Silent or subclinical inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is a relatively new term that has been used to describe individuals with asymptomatic active mucosal bowel inflammation, often unaware of their disease due to either the lack of or mild inflammatory symptoms. These patients are at risk for gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal manifestations, with more advanced complications. In this article we intend to describe a case report of a patient with chronic history of many organ involvements including ocular, skin, and musculoskeletal, which was later placed under the umbrella of silent ulcerative colitis. (AU)
Subject(s)Humans , Female , Adult , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Arthritis/etiology , Uveitis/etiology , Erythema/etiology
Ulcerative colitis (UC) affects the mucosa and submucosa of the large intestine. One of the mechanisms involved in its etiology is oxidative stress (OS), directly involved in the inflammatory process characteristic of UC. The Campsiandra laurifolia, known as acapurana, was described as possessing antioxidant properties. We used 24 male Wistar rats, divided into control (CO), control + acapurana (CO + A), colitis (CL), and colitis + acapurana (CL + A) groups. This study performed histological analysis, measuring anal sphincter pressure (ASP) and lipoperoxidation (LPO). The activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels were evaluated. The expression of the nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The statistical analysis used was the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test; values were expressed as mean ± standard error, and the significance level was p < 0.05. In the animals of the CL group, we observed the destruction of the crypts and the presence of mucosal ulcers, edema, and submucosal inflammatory infiltrate, as well as increased damage to the intestinal mucosa, reduced ASP, increased LPO and SOD activity, reduced GSH levels, and increased expression of NFkB and iNOS. The administration of C. laurifolia in the CL + A group was shown to cause regeneration of crypts, reduction of inflammatory infiltrate, reduction of damage to the intestinal mucosa, increase in ASP, and reduction in LPO with the restoration of SOD activity and GSH levels. The immunohistochemistry of NFkB and iNOS was significantly reduced. Therefore, the C. laurifolia aqueous extract appears to exert an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect in rats with AA-induced colitis. (AU)
Subject(s)Animals , Rats , Colitis, Ulcerative/etiology , Fabaceae , Antioxidants , NF-kappa B , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Intestinal Mucosa/anatomy & histology , Lipid Peroxides
INTRODUCCIÓN: La colitis eosinofílica y la colitis de la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, son dos entidades que pueden compartir similares características clínicas, endoscópicas y terapéuticas pero diferentes criterios diagnósticos. OBJETIVOS: Describir el caso clínico de un niño preescolar con antecedente de alergia alimentaria, de hospitalizaciones y uso de antibióticos por varias ocasiones, que evoluciona con diarrea crónica intermitente. CASO CLÍNICO: Se trata de un paciente masculino, de 3 años 5 meses, con antecedente de alergia alimentaria con cuadro crónico de dolor abdominal, diarrea y retraso en el crecimiento. Se realiza abordaje de diarrea crónica. RESULTADOS: Con hallazgos clínicos de enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal y descripción histopatológica de colitis eosinofílica, se considera la asociación entre estas dos patologías sin dejar la posibilidad de que esta última se trate de una fase inicial de enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal. CONCLUSIONES: El tratamiento de pacientes con colitis eosinofílica complicada es similar a la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, se requiere seguimiento clínico, endoscópico e histopatológico de pacientes con colitis eosinofílica a largo plazo.
INTRODUCTION: Eosinophilic colitis and inflammatory bowel disease colitis are two entities that may share similar clinical, endoscopic and therapeutic features but different diagnostic criteria. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical case of a preschool child with a history of food allergy, hospitalizations and use of antibiotics for several occasions, who evolves with chronic intermittent diarrhea. CLINICAL CASE: This is a male patient, 3 years 5 months old, with a history of food allergy with chronic abdominal pain, diarrhea and growth retardation. Chronic diarrhea was approached. RESULTS: With clinical findings of inflammatory bowel disease and histopathological description of eosinophilic colitis, the association between these two pathologies is considered without leaving the possibility that the latter is an initial phase of inflammatory bowel disease. CONCLUSIONS: The treatment of patients with complicated eosinophilic colitis is similar to inflammatory bowel disease, clinical, endoscopic and histopathological follow-up of patients with eosinophilic colitis is required in the long term.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Colitis , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Enterocolitis , Eosinophils , Food Hypersensitivity , Pediatrics , Colitis, Ulcerative , Abdominal Pain , Colon , Enteric Nervous System , Diarrhea, Infantile , Eosinophilia , Prescription Drug Overuse , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Hospitalization
Introducción: La colitis ulcerosa es una enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal de etiología multifactorial, que afecta principalmente al colon y al recto. Sus síntomas cardinales son diarrea crónica, rectorragia y dolor abdominal en cuadros severos. Su curso se caracteriza por periodos de remisión y de actividad llamados brotes, aunque en una menor proporción puede mostrar una actividad continua. Cuando afecta el recto, el colon izquierdo o más zonas se denomina pancolitis. La colonoscopia con biopsias múltiples es imprescindible para confirmar el diagnóstico y valorar la extensión de la enfermedad. Objetivo: Remarcar y promover el cuadro clínico que permita la sospecha diagnóstica de la colitis ulcerosa en el primer nivel de atención. Caso clínico: Paciente de 19 años de edad con antecedentes de diarrea crónica sanguinolenta, refractaria a varios tratamientos, que remitió por sí misma y que posteriormente recidiva con mayor severidad, lo que hace sospechar de una etiología atípica: colitis ulcerosa(AU)
Introduction: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) of multifactorial etiology that affects the colon and rectum. Its cardinal symptoms are diarrhea, rectal bleeding and abdominal pain(in severe cases). In its course alternate periods of remission and activity (flares), although in a minority it has continuous activity. The extension may affect the rectum, the left colon or even more zones (pancolitis). Colonoscopy with multiples biopsies is essential to confirm diagnosis and evaluate the extension of the disease. Objective: To publicize the clinical picture that allows the diagnostic suspicion of ulcerative colitis at the first level of care. Clinical case: We report a clinical case of a patient of 19 years old with a history of chronic bloody diarrhea refractory to various treatments, which remitted itself and later relapsed more severely, making suspicious of an atypical etiology: ulcerative colitis(AU)
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Colitis, Ulcerative/etiology , Colitis, Ulcerative/epidemiology , Colonoscopy/methods , Diarrhea/epidemiology
Abstract Introduction: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an immune-mediated disease whose incidence in Latin America has increased in recent years. Aim: To analyze the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with IBD treated in a university hospital and present the epidemiological data compared to other centers in Colombia. Patients and methods: Descriptive study of patients with IBD (1996-2019) at the Hospital Universitario Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá. Analysis of data from centers in Medellín, Cali, Bogotá, and Cartagena. Results: Of 386 patients, 277 presented with ulcerative colitis (UC), 102 with Crohn's disease (CD), and seven with unclassifiable colitis. IBD was more frequent in women (53 %). Mortality was less than 1 %. The involvement of UC was mainly pancolitis (42.6 %). The greater the extent of the disease, the higher the hospitalization and surgery rates (OR 3.70, P < 0.01). Thirteen percent of patients with UC received biologics. Compromise due to CD was mainly ileocolonic (43.6 %) and ileal (43.6 %). The predominant clinical pattern of CD was structuring (50%). Forty-five percent received biologicals and 56 % surgery. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) was found in 4 % of patients (n = 15). Two patients with PSC developed colorectal cancer (OR 4.18; p 0.008), while 13 patients with UC developed colon cancer and seven dysplastic changes. Three patients with CD developed colon cancer. Conclusions: The results were compared to other reference centers. We found similar trends in the clinical behavior and treatment of IBD, with higher hospitalization and surgery rates in our cases.
Resumen Introducción: la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII) es una enfermedad inmunomediada, cuya incidencia en Latinoamérica ha aumentado en los últimos años. Objetivo: analizar las características demográficas y clínicas de los pacientes con EII tratados en un hospital universitario y presentar los datos epidemiológicos con respecto a otros centros en Colombia. Pacientes y métodos: estudio descriptivo de pacientes con EII (1996-2019) en el Hospital Universitario Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá. Análisis de datos de centros de Medellín, Cali, Bogotá y Cartagena. Resultados: de 386 pacientes, 277 presentaron colitis ulcerativa (CU), 102 enfermedad de Crohn (EC) y 7 colitis no clasificable. La EII fue más frecuente en mujeres (53 %). La mortalidad fue menor de 1 %. El compromiso de la CU fue principalmente la pancolitis (42,6 %). Entre mayor la extensión de la enfermedad, más alta fue la tasa de hospitalización y cirugías (OR 3,70; p < 0,01). El 13 % de los pacientes con CU recibió biológicos. El compromiso por la EC fue principalmente ileocolónico (43,6 %) e ileal (43,6 %). El patrón clínico predominante de la EC fue estenosante (50%). El 45 % recibió biológicos y 56% cirugía. La colangitis esclerosante primaria (CEP) se encontró en 4 % de los pacientes (n = 15). Dos pacientes con CEP desarrollaron cáncer colorrectal (OR 4,18; p 0,008), mientras que 13 pacientes con CU desarrollaron cáncer de colon y 7 cambios displásicos. 3 pacientes con EC desarrollaron cáncer de colon. Conclusiones: se compararon los resultados en relación con otros centros de referencia. Encontramos tendencias similares en el comportamiento clínico y en el tratamiento de la EII, con mayores tazas de hospitalizaciones y cirugías en nuestros casos.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Colitis, Ulcerative , Colitis , Data Analysis , Patients , Behavior , Colorectal Neoplasms , Crohn Disease , Incidence , Hospitals
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that has become a major gastroenterologic problem during recent decades. Numerous complicating factors are involved in UC development such as oxidative stress, inflammation, and microbiota disorder. These factors exacerbate damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier. Spirulina platensis is a commercial alga with various biological activity that is widely used as a functional ingredient in food and beverage products. However, there have been few studies on the treatment of UC using S. platensis aqueous extracts (SP), and the underlying mechanism of action of SP against UC has not yet been elucidated. Herein, we aimed to investigate the modulatory effect of SP on microbiota disorders in UC mice and clarify the underlying mechanisms by which SP alleviates damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was used to establish a normal human colonic epithelial cell (NCM460) injury model and UC animal model. The mitochondrial membrane potential assay 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and staining with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst 33258 were carried out to determine the effects of SP on the NCM460 cell injury model. Moreover, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), western blot, and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing were used to explore the effects and underlying mechanisms of action of SP on UC in C57BL/6 mice. In vitro studies showed that SP alleviated DSS-induced NCM460 cell injury. SP also significantly reduced the excessive generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and prevented mitochondrial membrane potential reduction after DSS challenge. In vivo studies indicated that SP administration could alleviate the severity of DSS-induced colonic mucosal damage compared with the control group. Inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress was associated with increases in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the expression of tight junction proteins (TJs) post-SP treatment. SP improved gut microbiota disorder mainly by increasing antioxidant enzyme activity and the expression of TJs in the colon. Our findings demonstrate that the protective effect of SP against UC is based on its inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine overproduction, inhibition of DSS-induced ROS production, and enhanced expression of antioxidant enzymes and TJs in the colonic mucosal barrier.
Subject(s)Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Colitis/prevention & control , Colitis, Ulcerative/metabolism , Colon/metabolism , Dextran Sulfate/toxicity , Disease Models, Animal , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Inflammation/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Spirulina
This study aims to investigate the regulatory effect of Sishen Pills(SSP) and its split prescriptions Ershen Pills(EP) and Wuweizi Powder(WP) on T follicular helper(Tfh) cell subset in the dextran sodium sulfate(DSS)-induced colitis mice and the mechanism. A total of 60 male SPF BALB/c mice were used, 10 of which were randomly selected as the normal group. The rest 50 were induced with 3% DSS solution for colitis modeling. After modeling, they were randomized into 5 groups: model group, SSP group, EP group, WP group, and mesalazine group. Body mass, colon mass, colon mass index, colon length, and unit colon mass index in each group were observed. After hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining, the pathological injury of colon tissue was scored. The expression levels of molecules related to the STAT/SOCS signaling pathway in colon tissues were analyzed by Western blot. Differentiation levels of Tfh cells such as CD4~+CXCR5~+IL-9~+(Tfh9), CD4~+CXCR5~+IL-17~+(Tfh17), and CD4~+CXCR5~+Foxp3~+(Tfr) in peripheral blood of mice were detected by flow cytometry. The results showed each treatment group demonstrated significant increase in body mass and colon length, decrease in colon mass, colon mass index, unit colon mass index, and histopathological score(P<0.05, P<0.01), reduction of the expression of p-STAT3, STAT3, p-STAT6, and STAT6(P<0.05, P<0.01), rise of the expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3(P<0.05, P<0.01), decrease of Tfh9 and Tfh17 cells, and increase of Tfr cells(P<0.05, P<0.01) compared with the model group. These results indicated that SSP and the split EP and WP may alleviate ulcerative colitis by inhibiting the activation of STAT/SOCS signaling pathway and regulating the balance of Tfr/Tfh9/Tfh17 cells.
Subject(s)Animals , Colitis/genetics , Colitis, Ulcerative/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Prescriptions , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
This study established a mouse model of ulcerative colitis and explored the serum transitional components of Gegen Qinlian Decoction by UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS. Based on the exact relative molecular weight and MS/MS spectrum, 55 prototype components and 59 metabolites were identified from the model group, while 18 prototype components and 35 metabolites from the control group. The prototype components in serum were mainly flavonoids and the characteristic components of the model group were alkaloids. Glucuronidation, sulfonation, and glycosylation have been confirmed to be the main metabolic types in vivo. The results of comparative analysis of differences indicated that puerarin, baicalin, wogonoside, wogonin, chrysin, oroxylin A, berberine, berberrubine, and palmatine were the characteristic components in model state, which at the same time, were confirmed by pharmacological studies to be the serum pharmacodynamic material basis of Gegen Qinlian Decoction in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. This study has provided reference for explaining the metabolic transformation pattern and mechanism of action of Gegen Qinlian Decoction in vivo.
Subject(s)Alkaloids , Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Mice , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of astragaloside Ⅳ in mice with ulcerative colitis(UC) and its effect on the percentage of peripheral blood T helper(Th17) cells. Following the establishment of UC mouse model with 2% sodium dextran sulfate(DSS), mice in the positive control group and low-and high-dose astragaloside Ⅳ groups were treated with corresponding drugs by gavage. Disease activity index(DAI) was calculated, and serum interleukin-17(IL-17), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), and transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) levels were assayed by ELISA. The pathological changes in colon tissue were observed by HE staining, and Th17/regulatory T cells(Treg) ratio in the peripheral blood was determined by flow cytometry. Western blot was conducted for detecting the relative protein expression levels of forkhead box protein P3(Foxp3) and retinoic acid-related orphan nuclear receptor γT(ROR-γt). The findings demonstrated that in normal mice, the colonic structure was intact. The goblet cells were not reduced and the glands were neatly arranged, with no mucosal erosion, bleeding, or positive cell infiltration. In the model group, the colonic mucosal structure was seriously damaged, manifested as disordered arrangement or missing of glands, vascular dilatation, congestion, and massive inflammatory cell infiltration. The pathological injury of colon tissue was alleviated to varying degrees in drug treatment groups. Compared with the normal group, the model group exhibited elevated percentage of Th17 cells, increased IL-17 and TNF-α content, up-regulated relative ROR-γt protein expression, lowered TGF-β, reduced percentage of Treg cells, and down-regulated relative Foxp3 protein expression. The comparison with the model group showed that DAI score, pathological score, percentage of Th17 cells, IL-17 and TNF-α content, and relative ROR-γt protein expression in the positive control group, low-dose astragaloside Ⅳ group, and high-dose astragaloside Ⅳ group were decreased, while TGF-β content, percentage of Treg cells, and relative Foxp3 protein expression were increased. The DAI score, pathological score, percentage of Th17 cells, IL-17 and TNF-α content, and relative ROR-γt protein expression in the low-dose astragaloside Ⅳ group were higher than those in the positive control group, whereas the content of TGF-β, percentage of Treg cells, and relative Foxp3 protein expression were lower. DAI score, pathological score, percentage of Th17 cells, IL-17 and TNF-α content, relative ROR-γt protein expression in the high-dose astragaloside Ⅳ group declined in contrast to those in the low-dose astragaloside Ⅳ group, while the TGF-β content, percentage of Treg cells, and relative Foxp3 protein expression rose. There was no significant difference between the positive control group and the high-dose astragaloside Ⅳ group. Astragaloside Ⅳ is able to inhibit inflammatory response and diminish the percentage of Th17 cells in mice with UC.
Subject(s)Animals , Colitis, Ulcerative/metabolism , Mice , Saponins/pharmacology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Th17 Cells , Triterpenes/pharmacology
Objetivo: descrever o perfil de pacientes com doença de Crohn e retocolite ulcerativa, em ambulatório. Método: estudo epidemiológico transversal, descritivo, com coleta de dados secundários. As informações foram coletadas por meio de prontuário eletrônico da rede pública de saúde. Resultados: selecionados 68 pacientes, dos quais 22 (32,4%) eram do sexo masculino e 46 (67,6%) feminino. Ao diagnóstico 48 (70,6%) pacientes apresentavam retocolite, e 20 (29,4%) Crohn. Nestes, o padrão mais encontrado (30%) foi de acometimento colônico, enquanto que na retocolite, a maioria (45,8%) apresentou pancolite. Os pacientes tiveram, em média, 10 meses de sintomas antes do diagnóstico. O medicamento mais utilizado nas doenças inflamatórias intestinais foi o aminossalicilato. Cerca de 9% foram submetidos à cirurgia. Nenhum paciente apresentou óbito. Conclusão: a maioria dos achados foram ao encontro dos estudos nacionais atuais. Porém, a heterogeneidade da doença e a carência de estudos, parecem ser os principais fatores para divergências.
Objective: to describe the profile of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in an outpatient clinic. Method: cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiological study with secondary data collection. The information was collected through an electronic medical record of the public health network. Results: 68 patients were selected, of whom 22 (32.4%) were male and 46 (67.6%) were female. At diagnosis, 48 (70.6%) patients had colitis, and 20 (29.4%) Crohn's. In these, the most common pattern (30%) was colonic involvement, while in colitis, the majority (45.8%) presented pancolitis. Patients had, on average, 10 months of symptoms before diagnosis. The most widely used medicine in inflammatory bowel diseases was aminossaicylate. About 9% underwent surgery. No patient died. Conclusion: most of the findings were in line with current national studies. However, the heterogeneity of the disease and the lack of studies seem to be the main factors for divergences.
Objetivo: describir el perfil de los pacientes con enfermedad de Crohn y colitis ulcerosa en un ambulatorio. Método: estudio epidemiológico descriptivo transversal con recolección de datos secundarios. La información fue recolectada a través de una historia clínica electrónica de la red de salud pública. Resultados: Se seleccionaron 68 pacientes, de los cuales 22 (32,4%) eran hombres y 46 (67,6%) eran mujeres. En el momento del diagnóstico, 48 (70,6%) pacientes tenían colitis y 20 (29,4%) enfermedad de Crohn. En estos, el patrón más común (30%) fue la afectación colónica, mientras que en la colitis, la mayoría (45,8%) presentó pancolitis. Los pacientes tenían, en promedio, 10 meses de síntomas antes del diagnóstico. El medicamento más utilizado en las enfermedades inflamatorias intestinales fue el aminossaicilato. Alrededor del 9% se sometió a cirugía. Ningún paciente murió. Conclusión: la mayoría de los hallazgos estuvieron en línea con los estudios nacionales actuales. Sin embargo, la heterogeneidad de la enfermedad y la falta de estudios parecen ser los principales factores de divergencias.
Subject(s)Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Crohn Disease , Colitis, Ulcerative , Epidemiology
As a group of nonspecific inflammatory diseases affecting the intestine, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) exhibits the characteristics of chronic recurring inflammation, and was proven to be increasing in incidence (Kaplan, 2015). IBD induced by genetic background, environmental changes, immune functions, microbial composition, and toxin exposures (Sasson et al., 2021) primarily includes ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) with complicated clinical symptoms featured by abdominal pain, diarrhea, and even blood in stools (Fan et al., 2021; Huang et al., 2021). UC is mainly limited to the rectum and the colon, while CD usually impacts the terminal ileum and colon in a discontinuous manner (Ordás et al., 2012; Panés and Rimola, 2017). In recent years, many studies have suggested the lack of effective measures in the diagnosis and treatment of IBD, prompting an urgent need for new strategies to understand the mechanisms of and offer promising therapies for IBD.
Subject(s)Chronic Disease , Colitis, Ulcerative/therapy , Crohn Disease/epidemiology , Diarrhea , Homeodomain Proteins , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , MicroRNAs , RNA, Long Noncoding , Recurrence , Umbilical Cord/cytology
OBJECTIVES@#Liver disease is the most common extra-intestinal manifestation of ulcerative colitis (UC), but the underlying pathogenesis is still not clarified. It is well accepted that the occurrence of UC-related liver disease has close correlation with immune activation, intestinal bacterial liver translocation, inflammatory cytokine storm, and the disturbance of bile acid circulation. The occurrence of UC-related liver disease makes the therapy difficult, therefor study on the pathogenesis of UC-related liver injury is of great significance for its prevention and treatment. Glutathione (GSH) shows multiple physiological activities, such as free radical scavenging, detoxification metabolism and immune defense. The synthesis and the oxidation-reduction all contribute to GSH antioxidant function. It is reported that the deficiency in hepatic GSH antioxidant function participates in multiple liver diseases, but whether it participates in the pathogenesis of UC-related liver injury is still not clear. This study aims to investigate the feature and underlying mechanism of GSH synthesis and oxidation-reduction function during the development of UC, which will provide useful information for the pathogenesis study on UC-related liver injury.@*METHODS@#UC model was induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-ethanol solution (5 mg/0.8 mL per rat, 50% ethanol) via intra-colonic administration in rats, and the samples of serum, liver, and colon tissue of rats were collected at the 3rd, 5th, and 7th days post TNBS. The severity degree of colitis was evaluated by measuring the disease activity index, colonic myeloperoxidase activity, and histopathological score, and the degree of liver injury was evaluated by histopathological score and the serum content of alanine aminotransferase. Spearman correlation analysis was also conducted between the degree of colonic lesions and index of hepatic histopathological score as well as serum aspartate aminotransferase level to clarify the correlation between liver injury and colitis. To evaluate the hepatic antioxidant function of GSH in UC rats, hepatic GSH content, enzyme activity of GSH peroxidase (GSH-Px), and GSH reductase (GR) were determined in rats at the 3rd, 5th, and 7th days post TNBS, and the protein expressions of glutamine cysteine ligase (GCL), GSH synthase, GSH-Px, and GR in the liver of UC rats were also examined by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control, the disease activity index, colonic myeloperoxidase activity, and histopathological score were all significantly increased at the 3rd, 5th, and 7th days post TNBS (all P<0.01), the serum aspartate aminotransferase level and hepatic histopathologic score were also obviously elevated at the 7th day post TNBS (all P<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the degree of liver injury and the severity of colonic lesions (P=0.000 1). Moreover, compared with the control, hepatic GSH content and the activity of GSH-Px and GR were all significantly decreased at the 3rd and 5th days post TNBS (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the protein expressions of GCL, GSH-Px, and GR were all obviously down-regulated at the 3rd, 5th, and 7th days post TNBS (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#There is a significant positive correlation between the degree of liver injury and the severity of colonic lesions, and the occurrence of reduced hepatic GSH synthesis and decreased GSH reduction function is obviously earlier than that of the liver injury in UC rats. The reduced hepatic expression of enzymes that responsible for GSH synthesis and reduction may contribute to the deficiency of GSH synthesis and oxidation-reduction function, indicating that the deficiency in GSH antioxidant function may participate in the pathogenesis of UC related liver injury.
Subject(s)Animals , Antioxidants , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Colitis/chemically induced , Colitis, Ulcerative/metabolism , Colon/pathology , Glutathione/biosynthesis , Liver/metabolism , Peroxidase/metabolism , Rats , Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid
OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effect of Chinese herbal formula Huangqin Decoction (HQD) on ulcerative colitis mouse model induced by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) and human intestinal epithelial cell injury induced by tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α).@*METHODS@#In vivo, 30 male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 5 groups using a random number table (n=6 per group), including control, DSS, 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), HQD low- (HQD-L) and high-dose (HQD-H) groups. The colitis mouse model was established by 3% (w/v) DSS water for 5 days. Meanwhile, mice in the HQD-L, HQD-H and 5-ASA groups were administrated with 100, 200 mg/kg HQD or 100 mg/kg 5-ASA, respectively, once daily by gavage. After 9 days of administration, the body weight, disease activity index (DAI) score and colon length of mice were measured, the pathological changes of colons were analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE) staining, and the levels of serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and TNF-α were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. In vitro, the human colon epithelial normal cells (FHC cells) were exposed to HQD (0.6 mg/mL) for 12 h and then treated with TNF-α (10 ng/mL) for 24 h. The tight junction (TJ) protein expression levels of Claudin-4 and Occludin, and the protein phosphorylation levels of p65 and inhibitor of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB)-α (IκBα) were measured by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#In vivo, compared with the DSS group, HQD-H treatment attenuated the weight loss and reduced DAI score of mice on the 8th day (P<0.05). Moreover, HQD-H treatment ameliorated the colon shortening in the DSS-induced colitis mice (P<0.05). HE staining showed HQD attenuated the pathological changes of colitis mice, and the histological scores of HQD-H and 5-ASA groups were significantly decreased compared with the DSS group (P<0.05). Meanwhile, HQD-H and 5-ASA significantly decreased the serum IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels of mice (P<0.05). In vitro experiments showed that HQD up-regulated Occludin and Claudin-4 protein expressions and inhibited p-p65 and p-IκBα levels in FHC cells compared with the TNF-α group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#HQD significantly relieved the symptoms in DSS-induced colitis mice by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines expression and maintained the homeostasis of TJ protein in FHC cells by suppressing TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation.
Subject(s)Animals , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Dextran Sulfate , Disease Models, Animal , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NF-kappa B , Scutellaria baicalensis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of Improved Mayo Endoscopic Score (IMES) for evaluation of the clinical severity of ulcerative colitis (UC).@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and endoscopic data of 167 patients diagnosed with UC in Beijing Tsinghua Changgung Hospital from January, 2015 to November, 2021. The severity of endoscopic lesions was determined by Mayo Endoscopic Score (MES, 0-3 points) and the Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity (UCEIS) score (0-8 points), and the scope of endoscopic lesions was evaluated based on the Montreal classification system. The IMES was established by combining the MES with the Montreal classification.@*RESULTS@#The IMSE showed stronger correlations with modified Truelove and Witts Disease Severity, Mayo score and partial Mayo score (r=0.712, 0.784, and 0.703, respectively) than MES (r=0.642, 0.754, and 0.604, respectively), Montreal classification (r=0.598, 0.628, and 0.603, respectively) and UCEIS (r= 0.670, 0.767, and 0.677, respectively). ROC curve analysis showed that IMES was superior to MES, Montreal and UCEIS in diagnosis of severe and moderate- to-severe UC. IMES also showed stronger correlations with the laboratory indicators including CRP (r=0.583), WBC (r=0.235), HB (r=-0.280), PLT (r=0.352), ALB (r=-0.396) and ESR (r=0.471) than MES and Montreal classification. An IMES score of 5 was of greater value than a MES score of 3, E3, and UCEIS≥6 for predicting the administration of systemic hormones, immunosuppressants, or surgery in the near future.@*CONCLUSION@#IMES can better reflect the clinical severity of UC and has good correlations with the laboratory indicators of the patients.
Subject(s)Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Colonoscopy , Humans , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of Enterococcus faecium QH06 on TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats and explore the mechanisms in light of intestinal flora and intestinal immunity.@*METHODS@#Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomized equally into control group, UC model group, and E.faecium QH06 intervention group. The rats in the latter two groups were subjected to colonic enema with 5% TNBS/ethanol to induce UC, followed by treatment with intragastric administration of distilled water or E.faecium QH06 at the dose of 0.21 g/kg. After 14 days of treatment, the rats were examined for colon pathologies with HE staining. The mRNA and protein expression levels of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, and IFN-γ in the colon tissues were detected using RT-qPCR and ELISA, and the expression of TLR2 protein was detected with immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Illumina Miseq platform was used for sequencing analysis of the intestinal flora of the rats with bioinformatics analysis. The correlations of the parameters of the intestinal flora with the expression levels of TLR2 and cytokines were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The rats with TNBS- induced UC showed obvious weight loss (P < 0.01) and severe colon tissue injury with high pathological scores (P < 0.01). The protein expression levels of IFN-γ, IL-12, and TLR2 (P < 0.01) and the mRNA expression levels of IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-10 (P < 0.05) were significantly increased in the colon tissues of the rats with UC. Illumina Miseq sequence analysis showed that in UC rats, the Shannon index (P < 0.05) ACE (P < 0.01)and Chao (P < 0.05) index for the diversity of intestinal flora both decreased with a significantly increased abundance of Enterobacteriaceae (P < 0.01) and a lowered abundance of Burkholderiaceae (P < 0.05). Compared with the UC rats, the rats treated with E. faecium QH06 showed obvious body weight gain (P < 0.05), lessened colon injuries, lowered pathological score of the colon tissue (P < 0.05), decreased protein expressions of IFN- γ, IL- 12, and TLR2 and mRNA expressions of IFN- γ and IL-12 (P < 0.01 or 0.05), and increased protein expressions of IL- 4 (P < 0.05). The Shannon index ACE (P < 0.05) and Chao (P < 0.05) index of intestinal microflora were significantly increased, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae was lowered and that of Burkholderiaceae and Rikenellaceae was increased in E.faecium QH06- treated rats (P < 0.01 or 0.05). Correlation analysis showed that IFN-γ was positively correlated with the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae, and IFN-γ was negatively correlated with the abundance of Prevotellaceae, Desulfovibrionaceae, norank_o_Mollicutes_RF39 and Clostridiales_vadinBB60_group; TLR2 was negatively correlated with Clostridiales_vadinBB60_group, norank_o_Mollicutes_RF39 and Prevotellaceae.@*CONCLUSION@#E.faecium QH06 can alleviate TNBS-induced colonic mucosal injury in rats, and its effect is mediated possibly by increasing the abundance of SCFA-producing bacteria such as Prevotellaceae and inhibiting abnormal immune responses mediated by TLR2.
Subject(s)Animals , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Colon/metabolism , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-12/therapeutic use , Male , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism
OBJECTIVE@#To describe the distribution characteristics of inflammatory bowel disease among permanent residents in Yinzhou District, Ningbo City, and to understand the disease burden and development trend of inflammatory bowel disease in this area.@*METHODS@#Using the retrospective cohort design, we collected the registration information of all permanent residents in the residents' health files of the Yinzhou Regional Health Information Platform from 2010 to 2020, and used electronic medical records to follow up their inflammatory bowel disease visits. A one-year wash-out period was set, and the patients who were diagnosed with the primary diagnosis for the first time after one year of registration were re-garded as new cases. The incidence density and 95% confidence interval (CI) of inflammatory bowel disease were estimated by Poisson distribution.@*RESULTS@#From 2011 to 2020, a total of 1 496 427 permanent residents in Yinzhou District were included, of which 729 996 were male (48.78%). The total follow-up person-years were 8 081 030.82, and the median follow-up person-years were 5.41 [interquartile range (IQR): 5.29]. During the study period, there were 1 217 new cases of inflammatory bowel disease, of which males (624 cases, 51.27%) were more than females (593 cases, 48.73%). The total incidence density was 15.06/100 000 person-years (95%CI: 14.23, 15.93). Among all new cases, there were 1 106 cases (90.88%) of ulcerative colitis, with an incidence density of 13.69 per 100 000 person-years (95%CI: 12.89, 14.52); 70 cases (5.75%) of Crohn's disease, with an incidence density of 0.87 per 100 000 person-years (95%CI: 0.68, 1.09); and 41 cases (3.37%) of indeterminate colitis, with an incidence density of 0.51 per 100 000 person-years (95%CI: 0.36, 0.69). The median age of onset of ulcerative colitis was 50.82 years old (IQR: 18.77), with the highest proportion (15.01%) in the 45-49 years group. The incidence density of ulcerative colitis gradually increased with age, reaching a relatively high level in the 45-49 years group (20.53/100 000 person-years; 95%CI: 17.63, 23.78), followed by a slight increase. And the incidence density in the 65-69 years group was the highest (25.44/100 000 person-years; 95%CI: 20.85, 30.75), with a rapid decrease in the 75-79 years group. The median age of onset of Crohn's disease was 44.34 years (IQR: 33.41), with the highest proportion (12.86%) in the 25-29 years group. Due to the small number of new cases of Crohn's disease, the age distribution fluctuated greatly, with peaks both in young and old people. From 2011 to 2020, the incidence density of inflammatory bowel disease in Yinzhou District was at a low level from 2011 to 2013, and showed a rapid upward trend from 2014 to 2016, reaching a peak of 24.62 per 100 000 person-years in 2016 (95%CI: 21.31, 28.30), and slightly decreased in 2017-2020.@*CONCLUSION@#The incidence density of inflammatory bowel disease in Yinzhou District from 2011 to 2020 was at a relatively high level, and medical institutions and health departments need to pay attention to the burden of disease caused by it.
Subject(s)Adolescent , Adult , Chronic Disease , Colitis, Ulcerative/epidemiology , Crohn Disease/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
Introdução: a Doença Inflamatória Intestinal (DII) é decorrente de vários fatores que provocam alteração na homeostase do microbioma na resposta imune e no aumento da permeabilidade intestinal. O estado nutricional inadequado, principalmente em pacientes pediátricos com DII, representa prognóstico ruim e pode influenciar na resposta ao tratamento, à morbidade e à mortalidade. Objetivo: esse estudo teve objetivo de caracterizar o estado antropométrico de pacientes pediátricos atendidos em um ambulatório referência para DII. Metodologia: a amostra foi constituída por pacientes atendidos em primeira consulta no ambulatório, de junho de 2020 até fevereiro de 2021. Foram incluídos pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de Doença de Cronh e Colite Ulcerativa, de ambos sexos, com idade entre 2 a 19 anos. Resultados: dos pacientes com CU, 54,7% apresentaram adequado estado nutricional e 45,3% dos pacientes com DC. O percentual de déficit de massa muscular foi de 47,6% dos pacientes com CU e 52,4% dos pacientes com DC. A baixa estatura foi de 37,5% nos pacientes com CU e 62,5% com DC. Conclusão: a avaliação nutricional de crianças e adolescentes portadores de doenças inflamatórias intestinais deve fazer parte da rotina de atendimento, para que sejam promovidas práticas alimentares saudáveis que favoreçam o crescimento, recuperação ponderal e manutenção de massa muscular.
Background: Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is due to several factors that cause changes in microbiome homeostasis, immune response and increased intestinal permeability. Inadequate nutritional status, especially in pediatric patients with IBD, represents a poor prognosis and can influence treatment response, morbidity and mortality. Objective: the aim of this study was to characterize the anthropometric status of pediatric patients seen at the reference outpatient clinic for IBD. Methods: the sample consisted of patients seen in the first consultation at the clinic, from June 2020 to February 2021. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of Cronh's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis, of both genders, aged between 2 and 19 years were included. Results: of patients with UC 54.7% had an adequate nutritional status and 45.3% of patients with CD. The percentage of muscle mass deficit was 47.6% of patients with UC and 52.4% of patients with CD. Short stature was 37.5% in patients with UC and 62.5% with CD. Conclusion: nutritional assessment of children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel diseases should be part of the routine of care, so that healthy eating practices that favor growth, weight recovery and maintenance of muscle mass are promoted.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Pediatrics , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Anthropometry
Resumen Los tumores neuroendocrinos del colon son relativamente raros en comparación con el carcinoma colorrectal esporádico; su incidencia es muy baja y la localización más frecuente es en el ciego, colon sigmoideo y recto. Se describe con poca frecuencia la asociación de tumor neuroendocrino con la colitis ulcerativa debido a la inflamación crónica que conduce a la diferenciación de células neuroendocrinas a partir de células multipotenciales en el epitelio displásico, que puede ser responsable del desarrollo de carcinomas neuroendocrinos colorrectales. La presentación del caso se trata de un paciente de 57 años de edad con colitis ulcerativa con cuadro de dolor abdominal, pérdida de peso y diarreas líquidas con moco. En el examen físico presentó una lesión endurecida en el marco colónico derecho con tomografía de lesión neoplásica en el colon ascendente y en su hospitalización presentó un cuadro de oclusión intestinal, por lo que se le realizó una hemicolectomía más ileostomía, cuyo resultado en la biopsia fue un tumor neuroendocrino G3 de células grandes en el colon ascendente. En este artículo se revisan de forma práctica los aspectos relacionados con la fisiopatología, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la asociación de estas dos patologías.
Abstract Neuroendocrine colon tumors are relatively unknown compared with sporadic colorectal cancer; its incidence is low, and it is generally located in the cecum, sigmoid colon, and rectum. The existing relation between neuroendocrine tumors and ulcerative colitis is not frequently described due to the chronic inflammation that leads to neuroendocrine cell differentiation from multipotential cells in the dysplastic epithelium, which can be responsible for colorectal neuroendocrine carcinomas development. The study refers to the case of a patient of 57 years old with ulcerative colitis, abdominal pain, weight loss, and liquid diarrhea with mucus. Physical examination revealed a hardened lesion in the right colonic framework with the tomography of a neoplastic lesion in the ascending colon. When the patient was hospitalized, he developed an intestinal obstruction. A hemicolectomy plus ileostomy procedure was performed resulting in a large cell G3 neuroendocrine tumor in the ascending colon revealed in the biopsy. In this article, the aspects related to the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the association of these two pathologies are reviewed in a practical way.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Colitis, Ulcerative , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Colon , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine , Pathology , Rectum , Therapeutics , Colorectal Neoplasms , Abdominal Pain , Colitis , Diarrhea , Inflammation , Intestinal Obstruction , Mucus
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), two of the main inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), have been increasingly diagnosed in South America. Although IBD have been intensively studied in the last years, epidemiologic data in Brazil are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical and epidemiologic profile of IBD patients treated in the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Uberlândia from 1999 to 2014. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of the medical records of patients diagnosed with IBD, according to the international classification of diseases (ICD) - ICD K50 for CD and ICD K51 for UC - confirmed by endoscopic examination in the case of both diseases. We analyzed the following variables: age; sex; ethnicity; smoking habit; primary diagnosis; site of disease manifestation; main clinical manifestations; IBD-related complications; extraintestinal manifestations; and established drug and/or surgical treatment. RESULTS: We evaluated 183 IBD cases (91 UC and 92 CD cases). The estimated prevalence rate of UC was 15.06/100.000 inhabitants and of CD was 15.23/100.000. The CU and CD female to male incidence ratios were 1.7 and 1.8, respectively. The average age of patients diagnosed with UC was 39.4 years and of those diagnosed with CD was 31.1 years. White-skinned people were the most affected by UC (66.0%) and CD (69.0%). Few patients were submitted to surgical procedures as treatment alternative. CONCLUSION: The estimated prevalence of IBD in this population was low compared to that of populations of North America, but high compared to that of other regions considered to present low incidence, such as some Asian and Latin American countries.
RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença de Crohn (DC) e a retocolite ulcerativa (RCU), duas das principais doenças inflamatórias intestinais (DIIs), têm sido cada vez mais diagnosticadas na América do Sul. Embora a DII tenha sido intensamente estudada nos últimos anos, os dados epidemiológicos no Brasil são escassos. OBJETIVO: Estudar o perfil clínico e epidemiológico dos pacientes com DII atendidos no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia de 1999 a 2014. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo dos prontuários de pacientes com diagnóstico de DII, de acordo com a classificação internacional de doenças (CID) - CID K50 para DC e CID K51 para RCU - confirmado por exame endoscópico para ambas as doenças. Analisamos as seguintes variáveis: idade; sexo; etnia; hábito tabágico; diagnóstico primário; local de manifestação da doença; principais manifestações clínicas; complicações relacionadas a DII; manifestações extraintestinais; tratamentos medicamentoso e/ou cirúrgico instituídos. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 183 casos de DII (91 casos de RCU e 92 casos de DC). A prevalência estimada de RCU foi de 15,06/100.000 habitantes e de DC foi de 15,23/100.000. As taxas de incidência entre pacientes do sexo feminino e masculino foram de 1,7 para RCU e 1,8 para DC. A idade média dos pacientes com diagnóstico de RCU foi de 39,4 anos e daqueles com DC foi de 31,1 anos. A raça branca foi o grupo étnico mais afetado por RCU (66,0%) e DC (69,0%). Poucos pacientes foram submetidos a procedimentos cirúrgicos como alternativas de tratamento. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência estimada de DII nesta população foi baixa em comparação com populações da América do Norte, mas elevada em comparação com outras regiões consideradas de baixa incidência, como alguns países da Ásia e da América Latina.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Colitis, Ulcerative/epidemiology , Crohn Disease/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies
Resumen La estrongiloidiasis es una infección causada por el parásito Strongyloides stercoralis (SS) y se asocia con una alta mortalidad en pacientes inmunosuprimidos debido a una diseminación larvaria y síndrome de hiperinfección. El compromiso de la mucosa gástrica es raro, pero cuando se presenta se caracteriza por sangrado digestivo y emesis persistente. A continuación, se presenta el caso de un paciente de 27 años con síntomas gastrointestinales, antecedente de infección por el virus linfotrópico humano de células T tipo 1 (HTLV-1) y colitis ulcerativa, quien desarrolló síndrome de hiperinfección por SS. Se describe la presentación clínica, diagnóstico, tratamiento y complicaciones derivadas del cuadro infeccioso.
Abstract Strongyloidiasis is an infection caused by the parasite Strongyloides stercolaris (SS) and is associated with high mortality in immunosuppressed patients due to larval spread and hyperinfection syndrome. Gastric mucosal involvement is rare, but when it occurs, it is characterized by digestive bleeding and persistent emesis. The following is the case of a 27-year-old patient with gastrointestinal symptoms, a history of HTLV-1 infection and ulcerative colitis, who developed hyperinfection syndrome with SS. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and complications arising from the infectious disease are described.