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Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 37(2): 155-162, Jan.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394944


Abstract Introduction: Microscopic colitis is a benign and multifactorial disease characterized by watery diarrhea and histological alterations in the colonic mucosa. The incidence of this disease is increasing, being diagnosed more frequently. Materials and methods: In this retrospective study, patients were examined employing colonoscopy and biopsy due to a diagnosis of chronic diarrhea in a gastroenterology unit throughout 22 months. Their diagnosis of colitis was confirmed by clinical picture and microscopic analysis. Results: In the study period, a total of 2849 colonoscopies were performed, 116 in patients with chronic diarrhea. We identified 15 patients with microscopic colitis, 12 were men (80 %), and only three were older than 60 (20 %). Conclusion: Unlike the world literature, this study found that microscopic colitis in our patients affects the male sex primarily (male/female ratio: 4/1) and occurs in young people, with an average age of 47.5 years (range: 21-82 years).

Resumen Introducción: la colitis microscópica es una enfermedad benigna y multifactorial caracterizada por la presencia de diarrea acuosa y alteraciones histológicas en la mucosa colónica. La incidencia de esta enfermedad viene en aumento y su diagnóstico se realiza cada vez con mayor frecuencia. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo en el que se revisaron los pacientes por medio de colonoscopia y biopsias por diagnóstico de diarrea crónica en un período de 22 meses en una unidad de gastroenterología, y en quienes mediante la clínica y el análisis histológico se confirmó el diagnóstico de colitis microscópica. Resultados: en el período de estudio se realizó un total de 2849 colonoscopias, 116 en pacientes con diarrea crónica. Se identificaron 15 pacientes con colitis microscópica, 12 fueron hombres (80 %) y solo hubo 3 mayores de 60 años (20 %). Conclusión: a diferencia de lo informado en la literatura mundial, en este estudio se encontró que la colitis microscópica en nuestros pacientes compromete especialmente al sexo masculino (relación hombre/mujer: 4/1) y se presenta en personas jóvenes, con un promedio de edad de 47,5 años (rango de 21 a 82 años).

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Retrospective Studies , Colitis , Colitis, Microscopic , Incidence , Colonoscopy , Diarrhea , Literature
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(1): 85-98, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375753


Malignant neoplasms are increasingly prevalent in the daily clinical practice. Up to 61% of patients with pelvic malignancies undergo pelvic radiotherapy in different doses, which may cause intestinal damage, and the rectum is the segment most frequently affected due to its fixed position in the pelvis. Currently, there are several strategies to minimize the effects of radiation on the tissues surrounding the neoplastic site; despite those strategies, radiotherapy can still result in serious damage to organs and structures, and these injuries accompany patients throughout their lives. One of the most common damages resulting from pelvic radiotherapy is acute proctitis.The diagnosis is confirmed by visualizing the rectal mucosa through rigid or flexible rectosigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy. The objective of the present study was to review the forms of radiation-induced proctopathytherapy, and to evaluate the results of each method to propose a standardization for the treatment of this pathology. Despite the prevalence of radiation-induced proctopathy, there is no definitive standardized treatment strategy so far. The first approach can be tried with local agents, such as mesalazine and formalin. For refractory cases, control can usually be achieved with argon plasma coagulation, hyperbaric oxygen, and radiofrequency ablation therapies. Regarding the study of radiation-induced proctopathy, there is a lack of robust studies with large samples and standardized therapies to be compared. There is a lack of double-blinded, randomized controlled studies to determine a definitive standard treatment algorithm. (AU)

Proctitis/etiology , Radiotherapy/adverse effects , Colitis/therapy , Pelvic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Rectum , Mesalamine/therapeutic use , Formaldehyde/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 37(1): 48-56, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376905


Abstract Introduction: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an immune-mediated disease whose incidence in Latin America has increased in recent years. Aim: To analyze the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with IBD treated in a university hospital and present the epidemiological data compared to other centers in Colombia. Patients and methods: Descriptive study of patients with IBD (1996-2019) at the Hospital Universitario Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá. Analysis of data from centers in Medellín, Cali, Bogotá, and Cartagena. Results: Of 386 patients, 277 presented with ulcerative colitis (UC), 102 with Crohn's disease (CD), and seven with unclassifiable colitis. IBD was more frequent in women (53 %). Mortality was less than 1 %. The involvement of UC was mainly pancolitis (42.6 %). The greater the extent of the disease, the higher the hospitalization and surgery rates (OR 3.70, P < 0.01). Thirteen percent of patients with UC received biologics. Compromise due to CD was mainly ileocolonic (43.6 %) and ileal (43.6 %). The predominant clinical pattern of CD was structuring (50%). Forty-five percent received biologicals and 56 % surgery. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) was found in 4 % of patients (n = 15). Two patients with PSC developed colorectal cancer (OR 4.18; p 0.008), while 13 patients with UC developed colon cancer and seven dysplastic changes. Three patients with CD developed colon cancer. Conclusions: The results were compared to other reference centers. We found similar trends in the clinical behavior and treatment of IBD, with higher hospitalization and surgery rates in our cases.

Resumen Introducción: la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII) es una enfermedad inmunomediada, cuya incidencia en Latinoamérica ha aumentado en los últimos años. Objetivo: analizar las características demográficas y clínicas de los pacientes con EII tratados en un hospital universitario y presentar los datos epidemiológicos con respecto a otros centros en Colombia. Pacientes y métodos: estudio descriptivo de pacientes con EII (1996-2019) en el Hospital Universitario Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá. Análisis de datos de centros de Medellín, Cali, Bogotá y Cartagena. Resultados: de 386 pacientes, 277 presentaron colitis ulcerativa (CU), 102 enfermedad de Crohn (EC) y 7 colitis no clasificable. La EII fue más frecuente en mujeres (53 %). La mortalidad fue menor de 1 %. El compromiso de la CU fue principalmente la pancolitis (42,6 %). Entre mayor la extensión de la enfermedad, más alta fue la tasa de hospitalización y cirugías (OR 3,70; p < 0,01). El 13 % de los pacientes con CU recibió biológicos. El compromiso por la EC fue principalmente ileocolónico (43,6 %) e ileal (43,6 %). El patrón clínico predominante de la EC fue estenosante (50%). El 45 % recibió biológicos y 56% cirugía. La colangitis esclerosante primaria (CEP) se encontró en 4 % de los pacientes (n = 15). Dos pacientes con CEP desarrollaron cáncer colorrectal (OR 4,18; p 0,008), mientras que 13 pacientes con CU desarrollaron cáncer de colon y 7 cambios displásicos. 3 pacientes con EC desarrollaron cáncer de colon. Conclusiones: se compararon los resultados en relación con otros centros de referencia. Encontramos tendencias similares en el comportamiento clínico y en el tratamiento de la EII, con mayores tazas de hospitalizaciones y cirugías en nuestros casos.

Humans , Male , Female , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Colitis, Ulcerative , Colitis , Data Analysis , Patients , Behavior , Colorectal Neoplasms , Crohn Disease , Incidence , Hospitals
Acta cir. bras ; 37(7): e370704, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1402971


Purpose: To evaluate the ameliorative effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on acetic acid colitis model via Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in rats. Methods: In this study, 30 rats were divided into three groups. Acute colitis was induced by rectal administration of 4% solution of acetic acid. MSCs were injected intraperitoneally in the treatment group. Results: Increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), pentraxin-3, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in colitis group were revealed biochemically. Increased level of TNF-α and decreased levels of Nrf2 and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were observed in rectum tissues. Increased fibrous tissue proliferation, vascularization and inflammatory cell infiltration were described in the colitis group. Significant improvement was observed in MSCs treated group histopathologically. Increased immunopositivity of TNF-α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD68 markers was observed in the colitis group cells, and decreased level of this positivity was observed in MSCs treated group. Conclusions: Biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical results strongly support the ameliorative effect of MSCs against acetic induced colitis model via Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in rats.

Animals , Rats , Colitis/veterinary , Acetic Acid/adverse effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/physiology , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928968


OBJECTIVES@#Liver disease is the most common extra-intestinal manifestation of ulcerative colitis (UC), but the underlying pathogenesis is still not clarified. It is well accepted that the occurrence of UC-related liver disease has close correlation with immune activation, intestinal bacterial liver translocation, inflammatory cytokine storm, and the disturbance of bile acid circulation. The occurrence of UC-related liver disease makes the therapy difficult, therefor study on the pathogenesis of UC-related liver injury is of great significance for its prevention and treatment. Glutathione (GSH) shows multiple physiological activities, such as free radical scavenging, detoxification metabolism and immune defense. The synthesis and the oxidation-reduction all contribute to GSH antioxidant function. It is reported that the deficiency in hepatic GSH antioxidant function participates in multiple liver diseases, but whether it participates in the pathogenesis of UC-related liver injury is still not clear. This study aims to investigate the feature and underlying mechanism of GSH synthesis and oxidation-reduction function during the development of UC, which will provide useful information for the pathogenesis study on UC-related liver injury.@*METHODS@#UC model was induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-ethanol solution (5 mg/0.8 mL per rat, 50% ethanol) via intra-colonic administration in rats, and the samples of serum, liver, and colon tissue of rats were collected at the 3rd, 5th, and 7th days post TNBS. The severity degree of colitis was evaluated by measuring the disease activity index, colonic myeloperoxidase activity, and histopathological score, and the degree of liver injury was evaluated by histopathological score and the serum content of alanine aminotransferase. Spearman correlation analysis was also conducted between the degree of colonic lesions and index of hepatic histopathological score as well as serum aspartate aminotransferase level to clarify the correlation between liver injury and colitis. To evaluate the hepatic antioxidant function of GSH in UC rats, hepatic GSH content, enzyme activity of GSH peroxidase (GSH-Px), and GSH reductase (GR) were determined in rats at the 3rd, 5th, and 7th days post TNBS, and the protein expressions of glutamine cysteine ligase (GCL), GSH synthase, GSH-Px, and GR in the liver of UC rats were also examined by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control, the disease activity index, colonic myeloperoxidase activity, and histopathological score were all significantly increased at the 3rd, 5th, and 7th days post TNBS (all P<0.01), the serum aspartate aminotransferase level and hepatic histopathologic score were also obviously elevated at the 7th day post TNBS (all P<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the degree of liver injury and the severity of colonic lesions (P=0.000 1). Moreover, compared with the control, hepatic GSH content and the activity of GSH-Px and GR were all significantly decreased at the 3rd and 5th days post TNBS (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the protein expressions of GCL, GSH-Px, and GR were all obviously down-regulated at the 3rd, 5th, and 7th days post TNBS (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#There is a significant positive correlation between the degree of liver injury and the severity of colonic lesions, and the occurrence of reduced hepatic GSH synthesis and decreased GSH reduction function is obviously earlier than that of the liver injury in UC rats. The reduced hepatic expression of enzymes that responsible for GSH synthesis and reduction may contribute to the deficiency of GSH synthesis and oxidation-reduction function, indicating that the deficiency in GSH antioxidant function may participate in the pathogenesis of UC related liver injury.

Animals , Antioxidants , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Colitis/chemically induced , Colitis, Ulcerative/metabolism , Colon/pathology , Glutathione/biosynthesis , Liver/metabolism , Peroxidase/metabolism , Rats , Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928056


This study aims to investigate the regulatory effect of Sishen Pills(SSP) and its split prescriptions Ershen Pills(EP) and Wuweizi Powder(WP) on T follicular helper(Tfh) cell subset in the dextran sodium sulfate(DSS)-induced colitis mice and the mechanism. A total of 60 male SPF BALB/c mice were used, 10 of which were randomly selected as the normal group. The rest 50 were induced with 3% DSS solution for colitis modeling. After modeling, they were randomized into 5 groups: model group, SSP group, EP group, WP group, and mesalazine group. Body mass, colon mass, colon mass index, colon length, and unit colon mass index in each group were observed. After hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining, the pathological injury of colon tissue was scored. The expression levels of molecules related to the STAT/SOCS signaling pathway in colon tissues were analyzed by Western blot. Differentiation levels of Tfh cells such as CD4~+CXCR5~+IL-9~+(Tfh9), CD4~+CXCR5~+IL-17~+(Tfh17), and CD4~+CXCR5~+Foxp3~+(Tfr) in peripheral blood of mice were detected by flow cytometry. The results showed each treatment group demonstrated significant increase in body mass and colon length, decrease in colon mass, colon mass index, unit colon mass index, and histopathological score(P<0.05, P<0.01), reduction of the expression of p-STAT3, STAT3, p-STAT6, and STAT6(P<0.05, P<0.01), rise of the expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3(P<0.05, P<0.01), decrease of Tfh9 and Tfh17 cells, and increase of Tfr cells(P<0.05, P<0.01) compared with the model group. These results indicated that SSP and the split EP and WP may alleviate ulcerative colitis by inhibiting the activation of STAT/SOCS signaling pathway and regulating the balance of Tfr/Tfh9/Tfh17 cells.

Animals , Colitis/genetics , Colitis, Ulcerative/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Prescriptions , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939821


Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that has become a major gastroenterologic problem during recent decades. Numerous complicating factors are involved in UC development such as oxidative stress, inflammation, and microbiota disorder. These factors exacerbate damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier. Spirulina platensis is a commercial alga with various biological activity that is widely used as a functional ingredient in food and beverage products. However, there have been few studies on the treatment of UC using S. platensis aqueous extracts (SP), and the underlying mechanism of action of SP against UC has not yet been elucidated. Herein, we aimed to investigate the modulatory effect of SP on microbiota disorders in UC mice and clarify the underlying mechanisms by which SP alleviates damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was used to establish a normal human colonic epithelial cell (NCM460) injury model and UC animal model. The mitochondrial membrane potential assay 3-‍‍(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,‍5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and staining with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst 33258 were carried out to determine the effects of SP on the NCM460 cell injury model. Moreover, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), western blot, and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing were used to explore the effects and underlying mechanisms of action of SP on UC in C57BL/6 mice. In vitro studies showed that SP alleviated DSS-induced NCM460 cell injury. SP also significantly reduced the excessive generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and prevented mitochondrial membrane potential reduction after DSS challenge. In vivo studies indicated that SP administration could alleviate the severity of DSS-induced colonic mucosal damage compared with the control group. Inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress was associated with increases in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the expression of tight junction proteins (TJs) post-SP treatment. SP improved gut microbiota disorder mainly by increasing antioxidant enzyme activity and the expression of TJs in the colon. Our findings demonstrate that the protective effect of SP against UC is based on its inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine overproduction, inhibition of DSS-induced ROS production, and enhanced expression of antioxidant enzymes and TJs in the colonic mucosal barrier.

Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Colitis/prevention & control , Colitis, Ulcerative/metabolism , Colon/metabolism , Dextran Sulfate/toxicity , Disease Models, Animal , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Inflammation/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Spirulina
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939533


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the changes of skin temperature, blood infusion and inflammatory cytokines of cutaneous tissue in the sensitized area of colitis model rats, as well as the relationship between sensory and sympathetic nerves and the formation of sensitized area, and to initially reveal the partial physical-chemical characteristics of the sensitized area in the colitis model rats.@*METHODS@#Thirty-five male SD rats were randomly divided into a control group (n=10), a model group (n=18) and a guanethidine group (n=7). 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was adopted for 6-day free drinking to establish colitis model in the model group and the guanethidine group. On day 6 and 7, in the guanethidine group, guanethidine solution (30 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally for sympathetic block. On day 7, after injection of evans blue (EB) solution, the EB extravasation areas on the body surface were observed to investigate the distribution and physical-chemical characteristics of the sensitized area. The control area was set up, 0.5 cm away from the sensitized area, and with the same nerve segment innervation. Disease activity index (DAI) score of rats was compared between the normal group and the model group, and the morphological changes in the colon tissue were investigated with HE method. Using infrared thermal imaging technology and laser speckle flow imaging technology, skin temperature and blood infusion were determined in the sensitized area and the control area of the rats in the model group. Immunofluorescence technique was adopted to observe the expression levels of the positive nerve fibers of substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and the correlation with blood vessels; as well as the expression levels of SP positive nerve fibers/tryptase+ mast cells, and tryptase+ mast cells/5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in skin tissue in the sensitized area and the control area of the rats in the model group. MSD multi-level factorial method and ELISA were applied to determine the contents of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-10) and anti-inflammatory substance corticosterone (CORT).@*RESULTS@#Sensitization occurred at the T12-S1 segments of the colitis model rats, especially at L2-L5 segments. Compared with the normal group, DAI score was increased in the rats of the model group (P<0.05), and the colonic mucosal damage was obvious, with the epithelial cells disordered, even disappeared, crypt destructed, submucosal edema and a large number of inflammatory cells infiltrated. In comparison with the control area, the skin temperature and blood infusion were increased in the sensitized area of the model group (P<0.05, P<0.01); as well as the expression levels of the positive nerve fibers of SP, CGRP and TH of skin tissue (P<0.05), which was specially distributed in peripheral vessels, the expression levels of SP positive nerve fibers/tryptase+ mast cells, and tryptase+ mast cells/5-HT of the skin tissue were all expanded (P<0.05) in the sensitized area of the model group. Compared with the model group, the number of sensitized areas was reduced in the guanethidine group (P<0.05). In comparison with the control area of the model group, in the sensitized area, the contents of pro-inflammatory cytokines, e.g. TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, and the anti-inflammatory substance CORT of skin tissue were all increased (P<0.05); and the contents of IL-6 and TNF-α were negatively correlated with CORT (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The sensitized areas on the body surface of colitis rats are mainly distributed in the L2-L5 segments. Sensory and sympathetic nerves are involved in the acupoint sensitization, and the sensitized areas may have the dynamic changes in pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory substances.

Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/metabolism , Colitis/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Guanethidine , Interleukin-6 , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serotonin , Skin Temperature , Substance P/genetics , Tryptases , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929258


Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most lethal cancer and leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. A key driver of CRC development is colon inflammatory responses especially in patients with inflammatory bowl disease (IBD). It has been proved that Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-tumor effects. The chemopreventive and immunomodulatory functions of PNS on colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) have not been evaluated.This present study was designed to study the potential protective effects of PNS on AOM/DSS-induced CAC mice to explore the possible mechanism of PNS against CAC. Our study showed that PNS significantly alleviated colitis severity and prevented the occurrence of CAC. Functional assays revealed that PNS relieved immunosuppression of Treg cells in the CAC microenvironment by inhibiting the expression of IDO1 mediated directly by signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) rather than phosphorylated STAT1. Ultimately, Rh1, one of the PNS metabolites, exhibited the best inhibitory effect on IDO1 enzyme activity. Our study showed that PNS exerted significant chemopreventive function and immunomodulatory properties on CAC. It could reduce macrophages accumulation and Treg cells differentiation to reshape the immune microenvironment of CAC. These findings provided a promising approach for CAC intervention.

Animals , Colitis/drug therapy , Colitis-Associated Neoplasms/drug therapy , Humans , Macrophages , Mice , Panax notoginseng , Saponins/therapeutic use , Tumor Microenvironment
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(4): 501-507, oct.-dic. 2021. graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360975


Resumen Los tumores neuroendocrinos del colon son relativamente raros en comparación con el carcinoma colorrectal esporádico; su incidencia es muy baja y la localización más frecuente es en el ciego, colon sigmoideo y recto. Se describe con poca frecuencia la asociación de tumor neuroendocrino con la colitis ulcerativa debido a la inflamación crónica que conduce a la diferenciación de células neuroendocrinas a partir de células multipotenciales en el epitelio displásico, que puede ser responsable del desarrollo de carcinomas neuroendocrinos colorrectales. La presentación del caso se trata de un paciente de 57 años de edad con colitis ulcerativa con cuadro de dolor abdominal, pérdida de peso y diarreas líquidas con moco. En el examen físico presentó una lesión endurecida en el marco colónico derecho con tomografía de lesión neoplásica en el colon ascendente y en su hospitalización presentó un cuadro de oclusión intestinal, por lo que se le realizó una hemicolectomía más ileostomía, cuyo resultado en la biopsia fue un tumor neuroendocrino G3 de células grandes en el colon ascendente. En este artículo se revisan de forma práctica los aspectos relacionados con la fisiopatología, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la asociación de estas dos patologías.

Abstract Neuroendocrine colon tumors are relatively unknown compared with sporadic colorectal cancer; its incidence is low, and it is generally located in the cecum, sigmoid colon, and rectum. The existing relation between neuroendocrine tumors and ulcerative colitis is not frequently described due to the chronic inflammation that leads to neuroendocrine cell differentiation from multipotential cells in the dysplastic epithelium, which can be responsible for colorectal neuroendocrine carcinomas development. The study refers to the case of a patient of 57 years old with ulcerative colitis, abdominal pain, weight loss, and liquid diarrhea with mucus. Physical examination revealed a hardened lesion in the right colonic framework with the tomography of a neoplastic lesion in the ascending colon. When the patient was hospitalized, he developed an intestinal obstruction. A hemicolectomy plus ileostomy procedure was performed resulting in a large cell G3 neuroendocrine tumor in the ascending colon revealed in the biopsy. In this article, the aspects related to the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the association of these two pathologies are reviewed in a practical way.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Colitis, Ulcerative , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Colon , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine , Pathology , Rectum , Therapeutics , Colorectal Neoplasms , Abdominal Pain , Colitis , Diarrhea , Inflammation , Intestinal Obstruction , Mucus
Medicina UPB ; 40(2): 67-74, 13 oct. 2021. tab, Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1342233


En los últimos años se ha evidenciado un aumento en la incidencia y prevalencia de la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, que comprende dos entidades: la enfermedad de Crohn y la colitis ulcerativa. Ambas, y paradójicamente su tratamiento, pueden desencadenar manifestaciones cutáneas con una amplia variedad de manifestaciones clínicas en piel, que son un reto diagnóstico para el médico. Solo el conocimiento de estos fenotipos clínicos permitirá el diagnóstico temprano, con el objetivo de lograr el abordaje diagnóstico y el tratamiento oportunos y de evitar secuelas a largo plazo.

In recent years, there is evidence of an increase in the incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease, in which two entities are involved: Chron disease and ul-cerative colitis. Both of these diseases and, paradoxically, their treatment with anti-TNF may trigger skin manifestations, whose variety of clinical presentations on the skin can represent a diagnostic challenge for the clinician. Only the knowledge of these clinical phenotypes will allow an early diagnosis to be carried out, in order to achieve a timely diagnostic approach and treatment, and to avoid long-term sequelae.

Nos últimos anos, tem havido um aumento na incidência e prevalência da doença infla-matória intestinal, que compreende duas entidades: doença de Crohn e colite ulcerosa. Ambos, e paradoxalmente o seu tratamento, podem desencadear manifestações cutâ-neas com uma grande variedade de manifestações clínicas na pele, o que constitui um desafio diagnóstico para o médico. Somente o conhecimento desses fenótipos clínicos permitirá o diagnóstico precoce, com o objetivo de alcançar uma abordagem diagnóstica e terapêutica oportuna e evitar sequelas a longo prazo.

Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Phenotype , Signs and Symptoms , Skin , Skin Manifestations , Disease , Colitis
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(2): 138-144, June 2021. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286992


Abstract Due to the ethnopharmacological use of Campsiandra laurifolia (Fabaceae), popularly known as Acapurana, to treat wounds and ulcers, associated with the lack of alternative treatments for intestinal inflammations such as ulcerative colitis (UC), the present work sought to characterize its phytochemical and antioxidant activities, and to evaluate remedial action in experimental colitis with acetic acid. Phytochemical analyzes were performed through qualitative and quantitative colorimetric tests of the main secondary metabolites. In the colitismodel, 24male Wistar rats aged±60 days oldwere used, divided into 4 groups: Control (CO) control+aqueous extract of C. laurifolia 50mg/kg (CO+A50); Colitis (CL); and Colitis+aqueous extract of C. laurifolia 50 mg/kg (CL+ A50).Measurement of sphincter anal pressure and histological tests of the large intestine, lipoperoxidation (LPO), enzymeactivity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and levels of glutathione (GSH)were performed. For statistical analysis, the oxidative stress (OS) results were expressed as means±standard error, adopting a significance level of p < 0.05. The screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, saponins and tannins in the extract, with high levels of phenolic

Resumo Devido ao uso etnofarmacológico de Campsiandra laurifolia (Fabaceae), popularmente conhecida comoAcapurana, para tratar feridas e úlceras, associado à falta dealternativas de tratamentos para as inflamações intestinais como a retocolite ulcerativa (RCU), o presente trabalho buscou caracterizar sua constituição fitoquímica, sua atividade antioxidante, e avaliar sua ação reparadora na colite experimental com ácido acético. As análises fitoquímicas foram realizadas por meio de ensaios colorimétricos qualitativos e quantitativos dos principaismetabólitos secundários.Nomodelo de colite, foramutilizados 24 ratos machos Wistar de±60 dias de idade, divididos em 4 grupos: Controle (CO), controle+ extrato aquoso de C. laurifolia 50mg/kg (CO+A50); Colite (CL); e Colite+extrato aquoso de C. laurifolia (CL+ A50). Foram realizadas aferições da pressão anal esfincteriana e avaliações histológicas do intestino grosso, lipoperoxidação (LPO), atividade da enzima superóxido dismutase (SOD) e níveis da glutationa (GSH). Para a análise estatística, resultados do estresse oxidativo (EO) foram expressos em médias±erro padrão, adotando um nível de significância de p < 0,05. O screening indicou no extrato a presença de flavonoides, saponinas e taninos com altos teores de compostos fenólicos e taninos, relacionando-os a uma elevada capacidade antioxidante. Na análise histológica, o grupo CL apresentou perda das criptas, do edema e do infiltrado inflamatório. O uso do extrato de C. laurifolia reestruturou as criptas, diminuiu o edema e aumentou a pressão anal esfincteriana, com diminuição da LPO, da SOD, e aumento da GSH. Sugere-se que o uso do extrato de C. laurifolia diminui o EO por seu poder antioxidante, conferido pelos compostos fenólicos presentes no extrato.

Animals , Rats , Colitis/chemically induced , Antioxidants , Tannins , Oxidative Stress , Phenolic Compounds , Fabaceae
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888784


For local treatment of ulcerative colitis, a new azoreductase driven prodrug CDDO-AZO from bardoxolone methyl (CDDO-Me) and 5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA) was designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated. It is proposed that orally administrated CDDO-AZO is stable before reaching the colon, while it can also be triggered by the presence of azoreductase in the colon to fragment into CDDO-Me and 5-ASA, generating potent anti-colitis effects. Superior to olsalazine (OLS, a clinically used drug for ulcerative colitis) and CDDO-Me plus 5-ASA, CDDO-AZO significantly attenuated inflammatory colitis symptoms in DSS-induced chronic colitis mice, which suggested that CDDO-AZO may be a promising anti-ulcerative colitis agent.

Animals , Colitis/drug therapy , Mesalamine/pharmacology , Mice , Nitroreductases , Oleanolic Acid/pharmacology , Prodrugs
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887962


The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of Banxia Xiexin Decoction(BXD) on inflammatory factors and intestinal flora in a dextran sulfate sodium induced ulcerative colitis(DSS-UC) mouse model, and to explore the mechanism of BXD in treating ulcerative colitis from the perspective of flora disorder. Forty C57 BL/6 J mice were randomly divided into control group, model group and BXD group. A 2.5% DSS-induced ulcerative colitis model was established. On the 8 th day, normal saline, normal saline, and BXD were given daily for 14 days. After 14 days, HE staining was used to observe histopathological changes of the colon. Serum inflammatory factor content was detected by ELISA, and the change of intestinal flora in mice feces was detected by 16 S rRNA sequencing technology. Compared with control group, the colonic tissue of mice in model group was damaged seriously, and the contents of IL-6 and TNF-α in serum were significantly increased(P<0.05). Compared with model group, mice in BXD group had less colonic damage, and the contents of IL-6, TNF-α in serum were decreased significantly(P<0.05). After creation, the richness of Patescibacteria was increased significantly at the phylum level(P<0.05). At the same time, the richness of Faecalibaculum(P<0.01), norank_f_Muribaculaceae(P<0.01) were decreased significantly at the genus level, while the richness of Turicibacter(P<0.01), Romboutsia(P<0.01), Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1(P<0.01) were increased significantly. After the intervention with BXD, the content of Patescibacteria was significantly reduced at the phylum level(P<0.05), and the contents of Lactobacillus(P<0.01), Clostri-dium_sensu_stricto_1(P<0.01), Enterorhabdus(P<0.01), Candidatus_Saccharimonas(P<0.05), Eubacterium_fissicatena_group(P<0.05) were decreased significantly at the genus level, while the contents of Dubosiella, Bacteroides and Allobaculum were increased significantly. Therefore, BXD could significantly improve the symptoms of DSS-UC mice. It not only could reduce the contents of IL-6 and TNF-α, but also could reduce the richness of Patescibacteria at the phylum level, and those of Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Candidatus_Saccharimonas, Eubacterium_fissicatena_group at the genus level. Inaddition, BXD could increase the richness of Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium. It suggested that BXD could play a role in the treatment of ulcerative colitis partially through reducing inflammatory factors and regulating the structure of the gut microbiota.

Animals , Colitis , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Colon , Dextran Sulfate/toxicity , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Sulfates
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878907


Berberine is the main extract of Coptis chinensis, and its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial and immunomodulatory effects have been confirmed by modern studies. Ulcerative colitis(UC) is a chronic, idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease with unknown etiology. Its causes involve genetics, intestinal microecology and mucosal immune system disorders. In this paper, literatures on relevant pathways and mechanism of berberine on ulcerative colitis in recent years were consulted and summarized to provide me-thods and ideas for developing berberine in the treatment of UC and exploring the mechanisms. The results showed that berberine protects the intestinal mucosal barrier, restores the body's normal immune response, and improves oxidative stress by regulating multiple signaling pathways, such as JAK-STAT, NK-κB, PI3 K-AKT, MAPK, Nrf2, ERS, and MLCK-MLC, so as to treat UC.

Berberine/pharmacology , Colitis , Colitis, Ulcerative/genetics , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa , Signal Transduction
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922773


Pai-Nong-San (PNS), a prescription of traditional Chinese medicine, has been used for years to treat abscessation-induced diseases including colitis and colorectal cancer. This study was aimed to investigate the preventive effects and possible protective mechanism of PNS on a colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) mouse model induced by azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). The macroscopic and histopathologic examinations of colon injury and DAI score were observed. The inflammatory indicators of intestinal immunity were determined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. The high throughput 16S rRNA sequence of gut microbiota in the feces of mice was performed. Western blot was used to investigate the protein expression of the Wnt signaling pathway in colon tissues. PNS improved colon injury, as manifested by the alleviation of hematochezia, decreased DAI score, increased colon length, and reversal of pathological changes. PNS treatment protected against AOM/DSS-induced colon inflammation by regulating the expression of CD4

Animals , Azoxymethane/toxicity , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Colitis/genetics , Dextran Sulfate/toxicity , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Wnt Signaling Pathway/drug effects
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922470


Although mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes (MSC-exos) have been shown to have therapeutic effects in experimental periodontitis, their drawbacks, such as low yield and limited efficacy, have hampered their clinical application. These drawbacks can be largely reduced by replacing the traditional 2D culture system with a 3D system. However, the potential function of MSC-exos produced by 3D culture (3D-exos) in periodontitis remains elusive. This study showed that compared with MSC-exos generated via 2D culture (2D-exos), 3D-exos showed enhanced anti-inflammatory effects in a ligature-induced model of periodontitis by restoring the reactive T helper 17 (Th17) cell/Treg balance in inflamed periodontal tissues. Mechanistically, 3D-exos exhibited greater enrichment of miR-1246, which can suppress the expression of Nfat5, a key factor that mediates Th17 cell polarization in a sequence-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that recovery of the Th17 cell/Treg balance in the inflamed periodontium by the local injection of 3D-exos attenuated experimental colitis. Our study not only showed that by restoring the Th17 cell/Treg balance through the miR-1246/Nfat5 axis, the 3D culture system improved the function of MSC-exos in the treatment of periodontitis, but also it provided a basis for treating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by restoring immune responses in the inflamed periodontium.

Colitis , Exosomes , Humans , Periodontitis/therapy , Periodontium , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Th17 Cells
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922266


Inflammatory bowel disease is a recurrent chronic intestinal inflammatory disease with unknown etiology and no effective treatment. Phosphodiesterase (PDE) regulates a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes by mediating the hydrolysis of intracellular second messengers cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate. In recent years, a series of researches suggest that PDE inhibitors such as several PDE4 inhibitors, PDE5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil), PDE3 inhibitors (cilostazol), PDE9 inhibitor (PF-04447943) and PDE3/PDE4 double inhibitor (pumafentrine) have ameliorating effect on experimental colitis in animals. In clinical trials, PDE4 inhibitor apremilast showed more therapeutic advantage than tetomilast. This article reviews the recent research progress of PDE inhibitors in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

Animals , Colitis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(4): e1639, 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360013


RESUMO - RACIONAL: A etiopatogenia da colite por desuso (DC) ainda não foi totalmente elucidada. As principais teorias consideram que a doença pode estar relacionada ao aumento de bactérias anaeróbias, falta de suprimento de ácidos graxos de cadeia curta (AGCC) e distúrbios imunológicos que se desenvolvem em segmentos colorretais desprovidos de trânsito fecal. OBJETIVO: Verificar se a aplicação de infliximabe modifica o conteúdo tecidual das proteínas E-caderina e claudina-3 no epitélio cólico de ratos sem trânsito intestinal. MÉTODOS: Vinte dois ratos foram submetidos a derivação do trânsito intestinal pelo procedimento de Hartmann. Eles permaneceram com o ostoma por 12 semanas para permitir o desenvolvimento da colite de exclusão. Em seguida, foram divididos em três grupos experimentais: seis animais receberam 2,0 ml de solução salina/semana, oito infliximabe na dose de 5 mg/Kg/semana e, os demais, infliximabe na dose de 10 mg/Kg/semana por 5 semanas consecutivas. Em seguida, os animais foram eutanasiados e os segmentos cólicos com e sem trânsito intestinal foram removidos. A colite por desuso foi diagnosticada pelas alterações histológicas definidas por uma escala previamente validada. Expressão tecidual de E-caderina e claudina-3 foi avaliada por imuno-histoquímica, e o conteúdo tecidual de ambas as proteínas foi quantificado por análise de imagem assistida por computador. RESULTADOS: Segmentos cólicos exclusos de trânsito fecal apresentaram maior grau de inflamação do que os expostos ao trânsito fecal. Inflamação foi menor nos animais tratados com infliximabe, independente da dose utilizada. Níveis de E-caderina e claudina-3 estavam reduzidos no cólon excluso. O tratamento com infliximabe aumentou os níveis das proteínas em segmentos do cólon sem trânsito intestinal, principalmente nos animais que receberam a dose de 10mg/kg/semana. CONCLUSÃO: Infliximabe reduz inflamação nos segmentos do cólon excluso e aumenta o conteúdo tecidual de E-caderina e claudina-3, especialmente na concentração de 10mg/kg/semana.

ABSTRACT - BACKGROUND: The etiopathogenesis of disuse colitis (DC) has not yet been fully elucidated. The main theories consider that the disease may be related to an increase in anaerobic bacteria, the lack of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) supply, and immunological disorders that develop in the colorectal segments devoid of fecal transit. AIM: The aim of this study was to verify whether the application of infliximab modifies the tissue content of E-cadherin and claudin-3 proteins in colonic epithelium of rats devoid of intestinal transit. METHODS: A total of 22 rats underwent intestinal transit bypass using Hartmann's procedure. They remained with the shunt for 12 weeks to allow the development of DC. Later, they were divided into three experimental groups: six animals received 2.0 mL saline solution/week, eight received infliximab at a dose of 5 mg/kg/week, and eight received infliximab at a dose of 10 mg/kg/week for 5 consecutive weeks. At the end of this period, the animals were euthanized, and the colonic segments with and without intestinal transit were removed. DC was diagnosed based on the histological changes defined by a previously validated scale. The tissue expression of E-cadherin and claudin-3 was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and the tissue content of both proteins was quantified by computer-aided image analysis. RESULTS: The colonic segments excluded from fecal transit showed a higher degree of inflammation than those exposed to fecal transit. The degree of inflammation was lower in animals treated with infliximab, regardless of the dose used. The levels of E-cadherin and claudin-3 were reduced in the excluded colon. Treating animals with infliximab increased the levels of both proteins in the colonic segments without intestinal transit, especially in animals receiving a dose of 10 mg/kg/week. CONCLUSION: Infliximab therapy reduces inflammation in the colonic segments excluded from intestinal transit and increases the tissue content of E-cadherin and claudin-3 proteins, especially when used at a concentration of 10 mg/kg/week.

Animals , Rats , Colitis/chemically induced , Colitis/drug therapy , Cadherins , Rats, Wistar , Epithelium , Claudin-3 , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Models, Theoretical
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(4): e1630, 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360001


RESUMO - RACIONAL: O estresse oxidativo é um dos principais mecanismos associados à ruptura dos mecanismos de defesa que formam a barreira epitelial cólica e reduz o conteúdo tecidual das proteínas claudina-3 e ocludina principais constituintes das junções de oclusão intercelulares. O sucralfato, possui atividade antioxidante e tem sido usado para tratar diferentes formas de colite. OBJETIVO: Mensurar o conteúdo tecidual de claudina-3 e ocludina da mucosa do cólon sem trânsito fecal, submetido à intervenção com sucralfato. MÉTODO: Trinta e seis ratos foram submetidos à colostomia do cólon esquerdo e fístula mucosa distal. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com a eutanásia ser realizada duas ou quatro semanas após a intervenção. Cada grupo foi dividido em três subgrupos de acordo com o tipo de intervenção realizada diariamente: solução salina isolada; sucralfato a 1 g/kg/dia ou sucralfato a 2g/kg/dia. A colite foi diagnosticada por análise histológica adotando escala de validação prévia. A expressão tecidual de ambas as proteínas foi identificada por imunoistoquímica. O conteúdo das proteínas foi quantificado por análise de imagem assistida por computador. RESULTADOS: O escore inflamatório foi maior nos segmentos cólicos sem trânsito fecal e os enemas com sucralfato reduziram o escore inflamatório nesses segmentos, principalmente nos animais submetidos à intervenção com sucralfato em maior concentração e por período mais longo de intervenção. Houve aumento no conteúdo tecidual das proteínas claudina-3 e ocludina, relacionado com a concentração de sucralfato. O conteúdo tecidual de ambas as proteínas não se modificou com a duração da intervenção. CONCLUSÃO: Enemas com sucralfato reduzem a inflamação e aumentam o conteúdo tecidual de claudina-3 e ocludina na mucosa cólica sem trânsito intestinal.

ABSTRACT - BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is one of the main mechanisms associated with the rupture of the defense mechanisms of the colonic epithelial barrier; it reduces the tissue content of the claudin-3 and occludin proteins, which are the main constituents of intercellular tight junctions. Sucralfate (SCF) has antioxidant activity and has been used to treat different forms of colitis. AIM: This study aimed to measure the tissue claudin-3 and occludin content of the colon mucosa without fecal transit, subjected to intervention with SCF. METHODS: Thirty-six rats were subjected to left colon colostomy and distal mucous fistula. They were divided into two groups according to euthanasia that was performed 2 or 4 weeks after the intervention. Each group was divided into three subgroups according to the enema applied daily: saline alone, SCF at 1 g/kg/day, or SCF at 2 g/kg/day. Colitis was diagnosed by the histological analysis adopting the previous validate scale. The tissue expression of both proteins was identified by immunohistochemical technique. The content of proteins was quantified by computer-assisted image analysis. RESULTS: The inflammatory score was high in colonic segments without fecal transit, and enemas with SCF reduced the inflammatory score in these segments, mainly in those animals submitted to intervention with SCF in greater concentration and for a longer period of intervention. There was an increase in tissue content of claudin-3 and occludin, related to SCF concentration. The tissue content of both proteins was not related to the intervention time. CONCLUSION: Enemas with SCF reduced the inflammation and increased the tissue content of claudin-3 and occludin in colonic mucosa without fecal stream.

Animals , Rats , Sucralfate/therapeutic use , Colitis/prevention & control , Colitis/drug therapy , Rats, Wistar , Enema