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1.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(1): 15-37, mar. 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154322

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo pretende contribuir com a história das ciências, a história indígena e a história da América portuguesa. Parte-se dos pressupostos metodológicos de Dominique Pestre e da historiografia sobre a América portuguesa para interrogar a existência de uma rede de aldeamentos indígenas, a atuação de funcionários com saberes naturalistas, o envio de espécies botânicas para análise em Portugal e, por fim, a fundação de um horto botânico na capitania de Guayases (Goiás) entre 1772 e 1806. Apresenta-se a contribuição indígena na construção dos conhecimentos da história natural e discutem-se as influências de concepções da Ilustração na reforma do sistema colonial português na capitania a partir de documentação administrativa portuguesa, cartas e do estudo da aplicação de leis e instruções.


Abstract The article intends to contribute to the history of science, indigenous history and the history of Portuguese America. We begin with the methodological assumptions of Dominique Pestre and the historiography on Portuguese America to investigate a network of indigenous settlements, the work of civil servants with naturalist knowledge, the shipment of botanical species for analysis in Portugal and, finally, the foundation of a botanical garden in the captaincy of Guayases (Goiás) from 1772 to 1806. We describe the indigenous contribution to the construction of natural history knowledge, and discuss the influence of Enlightenment concepts on the reform of the Portuguese colonial system in the captaincy based on Portuguese administrative documentation, letters and study of the application of laws and instructions.


Subject(s)
History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , Botany/history , Colonialism/history , Natural History/history , Indigenous Peoples/history , Portugal , Brazil , Gardens/history
2.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(4): 1055-1075, Oct.-Dec. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142991

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo analisa as narrativas de viagem ao interior de Mato Grosso e Goiás publicadas em 1935 e 1936 pelo explorador paulista Hermano Ribeiro da Silva, que obtiveram considerável sucesso editorial e impacto no meio letrado brasileiro. Concentramo-nos em suas ideias sobre a relação entre o ambiente do Brasil Central e o homem sertanejo, sobre as potencialidades de exploração econômica da região e sobre o papel do Estado na condução de iniciativas capazes de promover sua incorporação efetiva à nacionalidade. Buscamos também compreender a fundamentação de seu discurso em conceitos e esquemas científicos genéricos dotados de poder retórico e argumentativo.


Abstract The article analyzes the travel narratives to the hinterlands of the states of Mato Grosso and Goiás published in 1935 and 1936 by the São Paulo-based explorer Hermano Ribeiro da Silva, which proved a great publishing success and had a considerable impact on lettered society in Brazil. The analysis focuses on his ideas about the relationship between the environment in Central Brazil and the man who inhabited it, the potential economic exploitation of the region, and the role of the State in orchestrating initiatives capable of promoting its effective incorporation into the nationhood. It also seeks to understand how he grounded his discourse on generic scientific concepts and schemas endowed with rhetorical and argumentative power.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , Travel/history , Indians, South American/history , Environment , Portugal/ethnology , Selection, Genetic , Brazil , Ecosystem , Colonialism/history , Federal Government/history , European Continental Ancestry Group/history , Famous Persons , Indigenous Peoples/history , Acclimatization
3.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(4): 1125-1147, Oct.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142987

ABSTRACT

Resumo No início do século XX, alguns médicos portugueses foram à África estudar a chamada doença do sono. Entre eles estava Ayres Kopke, membro da primeira missão médica à África Ocidental Portuguesa. De regresso a Lisboa, o professor da Escola de Medicina Tropical continuou suas pesquisas, inclusive por meio da observação de doentes trazidos para a metrópole. Desde 1903, as repartições de saúde nas colônias estavam incumbidas de enviar doentes com determinadas patologias exóticas para o Hospital Colonial de Lisboa. Com base em documentos desse hospital, incluindo fotografias dos doentes, então chamados de hipnóticos, o artigo aborda a importância das experiências com humanos na metrópole para o avanço da medicina tropical durante o colonialismo.


Abstract At the start of the twentieth century, some Portuguese physicians traveled to Africa to study sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis). One was Ayres Kopke, a member of the first medical mission to Portuguese West Africa and professor at the School of Tropical Medicine. After returning to Lisbon, Kopke continued his research, which included observation of patients brought to the metropolis. Starting in 1903, health departments in the colonies were responsible for sending patients with certain exotic diseases to the Colonial Hospital of Lisbon. Based on documents from this hospital including photographs of patients (who at that time were called "hypnotics"), this article discusses the importance of human experiments in Lisbon for advances in tropical medicine during the colonial period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , History, 20th Century , Tropical Medicine/history , Trypanosomiasis, African/history , Colonialism/history , Medical Missions/history , Portugal , Africa, Western , Hospitals/history , Human Experimentation/history
4.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(supl.1): 123-144, Sept. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134095

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tracing the pathways of cooperation in health in sub-Saharan Africa from hesitant exchanges to institutionalized dimensions from the 1920s to the early 1960s, this article addresses regional dynamics in health diplomacy which have so far been under-researched. The evolution thereof from early beginnings with the League of Nations Health Organization to the Commission for Technical Assistance South of the Sahara and the World Health Organization's Regional Office for Africa, shows how bilateral dimensions were superseded by WHO's multilateral model of regional cooperation in health. Alignments, divergences, and outcomes are explored with respect to the strategies and policies pursued by colonial powers and independent African states regarding inter-regional relations, and their implications for public health and epidemiological interventions.


Resumo Trilhando os caminhos da cooperação sanitária na África subsaariana, de intercâmbios incertos a dimensões institucionalizadas dos anos 1920 até início dos anos 1960, este artigo aborda a dinâmica regional na diplomacia sanitária que, até o momento, carece de pesquisas. A evolução, desde os primórdios da Organização da Saúde da Liga das Nações até a Cooperação Técnica na África Subsaariana e o Escritório Regional da África da OMS, demonstra como dimensões bilaterais foram substituídas pelo modelo multilateral da OMS de cooperação sanitária regional. São analisados alinhamentos, divergências e resultados de estratégias e políticas empregados por potências coloniais e Estados africanos independentes em relações inter-regionais, bem como suas implicações em intervenções epidemiológicas e de saúde pública.


Subject(s)
History, 20th Century , Public Health Administration/history , Congresses as Topic/history , Diplomacy/history , International Cooperation/history , World Health Organization/history , Africa South of the Sahara , Colonialism/history
5.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 25(3): 841-858, jul.-set. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-975429

ABSTRACT

Resumo O colonialismo ocidental influenciou, a partir do século XIX, o encontro entre saberes tradicional e moderno, resultando na sobreposição da medicina ocidental como modo privilegiado de conhecimento. Em 1958 oficializou-se, sob o nome de medicina tradicional chinesa, a hibridização entre as medicinas chinesa e ocidental e, por meio do desenvolvimento da pesquisa biomédica sobre a acupuntura, cresceu o distanciamento do saber tradicional. Este ensaio aborda mudanças históricas sofridas pela medicina chinesa/acupuntura e discute, sob a óptica pós-colonial, os efeitos de sua absorção pela racionalidade médica moderna. Concluiu-se que o cientificismo na medicina chinesa não ampliou seu potencial terapêutico e resultou na perda de sua autoridade epistemológica.


Abstract Western colonialism influenced the encounter between traditional and modern knowledge from the nineteenth century onwards, resulting in the overlapping of Western medicine as a privileged form of knowledge. In 1958 the hybridization between Chinese and Western medicines became official under the name of traditional Chinese medicine and, through the development of biomedical research on acupuncture, it distanced itself from traditional knowledge. This essay presents historical changes experienced by Chinese medicine/acupuncture and discusses the effects of its absorption by modern medical reasoning from a postcolonial standpoint. The conclusion was that the scientism of Chinese medicine did not broaden its therapeutic potential and resulted in the loss of its epistemological authority.


Subject(s)
History, 20th Century , Politics , Acupuncture/history , Colonialism/history , Knowledge , Western World , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/history
6.
Rev. bras. estud. popul ; 34(3): 567-591, set.-dez. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-898657

ABSTRACT

A agricultura paulista apresentou uma significativa expansão durante o final do século XVIII e início do XIX. Representativa de uma região de grandes propriedades escravistas, Campinas foi a localidade estudada devido à grande riqueza documental, de tal forma que este artigo foi pautado, principalmente, pelo Mapa Geral de Habitantes existente para o período de 1798 a 1822, acrescentando-se informações provenientes das Listas Nominativas de habitantes e dos Registros Paroquiais. Os resultados do estudo mostraram um crescimento demográfico de grande intensidade, sobretudo da população cativa.


The development of agriculture in São Paulo, Brazil, presented a significant expansion during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, which is the focus of this paper. The purpose is to understand the dynamics and movements of these populations of a region of plantations (slaveholding properties). The sources for this discussion are derived from the General Map of Inhabitants existing for the period 1798-1822 in Campinas, with added data from the Nominative Lists of inhabitants and Parish Registers. Despite evident data limitation, there was a strong demographic increase, especially in captive population.


La agricultura paulista tuvo una expansión significativa durante los últimos años del siglo XVIII y los comienzos del XIX. En tanto región de grandes propiedades esclavistas, Campinas se estudia por su gran riqueza documental, de modo que este artículo fue pautado principalmente por el Mapa General de Habitantes del período 1798-1822, ampliado con información proveniente de las listas nominativas de habitantes y de los registros parroquiales. Finalmente, se verificó un crecimiento demográfico de gran intensidad, sobre todo en lo que refiere a la población esclava.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , Marriage/history , Birth Rate , Mortality/history , Population Growth , Colonialism/history , Enslavement/history , Brazil , Records , Sex Distribution , Demographic Indicators , Fecundity Rate
7.
Rev. bras. estud. popul ; 34(3): 529-548, set.-dez. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-898656

ABSTRACT

Os "mapas da população" produzidos a partir da década de 1770 contribuem para a análise de um período da história de Minas Gerais que foi particularmente importante pelas mudanças vivenciadas em âmbitos muito diversos. Tendo por base as informações destes documentos, o presente artigo analisa as transformações na economia mineira, assim como a redefinição daquela sociedade em um período no qual Minas Gerais ganha um novo perfil, mas mantém seu papel fundamental nas dinâmicas do centro-sul da América portuguesa.


The "population tables" available since the 1770's shed new light on a period in the history of Minas Gerais which was particularly important for the transformations experienced in very different fields. Based on information gathered in these documents, this paper focuses on the transformations of Minas Gerais' economy as well as the redefinition of that society in a period 548 R. bras. Est. Pop., Belo Horizonte, v.34, n.3, p.529-548, set./dez. 2017 Stumpf, R.G. Minas contada em números in which captaincy gains a new profile, yet maintaining its fundamental role in the dynamics of the center-south of Portuguese America.


Los "mapas de población" producidos a partir de la década del setenta del siglo XVIII contribuyen al análisis de un período de la historia de Minas Gerais que fue especialmente importante por todos los cambios experimentados en ámbitos muy diferentes. Con base en los datos que proporcionan estos documentos, el presente artículo analiza las transformaciones en la economía minera y la redefinición de aquella sociedad en un período en el cual Minas Gerais gana un nuevo perfil, al mismo tiempo que mantiene su papel fundamental en las dinámicas centro-sur de la América portuguesa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , Population Characteristics , Population Growth , Colonialism/history , Censuses/history , Economics/history , Population , Brazil , Enslavement/history , Mining/economics , Mining/history
8.
Rev. bras. estud. popul ; 34(3): 549-566, set.-dez. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-898655

ABSTRACT

Ao tomar posse do governo da capitania de São Paulo em 1765, o Morgado de Mateus instaurou um processo de expansão do povoamento. A crise da economia colonial e os conflitos com os castelhanos exigia a intervenção da Coroa, que buscava implantar novas atividades econômicas e preparar a defesa do território. Ao criar vilas e povoados, o governador buscou reunir indivíduos que classificava como desregrados e os enviou, algumas vezes à força, para serem os pioneiros nestas áreas de fronteira. Muitos desses povoadores eram indígenas, considerados vadios, e que deviam ser submetidos ao novo modelo de organização social proposto pela Coroa. Este esforço pode ser avaliado a partir das listas nominativas de habitantes de três destas iniciativas de povoamento: São Luiz do Paraitinga, Piracicaba e o Caminho de Goiás. A análise do perfil dos indivíduos instalados nestas novas povoações permite melhor entender as estratégias de organização da população colonial desejadas pela Coroa.


After assuming the Government of the captaincy of São Paulo in 1765, Morgado de Mateus established an expansion process of the settlement. The crisis of the colonial economy and conflicts with the Castilians demanded the intervention of the Crown, seeking to deploy new economic activities and preparing the defense of the territory. When creating towns and villages, the Governor would seek bringing together individuals classified as unruly and would send them, sometimes by force, to be the pioneers in border areas. Many of these settlers were indigenous people, considered as vagabonds, who should be submitted to the new model of social organization proposed by the Crown. This effort can be accessed through inhabitants lists of three settlement initiatives: São Luiz do Paraitinga, Piracicaba and the Caminho de Goiás. The profile analysis of the individuals installed in these new villages allows for a better understanding of the organizational strategies of the colonial population desired by the Crown.


Asumiendo el gobierno de la Capitanía de São Paulo en 1765, el Morgado de Mateus establece un proceso de expansión del asentamiento. La crisis de la economía colonial y los conflictos con los castellanos exigían la intervención de la Corona, buscando implementar nuevas actividades económicas y preparando la defensa del territorio. Cuando se instalaban ciudades y pueblos, el gobernador buscaba reunir individuos clasificados como indisciplinados y los enviaba, a veces utilizando fuerza, para ser los pioneros en las zonas fronterizas. Muchos de estos pobladores eran indígenas, considerados vagabundos, que debían ser sometidos al nuevo modelo de organización social propuesto por la Corona. Este esfuerzo puede ser evaluado utilizándose las listas de los habitantes de tres de estas iniciativas: São Luiz do Paraitinga, Piracicaba y el Caminho de Goiás. El análisis del perfil de los individuos en estas nuevas villas permite comprender mejor las estrategias de organización de la población deseada por la Corona.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , Border Areas , Colonialism/history , Censuses/history , Economics/history , Brazil , Indians, South American/history , Family Characteristics/history , Enslaved Persons/history
9.
Rev. bras. estud. popul ; 34(3): 465-484, set.-dez. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-898654

ABSTRACT

O estudo analisa o "boom" demográfico das populações escravas de origem africana nas áreas de plantation a partir dos Mapas Estatísticos do Maranhão. Em especial, focalizamos a freguesia do Rosário do Itapecuru utilizando outras fontes documentais - inventários post mortem e registros paroquiais de batismo. Os Mapas de 1798 e 1821 possibilitaram evidenciar o perfil sexual, etário, étnico e a condição jurídica da população, mostrando a importância da população escrava nas áreas de cultivo do algodão e arroz, que chegava a quase 80% dos residentes. Essas populações, por sua vez, guardavam algumas particularidades em relação a outras áreas de plantation do Estado do Brasil, como, por exemplo, a razão de sexo marcada pela quase paridade entre homens e mulheres.


The study analyzes the demographic boom of African slave populations in the plantation areas from the Mapas de População of Maranhão. In particular, we focus on the parish of Rosário do Itapecuru using other sources - post-mortem inventories and parish baptismal records. The maps from 1798 and 1821 made it possible to evidence the gender, age, ethnicity and legal status of the resident population as well as show the importance of slave population in cotton and rice crop areas, reaching almost 80% of residents. These populations, in turn, presented certain peculiarities in relation to other plantation areas in the State of Brazil, such as the sex ratio marked by the almost parity between men and women.


El estudio analiza el boom de las poblaciones esclavas de origen africano en las áreas de plantación a partir de los Mapas Estadísticos de Maranhão. En particular, nos centramos en la parroquia Rosario del Itapecurú utilizando otras fuentes documentales: inventarios post mortem y registros parroquiales de bautismo. Los mapas de 1798 y 1821 posibilitaron evidenciar el perfil sexual, la edad, la condición étnica y jurídica de la población residente y muestran la importancia de la población esclava en las áreas de cultivo de algodón y de arroz, que llega a casi 80% de los residentes. Estas poblaciones mantenían a su vez algunas peculiaridades en relación con otras áreas de plantación del Estado de Brasil, por ejemplo, la proporción de sexos marcada por la casi paridad entre hombres y mujeres.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , Population , Colonialism/history , Censuses/history , Enslavement/history , Brazil , Agricultural Cultivation , Family Characteristics , Sex Distribution , African Continental Ancestry Group/history , Enslavement/economics , Maps as Topic
10.
Rev. bras. estud. popul ; 34(3): 439-464, set.-dez. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-898653

ABSTRACT

A partir de meados do século XVIII, no contexto das chamadas Reformas Pombalinas, as "Leis de Liberdade dos Índios" incorporaram uma vasta região no norte da América portuguesa à administração civil, transformando mais de 60 aldeamentos missionários em vilas e lugares portugueses de população majoritariamente indígena. Esta pesquisa propõe-se a investigar a evolução demográfica dos índios aldeados e da população livre não aldeada sob esse novo regime. Para uma parte da historiografia, a população das vilas e lugares indígenas, sob o Diretório (1757-1798), era mantida artificialmente pelo constante aporte de novos contingentes de povos nativos, por meio dos descimentos. No entanto, a análise dos mapas de população elaborados a partir de 1773 mostra um crescimento lento, mas consistente de todos os grupos da população das capitanias do Estado do Grão-Pará, mesmo sofrendo os danos das frequentes epidemias e do trabalho compulsório ao qual estava sujeita a maior parte da população indígena.


As of the mid-eighteenth century, in the context of the so-called Pombaline Reforms, Indian Freedom Laws incorporated a large region in northern Portuguese America into civilian administration, transforming more than sixty missionary settlements into Portuguese villages and sites with predominantly indigenous population. This paper seeks to research into the demographic evolution of "aldeado" (subject to compulsory labour) indians and the free non- "aldeado" population under this new regime. For some historians, the population of Indian villages under the Directorio (1757-1798) was artificially maintained by the constant influx of new contingents of native peoples through descimentos. However, the analysis of population tables produced since 1773 shows a slow but consistent growth of all population groups in the captaincies of the State of Grão-Pará, even suffering frequent epidemics and harm from compulsory work to which by the majority of the indigenous population was subject.


Desde mediados del siglo XVIII, en el contexto de las denominadas reformas pombalinas, las Leyes de Libertad de los Indios incorporaran una inmensa región en el norte de la América portuguesa a la administración civil y transformaron más de sesenta reducciones misioneras en municípios portugueses de población predominantemente indígena. Esta investigación se propone investigar la evolución demográfica de los indios «aldeados¼ y de la población libre no «aldeada¼ bajo el nuevo régimen. Para una parte de la historiografía, la población de las villas y lugares indígenas se mantuvo artificialmente, en el marco del Directorio (1757-1798), por el suministro constante de nuevos contingentes de pueblos nativos por medio de los descensos. Sin embargo, el análisis de los mapas de población compilados desde 1773 muestra un crecimiento lento pero consistente de todos los grupos de población de las capitanías del estado de Grão-Pará, a pesar de las epidemias frecuentes y de los daños provocados por el trabajo obligatorio que sujetaba a la mayoría de la población indígena.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , Indians, South American/history , Colonialism/history , Censuses/history , Policy , Population , Brazil , Indians, South American/statistics & numerical data , Birth Rate , Mortality
11.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 24(1): 13-39, jan.-mar. 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-840687

ABSTRACT

Resumo A partir de documentação produzida entre a primeira metade do século XIX e a primeira metade do século XX, prioritariamente relatórios médicos, o artigo aponta as concepções vigentes na comunidade médica colonial e entre as populações locais sobre a lepra, suas manifestações e seu enfrentamento. Enfoca as tensões quanto à prática de segregação dos leprosos e suas implicações sanitárias e sociais. Para compreender as raízes dos discursos e estratégias no meio médico português e colonial, recupera-se a trajetória das definições de isolamento, segregação, lepra e suas aplicações, ou ausência de referência, na literatura de missionários, cronistas e médicos em Angola e Moçambique a partir da segunda metade do século XVII.


Abstract Drawing on documents produced between the early nineteenth and mid-twentieth centuries, mainly medical reports, this paper indicates the prevailing conceptions in the colonial medical community and local populations about leprosy, its manifestations, and how to deal with it. It focuses on the tensions concerning the practice of segregating lepers and its social and sanitation implications. To comprehend the roots of the discourses and strategies in the Portuguese and colonial medical environment, the trajectory of the definitions of isolation, segregation, and leprosy are traced, as are their use in or absence from the writings of missionaries, chroniclers, and doctors in Angola and Mozambique as of the second half of the seventeenth century.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Patient Isolation/history , Leper Colonies/history , Leprosy/history , Physicians/history , Portugal , Colonialism/history , Endemic Diseases/history , Africa , Missionaries/history , Leprosy/therapy , Mozambique
12.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 23(3): 829-846, jul.-set. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-792557

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este trabajo estudia el papel desempeñado por la Cruz Roja Española (fundada en 1864) en la introducción y difusión de tecnologías humanitarias y el desarrollo de la ciencia médica en España, sirviéndonos del estudio de caso relativo a la atención a soldados enfermos y heridos, repatriados de las guerras de Cuba, Filipinas y Marruecos, y del análisis del impacto que estas medidas tuvieron sobre las necesidades asistenciales y de salud pública de la población civil. El artículo muestra cómo esta organización articuló la provisión de asistencia médica para los soldados españoles, estableciendo una red de centros sanitarios especializados, destinados, posteriormente, también al cuidado de la población civil y a la atención de nuevos problemas de salud pública.


Abstract This article examines the role played by the Spanish Red Cross (founded in 1864) in the introduction and spread of humanitarian technologies and the development of medical science in Spain, using the case study of medical care for sick and wounded soldiers repatriated during the wars in Cuba, the Philippines and Morocco, and analyzing the impact these measures had on health care and public health among the civilian population. The article shows how this organization set up health care for Spanish soldiers, establishing a network of specialized medical centers that were later also used to provide medical care for civilians and to address new public health problems.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Military Personnel/history , Red Cross/history , Armed Conflicts/history , Colonialism/history , Relief Work/history , Spain
13.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 23(3): 867-886, jul.-set. 2016. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-792558

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este trabajo estudia la función central que los Estados-nación continuaron teniendo en la Cruz Roja durante el periodo de entreguerras. A finales del siglo XIX, España lideró la creación de instituciones humanitarias de estilo europeo en Marruecos. Sin embargo, su secular inestabilidad como Estado, agravada por el desastre colonial de 1898, terminó con el proyecto regeneracionista de una Cruz Roja marroquí. Cuando en 1912 se estableció el protectorado español, la Cruz Roja Española quedó marginada por la competencia francesa, la internacionalización de Tánger y el rechazo local. Éste último culminó en la llamada Guerra del Rif de 1921-1927, mezcla de revuelta anticolonial y guerra internacional, que expuso de forma cruda las prolongadas necesidades del Estado español y su Cruz Roja.


Abstract This article studies the central role of nation-states in the Red Cross during the interwar period. In the late nineteenth century, Spain pioneered the creation of European-style humanitarian institutions in Morocco. However, its perennial instability as a state, aggravated by the colonial disaster of 1898, put an end to the regenerationist project of a Moroccan Red Cross. When the Spanish protectorate was established in 1912, the Spanish Red Cross was overshadowed by competition from its French counterpart, the internationalization of Tangiers and resistance from the local inhabitants. This culminated in the so-called Rif War of 1921-1927, a mixture of anticolonial revolt and international war that vividly exposed the ingrained deficiencies of the Spanish State and its Red Cross.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Colonialism/history , Red Cross/history , Armed Conflicts/history , Morocco , Spain
14.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 44(2): 245-256, abr.-jun. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-761006

ABSTRACT

La Guerra de los Diez Años (1868-1878) fue la primera gesta patriótica de los cubanos por su liberación del colonialismo español. En ella participaron decenas de miles de militares españoles, entre soldados y oficiales de diferentes grados. También participaron, como gesto de sincera solidaridad, muchos norteamericanos atraídos por la causa anticolonial y antiesclavista por la que peleaban los cubanos. Entre los que vinieron de otras tierras a pelear en aquella patriótica contienda, hay dos cuya preeminencia trasciende en el tiempo y alcanzan la eternidad. Cada uno dejó un legado para generaciones de cubanos, para los que eternamente estarán presentes. Henry M. Reeve Carrol y Santiago F. Ramón y Cajal, combatieron en ejércitos contrarios, el primero como jefe militar, el segundo como médico militar. La coincidencia en un mismo periodo de la guerra y en el propio teatro de operaciones militares en tierras camagüeyanas lleva a una interrogante ¿pudieron participar en enfrentamiento militar? Con el propósito de esclarecer la incógnita se realizó un análisis de fuentes bibliográficas disponibles para profundizar en un tema no tratado con anterioridad. Se corroboró por los datos consultados que sí, fue posible. Los resultados son inéditos, por no haber referencias anteriores que establezcan este vínculo entre Cajal y Reeve durante la primera guerra de los cubanos por su independencia. A pesar de servir en ejércitos y causas opuestas, comparten valores éticos y patrióticos que son reconocidos por los cubanos.


The Guerra de los Diez Años (Ten-Year-War; 1868-1878) was the first patriotic deeds of Cubans for liberation from Spanish colonialism. Thousands of Spanish soldiers, including soldiers and officers of different ranks, took part in it. Many North Americans also participated, as a gesture of sincere solidarity, attracted by the anti-colonial and anti-slavery cause for which Cubans fought. Two men came from other lands to fight in this patriotic war. Their prominence transcends time and reach eternity. Each of them left a legacy for generations of Cubans, so they will forever be present. Henry M. Reeve Carrol and Santiago F. Ramon y Cajal fought in opposing armies, the first one as a military commander, the second as a military doctor. The coincidence in the war same period and theater of military operations in Camaguey land leads to a question: Could they engage in military confrontation? Analysis of available literature sources was conducted in order to clarify the unknown, so deepening an issue not dealt with before. The revised data confirmed it was possible. The results are unpublished, since there is no previous references to establish this link between Cajal and Reeve during the first Cuban war for independence. While serving in armies and opposing causes, they shared ethical and patriotic values that are recognized by the Cubans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Warfare , Bibliographies as Topic , Colonialism/history , Famous Persons , Cuba
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-170363

ABSTRACT

This article examines the life of Lee Jungsook, a Korean nurse, as a independence activist during the Japanese colonial period. Lee Jungsook(1896-1950) was born in Bukchung in Hamnam province. She studied at Chungshin girl's high school and worked at Severance hospital. The characteristics and culture of her educational background and work place were very important factors which influenced greatly the life of Lee Jungsook. She learned independent spirit and nationalism from Chungshin girls' high school and worked as nurse at the Severance hospital which were full of intense aspiration for Korea's independence. Many of doctors, professors and medical students were participated in the 3.1 Independence Movement. Lee Jungsook was a founding member of Hyulsungdan who tried to help the independence activists in prison and their families and worked as a main member of Korean Women's Association for Korean Independece and Kyungsung branch of the Korean Red Cross. She was sent to jail by the Japanese government for her independence activism. After being released after serving two years confinement, she worked for the Union for Women's Liberation as a founding member. Lee Joungsook was a great independence activist who had a nursing care spirit as a nurse.


Subject(s)
Colonialism/history , History of Nursing , History, 20th Century , Japan , Korea
16.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 21(2): 727-748, apr-jun/2014. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-714644

ABSTRACT

Este artigo pretende resgatar a memória histórica de uma instituição de saúde em Portugal que se reconfigurou e adaptou às necessidades e preocupações sociais e médicas no decorrer do século XX. Traçar o percurso desta instituição contribui para a história da medicina portuguesa e, ao mesmo tempo, para a história da filantropia da colónia portuguesa radicada no Brasil e dos “brasileiros de torna viagem” que, pelas suas remessas financeiras, tornaram possível uma instituição de saúde de referência no século XXI. A metodologia seguida nesta investigação assentou na pesquisa de arquivo em Portugal (Coimbra, Fundação Bissaya Barreto) e no Brasil (Rio de Janeiro, Real Gabinete Português de Leitura) e no cruzamento destas fontes primárias com a devida contextualização histórica e social.


This article seeks to redeem the historical memory of a health institution in Portugal which reconfigured itself and adapted to the social and medical needs and concerns during the twentieth century. The trajectory of this institution contributes to the history of Portuguese medicine and to the history of the philanthropy of the Portuguese colony resident in Brazil and the so called “Brazilians” that returned to Portugal, whose remittances provided the means to set up a benchmark health institution in the twenty-first century. The methodology was based on archival research in Portugal (Coimbra, Bissaya Barreto Foundation) and in Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, Real Gabinete Português de Leitura) and the cross-checking of these primary sources with due historical and social contextualization.


Subject(s)
History, 20th Century , Humans , Colonialism/history , Public Assistance/history , Brazil , Hospitals/history , Portugal , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/history
17.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 21(2): 587-608, apr-jun/2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-714645

ABSTRACT

Pretende-se caracterizar a prestação de cuidados biomédicos em Angola durante a atividade da Companhia de Diamantes de Angola. Uma análise comparativa de políticas e práticas de saúde pública de vários atores coloniais, como os serviços de saúde da Companhia, sua congénere do Estado e outras empresas coloniais, revelará diferenças de investimento na saúde, isto é, instalações e pessoal de saúde, e tratamentos. Este escrutínio bem como as condições de vida iluminarão o carácter idiossincrático e central dos serviços de saúde da Companhia em termos de morbimortalidade em Angola, e a centralidade destes para as representações de um império cuidador.


The scope of this paper is to analyze the provision of biomedical care in Angola during the activities of the Companhia de Diamantes de Angola. A comparative analysis of public health policies and practices of various colonial actors, such as the health services of the Company, its state counterpart and other colonial companies, will reveal differences in investment in health, namely in health facilities, personnel and treatment. This survey as well as the living conditions highlight the idiosyncratic and central nature of the health services of the Company in terms of morbidity and mortality in Angola, and the importance of these representations for a caregiving empire.


Subject(s)
History, 20th Century , Colonialism/history , Delivery of Health Care/history , Occupational Health , Angola , Diamond , Mining
18.
Psicol. pesq ; 8(1): 16-29, jun. 2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-728573

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do artigo é evidenciar traços da concepção agostiniana de temporalidade presentes em obras de autores da cultura brasileira colonial. O estudo, desenvolvido na perspectiva da história dos saberes psicológicos, propõe uma resenha à luz do tema agostiniano da temporalidade dos textos dos autores escolhidos para análise: Antônio Vieira, Alexandre de Gusmão e Nuno Marques Pereira. Neles, a análise evidencia a presença das quatro dimensões agostinianas da temporalidade: a diferença entre tempo e eternidade; o tempo psicológico; o tempo moral e o tempo histórico. Evidencia também a relação entre a noção de temporalidade e o dinamismo pessoal. Fica clara, portanto, a presença de aspectos do pensamento de Agostinho na concepção da temporalidade dos referidos autores.


This paper aims to investigate aspects of the temporality conception of Augustine of Hippo in the works of authors in the colonial Brazilian culture. The study, conducted from the perspective of history of psychological knowledge, proposes a review, in the light of the Augustinian theme, concerning the temporality of the authors of the texts chosen for analysis: Antônio Vieira, Alexandre de Gusmão and Nuno Marques Pereira. In these, the analysis shows the presence of four dimensions of Augustinian temporality: the difference between time and eternity; psychological time; moral time and historical time. It also shows the relationship between the notion of temporality and personal dynamism. Therefore, it showed aspects of Augustine's thought in the conception of the temporality of these authors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Culture , Colonialism/history , Time
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226813

ABSTRACT

Koii(Public Doctor) System introduced into Taiwan in 1896 for the purpose of filling up medical vacuum of rural area and therefore spreading modern medical system all over Taiwan, was transplanted in 1913 into Colonial Korea for the same purpose. In terms of system itself Koii system in both areas were almost the same, but quite different in practices. First, Koiis in Taiwan was forced to write concrete medical report every month on the medical situation in the area under jurisdiction, whereas to those in Korea writing monthly report was not so compulsory. This difference resulted in some gaps in the quality of medical statistics of the two areas. Second, Unlike their counterparts in Korea, Koiis in Taiwan organized their own associations both locally and nationally and it helped to build up their own networks and share informations on medical situation including informations on infectious diseases. Third, Koiis in Taiwan formed more harmonious relationship between Taiwanese Police than their counterparts in Korea, which helped them to execute various medical activities in more comfortable environment. Taiwanese People went to medical institutions a lot more frequently than Korean People, and this difference was basically derived from the quite different density of Koii assignment in both areas. Korean People had to spend more time and money to utilize modern medical institutions than Taiwanese People did. The different density of Koii assignment also affected the results of prevention and eradication of infectious diseases; in Taiwan plague and small-pox has been successfully controled, whereas Chosun Government-general was not so successful in controling infectious diseases including small-pox. Small-pox infectee in Korea was about 6 times to Taiwan, and the number of death by small-pox was 9 times to Taiwan. One of the keys to this difference is the different role of Koiis. In Korea, Koiis could do little thing about infectious diseases mainly because of manpower shortage, thus shifting their duties like vaccination onto police officers who was inevitably inferior to doctors in medical terms, whereas vaccination was led by Koiis in Taiwan, with the help of police officers and traditional doctors. The difference between Korea and Taiwan in terms of Koii system and its effect implies that public health network in colonial Taiwan was better organized and more stable than that in colonial Korea, and therefore we should be careful about applying the concept of disciplinary power or modernization theory to colonial medical history of Korea.


Subject(s)
Colonialism/history , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Korea , Physicians , Public Health/history , Taiwan
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226812

ABSTRACT

This paper explores the history of the biomedical construction of women's bodies as social bodies in the formation of colonial modernity in Korea. To do so, I engage with Michel Foucault's concepts of governmentality and biopolitics and the postcolonial history of medicine that has critically revisited these Foucauldian notions. These offer critical insights into the modern calculation of population and the biomedical gaze on female bodies on the Korean Peninsula under Japan's colonial rule (1910-1945). Foucauldian reflections on governmentality and colonial medicine can also shed light on the role of biomedical physicians in the advancement of colonial biopolitics. Biomedical physicians-state and non-state employees and colonizers and colonized alike - served as key agents investigating, knowing, and managing, as well as proliferating a discourse about, women's bodies and reproduction during Japan's empire-building. In particular, this paper sheds light on the processes by which Korean women's bodies became the objects of intense scrutiny as part of an attempt to quantify, as well as maximize, the total population in late colonial Korea. In the aftermath of the establishment of the Manchurian puppet state in 1932, Japanese imperial and colonial states actively sought to mobilize Koreans as crucial human resources for the further penetration of Japan's imperial holdings into the Chinese continent. State and non-state medical doctors meticulously interrogated, recorded, and circulated knowledge about the sexual and conjugal practices and reproductive life of Korean women in the agricultural sector, for the purposes of measuring and increasing the size, health, and vitality of the colonial population. At the heart of such medical endeavors stood the Investigative Committee for Social Hygiene in Rural Korea and Japan-trained Korean medical students/physicians, including Ch'oe Ug-sok, who carried out a social hygiene study in the mid-1930s. Their study illuminates the ways in which Korean women's bodies entered the modern domain of scientific knowledge at the intersection of Japan's imperialism, colonial governmentality, and biomedicine. A critical case study of the Investigative Committee's study and Ch'oe can set the stage for clarifying the vestiges as well as the reformulation of knowledge, ideas, institutions, and activities of colonial biopolitics in the divided Koreas.


Subject(s)
Colonialism/history , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , History, 20th Century , Human Body , Humans , Japan , Korea , Politics , Reproduction , Sexual Behavior , Women/history
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