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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248975, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339377


Abstract Colletotrichum is one of the most economically important fungal genera, which affects a wide range of hosts, specifically tropical and subtropical crops. Thus far, there have been several records of mycovirus infection in Colletotrichum spp., primarily by viruses of the Partitiviridae family. There have also been records of infections by mycoviruses of the Chrysoviridae family. Mycoviruses are (+)ssRNA and dsRNA genome viruses, which may or may not be enveloped. To date, no mycovirus with a DNA genome has been isolated from Colletotrichum spp. Typically, mycoviruses cause latent infections, although hypo- and hypervirulence have also been reported in Colletotrichum spp. In addition to its effects on pathogenic behavior, mycovirus infection can lead to important physiological changes, such as altered morphological characteristics, reduced vegetative growth, and suppressed conidia production. Therefore, research on mycoviruses infecting phytopathogenic fungi can help develop alternative methods to chemical control, which can cause irreversible damage to humans and the environment. From an agricultural perspective, mycoviruses can contribute to sustainable agriculture as biological control agents via changes in fungal physiology, ultimately resulting in the total loss of or reduction in the virulence of these pathogens.

Resumo Colletotrichum é um dos gêneros fúngicos mais importantes economicamente, afetando uma ampla gama de hospedeiros, especialmente em cultivos tropicais e subtropicais. Atualmente já existem diversos registros de infecção por micovírus em Colletotrichum spp., sendo a maioria dos já identificados classificados na família Partitiviridae. Ocorrem registros também de micovírus pertencentes à família Chrysoviridae. Compreendem vírus de genoma de (+)ssRNA e dsRNA que podem ser ou não envelopados. Ainda não foram identificados micovírus com genoma de DNA isolados de Colletotrichum. A infecção por micovírus pode ocorrer de forma latente, mas já foi observado em Colletotrichum spp. o fenômeno de hipo e hipervirulência. Além de influenciar no comportamento patogênico, a infecção pode causar mudanças fisiológicas importantes como alterações das características morfológicas, redução do crescimento vegetativo e redução na produção de conídios. O estudo com micovírus em fungos fitopatogênicos traz uma alternativa ao controle químico que é um método capaz de causar danos irreversíveis ao homem e o meio ambiente. Sob a perspectiva agrícola, os micovírus podem contribuir para agricultura sustentável como agentes de controle biológico. Isso porque obsevam-se mudanças importantes na fisiologia fúngica resultando na perda total ou redução da virulência desses patógenos.

Humans , RNA Viruses , Colletotrichum , Fungal Viruses/genetics , Phylogeny , Spores, Fungal , Virulence
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64(spe): e21200816, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285566


Abstract The objective of this work was to evaluate the fungitoxic effect of the aqueous extracts of Baccharis trimera on the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum 89 race, as well as its effect on the accumulation of phaseolin in hypocotyls of different cultivars and common bean varieties. It was obtained 20% aqueous extract from plants collected in municipalities of the Western Region of Paraná. Blocks containing C. lindemuthianum mycelium were transferred to Petri dishes containing medium with the different extracts and incubated at 25 °C. The colonies diameter was measured until the 12th day. Effects of aqueous extracts on phaseolin production was evaluated in hypocotyls of Carioca, Cnpf 8104, Soberana, Tibatã, Uirapurú cultivars, as well as Rosinha and Vermelho varieties. Each one cultivar and variety hypocotyl was transferred separately to test tubes containing 500 μL of 20% aqueous extracts. Sterile water, Bion®, and UV was used as controls. The phaseolin production was measured in spectrophotometer [280 nm]. Results of the evaluation of the antifungal activity of aqueous extracts of Baccharis sp. specimens collected indicate that approximately 50% of the samples presented capacity to reduce between 74 and 92% of C. lindemuthianum growth. Cultivar Tibatã and Vermelho variety showed greater sensitivity over the applied treatments. Results of fungal filtrates and vegetal aqueous extracts presented a low capacity to induce the production of phaseolin in hypocotyls.

Pest Control, Biological , Colletotrichum/growth & development , Phaseolus , Baccharis/microbiology , Brazil
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921744


Rhizome rot disease is one of the main disease of planted Polygonatum kingianum. In this study, six strains of pathogenic fungus was isolated from P. kingianum samples with rhizome rot disease collected from six counties in Yunnan province. Its pathogenicity was confirmed by inoculation to healthy P. kingianum rhizome according to Koch's postulates. The colonies of the isolated fungi on potato dextrose agar(PDA) were orange with abundant crescentic conidia which were eseptate with a mean size of 19. 3-24. 9 μm×5. 2-5. 9 μm and a L/W ratio of 3. 4-4. 5. There was an oil ball in the center of the conidium. It's easy to see setae on PDA colony.The phylogenetic tree based on ITS, GAPDH, CHS-1, HIS3, ACT, and TUB2 sequences by maximum likelihood(ML) method indicated that the pathogenic fungus for P. kingianum rhizome rot disease was clustered into the clade of Colletotrichum spaethianum species complex, and was close to C. spaethianum. However, there were some differences in morphological and genetic characteristics between the pathogenic fungus and C. spaethianum. Therefore, the pathogenic fungus for rhizome rot disease of P. kingianum was identified as a new Colletotrichum species named C. kingianum. The disease spreads primarily due to the plantation of infected seedlings of P. kingianum. It is necessary to choose healthy seedlings and take rigorous disinfection measures for the disease prevention.

China , Colletotrichum/genetics , Phylogeny , Polygonatum , Rhizome
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887984


In order to reveal the distribution and population characteristics of endophytic fungi from Zanthoxylum nitidum and the antibacterial potential,this study performed molecular identification and analyzed the genetic diversity and antibacterial activity of endophytic fungi from Z. nitidum in Guangxi. Through culture and molecular identification,35 strains,belonging to 15 genera,12 families,10 orders,4 classes,and 2 phyla,were isolated from various tissues of Z. nitidum,of which Colletotrichum and Fusarium were the dominant genera,respectively accounting for 20% of total strains. The diversity of endophytic fungi was significantly different among roots,stems,and leaves,as manifested by the significantly higher Shannon index( H') in stems( 1. 678) than in roots( 0. 882 1) and leaves( 0. 515 4). The antimicrobial activity analysis showed that 14. 28% of endophytic fungi inhibited at least one indicator pathogen. Among them,Fusarium sp. ZN-34 and Fusarium sp. ZN-26 separately demonstrated the strongest inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In general,Fusarium sp. ZN-26 and Phialemoniopsis plurioloculosa ZN-35 were advantageous in suppressing the two bacteria owing to the broad spectrum and strong efficacy. In summary,Z. nitidum in Guangxi boasts rich endophytic fungi with the majority showing strong antibacterial activity,which can be used as candidates for the extraction and separation of basic antibacterial substances and the development of natural antibacterial agents.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents , China , Colletotrichum , Endophytes/genetics , Fungi/genetics , Genetic Variation , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Zanthoxylum
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887957


A new phenolic acid ester, 4'-hydroxyphenylethyl 4,8(R)-dihydroxyphenylpropionate(1), was isolated from an endophytic fungus Colletotrichum capsici of Paeonia lactiflora roots, along with eight known phenolic derivatives, tyrosol(2), 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethyl acetate(3), methyl p-hydroxyphenylacetate(4), methyl m-hydroxyphenylacetate(5), 4-(4-hydroxyphene-thoxy)-4-oxobutanoic acid(6), 4-hydroxyphenethyl methyl succinate(7), trichodenol B(8) and 4-hydroxyphenethyl 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetate(9). Their structures were identified by a combination of high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry(HR-ESI-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet(UV) spectroscopy and electronic circular dichroism(ECD) spectroscopy. Compounds 2-9 were isolated from this fungus for the first time.

Colletotrichum , Esters , Hydroxybenzoates , Paeonia
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200534, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345496


Abstract Guarana, the fruit of Paullinia cupana, is known for its stimulating and medicinal properties by the Amazonian indigenous population and communities. However, it presents serious phytopathological problems, such as anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum spp. The objective of this study was to verify if C. siamense, a mycovirus-carrying endophytic fungus, could protect guarana seedlings, by reducing or by eliminating characteristic disease symptoms. Other physiological changes in the plant caused by the presence of this endophyte were also evaluated. The cuttings of the Cereçaporanga cultivar were dipped in a biological control suspension and planted in a specific substrate. After four months in the greenhouse, the seedlings were sprayed with a suspension of phytopathogen conidia, and a portion of these seedlings received the fungicide indicated for the crop to be compared with the control seedlings. After 28 days, the number of lesions, morphophysiological and macro characteristics, and leaf micronutrients were evaluated. The seedlings treated with C. siamense showed a lower percentage of lesions and an increased aerial part and root system compared to the other treatments. There were no significant differences between treatments regarding the percentage of macronutrients and micronutrients.

Colletotrichum/virology , Paullinia , Fungal Viruses , Amazonian Ecosystem
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(6): 2120-2132, 01-11-2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148253


Cotton culture (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is trending in an upward expansion amidst Brazilian "cerrado". Due this growth, new pathosystems are growing in incidence on tropical fields in the region of Araguaia Valley - MT. Surveys and material collection were conducted out in production areas on two counties (Bom Jesus - MT and Canarana ­ MT), both regions represents a total amount of 50.000 hectares of cultivated area. The region also is characterized by succession areas previously sowed with soybean plants (main cover crop season). Previously surveys revealed the incidence of target spot (Corynespora cassiicola), ramularia spot (Ramularia areola) and cercosporiosis (Cercospora gossypii). Disease incidence is commonly observed on several crop management methods and cultivars. Due to a reduction in efficacy of chemichal control by fungicides spray programs, this disease is increasing and spreading in a faster rate in production areas with previous harvested soybean at the biggest soybean producer group in the world (Bom Futuro). Plants on field were selected due to differences in symptoms, and isolation methods were carried out on PDA (potato-dextrose-agar) before "in vitro" pathogenicity tests conducted on seedlings, detached leaves and bolls (growth chamber conditions of 23°C / photoperiod of 12 hours). After Colletotrichum dextructor sp. pathogenicity confirmation, bioassays were carried out with several different fungicide's groups (i.e. registered for usage on Brazilian jurisdiction). This test consisted of the employment of a solution with 500 ppm of each different fungicide/a.i. that is applied on infected bolls and detached leaves who were inoculated with the target pathogen (concentration of 104 conidia per mL). This test was followed by an infection (%) evaluation during 10 days of incubation. The incidence/prevalence index (%) was also evaluated at different parts of the plant (lower, middle, and upper canopy) on different cultivars/genotypes (130-150 days after sowing). A standard level of control by different fungicides, ranged between 0 to 100% of control. Two groups of cultivars/genotypes were separated after differences on resistance response, one with susceptible traits (FM 985 GLTP) and other with partial resistance traits. No immunity response was observed. We suggest that new efficacy tests should be carried out with combination of varietal response (resistance or tolerance) combined with other chemical fungicides for better understanding of synergism or positive interaction. Valuable information will highlight the best association for greater varietal response and yield against this necrotrophic pathogen (higher B0 ­ initial inoculum) survival during successive years of rotation main crop (cotton x soybean). Isolated spray of benzimidazoles, cupric (except cuprous oxide) and triple associations with triazoles or triazolinthione (prothioconazol) combined with strobilurins and carboxamides should be wisely administrated to manage this disease due to low efficiency (below 50%). New field and laboratory essay must be carried out to input data about resistance risk and clarify damage levels on leaves and bolls impacting yield.

O algodoeiro Gossypium hirsutum L. está em plena expansão no Brasil em área da Bahia e Mato Grosso. Em função dessa expansão novos patossistemas podem ocorrer nas áreas tropicais na região do Vale do Araguaia - MT. Foram realizados levantamentos em áreas de produção nos municípios de Bom Jesus ­ MT e Canarana ­ MT nas áreas de expansão da cultura que atingem mais de 50.000 ha. Nessa região o cultivo é realizado após o cultivo da soja em uma sucessão. São comuns nessas áreas a mancha alvo (Corynespora cassiicola), mancha de ramularia (Ramularia areola) e a Cercosporiose (Cercospora gossypii). Devido as falhas nos programas, com diferentes fungicidas de controle foram realizadas inspeções nas áreas de produção do grupo Bom futuro em diferentes cultivares e sistemas de manejo. Em função da sintomatologia diferenciada e constando-se ser um novo problema foram realizados isolamentos em BDA (batata-dextrose-ágar) e realizados testes de patogenicidade em plântulas, folhas e maçãs destacadas na temperatura de 23o Celsius e regime alternado de luz do dia por 12 horas. Após a confirmação da patogenicidade em plântulas, folhas destacadas, maçãs ou capulhos para Colletotrichum truncatum foram realizados bioensaios com todos os grupos de fungicidas registrados no Brasil. Foram usada a concentração de 500 ( ppm dos ingredientes ativos, de cada formulação ou fungicida. Após a pulverização dos fungicidas foi em seguida inoculado o patógeno na concentração de 104 conídios por ml. Avaliou-se 10 dias após a incubação a porcentagem de infecção nas folhas destacadas, assim como o percentual de infecção em cada maça inoculada pelo patógeno. Confirmou-se um nível de controle pelos diferentes fungicidas variando de 0 a 100 %, tanto para folhas, como para maças destacadas. Também foi avaliado o índice de prevalência (%), considerando os três terços da planta (terço inferior, médio e superior), em diferentes genótipos em condições de campo na fase final da produção das plantas (130-150 dias). Os genótipos foram suscetíveis (FM 985 GLTP) e muitos genótipos apresentaram resistência parcial. Nenhum genótipo foi imune ao patógeno. Sugere-se a revisão dos programas e manejo com fungicidas visando alternar os melhores ingredientes ativos para o novo patógeno, associado aos genótipos como maior resistência varietal, uma vez que o patógeno pode sobreviver de um ano para o outro em sementes e restos culturais. Fungicidas benzimidazóis, cúpricos (exceto óxido cuproso), benzimidazol + triazol + estrobilurina e carboxamida + triazolintiona + estrobilurina devem ser usados com cautela no controle da doença em função da sua baixa eficiência (abaixo de 50 %), em condições de laboratório (folhas e frutos ­ maçãs destacadas).

Colletotrichum , Gossypium
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 364-375, 01-03-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146258


This work evaluated the antifungal activity of essential oils of Myrcia ovata chemotypes (MYRO-175, MYRO-156, MYRO-154, MYRO-165, and MYRO-015) and their major compounds (linalool, geraniol, citral, and (E)-nerolidol) on the phytopathogenic fungi Fusarium pallidoroseum (which causes melon postharvest rot) and Colletotrichum musae (which causes anthracnose in banana). The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GCMS/FID. To evaluate the antifungal activity, the essential oils and their major compounds were tested at different concentrations (0.1; 0.3; 0.4; 0.5; 0.7; 1.0; 3.0, and 5.0 mL/L). The major compounds found in the essential oils were nerolic acid, linalool, geraniol, citral, and (E)-nerolidol. The essential oils of the plants MYRO-154, MYRO-165, and MYRO-015 had the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (0.3 mL/L) for F. pallidoroseum and the lowest minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) (0.7 mL/L), for C. musae. Geraniol and citral had the lowest MFC (0.5 mL / L) for the two fungi tested. For F. pallidoroseum, the essential oils of the chemotypes were more effective than their major compounds. Conversely, the major compounds geraniol of the chemotype MYRO-156 (74.37%) and citral were more effective than their respective essential oils for C. musae. (E)-nerolidol and geraniol of the chemotype MYRO-015 (33.15%) were responsible for the antifungal activity of the essential oils of their respective chemotypes.

No presente trabalho avaliou-se a atividade antifúngica de óleos essenciais de quimiotipos de Myrcia lundiana (MYRO-175, MYRO-156, MYRO-154, MYRO-165, and MYRO-015) e seus compostos majoritários (linalol, geraniol, citral e (E)-nerolidol) sobre os fungos fitopatogênicos Fusarium pallidoroseum(causa podridão em frutos de melão) e Colletotrichum musae (causa antracnose em frutos de banana). Os óleos essenciais foram obtidos hidrodestilação e analisados por CGEM/DIC. Para avaliação da atividade antifúngica foram testados os óleos essenciais e os compostos majoritários nas concentrações: 0,1; 0,3; 0,4; 0,5; 0,7; 1,0; 3,0 e 5,0 mL/L. Os principais compostos presentes nos óleos essenciais foram o ácido nerólico, o linalol, o geraniol, o citral e o (E)-nerolidol. Os óleos essenciais das plantas MYRO-154, MYRO-165 e MYRO-015 apresentaram CIM de 0,3 mL/L e a planta MYRO-015 apresentou a menor concentração fungicida mínima (CFM) (1,0 mL/L). O geraniol e o citral foram os compostos que apresentaram o menor valor de CFM, 0,5 mL/L, frente aos dois fungos testados. O óleo essencial dos quimiotipos testados foram mais promissores que seus componentes majoritários puros, frente o F. pallidoroseum. Já para o C. musae, os componentes majoritários geraniol do quimiotipo MYRO-156 (74,37%) e o citral foram mais promissores que seus respectivos óleos essenciais. Já o (E)-nerolidol e o geraniol do quimiotipo MYRO-015 (33,15%) foram os responsáveis pela atividade antifúngica apresentada pelos óleos essenciais dos respectivos quimiotipos.

Oils, Volatile , Colletotrichum , Fusarium , Antifungal Agents
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(1): 133-141, jan./feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049223


This study assessed the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) to control anthracnose in papaya (cultivar Golden). Disinfested-surface fruits were inoculated with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and then the compounds were applied. The lesion diameters and the physical-chemical properties were analyzed. Assays were carried out with ASA and 1-MCP targeting the control of anthracnose and maintenance of the fruit's physical-chemical properties. The effect of ASA (20 mM; 20 min) on reducing lesion diameter occurred when applied before inoculation. Fruits treated with 1-MCP (300ppb) for 12 h showed a smaller lesion diameter than control. For the physical-chemical analysis, fruit treated with 1-MCP (200; 300 ppb; 12h) maintained fruit firmness, delayed fruit ripening and fruit fresh weight loss.

Neste trabalho avaliou-se o efeito do ácido acetilsalicílico (ASA) e 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP) no controle da antracnose do mamão (cv Golden). Para isso o Colletotrichum gloeosporioides foi inoculado em frutos superfícialmente desinfestados para depois aplicar-se os compostos. O diâmetro das lesões e as características físico-químicas foram determinadas. Os ensaios foram conduzidos com ASA e 1-MCP visando o controle da antracnose e a manutenção das características físico-químicas do fruto. O efeito do AAS (20 mM; 20 min) na redução do diâmetro da lesão ocorreu quando aplicado antes da inoculação. Frutos tratados com 1-MCP (300 ppb) por 12 horas apresentaram menor diâmetro de lesão que controle. Para a análise físico-química, frutos tratados com 1-MCP (200; 300 ppb; 12h) mantiveram a firmeza, o amadurecimento tardio e a perda de massa fresca dos frutos.

Colletotrichum , Salicylic Acid , Carica
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(6): 1695-1707, nov./dec. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049093


Myrcia ovata, an endemic species to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, presents antifungal properties. The phytopathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, Plenodomus destruens,and Thielaviopsis paradoxa are responsible for the diseases citrus postbloom fruit drop, sweet potato foot rot, and coconut stem bleeding, respectively. The antifungal activity of the essential oils of five M. ovata chemotypes (MYRO-159, nerolic acid chemotype; MYRO-180, nerolic acid + linalool chemotype; MYRO-388, geraniol chemotype; MYRO-157, citral + (E)-nerolidol chemotype; and MYRO-174, isopulegol + linalool chemotype), four major compounds (nerolic acid, nerolic acid + linalool, geraniol, and citral + (E)-nerolidol), and threepure compounds (citral, (E)-nerolidol, and linalool) against the fungi C. acutatum, P. destruens,and T. paradoxawere evaluated. For this, in vitro tests were conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications, testing concentrations (v/v) ranging from 0.01 to 1.0 µL.mL-1. All treatments presented toxicity at different levels to the three fungi. For C. acutatum,the essential oil from the individual MYRO-180 (nerolic acid + linalool chemotype) and its major compound showed the lowest Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) of 0.03 and 0.1 µL.mL-1, respectively. For P. destruens, the essential oil from the individual MYRO-159 (nerolic acid chemotype) presented the lowest MIC of 0.05 µL.mL-1. The nerolic acid + linalool chemotype and its major compound presented an MFC of 0.07 µL.mL-1. For T. paradoxa, the major compound citral + (E)-nerolidol stood out with the lowest MIC and MFC of 0.03 and 0.2 µL.mL-1, respectively. Linalool presented the lowest toxicity to the three tested fungi.

Myrcia ovata, uma espécie nativa de fitofisionomia de Restinga, possui atividade antifúngica. Os fitopatógenos Colletotrichum acutatum, Plenodomus destruens e Thielaviopsis paradoxa são responsáveis pelas doenças podridão floral de citros, mal-do-pé da batata doce e resinose do coqueiro, respectivamente. A atividade antifúngica de cinco quimiotipos de M. ovata (MYRO-159, quimiotipo ácido nerólico; MYRO-180, ácido nerólico + linalol; MYRO-388, quimiotipo geraniol; MYRO-157, quimiotipo citral + (E)-nerolidol; e, MYRO-174, quimiotipo isopulegol + linalol), quatro compostos majoritários (ácido nerólico, ácido nerólico + linalol, geraniol e citral + (E)-nerolidol) e três compostos isolados (citral, (E)-nerolidol e linalol) foram avaliados sobre os fungos C. acutatum, P. destruens e T. paradoxa. Testes in vitro foram conduzidos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três repetições e concentrações (v/v), que variaram de 0,01 a 1,0 µL.mL-1. Todos os tratamentos testados apresentaram atividade antifúngica. Para o fungo C. acutatum, o óleo essencial do indivíduo MYRO-180, de quimiotipo ácido nerólico + linalol, e seu composto majoritário apresentaram menores Concentração Mínima Inibitória (CMI) e Concentração Mínima Fungicida (CMF) de 0,03 e 0,1 µL.mL-1, respectivamente. Para o fungo P. destruens, o óleo essencial do indivíduo MYRO-159, de quimiotipo ácido nerólico, apresentou menor CMI de 0,05 µL.mL-1, e o quimiotipo ácido nerólico + linalol e seu composto majoritário apresentaram a menor CMF de 0,07 µL.mL-1. Para o fungo T. paradoxa,a combinação de citral + (E)-nerolidol destacou-se com CMI e CMF de 0,03 e 0,2 µL.mL-1, respectivamente. Linalol foi o menos tóxico sobre os três fungos testados.

Oils, Volatile , Colletotrichum , Myrtaceae , Antifungal Agents
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(6): 1799-1809, nov./dec. 2019. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049126


Brazil is the largest producer of yellow passionfruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) and one of its production problems is the anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp.). The use of fungicides on control of postharvest diseases is a method that protects the fruits during storage. However, precautions must be taken due to fungicide toxicity. The restriction to the use of fungicides in post-harvest led a demand for alternative methods of disease control, and, the phosphite application is one of these methods. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the effects of fruit immersion in phosphite on postharvest control of anthracnose. Two tests were developed in vitro to assess the effect on the fungus: phosphite Mg2 (40%P2O5+6%Mg), Zn (40%P2O5+10%Zn), Ca1 (30%P2O5+7%Ca) and K1 (40%P2O5+20%K2O). For the in vivo tests, passionfruit (Gigante Amarelo), were wounded and inoculated (50L; 106conidia mL-1). Two tests were done with: Cu (25%P2O5+5%Cu), 2.5mL L-1; Zn, 2.5mL L-1; K1, 2.5mL L-1; Mg1 (30%P2O5+4%Mg), 3mL L-1; Ca1, 3mL L-1; Ca2 (10%P2O5+6%Ca), 4mL L-1; K2 (40%P2O5+20%K2O), 1.5mL L-1; Mg2 (40%P2O5+6%Mg), 1.5mL L-1; K3 (20%P2O5+20%K2O) 1.75 mL L-1; K4 (30%P2O5+20%K2O), 1.75mL L-1. Other two tests with phosphites Mg2, Ca1, Zn and K1 were with CaCl2 (2%) was developed. In addition, phosphites were tested at 25, 50, 100 and 200% of the dose: K2 (100%; 1.5mL L-1) and Ca1 (100%; 3 mL L-1). The phosphites Mg2, Ca1, K1 and Zn in vitro have reduced mycelial growth and fungus conidia production. The phosphites K1, K2, Ca1 and Zn were the ones that most reduced the size of the anthracnose lesion. There were no differences among treatments, concerning the physico-chemical fruit properties analyzed (% fresh mass loss, total soluble solids, pH and titratable acidity).

O Brasil é o maior produtor mundial de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) e um dos problemas para sua produção é a antracnose (Colletotrichum spp.). O uso de fungicidas no controle de doenças pós-colheita é um método que protege os frutos durante o armazenamento, mas, precauções adicionais devem ser tomadas quanto à sua toxidade, presença de resíduos e a provável seleção de fungos resistentes. A restrição ao uso de fungicidas na pós-colheita cresceu e levou à procura de alternativas de controle, e, entre tais está à aplicação de fosfitos. Diante disso, este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da imersão de frutos em soluções de fosfitos no controle da antracnose em pós-colheita. Dois testes in vitro foram feitospara avaliar o efeito de fosfitono fungo: Mg2 (40%P2O5+6%Mg), Zn (40%P2O5+10%Zn), Ca1 (30%P2O5+7%Ca) e K1 (40%P2O5+20%K2O). In vivo, frutos de maracujá (Gigante Amarelo), foram feridos e inoculados (50l; 106conídios mL-1). Dois testes foram feitos com: Cu (25%P2O5+5%Cu), 2,5mL L-1; Zn, 2,5mL L-1; K1, 2,5mL L-1; Mg1 (30%P2O5+4%Mg), 3mL L-1; Ca1, 3mL L-1; Ca2 (10%P2O5+6%Ca), 4mL L-1; K2 (40%P2O5+20%K2O), 1,5mL L-1; Mg2 (40%P2O5+6%Mg), 1,5mL L-1; K3 (20%P2O5+20%K2O), 1,75mL L-1; K4 (30%P2O5+20%K2O), 1,75mL L-1. Outros dois testes com fosfitos foram com CaCl2 (2%) e Mg2, Ca1, Zn e K1. Ainda, dois fosfitos foram testados a 25, 50, 100 e 200% da dose: K2 (100%; 1,5mL L-1) e Ca1 (100%; 3mL L-1). Os fosfitos Mg2, Ca1, K1 e Zn in vitro reduziram o crescimento micelial e a produção de conídios do fungo. Os fosfitos K1, K2, Ca1 e Zn foram que mais reduziram o diâmetro da lesão causada pelo patógeno. Ca1 e K1 com CaCl2 reduziram o tamanho das lesões. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos, quanto as características físico-químicas analisadas (% perda de massa fresca, teor de sólidos solúveis totais, pH e acidez titulável) dos frutos.

Agricultural Cultivation , Phosphites , Colletotrichum , Passiflora
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777479


In order to find new source of antifungal agents, eleven cultivable endophytic fungi were isolated from the roots,stems and leaves of Chelidonium majus by traditional method. Seven of them were identified as Colletotrichum(L1, L2, L3, S1, S3, S4, S5), and three of them were identified as Fusarium(R1,R2,R3) by morphological features and molecular biological technology. The antifungal activity test showed that all the tested fungi displayed some inhibitory activity against five common plant pathogens(C. gloeosporioides, Curvularia lunata, Pyricularia oryza, Alternaria alternate and A. brassicae), and their inhibition rate of some test items were over 60%. Among them, R1, S2, S3 and S4 were more potent than others. This study enriches the understanding of endophytes from Ch. majus and provides a basis for the study of new microbial fungicides.

Alternaria , Virulence , Antibiosis , Ascomycota , Virulence , Chelidonium , Microbiology , Colletotrichum , Chemistry , Endophytes , Chemistry , Fusarium , Chemistry
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 840-847, Oct.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974284


ABSTRACT Anthracnose is a crop disease usually caused by fungi in the genus Colletotrichum or Gloeosporium. These are considered one of the main pathogens, causing significant economic losses, such as in peppers and guarana. The current forms of control include the use of resistant cultivars, sanitary pruning and fungicides. However, even with the use of some methods of controlling these cultures, the crops are not free of anthracnose. Additionally, excessive application of fungicides increases the resistance of pathogens to agrochemicals and cause harm to human health and the environment. In order to find natural antifungal agents against guarana anthracnose, endophytic fungi were isolated from Amazon guarana. The compounds piliformic acid and cytochalasin D were isolated by chromatographic techniques from two Xylaria spp., guided by assays with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The isolated compounds were identified by spectrometric techniques, as NMR and mass spectrometry. This is the first report that piliformic acid and cytochalasin D have antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides with MIC 2.92 and 2.46 µmol mL-1 respectively. Captan and difenoconazole were included as positive controls (MIC 16.63 and 0.02 µmol mL-1, respectively). Thus, Xylaria species presented a biotechnological potential and production of different active compounds which might be promising against anthracnose disease.

Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Xylariales/chemistry , Paullinia/microbiology , Endophytes/chemistry , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Phylogeny , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Mass Spectrometry , Xylariales/isolation & purification , Xylariales/genetics , Xylariales/metabolism , Molecular Structure , Colletotrichum/drug effects , Colletotrichum/physiology , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/genetics , Endophytes/metabolism , Fungicides, Industrial/isolation & purification , Fungicides, Industrial/chemistry
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(5): 1200-1209, sept./oct. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-967307


The present study evaluated the antifungal activity of the essential oils of chemotypes of Myrcia lundiana and their major compounds on the fungi Fusarium pallidoroseum, Fusarium solani, and Colletotrichum musae. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GCMS/FID. For the evaluation of the antifungal activity, the essential oils and the major compounds were tested at the concentration of 0.1 mL/L until the fungicidal effect was detected. The major compounds detected in the essential oil were 1,8-cineole, isopulegol, and citral. The chemotypes (MLU-005 and MLU-019) provided 100% mycelial growth inhibition for the fungus F. pallidoroseum from the concentration of 1.1 mL/L (minimum inhibition concentration - MIC). For chemotype (MLU-022), the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) was 0.3 mL/L. For F. solani, the essential oils of the chemotypes (MLU-005 and MLU-019) presented MIC at concentrations of 7.0 and 5.0 mL/L, respectively. The essential oil of the chemotype (MLU-022) presented MFC of 0.6 mL/L. Different MIC was observed for the three studied chemotypes for the fungus C. musae, ranging between 0.4 mL/L, for the chemotype (MLU-005); 0.5 mL/L, for the chemotype (MLU-022); and 0.7 mL/L, for the chemotype (MLU-019). The best MFC was observed for the chemotype (MLU-005) (0.5 mL/L). The major compounds tested separately presented better MIC values when compared with their chemotypes, except for the compound 1,8-cineole, which presented lower mycelial growth inhibition for the three fungi tested, suggesting that the chemical profile or the presence of some other compound of the essential oil may inhibit the growth of the three fungi studied. The compound isopulegol provided lower MFC for the fungus C. musae (0.4517 mL/L) when compared with the fungi F. pallidoroseum and F. solani, (MFC of 0.4927 mL/L). The compound citral provided a lower MFC on the fungus C. musae (0.1668 mL/L) in relation to the other fungi tested. The essential oils of the chemotypes of M. lundiana and their major compounds showed potential to control the studied phytopathogens and can be an alternative for agriculture for presenting an inhibitory and fungicidal effect against these organisms at lower concentrations.

O presente trabalho avaliou a atividade antifúngica de óleos essenciais de quimiotipos de Myrcia lundiana dos seus compostos majoritários sobre os fungos Fusarium pallidoroseum, Fusarium solani e Colletotrichum musae. Os óleos essenciais foram obtidos por hidrodestilação e analisados por CGEM/DIC. Para avaliação da atividade antifúngica, foram testados os óleos essenciais e os compostos majoritários na concentração de 0,1 mL/L até encontrar o efeito fungicida. Os principais compostos presentes no óleo essencial foram 1,8-cineol, isopulegol e citral. Os quimiotipos (MLU-005 e MLU-019) proporcionaram 100% de inibição do crescimento micelial para o fungo F. pallidoroseum a partir da concentração de 1,1 mL/L (Concentração Inibitória Mínima ­ CIM). Para o quimiotipo (MLU-022), a melhor concentração fungicida mínima (CFM) foi de 0,3 mL/L. Para F. solani, os óleos essenciais dos quimiotipos (MLU-005 e MLU-019) apresentaram CIM nas concentrações de 7,0 e 5,0 mL/L, respectivamente. O óleo essencial do quimiotipo (MLU-022) apresentou CFM de 0,6 mL/L. Observou-se CIM diferenciado para os três quimiotipos estudados para o fungo C. musae, variando entre 0,4 mL/L, para o quimiotipo (MLU-005); 0,5 mL/L, para o quimiotipo (MLU-022); e 0,7 mL/L, para o quimiotipo (MLU-019). O quimiotipo MLU-005 apresentou o melhor CFM, 0,5 mL/L. Os compostos majoritários testados separadamente apresentaram melhores valores de CIM frente aos seus quimiotipos, exceto o composto 1,8-cineol, que apresentou menor inibição do crescimento micelial para os três fungos testados, sugerindo que o perfil químico ou a presença de algum outro composto no óleo essencial pode estar atuando na inibição do crescimento dos três fungos estudados. O composto isopulegol proporcionou menor CFM para o fungo C. musae (0,4517 mL/L) em relação aos fungos F. pallidoroseum e F. solani, para os quais apresentou CFM de 0,4927 mL/L. O composto citral proporcionou um menor CFM sobre o fungo C. musae (0,1668 mL/L), em relação aos demais fungos testados. Os óleos essenciais de quimiotipos de M. lundiana e seus compostos majoritários apresentaram potencial para o controle dos fitopatógenos estudados, podendo ser considerados como uma alternativa para a agricultura, uma vez que em concentrações mais baixas apresentaram efeito inibitório e fungicida frente a estes organismos.

Oils, Volatile , Colletotrichum , Myrtaceae , Monoterpenes , Fungi , Fusarium
Mycobiology ; : 92-100, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729996


The filamentous Ascomycota Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato is a fungus that has been reported worldwide as a causal agent of anthracnose disease in avocado and other crops. In Mexico, this species affects fruits from an early stage of development in the orchard until the post-harvest stage. Although fungicides are continuously applied to control Colletotrichum species, pericarp cankers and soft rot mesocarp in fruits are still frequently observed. Considering the lack of a precise description of the causative agent, the aim of the current study was to determine the pathogens involved in this symptomatology. Twenty-four isolates were consistently obtained from the pericarp of avocado fruits cv. “Hass” collected in the central avocado-producing area of Mexico. Morphological features such as colony growth, conidia size, and mycelial appressorium were assessed. Bayesian multilocus phylogenetic analyses were performed using amplified sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA; actin, chitin synthase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase partial genes; and APn2-Mat1-2 intergenic spacer and mating type Mat1-2 partial gene from the nine selected isolates. In addition, fruits were inoculated with a conidial suspension and reproducible symptoms confirmed the presence of Colletotrichum fructicola in this area. This pathogenic species can now be added to those previously reported in the country, such as C. acutatum, C. boninense, C. godetiae, C. gloeosporioides, and C. karstii. Disease management programs to reduce the incidence of anthracnose should include C. fructicola to determine its response to fungicides that are routinely applied, considering that the appearance of new species is affecting the commercial quality of the fruits and shifting the original population structure.

Actins , Ascomycota , Chitin Synthase , Colletotrichum , Disease Management , DNA, Ribosomal , Fruit , Fungi , Incidence , Mexico , Oxidoreductases , Persea , Spores, Fungal
Mycobiology ; : 154-158, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729994


Bitter rot caused by the fungal genus Colletotrichum is a well-known, common disease of apple and causes significant yield loss. In 2013, six fungal strains were isolated from Fuji apple fruits exhibiting symptoms of bitter rot from Andong, Korea. These strains were identified as Colletotrichum fructicola and C. siamense based on morphological characteristics and multilocus sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA, actin, calmodulin, chitin synthase, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase Pathogenicity tests confirmed the involvement of C. fructicola and C. siamense in the development of disease symptoms on apple fruits. This is the first report of C. fructicola and C. siamense causing bitter rot on apple fruit in Korea.

Actins , Calmodulin , Chitin Synthase , Colletotrichum , DNA, Ribosomal , Fruit , Korea , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Oxidoreductases , Virulence
Mycobiology ; : 440-447, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729731


Dual biocontrol of both insects and plant pathogens has been reported for certain fungal entomopathogens, including Beauveria bassiana and Lecanicillum spp. In this study, we demonstrate, for the first time, the dual biocontrol potential of two fungal isolates identified by morphological and phylogenetic analyses as Isaria javanica. Both these isolates caused mortality in the greater wax moth, and hence can be considered entomopathogens. Spores of the isolates were also pathogenic to nymphs of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), with an LC₅₀ value of 10⁷ spores/mL 4 days after inoculation and an LT₅₀ of 4.2 days with a dose of 10⁸ spores/mL. In vitro antifungal assays also demonstrated a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of two fungi that are pathogenic to peppers, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Phytophthora capsici. These results indicate that I. javanica isolates could be used as novel biocontrol agents for the simultaneous control of aphids and fungal diseases, such as anthracnose and Phytophthora blight, in an integrated pest management framework for red pepper.

Aphids , Beauveria , Capsicum , Colletotrichum , Fungi , Hemiptera , In Vitro Techniques , Insecta , Mortality , Moths , Nymph , Pest Control , Phytophthora , Plants , Prunus persica , Spores
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 33(6): 1506-1512, nov./dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966507


Banana is the most consumed fruit in the world as it is a delicious and aromatic fruit. However, its production is limited mainly due post-harvest problems such as diseases, especially anthracnose, which accelerates senescence and causes early fall. The aim of this work was to evaluate the agronomic traits and the resistance of banana genotypes (Fhia 18, Fhia 01, Thap Mae, Caipira, Prata (control) and Maçã (control)) to the fungus Colletotrichum musae. The weight of bunch (Wb), fruit length (Fl), fruit diameter (Fd), the number of fruits per bunch (Nfc), number of hands per bunch (Nhb), yield (Yd), pH, total sugars (Brix) and finger detachment were evaluated. The AUDPC (area under the disease progress curve) showed that the genotypes Fhia 01, Maçã and Prata (15.77, 15.55 and 11.60 respectively) are more susceptible to the fungus C. musae than Caipira, Fhia 18 and Thap maeo (6.66, 7.29 and 8.76 respectively). The experiment with Fhias 18 and Thap Maeo genotypes showed lower finger detachment of 18 and 15%, and Thap maeo, Fhia18 and Caipira were resistant to C musae and presented the best agronomic characteristics.

A banana é fruta mais consumida no mundo, tradicionalmente exploradas em várias regiões do mundo, pois é uma fruta de muito saborosa e aromática. Contudo sua produção é limitada principalmente por problemas pós-colheita que mais acometem o fruto, dentre elas aparecimento de doenças principalmente a antracnose que acelera a senescência e o despencamento precoce. O objetivo desde trabalho foram avaliadas as características agronômicas e a resistência dos genótipos de banana Fhia 18, Fhia 01, Thap Mae, Caipira, Prata (controle) e Maçã (Controle), ao fungo Colletotrichum musae. A avaliação das características agronômicas como; peso do cacho (PC), comprimento dos frutos (CF), diâmetro do fruto (DF), número de frutos por cacho (NFC), número de pencas por cacho (NPC), Produtividade (Pd), pH, açúcares totais (Brix) e despencamento. A AACPD Área abaixo da curva da progressão da doença nos genótipos Fhia 01, Maçã e Prata (15,77, 15,55 e 11,60 respectivamente) mostraram se mais suscetível ao fungo C. musae que os demais genótipos Caipira, Fhia 18 e Thap maeo (6,66, 7,29 e 8,76 respectivamente), enquanto que para o experimento de despencamento genótipos Fhias 18 e Thap Maeo foram os que tiveram menor despencamento 18 e 15%, e a Os genótipos Thap maeo Fhia18 e Caipira foram resistentes a C musae e tiveram as melhores características agronômicas.

Crops, Agricultural , Colletotrichum , Musa , Fungi , Genotype
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 16(1): 14-25, ene. 2017. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907561


The tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav., Solanaceae) anthracnose, caused by the fungi Colletotrichum acutatum and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is the most important disease of this crop in Colombia for its wide distribution and the losses it causes. In the present work, the in vitro antifungal activity of the soluble fractions in n-hexane, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate, and their major constituents from the sawdust of timber specie Platymiscium gracile Benth. (Fabaceae) against both fungi was evaluated. The n-hexane-soluble fraction exhibited the greatest inhibitory effect. The metabolites homopterocarpin (a pterocarpan, 0.39 percent dry weight), calycosin (an isoflavone, 2.01 percent) and scoparone (a coumarin, 1.48 percent) were isolated for the first time from wood sawdust of P. gracile. The structure of these compounds was determined by 1H and 13C NMR analyses. The three compounds tested showed significant antifungal activity.

La antracnosis del tomate de árbol (Solanum betaceum Cav., Solanaceae), ocasionada por los hongos Colletotrichum acutatum y Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, es la enfermedad más importante de este cultivo en Colombia por su amplia distribución y las pérdidas que ocasiona. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la actividad antifúngica in vitro de las fracciones solubles en n-hexano, diclorometano y acetato de etilo, y sus componentes mayoritarios, del aserrín de la especie maderable Platymiscium gracile Benth. (Fabaceae), contra ambos hongos. La fracción en n-hexano exhibió el mayor efecto inhibitorio. Los metabolitos homopterocarpina (un pterocarpano; 0.39 por ciento del peso seco de aserrín), calicosin (una isoflavona; 2.01 por ciento) y escoparona (una cumarina; 1.48 por ciento) se aislaron por primera vez desde el aserrín de madera de P. gracile empleando técnicas cromatográficas. La estructura de los compuestos se determinó por análisis de RMN de 1H y 13C. Los tres metabolitos mostraron una actividad antifúngica significativa contra ambos hongos.

Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Colletotrichum , Fabaceae/chemistry , Benzofurans/pharmacology , Benzopyrans/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Wood
Mycobiology ; : 401-408, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-730012


Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is an economically important fungal pathogen causing substantial yield losses indifferent host plants. To understand the genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of this fungus, we have developed a novel, high-resolution multi-locus microsatellite typing (MLMT) method. Bioinformatic analysis of C. gloeosporioides unannotated genome sequence yielded eight potential microsatellite loci, of which five, CG1 (GT)(n), CG2 (GT1)(n), CG3 (TC)(n), CG4 (CT)(n), and CG5 (CT1)(n) were selected for further study based on their universal amplification potential, reproducibility, and repeat number polymorphism. The selected microsatellites were used to analyze 31 strains of C. gloeosporioides isolated from 20 different host plants from India. All microsatellite loci were found to be polymorphic, and the approximate fragment sizes of microsatellite loci CG1, CG2, CG3, CG4, and CG5 were in ranges of 213–241, 197–227, 231–265, 209–275, and 132–188, respectively. Among the 31 isolates, 55 different genotypes were identified. The Simpson's index of diversity (D) values for the individual locus ranged from 0.79 to 0.92, with the D value of all combined five microsatellite loci being 0.99. Microsatellite data analysis revealed that isolates from Ocimum sanctum, Capsicum annuum (chili pepper), and Mangifera indica (mango) formed distinct clusters, therefore exhibited some level of correlation between certain genotypes and host. The developed MLMT method would be a powerful tool for studying the genetic diversity and any possible genotype-host correlation in C. gloeosporioides.

Capsicum , Colletotrichum , Computational Biology , Fungi , Genetic Variation , Genome , Genotype , India , Mangifera , Methods , Microsatellite Repeats , Molecular Epidemiology , Ocimum , Statistics as Topic