exacerbate the gastrointestinal signs and symptoms and increased the possibility of fecal-oral transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and Clostridioides . The patient was breastfed and received complementary infant formula, hydrated with intravenous fluid, and was discharged without complications, 4 days after admission.


RESUMO Relatamos o caso clínico de uma lactente com infecção por coronavírus da síndrome respiratória aguda grave 2 (SARS-CoV-2) com sinais e sintomas gastrintestinais - predominantemente vômitos. A paciente apresentou, adicionalmente, cólica, dificuldade para mamar, evacuações amolecidas e rinorreia leve, sem febre. Houve evidências de alterações da coagulação, aumento de interleucina 10 e desidratação moderada, que justificaram internação na unidade de terapia intensiva. Simultaneamente, a paciente foi diagnosticada com infecção por Clostridioides difficile , que pode ter facilitado a persistência do SARS-CoV-2 nas fezes por mais de 27 dias, mesmo após negativação do teste nasofaríngeo. Essa coinfecção pode ter exacerbado os sinais e sintomas gastrintestinais e aumentado a possibilidade da transmissão do SARS-CoV-2 e Clostridioides . A paciente foi mantida em aleitamento materno e complemento com fórmula infantil, recebeu hidratação intravenosa e teve alta hospitalar, sem complicações, após 4 dias de internação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Coinfection/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Clostridium , Clostridioides , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: e112, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139483

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the spatial and temporal distribution of TB-HIV co-infection, as well as the profile of the characteristics of the co-infected population in the municipality of São Paulo. METHODS This is an ecological and time series study with data from the Tuberculosis Patient Control System (TBWeb), including all new cases of tuberculosis co-infected individuals with HIV living in the municipality from 2007 to 2015. Time trends of the disease were analyzed using Prais-Winsten regression. The cases were geocoded by the address of residence for the elaboration of maps with the incidence rates smoothed by the local empirical Bayesian method. The global and local Moran indexes evaluated spatial autocorrelation. Individuals' profiles were described and the characteristics of the cases with and without fixed residence were compared by Pearson's chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS We analyzed 6,092 new cases of TB-HIV co-infection (5,609 with fixed residence and 483 without fixed residence). The proportion of TB-HIV co-infection ranged from 10.5% to 13.7%, with a drop of 3.0% per year (95%CI -3.4 - -2.6) and was higher in individuals without fixed residence. Incidence rates decreased by 3.6% per year (95%CI -4.4% - -2.7%), declining from 7.0 to 5.3 per 100,000 inhabitants/year. Co-infection showed positive and significant spatial autocorrelation, with heterogeneous spatial pattern and a high-risk cluster in the central region of the municipality. Cure was achieved in 55.5% of cases with fixed residence and in 32.7% of those without a fixed residence. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate an important advance in the control of TB-HIV co-infection in the period analyzed. However, we identified areas and populations that were unequally affected by the disease and that should be prioritized in the improvement of actions to prevent and control co-infection.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever a distribuição espacial e temporal da coinfecção TB-HIV, assim como o perfil das características da população coinfectada no município de São Paulo. MÉTODOS Estudo ecológico e de série temporal com dados do Sistema de Controle de Pacientes com Tuberculose (TBWeb), incluindo todos os casos novos de tuberculose coinfectados pelo HIV residentes no município no período de 2007 a 2015. Tendências temporais do agravo foram analisadas por regressão de Prais-Winsten. Os casos foram geocodificados pelo endereço de residência para a elaboração de mapas com as taxas de incidência suavizadas pelo método bayesiano empírico local. Os índices de Moran global e local avaliaram a autocorrelação espacial. O perfil dos indivíduos foi descrito e as características dos casos com e sem residência fixa foram comparadas pelos testes de qui-quadrado ou exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS Foram analisados 6.092 casos novos de coinfecção TB-HIV (5.609 com residência fixa e 483 sem residência fixa). A proporção de coinfecção TB-HIV variou de 10,5% a 13,7%, com queda de 3,0% ao ano (IC95% -3,4 - -2,6), e foi maior nos indivíduos sem residência fixa em todo o período. As taxas de incidência apresentaram diminuição de 3,6% ao ano (IC95% -4,4% - -2,7%), declinando de 7,0 para 5,3 por 100 mil habitantes/ano. A coinfecção apresentou autocorrelação espacial positiva e significativa, com padrão espacial heterogêneo e um aglomerado de alto risco na região central do município. A cura foi alcançada em 55,5% dos casos com residência fixa e em 32,7% daqueles sem residência. CONCLUSÕES Os dados indicam um importante avanço no controle da coinfecção TB-HIV no período analisado. Todavia, foram identificadas áreas e populações que se apresentaram desigualmente afetadas pelo agravo, e que devem ser priorizadas no aprimoramento das ações de prevenção e controle da coinfecção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , Bayes Theorem , Cities , Spatial Analysis , Middle Aged
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180430, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041553

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: We avaluated the clinical features, epidemiology, opportunistic infections and coinfections of HIV/AIDS patients. METHODS: We analyzed the records of 143 patients receiving antiretroviral therapy at a public center in the Midwest of Santa Catarina, south of Brazil, from December 2014 to September 2015. RESULTS: Most were male, Caucasian, married, with low education level, and aged 31-50 years. Heterosexual transmission was the most common infection route. Regarding coinfection, 3.5% had hepatitis C, 2.1% hepatitis B, 4.2% syphilis, and 4.9% tuberculosis; 38.5% had opportunistic infections. CONCLUSIONS: HIV infection follows the national trend, but hepatitis B and C coinfection rates were higher, while tuberculosis rate was lower.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Opportunistic Infections/classification , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/diagnosis , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Tuberculosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Middle Aged
14.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 40: e20180033, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1004082

ABSTRACT

Resumo OBJETIVO Analisar como o pertencimento a certos grupos sociais contribui para a constituição das vulnerabilidades associadas ao adoecimento pela coinfecção tuberculose/HIV/aids. METODOLOGIA Pesquisa qualitativa realizada em Porto Alegre-RS, em regiões de alta vulnerabilidade social. Foram entrevistadas 20 pessoas coinfectadas em serviços especializados de saúde, entre agosto e dezembro de 2016. A análise teve como aporte os referenciais The Sound of Silence e Vulnerabilidade e Direitos Humanos. RESULTADOS Condições socioeconômicas foram decisivas para constituição das condições de vulnerabilidade. Processos de invisibilização das pessoas e silenciamento de suas vozes, em um cenário marcado por desigualdades econômicas, raciais e de gênero contribuíam para que suas necessidades de saúde não fossem compreendidas e efetivamente levadas em consideração nas ações dos serviços. CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS Quanto mais efetivas forem as estratégias para legitimar as vozes e compreender as necessidades das pessoas afetadas pela coinfecção, maiores serão as chances de que as respostas programáticas para o problema sejam exitosas.


Resumen OBJETIVO Analizar cómo la pertenencia a ciertos grupos sociales contribuye a la constitución de las vulnerabilidades asociadas al padecimiento de coinfección tuberculosis/VIH/SIDA. METODOLOGÍA Investigación cualitativa realizada en Porto Alegre-RS/Brasil, en zonas de alta vulnerabilidad social. Fueron entrevistadas 20 personas coinfectadas en servicios especializados de salud, entre agosto y diciembre de 2016. Análisis con aporte de referenciales The Sound of Silence y Vulnerabilidad y Derechos Humanos. RESULTADOS Las condiciones socioeconómicas resultaron decisivas para constituir las condiciones de vulnerabilidad. Los procesos de invisibilización de las personas y el silenciamiento de sus voces contribuían a que sus necesidades de salud no fuesen comprendidas y efectivamente consideradas en las acciones de los servicios. CONSIDERACIONES FINALES Cuanto más efectivas sean las estrategias para legitimar las voces y comprender las necesidades de los afectados por la coinfección, mayores serán las posibilidades para que las respuestas programáticas al problema resulten exitosas.


Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze how belonging to certain social groups contributes to constituting the vulnerabilities associated with illnesses due to tuberculosis/HIV/AIDS coinfection. METHODOLOGYThis is a qualitative study carried out in the city of Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, in regions of high social vulnerability. Twenty coinfected people were interviewed in specialized health services between August and December 2016. The analysis was based on the frameworks The Sound of Silence and Vulnerability and Human Rights. RESULTS Socioeconomic conditions were decisive for the constitution of the vulnerability conditions. Processes of people invisibilization, and the silencing of their voices, in a scenario marked by economic, racial and gender inequalities, contributed for their health needs not to be understood and effectively taken into account in the services actions. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS The more effective strategies are to legitimize voices and to understand the needs of those affected by coinfection, the greater the chances that programmatic responses to the problem will be successful.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Social Class , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data , Coinfection/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/therapy , Brazil , HIV Infections/therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Needs Assessment , Qualitative Research , Middle Aged
15.
Rev. pesqui. cuid. fundam. (Online) ; 10(4): 1026-1031, out.-dez. 2018. graf, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-915957

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar os fatores associados à coinfecção tuberculose/HIV e determinar a prevalência máxima e mínima da positividade do teste anti-HIV entre casos de tuberculose no Maranhão, no período de 2001 a 2011. Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado mediante consulta aos dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação. Para identificar associações, utilizou-se a regressão de Poisson com ajuste robusto da variância. Resultados: A prevalência da coinfecção tuberculose/HIV foi de 15,1%. Na análise bruta, as associações significativas para coinfecção foram sexo masculino, faixas etárias de 20 a 39 anos e de 40 a 59 anos, escolaridade inferior a oito anos, entrada por transferência e encerramento por abandono/óbito. Na análise ajustada, sexo masculino, faixa etária de 29 a 30 anos, escolaridade inferior a oito anos e encerramento por abandono/óbito permaneceram associados à coinfecção. Conclusão: Foi observada alta taxa de coinfecção tuberculose/HIV no estado do Maranhão e associações com diversos fatores relacionados à saúde


Objective: To analyze the factors associated with Tuberculosis/HIV coinfection and to determine the maximum and minimum prevalence of HIV test positivity among tuberculosis cases in Maranhão from 2001-2010. Methods: Cross-sectional study of data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System. Poisson regression was used with robust variance adjustment to identify associations. Results: Tuberculosis/ HIV coinfection prevalence was 15.1%. In the raw analysis, the significant associations for coinfection were male sex, age groups from 20-39 years and from 40-59 years, schooling less than 8 years, entry by transfer and closure by abandonment/death. In the adjusted analysis, male gender, age range of 29 to 30 years, schooling less than 8 years and closure due to abandonment/death remained associated with coinfection. Conclusion: Tuberculosis/HIV coinfection rate was high in the state of Maranhão and associations with several factors related to health


Objetivo: Analizar los factores asociados a la coinfección TB/VIH y determinar la prevalencia máxima y mínima de la prueba del VIH positiva entre los casos de TB en Maranhao, de 2001 a 2011. Métodos: Estudio transversal, realizado en consulta con los datos del Sistema de Información de Agravios y Notificaciones. Para identificar asociaciones, se utilizó regresión de Poisson con ajuste robusto de la varianza. Resultados: La prevalencia de la coinfección TB/VIH fue del 15,1%. En el análisis crudo, asociaciones significativas para la coinfección fueron sexo masculino, edades de 20-39 años y 40-59 años, educación menos de ocho años y cierre de la entrada por abandono/muerte. En el análisis ajustado, sexo, edad 29-30 años, educación menos de 8 años y final por abandono/ muerte se mantuvo asociado con la coinfección. Conclusión: Hubo una alta tasa de coinfección TB/VIH en el estado de Maranhão y asociaciones con diversos factores relacionados a la salud


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Coinfection/epidemiology , Comorbidity , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Brazil
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(5): 578-583, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957468

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Here, we conducted an epidemiological study of hepatitis B virus (HBV) mono-infected and asymptomatic malaria/HBV coinfected immigrants and further discussed the possibility of malaria disease modifying the clinical presentation of HBV infection. METHODS: A total of 195 African immigrants were examined for HBV infection or coinfection with HBV and asymptomatic malaria. HBV infection was diagnosed using serological tests and confirmed by PCR; furthermore, we performed a pan-Plasmodium-specific-nucleic-acid-sequence-based-amplification (NASBA) assay to detect asymptomatic malaria infection. The stage/grade of the liver disease was determined using echotomography and elastometry. RESULTS: PCR-NASBA results confirmed that 62 of 195 subjects (31.8%) were positive for Plasmodium infection, whereas 41 of 195 subjects (21%) tested positive for HBV chronic hepatitis (HBV-DNA positive). Among the HBV-positive subjects, 26 (63.4%) of them were mono-infected patients (Group A), whereas 15 (36.6%) patients had HBV chronic hepatitis and asymptomatic malaria coinfections (Group B). The HBV-DNA median levels were 1.4×105IU/mL in HBV-mono-infected patients and 2.0×105IU/mL in coinfected patients. Echotomography and hepatic elastometry presented similar findings for both groups of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Coinfected patients seem to present with the same clinical symptoms of the liver disease as HBV mono-infected patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Africa South of the Sahara/ethnology , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Italy/epidemiology , Malaria/diagnosis
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 401-406, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889246

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The present study attempts to examine the microbial profile and antibiotic susceptibility of diabetic foot infections in the intensive care unit of a tertiary referral centre for diabetic foot. As part of the study, we also attempted to find the prevalence of blaNDM-like gene among carbapenem-resistant gram negative infections. Methodology A prospective study of 261 patients with diabetic foot infections was performed during the period between January 2014 and June 2014. Results A total of 289 isolates were obtained from 178 tissue samples from 261 patients, 156 (59.7%) males and 105 (40.2%) females, with a mean age of 58 years (-15 years), having diabetic foot infection. No growth was seen in thirty eight (17.6%) tissue samples. Out of the total samples, 44.3% were monomicrobial and 55.7% were polymicrobial. Gram negative pathogens were predominant (58.5%). Seven of the total isolates were fungal; 0.7% showed pure fungal growth and 1.7% were mixed, grown along with some bacteria. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (26.9%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.9%). Of the 58.5% gram negative pathogens, 16.5% were Enterobacteriaceae resistant to carbapenems. Among these isolates, 4 (25%) were positive for blaNDM-like gene. Among the rest, 18.6% were carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas, among which 4 (36.3%) were blaNDM. Among the Staphylococci, 23.7% were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions Our results support the recent view that gram negative organisms, depending on the geographical location, may be predominant in DFIs. There is an increase in multidrug-resistant pathogens, especially carbapenem resistance and this is creeping rapidly. We need to be more judicious while using empiric antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Diabetic Foot/complications , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Mycoses/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , India , Methicillin Resistance , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycoses/microbiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
18.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 70(1): 0-0, ene.-abr. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-960611

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la leptospirosis es una enfermedad zoonótica transmitida por varias especies de animales domésticos y silvestres que actúan como reservorios del agente causal y que afecta humanos que habitan áreas urbanas y rurales en el mundo. Objetivo: determinar la seroprevalencia de anticuerpos contra Leptospira sp. y los serogrupos dominantes, en pacientes con síndrome febril no palúdico del departamento del Meta, Colombia. Métodos: se realizó un estudio prospectivo de corte trasversal. La población la conformó todo paciente febril que asistiera a un hospital en la ciudad de Villavicencio, entre mayo de 2013 y junio de 2014. Los sueros pareados fueron procesados utilizando la prueba de microaglutinación con los serogrupos: Australis, Ballum, Bataviae, Canicola, Cynopteri, Panama, Pyrogenes, Sejroe, Semaranga. Se practicaron pruebas para diagnóstico de dengue (detección de anticuerpos IgM e IgG por ELISA), rickettsiosis (detección de anticuerpos IgG por inmunofluoresencia indirecta), hantavirosis (detección de anticuerpos IgG por ELISA). Resultados: de los 100 sueros estudiados, 29 resultaron positivos para leptospirosis. Los serogrupos más prevalentes fueron Canicola y Ballum. Conclusiones: los resultados de la prevalencia de leptospirosis muestran que esta enfermedad es subregistrada en la zona, por lo que sería recomendable que estuviera dentro del diagnóstico diferencial de los síndromes febriles(AU)


Introduction: leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease transmitted by several species of wild and domestic animals, which serve as reservoirs of the causative agent. The disease affects humans from urban and rural areas of the world. Objective: determine Leptospira sp. antibody seroprevalence and dominant serogroups in patients with non-malarial febrile syndrome from Meta Department in Colombia. Methods: across-sectional prospective study was conducted. The study population was all the febrile patients attending a hospital in the city of Villavicencio from May 2013 to June 2014. The paired sera were processed using the microagglutination test with the following serogroups: Australis, Ballum, Bataviae, Canicola, Cynopteri, Panama, Pyrogenes, Sejroe and Semaranga. Diagnostic tests were performed for dengue (IgM and IgG antibody detection by ELISA), rickettsiosis (IgG antibody detection by indirect immunofluorescence), and hantaviral disease (IgG antibody detection by ELISA). Results: of the 100 sera studied, 29 were positive for leptospirosis. The most prevalent serogroups were Canicola and Ballum. Conclusions: prevalence results for leptospirosis show that the disease has been under-recorded in the area. It is thus advisable to include it in the differential diagnosis of febrile syndromes(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Fever/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Colombia/epidemiology
19.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2018. 61 f p. tab, graf, il.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-966936

ABSTRACT

A cada ano ocorrem aproximadamente 50 a 90 mil novos casos de leishmaniose visceral (LV). Mais de 90% dos casos de LV ocorrem em sete países no mundo: Brasil, Etiópia, Índia, Quênia, Somália, Sudão do Sul e Sudão. Na América Latina, 96% ocorrem no Brasil. A coinfecção LV-HIV tem sido considerada como doença emergente em várias regiões do mundo em função da superposição geográfica das duas infecções como consequência da urbanização das leishmanioses e da interiorização da infecção por HIV. A coinfecção LV-HIV geralmente resulta em respostas desfavoráveis ao tratamento, frequentes recidivas e óbitos prematuros. Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever e analisar o perfil clínicoepidemiológico e a distribuição espacial e temporal da coinfecção da LV-HIV em Teresina/PI, de 2006 a 2015. Trata-se de um estudo seccional, com dimensão temporal, desenvolvido a partir de dados espaciais georreferenciados para o endereço do domicílio de residência referentes aos casos de LV e LV-HIV notificados e confirmados no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN). Do total de casos de LV notificados no período do estudo (737), 19,4% eram de coinfecção LV-HIV. A proporção de casos da coinfecção LV-HIV em relação aos casos de LV foi de 8,6%, em 2006 e 47,7% em 2015, o coeficiente de incidência foi de 0,87 casos por 100.000 habitantes e 2,49 casos por 100.00 habitantes, para os mesmos períodos. Destaca-se a diferença entre o diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial entre os dois grupos sendo fraqueza, emagrecimento, quadro infeccioso e fenômenos hemorrágicos as manifestações clínicas mais frequentes nos casos com LV-HIV. A letalidade e a recidiva foram, aproximadamente, duas vezes maiores nesse grupo, 11,4% e 13,3%, respectivamente. Foi evidenciada maior agregação espacial dos casos LV-HIV em relação àquela observada para os casos de LV. Os resultados apresentados neste estudo contribuem para o conhecimento sobre o diagnóstico clínicoepidemiológico e o processo de ocorrência da coinfecção LV-HIV, potencializando ações de prevenção e planejamento em saúde


Each year occur approximately 50 to 90 thousand new cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). More than 90% of the cases of VL occur in seven countries of the world: Brazil, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan and South Sudan. In Latin America, 96% occur in Brazil. The VL-HIV coinfection has been considered as emerging disease in several regions of the world depending on the geographical overlap of both infections as a result of leishmaniasis urbanization and HIV infection interiorization. The VL-HIV coinfection usually results in unfavorable treatment responses, frequent relapses and premature deaths. The objective of this study was to describe and analyze the clinical and epidemiologic profiles and the spatial and temporal distribution of VL-HIV coinfection in Teresina/PI, from 2006 to 2015. It is a cross-sectional study, with temporal dimension, developed from geo-referenced data for the address of residence domicile concerning notified and confirmed VL and VL-HIV cases in the Brazilian Disease Information System. From the total number of cases of LV notified within the period of the study (737), 19.4% were of VL-HIV coinfection. The proportion of VL-HIV cases coinfection in relation to LV cases was 8.6% in 2006 and 47.7% in 2015, the coefficient of incidence was 0.87 cases per 100,000 inhabitants and 2.49 cases per 100.00 inhabitants, in the same periods. Highlights the clinical and laboratory diagnosis difference between the two groups with weakness, weight loss, infection and hemorrhagic phenomena the most frequent clinical manifestations in patients with LV-HIV. The mortality and recurrence were approximately two times higher in this group, 11.4% and 13.3%, respectively. It was evidenced greater VL-HIV spatial aggregation cases in relation to that observed for LV cases. The results presented in this research contributes to the knowledge about the clinical and epidemiological diagnosis and the process of VL-HIV coinfection occurrence, potentiating prevention and health planning actions


Subject(s)
Humans , Brazil , Epidemiologic Studies , Public Health , HIV , Geographic Information Systems/statistics & numerical data , Coinfection/epidemiology , Health Information Systems/statistics & numerical data , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission
20.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 21: e180019, 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-958831

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Introdução: A tuberculose (TB) é um dos graves problemas da saúde pública mundial. A vigilância epidemiológica tem se mostrado uma importante ferramenta para auxiliar em ações de controle e prevenção de doenças transmissíveis, como a TB e a aids. O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar a proporção e os fatores associados à subnotificação da tuberculose em Pernambuco, entre os casos de coinfecção TB/aids, com base nos dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação da TB e da aids. Métodos: Realizou-se um estudo de corte seccional, baseado nos registros dos Sistemas de Notificação de TB e aids, para identificação de casos de subnotificação de TB no período de estudo, mediante a realização de linkage probabilístico utilizando o software RecLink III. Resultados: Verificou-se proporção de 29% de subnotificação de TB, e os fatores associados à subnotificação foram: apresentar forma clínica da TB pulmonar cavitária ou não especificada, ou ter os dois tipos de TB ao mesmo tempo; e ser atendido fora do Recife e em serviços que não são especializados para vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV)/aids. Discussão: A proporção de subnotificação encontrada em nosso estudo foi menor do que a observada em outras pesquisas brasileiras que levaram em consideração a subnotificação haja vista os dados de mortalidade. Conclusão: As variáveis associadas à subnotificação de TB referem-se, em sua maioria, à rede de atenção, e não às características individuais, o que aponta para a necessidade de capacitação dos profissionais de saúde para efetuar a notificação aos sistemas de informação.


ABSTRACT: Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the world's major public health problems. Epidemiological surveillance has proved to be an important tool to assist in the control and prevention of communicable diseases such as TB and AIDS. This study aimed to estimate the rate and factors associated with the underreporting of TB among cases of coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS in the state of Pernambuco, based on data from the TB and Aids Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sinan TB and Sinan AIDS). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out based on the records of the TB and AIDS Notification System to identify cases of TB underreporting in the study period. In order to identify underreporting, a probabilistic linkage was undertaken using RecLink III software. Results: The rate of TB underreporting was 29%, and the factors associated were: presenting a clinical form of TB as cavitary or unspecified pulmonary TB or having both kinds of TB at the same time; being treated outside the municipality of Recife; and being treated at health services not specialized for HIV/AIDS. Discussion: The proportion of underreporting found in our study was lower than that observed in other Brazilian studies that took into account underreporting from mortality data. Conclusion: The variables associated with underreporting of TB were mostly related to the healthcare system rather than to individual characteristics, which points to the need for training of health professionals in order to notify the information systems correctly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Information Systems/statistics & numerical data , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Medical Record Linkage , Population Surveillance/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Notification , Epidemiological Monitoring
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