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1.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(3): 363-370, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126173

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: La inflamación asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) se relaciona con la pro gresión de las lesiones precancerosas gástricas. Las infecciones por helmintos podrían modular la respuesta proinflamatoria a la infección por H. pylori desde un perfil tipo LTCD4+ Th1 hacia una respuesta menos perjudicial tipo LTCD4+ Th2. Objetivo: Caracterizar la polarización de la respuesta inmune tipo LTCD4+ Th1/Th2 de pacientes coinfectados por H. pylori y helmintiasis procedentes de áreas de bajo riego para el desarrollo de cáncer gástrico. Pacientes y Método: Se analizaron 63 pacientes, 40 adultos y 23 niños infectados con H. pylori. La determinación de los perfiles séricos de las interleucinas asociadas con la polarización de la respuesta inmune tipo LTCD4+ Th1 (IL-1Β, INF-γ y TNF-α) y tipo LTCD4+ Th2 (IL-4, IL-10 e IL-13) se realizó con Análisis Multiplex (xMAP). La relación entre el estado de coinfección por helmintos en pacientes infectados con H. pylori y la polarización de la respuesta inmune mediada por LTCD4+ Th1 y LTCD4+ Th2, se estudió con un modelo de regresión logístico de efectos mixtos. Resultados: La frecuencia de helmintos fue similar en adultos (15%) y niños (17%). La polarización de la respuesta inmune fue más prevalente hacia el tipo LTCD4+ Th1. Los valores séricos de las interleucinas asociadas con la polarización de la respuesta inmune tipo LTCD4+ Th1 (IL-1 Β, INF-γ y TNF-α) y tipo LTCD4+ Th2 (IL-4, IL-10 e IL-13) fueron independientes del estado de infestación por helmintos. Conclusión: La prevalencia de infección por parasitismo intestinal fue alta y la polarización de la respuesta inmune fue predominantemente hacia un perfil tipo LTCD4 + Th1.


Abstract: Introduction: Inflammation associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is linked to the development of a gastric precancerous lesion. Helminth infections could influence the pro-inflam matory response to such infection from LTCD4+ Th1 to a less harmful LTCD4+ Th2 response. Ob jective: To characterize the polarization of the LTCD4+ Th2 immune response in co-infected pa tients with H. pylori and helminths from low-risk areas for developing gastric cancer. Patients and Method: We analyzed 63 patients infected by H. pylori (40 adults and 23 children). Through the Multiplex Analysis technology (xMAP), we determined the serum profiles of the interleukins asso ciated with the polarization of the immune response of LTCD4+ Th1 (IL-1Β, INF-γ, TNF-α) as well as the LTCD4+ Th2 (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13). The ratio between helminths co-infection status in H. pylori-infected patients and the polarization of the immune response mediated by LTCD4+ Th1 and LTCD4+ Th2 was assessed using a Mixed Effects Logistic Regression Model. Results: The frequency of helminths was similar between adults (15%) and children (17%). The polarization of the immu ne response was more prevalent in LTCD4+ Th1. Serum values of interleukins associated with the immune response polarization of LTCD4+ Th1 (IL-1Β, INF-γ, and TNF-α) and LTCD4+ Th2 (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13) were independent of helminths infection status. Conclusion: The prevalence of in testinal parasitic infection was high and the immune response polarization was mainly LTCD4 + Th1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Helicobacter pylori/immunology , Helicobacter Infections/immunology , Th1-Th2 Balance , Coinfection/immunology , Helminthiasis/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Logistic Models , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Helicobacter Infections/pathology , Helicobacter Infections/blood , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/pathology , Coinfection/blood , Helminthiasis/diagnosis , Helminthiasis/pathology , Helminthiasis/blood
2.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 28(108): 30-37, 20201000. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349405

ABSTRACT

La disfunción inmune asociada a la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) es generada por una estimulación crónica del sistema inmune secundaria a la imposibilidad del organismo de erradicar el virus. La misma se encuentra exacerbada en el contexto de la coinfección por el virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). La inflamación sistémica producto de la coinfección por ambos virus genera un aumento de la morbilidad y mortalidad en los individuos afectados. Son varios los mediadores solubles de activación inmunológica, como IP-10, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß (marcadores de inflamación sistémica); IL-17 (linfocitos T CD4+ Th17); IL-2, IFN-γ (linfocitos T CD4+ Th1); IL-8 (inducción de neutrofilia); CD23s, ICAMs, CD14s, CD163s (marcadores de activación de monocitos/macrófagos), niveles circulantes de lipopolisacárido (LPS) (translocación bacteriana); entre otros. Actualmente se necesitan más estudios para lograr definir cuáles serían los biomarcadores de progresión óptimos para el seguimiento de los individuos coinfectados por VIH/VHC. El objetivo de esta revisión es realizar una reseña sobre los mecanismos inmunopatológicos de la infección por VIH/VHC involucrados en la inflamación, daño hepático y su impacto en la morbimortalidad de los individuos coinfectados


The immune dysfunction associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is generated by a chronic stimulation of the immune system, because of the inability to eradicate the virus from the host. This immune dysfunction is exacerbated in the context of coinfection with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). Systemic inflammation caused by coinfection with both viruses generates an increase in morbidity and mortality in affected individuals. There are several soluble mediators of immunological activation, such as IP-10, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß (systemic inflammation markers); IL-17 (CD4+ T cells Th17); IL-2, IFN-γ (CD4+ T cells Th1); IL-8 (neutrophilia); CD23s, ICAMs, CD14s, CD163s, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (monocyte/macrophage activation markers and bacterial translocation); among others. Currently, more studies are needed to define optimal progression biomarkers for the follow-up of HIV/HCV coinfected individuals. In this review, we focus on the immunopathological mechanisms of HIV/HCV infection involved in inflammation, liver damage and its impact on the morbidity and mortality of affected individuals


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , HIV Infections/immunology , Hepacivirus/immunology , Coinfection/immunology , Hepatitis/immunology , Immunity , Immune System Diseases , Inflammation/immunology
3.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(5): 357-365, Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011344

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Infections caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and by the larvae of Taenia solium (i.e., cysticercosis) are still widespread in many developing countries. Both pathologies modify host immune status and it is possible that HIV infection may modulate the frequency and pathogeny of cysticercosis of the central nervous system (i.e., neurocysticercosis [NCC]). Objective: To describe published cases of NCC among HIV-positive patients and to evaluate whether the characteristics of NCC, including frequency, symptoms, radiological appearance, and response to treatment differed between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. Methods: Forty cases of NCC/HIV co-infected patients were identified in the literature. Clinical and radiological characteristics, as well as response to treatment, were compared with non-matching historical series of NCC patients without HIV infection. Results: Most of these patients had seizures and multiple vesicular parasites located in parenchyma. Clinical and radiological characteristics were similar between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients with NCC, as well as between immunocompromised and non-immunocompromised HIV-positive patients. Conclusion: Our review did not reveal clear interactions between HIV and NCC. This may be partially due to the small number of cases and reliance on published research. A systematic, multi-institutional effort aiming to report all the cases of this dual pathology is needed to confirm this finding and to clarify the possible relationship between both pathogens.


RESUMO Las infecciones causadas por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y la larva de la Tenia solium siguen estando diseminadas en países en vías de desarrollo. Ambas patologías modifican el estado inmune y es posible que la infección por el VIH module la frecuencia y la patología de la neurocisticercosis (NCC). Objetivo: Describir los casos publicados de NCC en los pacientes VIH positivos y evaluar si las características de la NCC, incluyendo frecuencia, síntomas, presentación radiológica, respuesta a tratamiento, difieren entre los sujetos VIH positivos y VIH negativos. Métodos: Cuarenta casos con coinfección NCC/VIH fueron identificados en la literatura. Se compararon sus características clínico-radiológicas, así como su respuesta al tratamiento con diferentes series de casos históricos no pareados. Resultados: La mayoría de los pacientes NCC/VIH tenían epilepsia y múltiples parásitos vesiculares en el parénquima. Las características clínico-radiológicas de la NCC así como la evolución de los pacientes fueron similares entre pacientes VIH positivos y negativos, así como entre pacientes VIH inmunocomprometidos y no inmunocomprometidos. Conclusión: No encontramos interacciones claras entre VIH y NCC. Este resultado puede haber sido influenciado por el pequeño número de casos y la parcialidad de la información publicada. Un esfuerzo multiinstitucional, sistemático encaminado a reportar todos los casos de esta patología dual es necesario para confirmar estos resultados y esclarecer la relación entre patógenos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , HIV Infections/complications , Neurocysticercosis/etiology , Coinfection/immunology , Coinfection/therapy , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/therapy , Treatment Outcome , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Neurocysticercosis/immunology , Neurocysticercosis/therapy , Immunocompetence
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180172, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041541

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) and leprosy share common areas of prevalence, but reports of coinfection are scarce. METHODS: We report a series of 9 ATL-leprosy cases and discuss the association. An integrative diagram to analyze the clinico-immunological features of coinfection with both diseases. RESULTS: Nine patients with leishmaniasis (5 cutaneous, 3 mucocutaneous, 1 disseminated case) exhibited concurrent infection with distinct clinical forms of leprosy. Our diagram-based analysis evidenced a divergent clinico-immunological spectrum for each disease in 8 out of 9 cases. CONCLUSIONS: The spectrum of ATL-leprosy comorbidity suggests that the host has a specific immune response against each pathogen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/immunology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Leprosy/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/complications , Coinfection/immunology , Leprosy/complications , Middle Aged
5.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(1): 123-125, Jan.-Feb. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887166

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Brazil is a country with a high prevalence of infectious diseases such as leprosy and leishmaniasis. However, coinfection of these diseases is still poorly understood. We report a case of a patient who presented with lepromatous leprosy and cutaneous-mucosal leishmaniasis at the same period. After clinical, laboratory, and histopathological diagnosis, the treatment was introduced and the patient showed important clinical improvement. He was followed in our outpatient clinic. Both pathologies play an important role in the immune system. Depending on the immune response profile of the host, diseases may present themselves in different ways. In this case, the patient showed a divergent immune response for each disease. We hypothesized that this response is specific for each pathogen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Leprosy, Lepromatous/complications , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/complications , Coinfection/complications , Leprosy, Lepromatous/immunology , Leprosy, Lepromatous/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/pathology , Coinfection/immunology , Coinfection/pathology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology
6.
Clinics ; 72(11): 652-660, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890691

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The impact of Chagas disease (CD) in HIV-infected patients is relevant throughout the world. In fact, the characterization of the adaptive immune response in the context of co-infection is important for predicting the need for interventions in areas in which HIV and Chagas disease co-exist. METHODS: We described and compared the frequency of cytokine-producing T cells stimulated with soluble antigen of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) using a cytometric assay for the following groups: individuals with chronic Chagas disease (CHR, n=10), those with Chagas disease and HIV infection (CO, n=11), those with only HIV (HIV, n=14) and healthy individuals (C, n=15). RESULTS: We found 1) a constitutively lower frequency of IL-2+ and IFN-γ+ T cells in the CHR group compared with the HIV, CO and healthy groups; 2) a suppressive activity of soluble T. cruzi antigen, which down-regulated IL-2+CD4+ and IFN-γ+CD4+ phenotypes, notably in the healthy group; 3) a down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines on CD8+ T cells in the indeterminate form of Chagas disease; and 4) a significant increase in IL-10+CD8+ cells distinguishing the indeterminate form from the cardiac/digestive form of Chagas disease, even in the presence of HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our data suggest the presence of an immunoregulatory response in chronic Chagas disease, which seems to be driven by T. cruzi antigens. Our findings provide new insights into immunotherapeutic strategies for people living with HIV/AIDS and Chagas disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Chagas Disease/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , HIV Infections/complications , Chronic Disease , Chagas Disease/complications , Coinfection/immunology , Flow Cytometry
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(6): 722-727, 09/09/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723993

ABSTRACT

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays a major role in liver pathology. Similar to other members of the herpesvirus family, EBV establishes a persistent infection in more than 90% of adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of EBV and chronic hepatitis C co-infection (HCV) on biochemical and immunological responses in patients. The study was conducted in 62 patients and 33 apparently healthy controls. Patients were divided into three groups: group I, consisting of 31 patients with chronic hepatitis C infection (CHC), group II, consisting of eight patients with EBV infection and without HCV infection and group III, consisting of 23 patients with EBV and chronic HCV. The percentage of CD3+ cells, helper CD4+ cells and CD19+ B-cells was measured by flow cytometry. Human interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-15 levels were measured by an ELISA. The levels of liver alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase enzymes were higher in EBV/HCV patients compared to that in EBV and HCV mono-infected patients. EBV/HCV patients had significantly reduced percentages of CD3+ and CD4+ cells compared to EBV patients. Serum IFN-γ levels were significantly reduced in EBV/HCV patients (3.86 pg/mL) compared to CHC patients (6.76 pg/mL) and normal controls (4.69 pg/mL). A significant increase in serum IL-15 levels was observed in EBV/HCV patients (67.7 pg/mL) compared to EBV patients (29.3 pg/mL). Taken together, these observations suggest that HCV and EBV co-infection can potentiate immune response dampening in patients.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coinfection/immunology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/immunology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/immunology , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Chronic Disease , Coinfection/virology , DNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Egypt , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Flow Cytometry , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , /genetics , /immunology , Interferon-gamma/blood , /blood , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(1): 9-14, 02/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703639

ABSTRACT

The effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on the immune response in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis have not yet been fully delineated. This study quantified and evaluated the function of memory T-cell subsets in response to soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) from patients coinfected with HIV and Leishmania with tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL). Eight TL/HIV coinfected subjects and 10 HIV seronegative subjects with TL were evaluated. The proliferative response of CD4+and CD8+T-cells and naïve, central memory (CM) and effector memory (EM) CD4+T-cells in response to SLA were quantified using flow cytometry. The median cell division indices for CD4+and CD8+T-cells of coinfected patients in response to SLA were significantly lower than those in patients with Leishmania monoinfection (p < 0.05). The proportions of CM and EM CD4+T-cells in response to SLA were similar between the coinfected patients and patients with Leishmania monoinfection. However, the median CM and EM CD4+T-cell counts from coinfected patients were significantly lower (p < 0.05). The reduction in the lymphoproliferative response to Leishmania antigens coincides with the decrease in the absolute numbers of both EM and CM CD4+T-cells in response to Leishmania antigens in patients coinfected with HIV/Leishmania.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , /immunology , /immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/immunology , /cytology , /cytology , Cell Division/immunology , Coinfection/immunology , Flow Cytometry , HIV Infections/complications , Immunity, Cellular , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/complications , Phytohemagglutinins , Statistics, Nonparametric
9.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 17(5): 551-554, Sept.-Oct. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-689880

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of hepatitis C virus on immunological and virological responses after highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus coinfected patients compared to monoinfected human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. METHODS: The study enrolled 65 human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected subjects who initiated highly active antiretroviral therapy and attended follow-up visits over 48 weeks from 2008 to 2010. They were grouped based on hepatitis C virus-RNA results. Virological and immunological responses were monitored at baseline and at the end of weeks 12, 24, 36, and 48. RESULTS: There were 35 human immunodeficiency virus monoinfected and 30 human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus coinfected patients. In the present study human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus coinfection did not seem to influence CD4 Tlymphocytes recovery. There was no difference between the curves of CD4 T-lymphocytes raise of coinfected and monoinfected groups. CONCLUSION: This prospective study confirms that hepatitis C virus infection does not seem to be associated with impaired CD4 T-lymphocytes recovery after HAART.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Coinfection/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Hepatitis C/immunology , /immunology , /immunology , Coinfection/virology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/complications , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/analysis , Viral Load
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(1): 73-78, Jan.-Feb. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-666798

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the intracellular profile of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from leprosy patients based on oral infections presence to determine whether these coinfections could be associated with pro-inflammatory activity in leprosy. METHODS:Leprosy patients regardless of clinical form and specific leprosy treatment (n=38) were divided into two groups: Group I - leprosy patients with oral infections (n=19), and Group II - leprosy patients without oral infections (n=19). Non-leprosy patients presenting oral infections were assigned to the control Group (n=10). Intracellular IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ production was evaluated by flow cytometry (FACS) before and 7 days after controlling the oral infection in the Group I, before and 7 days after dental prophylaxis in the Group II, and during oral infection process in control Group. RESULTS: Low percentages of CD3+ lymphocytes bearing IL-2, IL-10 and IFN-γ were observed in the Group I and Group II at baseline and 7 days after therapy or prophylaxis compared to controls. Group I showed reduced percentages of IL-4 at baseline and 7 days after therapy compared to controls, or at baseline of Group II, and the Group II showed reduced percentages of CD3+ cells bearing IL-4 compared to control. An increase of the percentages of CD3+cells bearing IL-4 was observed in the Group I after the oral infections treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of oral infections favors the intracellular cytokines expression and, probably, the inflammatory reaction operating as a stimulatory signal triggering the leprosy reactions.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Coinfection/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Leprosy/immunology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Periodontal Diseases/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines/blood , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interferon-gamma/immunology , /blood , /immunology , /blood , /immunology , /blood , /immunology , Leprosy/complications , Periodontal Diseases/complications
11.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 54(3): 145-152, May-June 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-625275

ABSTRACT

The immune response expressed by IgG antibodies in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Toxocara canis, was studied with the aim of verifying the possible in vivo cross-reactivity between antigens of T. canis and other parasites (Ascaris suum, Taenia crassiceps, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides venezuelensis and Toxoplasma gondii). Experiments included three groups of mice: one infected only by T. canis, another with one of the other species of parasites and a third concomitantly infected with T. canis and the other species in question. Animals were bled by orbital plexus at 23, 38 and 70 days post infection (p.i.). Sera were analyzed for anti-Toxocara antibodies by ELISA and Immunoblotting, using excretion-secretion antigens (ES), obtained from culture of third-stage larvae of T. canis. For all experiments a control group comprised by ten non-infected mice was used. Only in the case of A. suum infection, in these experimental conditions, the occurrence of cross-reactivity with T. canis was observed. However, in the case of co-infection of T. canis - S. mansoni, T. canis - S. venezuelensis and T. canis - T. crassiceps the production of anti-Toxocara antibodies was found at levels significantly lower than those found in mice infected with T. canis only. Co-infection with S. mansoni or S. venezuelensis showed lower mortality rates compared to what occurred in the animals with single infections. Results obtained in mice infected with T. canis and T. gondii showed significant differences between the mean levels of the optical densities of animals infected with T. canis and concomitantly infected with the protozoan only in the 23rd day p.i.


Estudou-se a resposta imune humoral expressa por anticorpos da classe IgG em camundongos BALB/c experimentalmente infectados com Toxocara canis em duas situações distintas. Na primeira, com o objetivo de verificar in vivo a possível reatividade cruzada entre Toxocara canis e outros parasitos (Ascaris suum, Taenia crassiceps, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides venezuelensis e Toxoplasma gondii), foram realizados experimentos constituídos por três grupos de camundongos: um infectado apenas por Toxocara canis, outro com uma das demais espécies de parasitos estudados e um terceiro concomitantemente infectado por Toxocara canis e a espécie em questão. Todos os animais foram sangrados, através do plexo orbitário, 23, 38 e 70 dias após infecção. Os soros foram analisados para a presença de anticorpos anti-Toxocara por meio de teste imunoenzimático (ELISA) e por Immunoblotting, empregando-se antígeno de excreção-secreção (ES), obtido a partir da cultura de larvas de terceiro estádio de Toxocara canis. Para todos os experimentos utilizou-se grupo controle negativo constituído por 10 camundongos não infectados. Apenas no caso da infecção por Ascaris suum, nas condições experimentais observadas, logrou-se demonstrar ocorrência de reatividade cruzada com antígenos de Toxocara canis. Verificou-se, entretanto, no caso das coinfecções entre Toxocara canis-Schistosoma mansoni, Toxocara canis-Strongyloides venezuelensis e Toxocara canis-Taenia crassiceps produção de anticorpos anti-Toxocara em níveis significativamente inferiores do que os encontrados nos camundongos infectados somente por Toxocara canis. Nas coinfecções com Schistosoma mansoni ou Strongyloides venezuelensis observou-se, também, menor taxa de letalidade quando comparada à ocorrida nos animais com as respectivas infecções simples.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Antibodies, Helminth/immunology , Coinfection/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Toxocara canis/immunology , Toxocariasis/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Toxocariasis/parasitology
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(6): 762-770, Nov.-Dec. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-611759

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The co-infection Trypanosoma cruzi/HIV has been described as a clinical event of great relevance. The objective of this study wasto describe clinical and epidemiological aspects published in literature. METHODS: It is a systematic review of a descriptive nature from the databases Medline, Lilacs, SciELO, Scopus, from 1980 to 2010. RESULTS: There were 83 articles (2.8 articles/year) with a total of 291 cases. The co-infection was described in 1980 and this situation has become the defining AIDS clinical event in Brazil. This is the country with the highest number of publication (51.8 percent) followed by Argentina (27.7 percent). The majority of cases are amongst adult men (65.3 percent) native or from endemic regions with serological diagnosis in the chronic stage (97.9 percent) and indeterminate form (50.8 percent). Both diseases follow the normal course, but in 41 percent the reactivation of the Chagas disease occurs. The most severe form is the meningoencephalitis, with 100 percent of mortality without specific and early treatment of the T. cruzi. The medication of choice was the benznidazole on doses and duration normally used for the acute phase. The high parasitemia detected by direct or indirect quantitative methods indicated reactivation and its elevation is the most important predictive factor. The lower survival rate was related to the reactivation of the Chagas disease and the natural complications of both diseases. The role of the antiretroviral treatment on the co-infection cannot yet be defined by the knowledge currently existent. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the relevance of this clinical event there are still gaps to be filled.


INTRODUÇÃO: A coinfecção Trypanosoma cruzi/HIV vem sendo sistematicamente descrita como um evento clínico de grande relevância. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos publicados na literatura científica. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de revisão sistemática, de natureza descritiva, a partir da busca nas bases Medline, Lilacs, SciELO, Scopus, de 1980 a 2010. RESULTADOS: Identificou-se 83 artigos (2,8 artigos/ano), com um total de 291 casos registrados. A coinfecção foi descrita em 1980 e, no Brasil, tornou-se evento clínico definidor de AIDS. Este é o país com maior número de publicações (51,8 por cento), seguido pela Argentina (27,7 por cento). A maioria dos casos é de homens adultos (65,3 por cento), naturais ou procedentes de regiões endêmicas, com diagnóstico sorológico, na fase crônica (97,9 por cento) e na forma indeterminada (50,8 por cento). As duas doenças evoluem naturalmente, mas em 41 por cento dos casos ocorreu reativação da doença de Chagas. A forma mais grave é a meningoencefalite, com 100 por cento de letalidade nos casos sem tratamento específico e precoce do T. cruzi. O medicamento indicado foi benznidazole, nas doses e duração utilizadas na fase aguda em imunocompetentes. O diagnóstico da reativação foi comprovado por alta parasitemia, detectada por métodos diretos ou indiretos quantitativos, sendo a sua elevação considerada fator preditivo para reativação. A menor sobrevida nacoinfecção esteve relacionada à reativação da doença de Chagas e às complicações naturais de ambas as doenças. O papel do tratamento antirretroviral sobre a evolução da coinfecção ainda não pode ser definido pelo conhecimento existente. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar da relevância deste evento clínico, ainda persistem lacunas a serem preenchidas.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Coinfection , Chagas Disease/complications , HIV Infections/complications , Acute Disease , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Chronic Disease , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Chagas Disease/immunology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/immunology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Nitroimidazoles/therapeutic use , Parasitemia/drug therapy , Parasitemia/immunology , Trypanocidal Agents/therapeutic use
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(6): 662-669, Sept. 2011.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-602048

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to assess the effect of GB virus (GBV)-C on the immune response to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in chronically HIV-infected and HIV- hepatitis C virus (HCV)-co-infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy. A cohort of 159 HIV-seropositive patients, of whom 52 were HCV-co-infected, was included. Epidemiological data were collected and virological and immunological markers, including the production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-2 by CD4, CD8 and Tγδ cells and the expression of the activation marker, CD38, were assessed. A total of 65 patients (40.8 percent) presented markers of GBV-C infection. The presence of GBV-C did not influence HIV and HCV replication or TCD4 and TCD8 cell counts. Immune responses, defined by IFN-γ and IL-2 production and CD38 expression did not differ among the groups. Our results suggest that neither GBV-C viremia nor the presence of E2 antibodies influence HIV and HCV viral replication or CD4 T cell counts in chronically infected patients. Furthermore, GBV-C did not influence cytokine production or CD38-driven immune activation among these patients. Although our results do not exclude a protective effect of GBV-C in early HIV disease, they demonstrate that this effect may not be present in chronically infected patients, who represent the majority of patients in outpatient clinics.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Coinfection/immunology , GB virus C/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , /metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/virology , HIV Infections/virology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology , Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis , /biosynthesis , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(5): 617-619, Aug. 2011. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-597723

ABSTRACT

The presence of intestinal helminths can down-regulate the immune response required to control mycobacterial infection. BALB/c mice infected with Mycobacterium bovis following an infection with the intestinal helminth Strongyloides venezuelensis showed reduced interleukin-17A production by lung cells and increased bacterial burden. Also, small granulomas and a high accumulation of cells expressing the inhibitory molecule CTLA-4 were observed in the lung. These data suggest that intestinal helminth infection could have a detrimental effect on the control of tuberculosis (TB) and render coinfected individuals more susceptible to the development of TB.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , /biosynthesis , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/immunology , Mycobacterium Infections/immunology , Mycobacterium bovis/immunology , Strongyloides/immunology , Strongyloidiasis/immunology , Bacterial Load/methods , Coinfection , Coinfection/immunology , Coinfection/pathology , Disease Susceptibility , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/pathology , Lung , Lung , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mycobacterium Infections , Mycobacterium Infections/pathology , Strongyloidiasis , Strongyloidiasis/pathology
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(5): 632-634, Aug. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-597727

ABSTRACT

Leprosy and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are highly endemic in some regions of the state of Mato Grosso, in central Brazil. The association of leprosy with HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) was assessed using a seroprevalence study and 191 leprosy outpatients were included. Demographic data and the clinical classification of leprosy were recorded. Evidence of previous HBV infection was present in 53 patients (27.7 percent, 95 percent confidence interval: 21.9-34.5) and two (1 percent) were HBsAg positive. Five (2.6 percent) had antibodies to HCV. The prevalence of previous exposure to HBV was higher than expected for an adult population in central Brazil. In contrast, the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies was not much higher regarding the age range of participants. HBV markers were associated with a higher number of sex partners and the use of injections without proper sterilisation of the syringes. The number of HBV carriers was small, suggesting that there was no increased likelihood of chronification among these patients.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Coinfection , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , Leprosy , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Coinfection/immunology , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis C/immunology , Leprosy , Leprosy/immunology , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies
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