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1.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 840-847, Oct.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974284

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Anthracnose is a crop disease usually caused by fungi in the genus Colletotrichum or Gloeosporium. These are considered one of the main pathogens, causing significant economic losses, such as in peppers and guarana. The current forms of control include the use of resistant cultivars, sanitary pruning and fungicides. However, even with the use of some methods of controlling these cultures, the crops are not free of anthracnose. Additionally, excessive application of fungicides increases the resistance of pathogens to agrochemicals and cause harm to human health and the environment. In order to find natural antifungal agents against guarana anthracnose, endophytic fungi were isolated from Amazon guarana. The compounds piliformic acid and cytochalasin D were isolated by chromatographic techniques from two Xylaria spp., guided by assays with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The isolated compounds were identified by spectrometric techniques, as NMR and mass spectrometry. This is the first report that piliformic acid and cytochalasin D have antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides with MIC 2.92 and 2.46 µmol mL-1 respectively. Captan and difenoconazole were included as positive controls (MIC 16.63 and 0.02 µmol mL-1, respectively). Thus, Xylaria species presented a biotechnological potential and production of different active compounds which might be promising against anthracnose disease.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Xylariales/chemistry , Paullinia/microbiology , Endophytes/chemistry , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Phylogeny , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Mass Spectrometry , Xylariales/isolation & purification , Xylariales/genetics , Xylariales/metabolism , Molecular Structure , Colletotrichum/drug effects , Colletotrichum/physiology , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/genetics , Endophytes/metabolism , Fungicides, Industrial/isolation & purification , Fungicides, Industrial/chemistry
2.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 31(4): 468-472, ago. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-724817

ABSTRACT

Several species of black fungi have been reported as agents of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis. Although most of these fungi are considered opportunistic pathogens, they play an important role in phaeohyphomycosis, a disease considered an emergent mycosis among solid organ recipients. We report a case of phaeohyphomycosis caused by Alternaria infectoria of the left hand and the 4th finger of the right hand of a 68-year-old male who underwent a renal transplant 35 months before. The lesion was treated with surgical excision. One year later, the patient presented a new lesion on the 5th finger of the right hand, but this time caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides that was also removed surgically. Both lesions did not relapse after being removed. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed against five antifungal drugs (amphotericin B, itraconazole, flucytosine, fluconazole and voriconazole). Alternaria infectoria was resistant to all five drugs and C. gloeosporioides was sensitive only to amphotericin B and voriconazole. We emphasize the need of histopathologic and microbiologic studies of new lesions of phaeohyphomycosis, since in this case the same patient was infected twice by two different fungi.


Diversas especies de hongos negros han sido descritos como agentes de feohifomicosis subcutáneas. A pesar que la gran mayoría de estos se consideran como oportunistas, juegan un papel importante en la feohifomicosis, enfermedad considerada una micosis emergente en pacientes trasplantados de órganos sólidos. Reportamos un caso de feohifomicosis subcutánea causada por Alternaria infectoria en el dorso de la mano izquierda y 4° falange de la mano derecha de un paciente de sexo masculino de 68 años de edad, que había sido sometido a un trasplante de riñón 35 meses antes. Se realizó escisión quirúrgica de la lesión. Después de un año, el paciente presentó una nueva lesión, esta vez en la 5° falange de la mano derecha causada por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, lesión que también fue removida quirúrgicamente. El paciente no presentó nuevas lesiones después de las cirugías. Las pruebas de susceptibilidad antifúngica fueron realizados utilizando cinco antifúngicos (anfotericina B, itraconazol, 5-fluorcitosina, fluconazol y voriconazol). Alternaria infectoria presentó resistencia a los cinco antifíngicos y C. gloeosporioides fue susceptible solamente a anfotericina B y voriconazol. Enfatizamos la necesidad de realizar estudios histopatológicas y microbiológicos de nuevas lesiones de feohifomicosis, ya que el mismo paciente fue infectado por dos hongos diferentes.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Alternaria/isolation & purification , Colletotrichum/isolation & purification , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Phaeohyphomycosis/diagnosis , Alternaria/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Colletotrichum/drug effects , Immunocompromised Host , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phaeohyphomycosis/surgery
3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(1): 248-254, 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709468

ABSTRACT

The endophytic fungus strain 0248, isolated from garlic, was identified as Trichoderma brevicompactum based on morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequences of ITS1-5.8SITS2 and tef1. The bioactive compound T2 was isolated from the culture extracts of this fungus by bioactivity-guided fractionation and identified as 4β-acetoxy-12,13-epoxy-Δ9-trichothecene (trichodermin) by spectral analysis and mass spectrometry. Trichodermin has a marked inhibitory activity on Rhizoctonia solani, with an EC50 of 0.25 µgmL-1. Strong inhibition by trichodermin was also found for Botrytis cinerea, with an EC50 of 2.02 µgmL-1. However, a relatively poor inhibitory effect was observed for trichodermin against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (EC50 = 25.60 µgmL-1). Compared with the positive control Carbendazim, trichodermin showed a strong antifungal activity on the above phytopathogens. There is little known about endophytes from garlic. This paper studied in detail the identification of endophytic T. brevicompactum from garlic and the characterization of its active metabolite trichodermin.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Endophytes/chemistry , Garlic/microbiology , Trichoderma/chemistry , Trichodermin/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Botrytis/drug effects , Cluster Analysis , Colletotrichum/drug effects , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Endophytes/classification , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Mass Spectrometry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Peptide Elongation Factor 1/genetics , /genetics , Rhizoctonia/drug effects , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Trichoderma/classification , Trichoderma/isolation & purification , Trichodermin/isolation & purification
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