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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e18954, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345456

ABSTRACT

The ethanolic extract of resinous sediment (EERS) of Etlingera elatior young inflorescence was examined for its anticancer effect and potential antioxidant activity. The anticancer effect of the EERS was evaluated on four human cancer cell lines, HCT 116, HT-29, Hela, and MCF-7, using the MTT assay. GC-MS analysis showed that the main components found in the EERS were nonyl cyclopropane (4.44%), 1-tetradecane (3.66%), cyclotetradecane (2.41%), cyclododecane (1.92%), and 1-decene (1.72%). The antioxidant activity was determined through different methods. High amounts of TPC and TFC in the EERS were found. Moderate antioxidant capacity of the EERS was detected by DPPH and ABTS assays, with EC50 values of 44.19 and 56.61 µg/mL and a high FRAP value of 281.79 nmol Fe+2 equivalent/mg extract. In the MTT assay, the EERS showed potent anticancer activity, with IC50 values of 19.82, 37.001, 50.49, and 53.29 µg/mL against HT-29, HCT 116, Hela, and MCF-7 tumour cell lines, respectively. Moreover, the results were comparable to or less potent than the standard reference drug, 5-fluorouracil. The results showed that the EERS of Etlingera elatior inflorescence contained a high amount of polyphenols and flavonoids, which may to the selective antiproliferative effects towards colon cancer in vitro


Subject(s)
Zingiberaceae/classification , Inflorescence/anatomy & histology , Fluorouracil/pharmacology , Neoplasms , Antioxidants/analysis , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Anticarcinogenic Agents/adverse effects , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology
3.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(2): 172-177, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131660

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hospital-based studies recently have shown increases in colorectal cancer survival, and better survival for women, young people, and patients diagnosed at an early disease stage. OBJECTIVE: To describe the overall survival and analyze the prognostic factors of patients treated for colorectal cancer at an oncology center. METHODS: The analysis included patients diagnosed with colon and rectal adenocarcinoma between 2000 and 2013 and identified in the Hospital Cancer Registry at A.C.Camargo Cancer Center. Overall 5-year survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and prognostic factors were evaluated in a Cox regression model. Hazard ratios (HR) are reported with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Of 2,279 colorectal cancer cases analyzed, 58.4% were in the colon. The 5-year overall survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was 63.5% (65.6% and 60.6% for colonic and rectal malignancies, respectively). The risk of death was elevated for patients in the 50-74-year (HR=1.24, 95%CI =1.02-1.51) and ≥75-year (HR=3.02, 95%CI =2.42-3.78) age groups, for patients with rectal cancer (HR=1.37, 95%CI =1.11-1.69) and for those whose treatment was started >60 days after diagnosis (HR=1.22, 95%CI =1.04-1.43). The risk decreased for patients diagnosed in recent time periods (2005-2009 HR=0.76, 95%CI =0.63-0.91; 2010-2013 HR=0.69, 95%CI =0.57-0.83). CONCLUSION: Better survival of patients with colorectal cancer improves with early stage and started treatment within 60 days of diagnosis. Age over 70 years old was an independent factor predictive of a poor prognosis. The overall survival increased to all patients treated in the period 2000-2004 to 2010-2013.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Estudos hospitalares recentes têm demonstrado aumento da sobrevida do câncer colorretal e melhor sobrevida para mulheres, jovens e pacientes diagnosticados em estágio precoce da doença. OBJETIVO: Descrever a sobrevida global e analisar os fatores prognósticos de pacientes tratados para câncer colorretal em um centro de oncologia. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos pacientes com diagnóstico de adenocarcinoma de cólon e reto entre 2000 e 2013, identificados no Registro Hospitalar de Câncer do A.C.Camargo Cancer Center. A sobrevida global aos 5 anos foi estimada pelo método de Kaplan-Meier e os fatores prognósticos foram avaliados pelo modelo de Cox. As razões de risco (HR) são relatadas com intervalos de confiança (IC) de 95%. RESULTADOS: Dos 2.279 casos de câncer colorretal analisados, 58,4% eram de cólon. A taxa de sobrevida global aos 5 anos para pacientes com câncer colorretal foi de 63,5% (65,6% e 60,6% para câncer de cólon e retal, respectivamente). O risco de óbito foi elevado para pacientes na faixa etária de 50-74 anos (HR=1,24; IC95% =1,02-1,51) e ≥75 anos (HR=3,02; IC95% =2,42-3,78), para pacientes com câncer retal (HR=1,37; IC95% =1,11-1,69) e para aqueles cujo tratamento foi iniciado >60 dias após o diagnóstico (HR=1,22; IC95% =1,04-1,43). O risco diminuiu para pacientes diagnosticados em períodos recentes (2005-2009 HR=0,76; IC95% =0,63-0,91; 2010-2013 HR=0,69; IC95% =0,57-0,83). CONCLUSÃO: A sobrevida dos pacientes com câncer colorretal é maior naqueles em estágio inicial e com início do tratamento antes dos 60 dias.. Idade acima de 70 anos foi fator independente preditivo de mau prognóstico. A sobrevida global aumentou para todos os pacientes tratados no período de 2000-2004 a 2010-2013.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Rectal Neoplasms/mortality , Colorectal Neoplasms/mortality , Colonic Neoplasms/mortality , Prognosis , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Survival , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Survival Analysis , Registries , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Colonic Neoplasms/therapy , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18470, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142494

ABSTRACT

Docetaxel-loaded acetic acid conjugated Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide (DTX-AA-CSP) nanoparticles were prepared through dialysis and their release rates in vitro, particle sizes, zeta potentials, drug loading capacities, and encapsulation efficiencies were characterized for the synthesis of AA-modified CSPs from traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. Then, the AA-modified CSPs were characterized by 1H-NMR and FT-IR. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of the delivery carrier (AA-CSP nanoparticles) was assessed on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In vitro antitumor activity studies on DTX-AA-CSP nanoparticles were conducted on the human liver (HepG2) and colon cancer cells (SW480). The DTX-AA-CSP nanoparticles were spherical and had an average size of 98.91±0.29 nm and zeta potential within the −19.75±1.13 mV. The encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity were 80.95%±0.43% and 8.09%±0.04%, respectively. In vitro, DTX from the DTX-AA-CSP nanoparticles exhibited a sustained release, and the anticancer activities of DTX-AA-CSP nanoparticles against SW480 and HepG2 were significantly higher than those of marketed docetaxel injection (Taxotere®) in nearly all the tested concentrations. The AA-CSP nanoparticles showed good biocompatibility. This study provided a promising biocompatible delivery system for carrying antitumor drugs for cancer therapy


Subject(s)
Polysaccharides/adverse effects , Acetic Acid/pharmacology , Cordyceps/classification , Nanoparticles/analysis , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Drug Delivery Systems/instrumentation , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Antineoplastic Agents
5.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 71(6): 512-517, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058311

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Una complicación importante de la cirugía colorrectal es la dehiscencia de anastomosis (DA). El estado nutricional es uno de los factores importantes en la DA. Una forma objetiva para evaluar nutricionalmente a los pacientes es medir la sarcopenia, definida como disminución de masa muscular esquelética, que puede ser objetivada por análisis de Unidades Hounsfield (UH) y área muscular (AM) por medio de Tomografía Computarizada de Abdomen y Pelvis (TCAP). Objetivo: Evaluar si existe relación entre la DA y la presencia de sarcopenia detectada por medición de UH y AM en TCAP en pacientes sometidos a colectomía por cáncer. Materiales y Método: Estudio de casos y controles con estadística analítica. Se eligen de manera aleatoria 21 pacientes con DA y 40 sin DA. Se incluyen > 18 años, con colectomía por cáncer y anastomosis primaria. Fueron excluidos pacientes ostomizados, que no tuvieran TCAP preoperatoria o que éste no permitiera medir UH y AM. La evaluación imagenológica fue realizada por radiólogo experto. Resultados: La comparación entre grupos evidencia que son homogéneos con respecto al sexo (predomino hombres), edad (promedio 60 años) y localización. Se evidencia signos imagenológicos sugerentes de sarcopenia en el grupo de DA, puesto que existe disminución en UH con valores estadísticamente significativos y tendencia a presentar valores menores en el AM. Conclusiones: La presencia de sarcopenia evaluada por alteración de UH en estudio radiológico se correlaciona con DA, pudiendo ser un predictor de riesgo. La importancia de este hallazgo es que es un factor de riesgo potencialmente corregible.


Introduction: An important complication of colorectal surgery is anastomotic dehiscence (AD). Nutritional status is one of the important factors in AD. An objective way to evaluate the patients' nutritional status is to measure sarcopenia, which is the reduction of skeletal muscle mass. It is possible to standardize Sarcopenia using the analysis of the Hounsfield Units (HU) and the muscular area (MA) which consider Computed Tomography of Abdomen and Pelvis (CTAP). Aim: To evaluate whether there is a relationship between AD and the presence of sarcopenia detected by the measurement of HU and MA using CTAP. The situation considers patients undergoing colectomy for cancer. Materials and Method: Cases and controls were studied with analytical statistics. 21 patients with AD and 40 without AD were chosen randomly. They include > 18 years, with colectomy for cancer and primary anastomosis. Ostomized patients, who previous the surgery do not have CTAP or if it was not available to measure HU and MA, were excluded. The imaging evaluation was performed by an expert radiologist. Results: The comparison between groups shows that they are homogeneous with respect the sex (predominant men), age (average 60 years) and location. There are signs of imaging which suggest the presence of sarcopenia in the AD group. This is explained because there is an important statistical decrease in the HU values and a tendency to present lower MA values. Conclusions: The presence of sarcopenia due to alteration of HU in a radiological study is correlated with AD, and could be a predictor of risk. The importance of this finding is that this risk factor is potentially correctable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Surgical Wound Dehiscence/diagnosis , Anastomosis, Surgical/adverse effects , Colonic Neoplasms/complications , Sarcopenia/complications , Prognosis , Surgical Wound Dehiscence/physiopathology , Colectomy/adverse effects , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Sarcopenia/diagnosis
6.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 39(3): 231-236, June-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040321

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: Different clinicopathological and molecular features have been demonstrated between right and left sided colon cancers. We aimed to characterize colon cancer and sidedness among a North-Pakistani rural population diagnosed with colon cancer in our institution. Methods: Seventy patients were included in the study that received adjuvant chemotherapy at Bannu Institute of Nuclear Medicine Oncology and Radiotherapy) Bannu, Pakistan from January 2014 to December 2017. Chi-square test was used for significance of categorical variables. p-Values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Mean age at diagnosis for right side colon cancer patients was 43.94 years and for left side colon cancer, it was 49.83 with no significant difference. Male patients were presented more with right (77% vs. 54%, p = 0.044) and females with predominantly left sided tumours i.e. (46% vs. 23%, p = 0.044). Right sided cancer tended to be more poorly differentiated (20% vs. 0%, p = 0.020). Mucinous adenocarcinoma was seen mostly in right sided colon cancer (37% vs. 3%, p ≤ 0.001). There were more locally advanced presentation of right side colon cancer with more node positive (83% vs. 60%, p = 0.025) and lymphovascular invasion (51% vs. 37%, p = 0.016). Sigmoid colon was the most common tumour subsite involved. Conclusion: Our study is the first report of colon cancer in a rural population in North-Pakistan. An earlier onset of tumours (44-50 years) was observed in comparison with global data.


RESUMO Objetivo: Características clínico-patológicas e moleculares distintas foram observadas em tumores de cólon no lado direito ou esquerdo. O presente estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar o câncer de cólon e sua lateralidade em uma população rural norte-paquistanesa diagnosticada com câncer de cólon nesta instituição. Métodos: O estudo incluiu 70 pacientes que foram submetidos a quimioterapia adjuvante no Instituto Bannu de Medicina Nuclear Radioterapia Oncológica (BINOR), Bannu, Paquistão, entre janeiro de 2014 e dezembro de 2017. O teste qui-quadrado foi utilizado para mensurar a significância das variáveis categóricas. Valores de p menores que 0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados: A média de idade ao diagnóstico entre pacientes com câncer de cólon no lado direito foi de 43,94 anos e entre aqueles com câncer de cólon no lado esquerdo, 49,83, sem diferença significativa. Os pacientes do sexo masculino apresentaram mais tumores no lado direito (77% vs. 54%, p = 0,044) e as pacientes do sexo feminino apresentaram mais tumores no lado esquerdo (46% vs. 23%, p = 0,044). Tumores mal diferenciados foram mais comumente observados no lado direito (20% vs. 0%, p = 0,020). Adenocarcinoma mucinoso foi observado principalmente em casos de tumores no lado direito (37% vs. 3%, p ≤ 0,001). A apresentação local estava mais avançada em tumores de cólon no lado direito, com mais linfonodos positivos (83% vs. 60%, p = 0,025) e invasão linfovascular (51% vs. 37%, p = 0,016). O cólon sigmoide foi o sublocal mais comum. Conclusão: O presente estudo é o primeiro relato de câncer de cólon em uma população rural no norte do Paquistão. Em comparação com dados globais, observou-se um surgimento mais precoce dos tumores (44-50 anos).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Colonic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology
7.
Rev. argent. coloproctología ; 30(2): 71-72, Jun. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1025574

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las metástasis únicas en bazo de origen colorrectal son extremadamente infrecuentes. Sin embargo, debido el control postoperatorio más estricto de la patología oncológica con estudios por imágenes modernos, la incidencia ha ido aumentando en los últimos años. Objetivo: Exponer el caso de una paciente con una metástasis esplénica de un tumor colónico primario. Caso clínico: Paciente de sexo femenino, de 85 años con antecedentes de colectomía derecha laparoscópica. La anatomía patológica informó: adenocarcinoma de colon T2 N0, sin requerir tratamiento quimioterápico adyuvante. En el seguimiento postoperatorio, durante el segundo año intercurrió con aumento del antígeno carcinoembrionario (CEA). Se realizó PET-TC que evidenció nódulo hipercaptante único de 3 cm. en bazo. Se programó la esplenectomía laparoscópica, evolucionando satisfactoriamente. La anatomía patológica definitiva informó adenocarcinoma metastásico de origen colónico. Conclusión: La metástasis esplénica de un tumor colónico es extremadamente infrecuente, existiendo solamente casos aislados en la literatura. En pacientes sin otro compromiso sistémico la esplenectomía debe recomendarse. (AU)


Introduction: Isolated splenic metastases are highly uncommon. The incidence has been increasing during the last years due to better medical imaging and long term follow up. Objective: We report a case of a patient who developed isolated splenic metastasis from right colon cancer. Case presentation: Female, 85 years old who underwent a laparoscopic right colectomy. The pathologic investigation confirmed: colon adenocarcinoma staged as T2 N0, without need of oncologic adjuvant therapy. In the postoperative follow up, during the second year, an increased serum carcinoembryonic antigen level was noticed. A PET TC was carried out and demonstrated a 3 cm focus of high radiotracer uptake in the spleen. Laparoscopic splenectomy was performed, postoperative course was uneventful. Pathologic exam demonstrated splenic parenquima invaded with adenocarcinoma originated in colon. Conclusion: Isolated splenic metastases is a very rare clinical entity. Only few case reports can be found in the literature. If they are no other sites of disease, splenectomy should be the optimal approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Splenic Neoplasms/surgery , Splenic Neoplasms/secondary , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Splenectomy , Aftercare , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Neoplasm Metastasis
9.
Autops. Case Rep ; 9(1): e2018056, Jan.-Mar. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-987165

ABSTRACT

The colon is a rare site of occurrence of liposarcoma, as either the primary site or by secondary involvement from a retroperitoneal liposarcoma. Liposarcomatosis denotes simultaneous occurrence of multiple liposarcomas. There are only 17 cases of primary colonic liposarcoma reported in the English literature­one of which was primary colonic liposarcomatosis. We depict the second case of primary colonic liposarcomatosis in a 57-year-old female who presented with abdominal swelling and pain. On exploratory laparotomy, two large masses were seen arising from the wall of the right colon along with multiple smaller masses attached to the colon. Right hemicolectomy with en bloc excision of the masses was performed along with hysterectomy and pelvic floor repair. Macroscopically, multiple exophytic masses and one endophytic mass were identified. The exophytic masses were of variable size and were found to hang from the colon by a thin pedicle simulating variable-sized appendices epiploicae. Histopathologically, the lesions showed the morphology of well-differentiated liposarcoma. This appears to be a case of primary colonic liposarcomatosis. There is only one other similar case reported in the English literature, to the best of our knowledge.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Liposarcoma/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2/therapeutic use
10.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 46(3): e20192098, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013162

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar diferenças clínicas e patológicas entre os adenocarcinomas colônicos localmente avançados com aderências entre órgãos ou estruturas adjacentes (LACA) e adenocarcinomas colônicos com outras apresentações clínicas. Métodos: estudo retrospectivo a partir de amostra de conveniência de pacientes com adenocarcinoma colônico, estádio patológico pT3, distribuídos de acordo com características clínicas e patológicas em três grupos: tumores localmente avançados (LACA), tumores pT3 sem aderências ou metástases à distância (SF), e tumores com doença metastática (M1). Foram avaliadas as características clínicas e patológicas, e a expressão de sete marcadores imuno-histoquímicos relacionados à proliferação/apoptose, invasão celular/migração e metástase. Resultados: foram avaliados 101 pacientes: 30 LACA, 44 SF e 27 M1. Tumores localmente avançados apresentaram dimensões maiores e estiveram associados a aumento das taxas de infiltração linfocitária, menores níveis de expressão de bax e de CD 44v6 quando comparados aos grupos SF e M1. Diferenças significantes foram observadas em relação aos LACA e M1 em relação à localização colônica, histologia, estado linfonodal e expressão bax e CD44v6. Diferenças foram observadas em relação aos três grupos frente ao tamanho do tumor e infiltrado linfocítico. A sobrevida foi similar entre os grupos LACA e SF (p=0,66) e foi inferior no grupo M1 (p<0,001). Conclusão: os dados sugerem que os adenocarcinomas colônicos localmente avançados com aderências entre órgãos ou estruturas adjacentes representam uma entidade distinta.


ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the clinical and pathological differences between locally advanced colonic adenocarcinomas (LACA) with adhesions between adjacent organs or structures, and colonic adenocarcinomas with other clinical presentations. Methods: we conducted a retrospective study from a convenience sample of patients with colonic adenocarcinoma, pathological stage pT3, distributed according to clinical and pathological characteristics in three groups: locally advanced tumors (LACA), pT3 tumors without adhesions or distant metastases (SF) and tumors with metastatic disease (M1). We evaluated clinical and pathological characteristics and the expression of seven immunohistochemical markers related to proliferation/apoptosis, cell invasion/migration and metastasis. Results: we studied 101 patients: 30 LACA, 44 SF and 27 M1. Locally advanced tumors presented larger dimensions and were associated with increased lymphocyte infiltration rates, lower levels of bax expression, and CD 44v6 when compared with SF and M1 groups. We observed significant differences between LACA and M1 in relation to colonic location, histology, lymph node status and bax and CD44v6 expression. We found differences were observed between the three groups for tumor size and lymphocytic infiltrate. Survival was similar in the LACA and SF groups (p=0.66) and was lower in the M1 group (p<0.001). Conclusion: the data suggest that locally advanced colonic adenocarcinomas with adhesions between adjacent organs or structures represent a distinct entity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Adenocarcinoma/mortality , Survival Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Colonic Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Staging
11.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 327 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361859

ABSTRACT

ietary fiber (DF) consumption is related with several healthy benefits such as the decreasing risk of colon cancer development. The DF is not digested by the digestive enzymes and reach to colon where is fermented by the colonic microbiota. The fermentation process releases metabolites as short chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as butyrate, propionate and acetate. Besides the fermentation process, the DF can directly interact with intestinal epithelial cells inducing mechanism that can also be related with the associated DF consumption benefits. The lack of information regarding DF and colon cancer are due to the complexity of both the cancer and the DF structure. The papayas DF are derived from the fruit cell wall, and they are probably naturally modified during ripening through a massive polysaccharide hydrolysis, because papayas show a very fast pulp softening. Due to the lack of information about DF and their beneficial effects to human health as well as the possibility of the natural papaya ripening to modifying the DF presented in the fruit pulp, the present thesis had as the primary objectives: 1) to evaluate how the cell-wall degrading enzymes affect the fruit cell wall solubilization and molecular weight; 2) to investigate the direct effects of the papaya pectin derived from unripe to ripe papayas in cancer cell lines, in galectin-3 interaction and in HEK cells expressing pattern recognition receptors (PRR); 3) to evaluate the human colonic in vitro fermentation using DF from unripe and ripe papayas as substrates; 4) to conduct an in vivo experiment using rats with pre-neoplastic colon lesions while receiving a diet with DF from unripe and ripe papayas. The endopolygalacturonases were the main enzymes acting on the solubilizing papaya cell wall pectin affecting both the papaya firmness and pectin structure. Overall, the papayas DF showed a ripening dependent structureeffects. In the cancer cell lines experiments, the ripe papayas pectin showed a more pronounced effects in inducing cancer cell death, inhibiting cancer cells migration and aggregation, activating PRR as toll-like receptors and inhibiting the pro-metastatic protein galectin-3. The DF from papayas also showed different aspects in colonic in vitro fermentation regarding the DF utilization by the bacteria and the bacteria abundance profile. Lastly, the animals receiving the diet with the DF from ripe papayas had less aberrant crypt foci in colon than the animals that received the DF from unripe papayas or cellulose (AIN-93G DF). Therefore, the study of papaya DF was carried out both during papaya ripening and its biological effects in vitro and in vivo, generating unprecedented results relating the endogenous biochemical changes of the fruits during maturation with the possible beneficial effects of their ingestion for health human


O consumo de fibras alimentares (FA) está relacionado com vários benefícios à saúde como a diminuição no risco do desenvolvimento de câncer de cólon. A FA não é digerida pelas enzimas digestivas do trato gastrointestinal sendo fermentada pela microbiota intestinal do cólon. Como subproduto do processo de fermentação há a liberação de ácidos graxos de cadeia curta (SCFA) - como o butirato, o propionato e o acetato. Além do processo de fermentação, a FA pode interagir diretamente com as células epiteliais do intestino, induzindo mecanismos que também podem estar relacionados com os benefícios associados ao consumo de FA. A falta de informação sobre a FA e o câncer de cólon é, em partes, devido à complexidade de ambos, tanto do câncer quanto da estrutura da FA. As FA do mamão papaia são derivadas da parede celular da fruta apresentando diferentes estruturas dependendo do ponto de amadurecimento do fruto. Esse fato ocorre, pois, durante o amadurecimento do mamão papaia, existe uma extensa hidrólise dos polissacarídeos presentes na parede celular, diminuindo rapidamente a firmeza da polpa do fruto. Devido à falta de informações sobre FA e seus efeitos benéficos à saúde humana que são dependentes da sua estrutura, bem como a possibilidade do amadurecimento do mamão papaia naturalmente modificar as FA presentes na polpa dos frutos, a presente tese teve como principais objetivos: 1) avaliar como as enzimas que degradam a parede celular do mamão papaia afetam a solubilização e o peso molecular da parede celular do fruto; 2) investigar os efeitos diretos da pectina derivada de mamões verdes e maduros em linhagens de células de câncer, na interação com a galectina-3, e em células do tipo HEK que expressam receptores de reconhecimento de padrões (RRP); 3) avaliar a fermentação colônica humana in vitro utilizando as FA de mamões verdes e maduros; 4) avaliar em ratos com lesões pré-neoplásicas no cólon o efeito do consumo de ração com ou sem FA de mamões papaias verdes e maduros. As endopoligalacturonases foram relacionadas como as principais enzimas que atuam solubilizando a pectina da parede celular do mamão, afetando tanto a firmeza da polpa do fruto quanto a solubilização da pectina durante o amadurecimento. De modo geral, as FA dos mamões exerceram um efeito estruturadependente de acordo com a maturação do fruto. Nos experimentos utilizando linhagens de células de câncer, a pectina do mamão papaia maduro apresentou efeitos mais pronunciados na indução da morte e na inibição da migração e da agregação das células, bem como ativando os RRP, como por exemplo, os receptores do tipo toll-like, além de inibir a proteína pró-metastática galectina-3. As FA dos mamões também apresentaram diferentes resultados na fermentação colônica in vitro quanto à utilização das FA pelas bactérias do intestino, e também no perfil de crescimento dessas bactérias. Por fim, os animais que receberam a dieta com as FA dos mamões maduros apresentaram menor incidência de focos de criptas aberrantes do que os animais que receberam as FA provenientes de mamões verdes ou de celulose (FA da ração AIN-93G). Portanto, o estudo das FA dos mamões foi efetuado tanto durante o amadurecimento dos mamões quanto dos seus efeitos biológicos in vitro e in vivo, tendo gerado resultados inéditos relacionando as alterações bioquímicas endógenas dos frutos durante o amadurecimento com os possíveis efeitos benéficos da sua ingestão para a saúde humana


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Dietary Fiber/adverse effects , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Carica/metabolism , Dietary Fiber/administration & dosage , Cell Wall/classification , Eating , Fermentation
12.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 32(4): e1479, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054602

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Since 1990 it was proposed that distal and proximal location of colon cancer might follow different biological, epidemiology, pathology and prognosis, probably due to embryologic different development of the two segments of the colon, which may represent two separate disease entities. These differences might have consequences for the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. Aim: To compare the characteristics between patients with right and left colon cancer, with severity and tumor characteristic that influence in the survival of these patients. Method: Were evaluated the outcomes of surgical treatment of patients with colon cancer with data collected retrospectively from prospectively collected database. Results: The tumor's side did not influence survival time of patients with colon cancer (p=0.112) in the regression model. Only the diseases stage leads to influence on survival time; patients with right colon cancer have more advanced staging (III or IV) and present a risk of death greater in 3.23 times. Conclusion: This analysis provides evidence that the prognosis of localized left-sided colon cancer is better compared to right-sided colon cancer. Also, the patients with right colon cancer have more advanced stage, mucinous tumor and are older.


RESUMO Racional: Desde 1990, foi proposto que a localização distal e proximal do câncer de cólon pode seguir diferentes aspectos biológicos, epidemiológicos, patológicos e prognósticos. Essas diferenças podem ter consequências para o tratamento de pacientes com câncer colorretal. Objetivo: Comparar as características entre pacientes com câncer de cólon direito e esquerdo, com gravidade e características tumorais que influenciam na sobrevida desses pacientes. Método: Avaliação dos resultados do tratamento cirúrgico dos pacientes com câncer de cólon em longo prazo com dados coletados retrospectivamente. Resultados: O lado do tumor não influenciou o tempo de sobrevida (p=0,112) no modelo de regressão. Apenas o estágio da doença influencia no tempo de sobrevida. Os pacientes com câncer de cólon direito apresentam estadiamento mais avançado (III ou IV) e apresentam risco de morte 3,23 vezes maior. Conclusão: O prognóstico do câncer de cólon localizado no lado esquerdo é melhor comparado ao direito. Os pacientes com câncer de cólon direito têm estágio e idade mais avançados e tumor mucinoso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Colonic Neoplasms/mortality , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Neoplasm Staging
13.
Biol. Res ; 52: 60, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have confirmed that RASAL1 has an antitumor effect in many cancers, but its functional role and the molecular mechanism underlying in colon cancer has not been investigated. RESULTS: We collected human colon cancer tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues, human colon cancer cell lines LoVo, CaCo2, SW1116, SW480 and HCT-116, and normal colonic mucosa cell line NCM460. RT-qPCR was used to detect the RASAL1 level in the clinical tissues and cell lines. In LoVo and HCT-116, RASAL1 was artificially overexpressed. Cell viability and proliferation were measured using CCK-8 assays, and cell cycle was detected via PI staining and flow cytometry analysis. RASAL1 significantly inhibited the cell proliferation via inducing cell cycle arrest, suppressed cell cycle associated protein expression, and decreased the lipid content and inhibited the SCD1 expression. Moreover, SCD1 overexpression induced and downregulation repressed cell proliferation by causing cell cycle arrest. Additionally, luciferase reporter assays were performed to confirm the direct binding between SREBP1c, LXRα; and SCD1 promoter, we also demonstrated that RASAL1 inhibit SCD1 3'-UTR activity. RASAL1 inhibited tumor growth in xenograft nude mice models and shows inhibitory effect of SCD1 expression in vivo. CONCLUSION: Taken together, we concluded that RASAL1 inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation via modulating SCD1 activity through LXRα/SREBP1c pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase/metabolism , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , GTPase-Activating Proteins/metabolism , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1/metabolism , Liver X Receptors/metabolism , Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase/genetics , Down-Regulation , GTPase-Activating Proteins/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1/genetics , Liver X Receptors/genetics
14.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(6): 884-886, Nov.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973617

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Cutaneous metastases from internal malignant neoplasms are a rare event and a late clinical finding that is associated with disseminated disease and a poor prognosis. Skin metastases from colon tumors occur in only 4% of cases of metastatic colorectal cancer. They are most often located on the abdominal skin. We report a case of 54-year-old male patient with a cutaneous metastatic focus on the lower abdomen as the initial presenting symptom of an underlying colon cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Skin Neoplasms/secondary , Adenocarcinoma/secondary , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Biopsy , Immunohistochemistry , Fatal Outcome , Abdominal Wall
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(10): e7151, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951709

ABSTRACT

Icariin has been reported to possess high anticancer activity. Colon carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Here, the anticancer activity of icariin against HCT116 colon carcinoma cells and the possible underlying mechanism were studied. The trypan blue staining assay, wound healing assay, clonogenic assay, CCK-8 assay, and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining method were carried out to determine the changes of HCT116 cell growth and migration. mRNA and protein expressions were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot, respectively. Moreover, small interfering RNA (siRNA) plasmid was used to examine the role of p53 in icariin-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells. Icariin significantly suppressed colon carcinoma HCT116 cells by decreasing migration and viability, and simultaneously promoting apoptosis. Icariin exerted the anti-tumor effect in a dose-dependent manner by up-regulating p53. During treatment of icariin, p-p53, p21, and Bax levels increased, and Bcl-2 level decreased. Short time treatment with icariin induced DNA damage in HCT116 cells. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of icariin was decreased after p53 knockdown or by using caspase inhibitors. p53 was involved in activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Icariin repressed colon carcinoma cell line HCT116 by enhancing p53 expression and activating p53 functions possibly through Bcl-2/Bax imbalance and caspase-9 and -3 regulation. Icariin treatment also induced DNA damage in HCT116 cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Cell Movement/drug effects , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Blotting, Western , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Colonic Neoplasms/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering , HCT116 Cells , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
16.
Clinics ; 72(10): 645-648, Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039533

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Disruption of the intestinal barrier and bacterial translocation commonly occur when intestinal blood flow is compromised. The aim of this study was to determine whether liver resection induces intestinal damage. METHODS: We investigated intestinal fatty-acid binding protein and insulin-like growth factor binding protein levels in the plasma of patients who underwent liver resection. RESULTS: We show that liver resection is associated with significant intestinal barrier injury, even if the Pringle maneuver is not performed. CONCLUSION: We propose the use of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 as a novel biomarker of intestinal damage in such situations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Venous Pressure/physiology , Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1/blood , Hepatectomy/adverse effects , Intestinal Mucosa/blood supply , Intestinal Mucosa/injuries , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Liver Neoplasms/secondary , Postoperative Complications , Biomarkers/blood , Treatment Outcome , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Bacterial Translocation , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins/blood
20.
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(5,supl.1): 95-97, Sept.-Oct. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837934

ABSTRACT

Abstract We present a case of a 71-year-old man with an advanced melanoma of the right colon. The final diagnosis was determined based on histopathological examination of the material collected during urgent laparotomy performed due to ileus. Although we considered the tumor to be a disseminated primary melanoma of the colon, the possibility of unknown primary origin could not be excluded. Palliative chemotherapy and radiotherapy reduced symptoms associated with the disease and prolonged patient's survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Colonic Neoplasms/complications , Intestinal Obstruction/etiology , Melanoma/complications , Palliative Care , Skin Neoplasms/secondary , Skin Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Brain Neoplasms/secondary , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Intestinal Obstruction/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/secondary , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Melanoma/pathology , Melanoma/diagnostic imaging
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